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A guidebook on safety for journalists and media houses
A guidebook on safety for journalists and media houses
This Guidebook has been produced by Intermedia Pakistan with support from the Freedom House. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of authors and should in no way be taken to reflect the views of anyone else.
Acknowledgement CHAPTER 1: Physical safety and security for media houses CHAPTER 2: Safety of journalists and professional practices CHAPTER 3: Travel Safety and Security CHAPTER 4: Safety in the Field CHAPTER 5: The Do’s and Don’ts of Staying Out of Harm’s Way CHAPTER 6: Embedded Journalism – Blurring of the Lines CHAPTER 7: Personal Security – Dealing With Detention, Abduction, Kidnap and Hostage Taking CHAPTER 8: Ethical Journalism As Safety Strategy – Do’s and Don’ts
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org F Protecting Journalists 01 . and supports frontline activists to defend human rights and promote democratic change. It analyses the challenges to freedoms. Freedom House speaks out against threats to democracy to empower citizens to exercise their fundamental rights.freedomhouse.Security personnel seal off the Peshawar Press Club after a suicide bombing in December 2009 Acknowledgement reedom House. an independent watchdog dedicated to the expansion of freedom around the world. advocates for greater political and civil liberties. For more about Freedom House please visit: www. assisted the publication of this guidebook.
Attacks on journalists reporting conflict is a hazard that comes with the profession. intimidation and official restrictions) in order to assist local journalists and institutions to achieve a free and independent media that serves to strengthen good governance and democratic Protecting Journalists 03 . The overall objective is to prevent violations of the rights of journalists and media personnel (including murder. assaults. arrest. threats. kidnapping and other forms of serious intimidation faced by more than 2. S including media owners. abduction. threatening not just journalists and the way media works. however. as well as the various representative organizations. tried in court of law and punished. managers and practitioners. In times of war and conflict when truth is the first casualty and violations of human rights commonplace. has assumed alarming proportions over the last decade as the world around us has spiraled into turmoil. Urgent and extraordinary measures need to be coordinated and adopted by all stakeholders of the media sector. but taking away the citizens’ right to information. In Pakistan. Increasing threats and targeting of journalists with impunity necessitate that they have a heightened sense of personal safety and greater awareness about security precautions and preparedness. almost all of them with impunity except one — The Wall Street Journalist Daniel Pearl whose killers were arrested. The level of threats facing Pakistani media and its practitioners are many and multi-faceted.CHAPTER I Physical safety and security for media houses tanding up for truth and human rights at the best of times is a perilous undertaking. torture.000 journalists. to reduce the range of threats that have killed dozens of journalists in Pakistan between 2000 and 2013 and injuries. the risks to media takes on daunting proportions. the killing of journalists and attacks on media have taken on shocking proportions as growth of media has coincided with increase in conflict since 2001. arrests. The trend. This publication came out of a series of safety training and assessments done for press clubs and journalists over the last two years. Over 90 journalists have been killed in the line of duty since then. It is an effort to outline safety standards and procedures based on best practices on safety for media practitioners that media organizations can endorse. adopt and implement.
