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Week 1 The Scientific Method of Research.ppt

Week 1 The Scientific Method of Research.ppt

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Lecture 1 The Scientific Method of Research

• Research

• • • • •

Research Project Research Proposal Research Implementation Research Reports Research Presentation

1

2013 Afsaneh Farhadian 2 . • 2.” (Oxford Dictionary. careful study.11. • The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary: meaning of research as: • “a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Close. 10. • Synonym of inquiry. a movement from the known to the unknown. 1952) • Some people consider research as a movement.Research • 1. Scholarly or scientific investigation or inquiry.

Research • Systematic process of collecting. analyzing. and interpreting data in order to increase our understanding of a phenomenon about which we are interested or concerned. . • Research Approaches: • quantitative approach: the generation of data in quantitative form or Quantitative research is ‘Explaining phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analyzed using mathematically based methods (in particular statistics)’. • qualitative approach: Qualitative approach to research is concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes. opinions and behavior.

However examples of quantitative methods now well accepted in the social sciences and education include: • Surveys. • Qualitative research methods were developed in the social sciences to enable researchers to study social and cultural phenomenon. • laboratory experiments. 11.Research • Quantitative research methods were originally developed in the natural sciences to study natural phenomena.2013 Afsaneh Farhadian 4 .11. • numerical methods such as mathematical modeling.

11.2013 Afsaneh Farhadian 5 . the median or the standard deviation or chi-square. how to apply particular research techniques. how to calculate the mean.11. the mode.Research • Research methods • Research methods or techniques refer to the methods the researcher use in performing research operations. • Researchers need to know how to develop certain indices or tests.

11. • Researchers not only need to know how to develop certain indices or tests. are relevant and which are not. how to apply particular research techniques. • but they also need to know which of these methods or techniques.11. and what would they mean and indicate and why. the median or the standard deviation or chi-square. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. how to calculate the mean.2013 Afsaneh Farhadian 6 . the mode.Research • Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem.

Thus. when we talk of research methodology we not only talk of the research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method or technique and why we are not using others so that research results are capable of being evaluated either by the researcher himself or by others. The scope of research methodology is wider than that of research methods. 11.2013 Afsaneh Farhadian 7 .Research • Research methodology: has many dimensions and research methods do constitute a part of the research methodology.11.

Research • Research Types: • Library research: Analysis historical records.2013 Afsaneh Farhadian 8 . interview and questioner • Laboratory research 11.11. Case study and life history. Analysis documents • Field research: Observation.

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2013 Afsaneh Farhadian 10 . frequently involving research or design. An undertaking requiring concerted effort. 10. a project is a research assignment given to a student which generally requires a larger amount of effort and more independent work than is involved in a normal essay assignment. • At school.11.Project • A plan or proposal. educational institute and university. • 2. that is carefully planned to achieve a particular aim. • A project in business and science is a collaborative enterprise. a scheme.

10.Research Proposal • A research proposal is a document written by a researcher that provides a detailed description of the proposed program. • It is like an outline of the entire research process that gives a reader a summary of the information discussed in a project.2013 Afsaneh Farhadian 11 .11.

Research Proposal 3.Research project process 2. Reports b. Data 5.2013 Afsaneh Farhadian 12 . Data Collection: Field a. Oral 9. Thesis (final year project) 8. PowerPoint Presentation 10. Laboratory b. Interpretation of Analyzed Data 6. Poster b. Scientific Reports: a. population 4. Data Statistic Analysis 7. Article or Papers c. Presentation: a.11.

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