In Pakistan. paramount consideration. media houses continue pushing for breaking news. media practitioners often neglect their safety or worse stay oblivious to it 04 Protecting Journalists . participants often point to the culture of breaking news and how journalists take risks by getting too close to cover incidents of bombing and terrorism. The actors and agencies party to a conflict are more possessive of truths they hide and that increases threats to media manifold. Journalists respond to conflict. Safety in pursuit of news As journalists. we often neglect our safety when it comes to pursuit of news stories. It is important to aspire to professional standards and spirit more than ever. Applying that knowledge to real life situations. proper planning and careful coordination with your colleagues to minimize harm. While people run away from bombings. however. Again news is often defined as something that someone somewhere doesn’t want out. Safety on the frontline Its very nature makes conflict and war reporting unsafe. was killed in May 2011 by a powerful bomb planted in his car. Staying safe is a state of mind No matter how well meaning and important the effort on part of any agency to educate you on safety and security. vigilance and responsible reporting. a leading journalist in Pakistan’s restive Tribal Areas. reporting conflict requires that journalists stay vigilant in the field and the newsroom — through responsible ethical coverage of news — to help themselves and their colleagues.despite their familiarity with danger and threats. While it comes naturally to journalists to take risks in their pursuit for truth and exclusive stories. which he had parked in an area in Peshawar where many news media are located processes in Pakistan. Despite trainings and sensitizing media to the perils of covering conflict. cameramen converge in on potentially lethal developments. You are key to your own safety This guidebook will help build your capacity on how to stay prepared for dealing with hazards while working in a hostile environment by giving you basic knowledge. However. While safety and security will always be a concern when it comes to journalism that pursues truth and public interest to push for accountability. A lot of it has to do with common sense. will be using your judgement on how to deal with threatening situations. personal safety and security is a “personal” effort and only you. where journalists have been killed in bombings or murdered with intent. in trainings and discussions about journalist safety. risks and vulnerabilities of their profession and prepare for conditions of insecurity. And yet. staying safe should be an obvious. Regardless. the dangers inherent to conflict and war reporting dictate that reporters understand the threats. staying safe while performing your duties requires understanding the nature of conflict. cameramen and photographers keep dying because of neglecting safety procedures. For example. reporters run towards them for coverage. the journalist or your media house. At the end of the day. no-one can guarantee it. Nasrullah Afridi. entirely depends on your compliance with safety and security procedures and instructions. More importantly because responsible journalism not only helps communities trust each other but also help them trust media to find a way out of conflict. now that attacks on journalists are increasing.
take time to understand the conflict — causes and effects. Understanding safety and security To stay safe. the environment you work in and support systems that can help you stay safe. their positions and interests. Don’t take unnecessary risks. However. transparent. balanced. seeking legal and moral support through advocacy campaigns and deciding on a possible action to end impunity in Understanding the (hostile) environment An important factor of journalist safety is understanding the conflict. journalism done with due deference and commitment to professional standards will keep reporters safe and media trustworthy because it verifies facts. security. political. Do not put yourself in mortal danger in order to cover a story. Better still. the actors. take no risks at all if you know it will put you in harm’s way. you could always tell the story another day. More journalists have been killed in Balochistan than any other region of the country in recent years. freedom of access and expression and a personal sense of well-being that comes from being safe. health and welfare are all interconnected. religious and ethnic differences. The idea behind exploring these basic concepts is to help the journalists understand and see where and when they take risks and know how they are vulnerable. economic and cultural factors. security. In an environment where media and journalists are systematically targeted. Journalists have the same concerns as ordinary citizens but their work exposes them to insecure conditions. In doing that. accountable and fair. Basic common sense and security preparations can help physically protect journalists working in hostile environment. safety and rights. The dead tell no tales No story is worth your life. is accurate. It is natural. protection from injury and loss. standing up for each other in times of distress can pay real dividends in terms of creating a safe environment for media to work. social.Safety and the sense of well-being Safety. that they can only perform if they feel safe and their sense of safety stems from minimizing fear and danger. professional conduct. vulnerabilities and risks. it helps to understand the political. journalists will be able to develop a greater appreciation of their protection needs and take adequate steps to stay out of harm’s way. then. And when it comes to the environment. religious. Responsible journalism as protector In developing countries where few journalists are qualified. This means monitoring violations against media. ethnic. journalists should be able to differentiate clearly between safety. While it is human to have professional rivalries. trained and experienced individuals. more of them are targeted because of lack of responsible. If you are alive and well. journalists protesting against the killing of their colleagues. Divided we fall There is safety in numbers. it helps to strengthen your ranks and fraternity through mutual support and struggle for Protecting Journalists 05 . Now this may sound like a no-brainer but it is amazing how everyday safety concepts and lapses that journalists cover in their stories in relation to others are never deeply understood or appreciated when it comes to dangers faced by media itself. objective. define threats. the provincial capital of southwestern Balochistan province. cases of attacks on media and creating a favorable environment for journalists to work freely. forces and sensitivities at work. At the Press Club in Quetta. Before venturing into a theatre of conflict.
In all these cases — Fire. as identified by journalists. salaries or organisational support 13. So you may define safety as protection against unintended or accidental harm. Plane landing on Water — the danger is from accidental hazards. Safety jackets helps against drowning in case the plane lands on water. Drug traffickers and smugglers 4. Lack of conflict reporting skills and training on safety issues 14. For example: The night letters from militants are a threat (directed at a person). Reporting tribal disputes 5. Abduction and intimidation by state and nonstate actors 8. verbal or written intent to harm but could be a (threatening) situation or circumstances. enmity. Bomb blasts 9. Restriction on freedom of movement 17. Non-state actors and armed groups 2. agencies and political administrations 3. Cultural constraints: the tribesmen are conservative and sensitive to issues attacking tradition. Here are some words that you are familiar with: Fire safety Safety belt Safety jackets Look at the underlined words. safety. for example. Ignorance of or lack of understanding and appreciation of professional ethics 15. can be from: 1. theft etc. There is a possible clue to what safety means. Fragile nature of jobs — no accreditation. Fire safety is to protect against fire. Threats from warring parties who want to control information or report an incident in a way that favours them 6. Target killing by state and non-state actors 10. Restrictions on access to information 18.Safety What do you understand by the term safety? Safety is an everyday word that we use in relation to measures taken for. What are the accidental harms that journalists could possibly face in their everyday reporting? What are the accidental harms that journalists could possibly face while covering conflict or working in a hostile environment? — an event that causes harm to you A threat doesn’t necessarily mean a physical. Mutual differences between tribal journalists who seek to harm each other and in the process harm themselves and their profession 11. State authorities such as security forces. Safety belts protects in case of an automobile accident. both direct and indirect? Common threats. without inviting a direct threat Security Security is the sense of protection in relation to harm with intent such as crime. What kind of harm that is intended and premeditated can visit journalists in the line of duty? What kind of harm can be aimed at journalists covering a conflict or working in a hostile environment? Threat — — is the possibility of harm are dangers directed at an individual. group or an entity from an external source Protecting Journalists 06 . So is news that body bags with ordinary people are turning up or the latest spate of bombings etc. A journalist cannot report honour killing. Threats from religious and sectarian outfits 16. Can you think of recent threats to media. Parallel laws that bans media presence or activity such as The Frontier Crimes Regulations (FCR) in Pakistan’s tribal areas 7. Socio-cultural sensitivities and environment 12. Insecurity is the condition when you feel you are not protected against intended harm. well. Car Accident.
killing all five occupants on the spot. The target of the bomb was the pro-government tribal chief. In some instances. they favor. was killed in a bombing in Bajaur. recourse may be made to the International Humanitarian Law 3. he or she will be identified with the group Risks journalists take: 1. impartial reporting.. anti-militant tribal leader killed a journalist in Bajaur Agency in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas: Bomb kills reporter in tribal areas Noor Hakim. — and therefore. Hakim was travelling with an official and tribal chief from the Salkarzai region in a vehicle that was blown up by a remote-controlled bomb. Hakim had been invited by the local government to cover the demolition of the house of a man suspected of murder. for example? Other professional risks can be. in particular) 3. court cases are filed and violations redressed if there are constitutional or legal provisions. on 2 June. Journalists often do not take time to research the sensitivities on ground — social. 2007. This bombing cruelly highlights the violence of the armed groups and terrorists groups operating in the Tribal Areas. in a conflict situation if a journalist favors one group or the other instead of doing balanced. A journalist from the Bajaur region told Reporters Without Borders that the vehicle carrying Hakim and the official appeared to have been targeted. political. The relevant chapter of the journalists’ union (Tribal Union of Journalists. In other cases. For example. Documentation of report and complaint 7. Lacking training in security practices and habits can also put you at risk when reporting on conflict because you are not prepared to deal with threatening conditions. willfully put themselves in harm’s way. the response is good from authorities. So will lack of knowledge about the environment you are working in. Four other people were killed in the explosion. and you do not ensure measures to protect yourself — When someone ventures into a dangerous situation despite knowing that it can harm them — Risk is intentional on part of journalists when they venture knowingly into a threatening situation — Risk is a product of threat and vulnerability: There is danger (threat) and you are exposing (vulnerability) to it What risks do journalists take when they go out to cover a bombing.Response to threats: The threats were reported to: 1. Ignored 4. Employers in media organizations 2. The region adjoins the Afghanistan province of Kunar. Risk — You take risk when you know that there is threat and you are exposed to it. Reporters without Borders urged journalists to take security precautions when moving about and called on the authorities to identify those responsible and bring them to trial. The state authorities (the federal interior ministry and police. for example. To colleagues Common response from organisations to reported threats was: 1. in particular) 4. Local press club 5. etc. Active/actionable support from union 6. cultural. Here’s a case study of how taking the risk to travel with a pro-government. Verbal support 2. And they will become party to a conflict and may be targeted for that. religious. in Pakistan’s northwestern Tribal Areas. The scramble for breaking news Protecting Journalists 07 . a reporter for the Urdu-language daily Pakistan and vice-president of the Tribal Union of Journalists. Little or no response in low-profile cases. a lack of professionalism where a journalist knowingly does not abide by principles of good. responsible journalism can also put you at risk. In case of high profile journalists. Still waiting for justice 5. as two preceding vehicles in the convoy went by before the bomb exploded.
Going out in hostile environment without preparing or planning 10. riots and civil disorders. Getting too close to action such as riots and bombings 3. and even as informants of intelligence agencies for financial gains. lack of experience and professionalism. leaving them vulnerable. While people escape disasters. Not mapping locations or keeping in touch in case with family or friends while out covering dangerous events 6. journalists move to cover them. Some journalists are in journalism to give legal cover to personal non-journalism pursuits leaving them vulnerable 19. Getting too close to armed combatants in pursuit of news 7. work the graveyard shift. Lack of interest by media organisations to take security of their journalists seriously 11. Targeting a specific ideology or school of thought in a story 16. Lie about who they are and why they are here 12. mugging. In addition to taking a risk. Journalists are also civilians — they are exposed to all the threats that ordinary citizens are exposed to. political parties. Lack of understanding on safety issues within media community 8.2. do not give the right to reply in case of allegations and controversies 14. and travel alone in search of stories and information 7. Lack of investigative skills among journalists 10. Like risk. values and sensitivities in reporting Vulnerability — is the exposure to harm — a person is vulnerable when he or she is easy to harm — vulnerability is a product of threat and risk: when you know there is a danger (threat) and you venture knowingly (risk). dacoits. Journalists keep long hours. cannot be armed which makes them vulnerable to harm 3. Improper reflection of cultural taboos. 5. Lack of attention to professional ethics within media community 9. a journalist also makes him or herself vulnerable to h a r m w h e n t h ey a re n o t p r o fe s s i o n a l . Putting the story before personal safety and security 11. Some journalists work as public relation officers for different militant groups. bombings. political administration. the possibility of harm is a given 2. For example kidnapping. Neglecting personal safety and security such as not wearing helmets or bullet proof jackets 5. Lack of online/digital security where journalists are more relaxed about their biases and views 18. The nature of their job: The search and unveiling of truth that someone somewhere doesn’t want out. Lack of safety training and safety resources/ gear for journalists 17. geography. In case of journalism. Journalists are unarmed. Include their opinion in the stories 13. Do not balance the stories. vulnerability also stems from environment. Can you give examples of how journalists are vulnerable to harm? How journalists are vulnerable: 1. Becoming biased or subjective in reporting 9. Media feeds on bad news. Sensational and exaggerated accounts 15. training in safety procedures. lackknowledge about the environment or lack 08 Protecting Journalists . etc. Journalists are especially more vulnerable because of lack of institutional support and absence of safety mechanisms 6. you expose (vulnerable) yourself to harm. Bad news make big news 4. time and situations.
they often blame themselves for inviting threats due to irresponsible journalism as much as external forces that target media for their own reasons. To think that the safety and security challenges that I journalists face are from external factors alone will be denying the reality of professional lapses in our field reporting and newsroom practices.CHAPTER 2 Safety of journalists and professional practices n our interaction with journalists in safety trainings throughout Pakistan. Here is an example of how irresponsible Newsroom practices can have tragic consequences for reporters’ safety in the field: Protecting Journalists 09 .
a specific incident or an exclusive report Avoid going alone to report from a dangerous area with a possibility of threat Alert media houses and journalist organizations so steps could be taken to avert the threat — sit down with your colleagues to devise a written plan to avoid and report risks News editors: Don’t add information from international wire services — that are not conflict sensitive because they are relatively safe and remote — to stories of your reporters that may jeopardize their safety in the field. 8. gave a headline to Chishti’s story that humiliated the dead Baloch leader. the reporter in the field. saying it was in revenge for an article about the killing one of its leaders. While it is important for journalists to be impartial. Chishti Mujahid had been reporting from Balochistan for decades before he was killed. in Quetta. phrases and their connotations. organisations should do the same. 15.” Mujahid had written Quetta Ki Diary in the paper for the past few years and was also an eye doctor. not biased. reporting active militancy. it said. 13. 11. The editor of the publication he worked for had given it an opinionated headline that humiliated the leader of one of the groups involved in the insurgency. words. For example. 6. 10. based in Karachi. embellish or sensationalize facts. Here are some practical professional measures/ steps journalists can take to minimise harm and ensure safety while covering conflict: 1.Journalist murdered in Balochistan. Do accurate and balanced reporting. ”The killing of this respected journalist in a region bloodied by fighting between the army and separatists is deplorable”. avoid controversies and allegations Follow basic cultural values even when breaking with tradition Understand ethics and be ethical in reporting and editing Life is precious: know what the risks are and don’t do stories that pose threat to your life Avoid your byline on stories with risky information Be conflict-sensitive in reporting. 4. 12. style. 9. 2008. The group immediately claimed responsibility. The province has seen much conflict in the wake of insurgency and military operations to stifle it. stay impartial and don’t develop close ties with armed groups Do not exaggerate. 7. without a tilt towards any of the warring parties and have a written policy that emphasises 10 Protecting Journalists . capital of the troubled southwestern province of Balochistan was murdered on February 9. Pay attention to diction. A news editor. photographer and reporter for the Urdu-language weekly Akhbar-e-Jehan. Pakistan Chishti Mujahid. Avoid becoming party to a particular group. He had reported the story of a rebel Baloch leader killed in Afghanistan for the weekly news magazine he worked for. and probably not quite as sensitized to local sensitivities. 5. for disrespecting their leader.\ Practical steps news/media organizations can take to minimise harm and ensure safety of its journalists covering conflict 1. His supporters from the BLA killed Chishti Mujahid. avoid one-sided reporting 2. using words and language that is not conflict sensitive can invoke violent reaction from armed groups such as using “killed” for militants when they insist that they are “martyrs” to a cause Do not entertain news and information from anonymous sources Ask your media organization in writing for support in case of a risky beat as well as inform your local press club and journalists union on their response Pay heed to principles of responsible journalism while unearthing a scam. The article did not criticize him but the headline on it was strongly worded. He was well aware of the challenges of reporting from Balochistan. “The Balochistan Liberation Army (BLA)’s claim of responsibility raises fears of a more aggressive attitude towards the media by separatist groups. Have only professional interaction/relationship with all parties to the conflict 3. 14.
6. it should be discussed with the reporter first. 3. In case of conflict regions. 4. Change the station of a reporter if s/he faces a security problem in a specific area Avoid keeping reporters in the office till late. Avoid meeting representatives of armed groups after dark. record the chats 22. 15. phone and fax facility to journalists to send out alerts 19. especially when they are in the field 18. Develop your own in-house safety protocols and emphasize adherence of a code of ethics and standard operating procedures for reporting conflict 24. also the conditions in the field. 9. 16. the routes and the terrain. Journalists facing threats in their hometowns should be relocated to a safe city or location. never force or push them to file stories that may pose risk to their lives Don’t credit your reporters with a by-line in case of sensitive information or story/report. posing threats to reporter’s safety. 12. Some reporters feel the stories do not carry their by-lines. 25. Hire a security expert to advise staff on security issues Encourage reporters to report and alert the organization and the authorities to threats 17. Editors and page makers often cut down stories at the end to accommodate them in the columns assigned. 8. ethics and professional neutrality Make sure your journalists and equipment are insured Arrange trainings on safety and security for your reporters Train your journalists in journalism best practices. 10. If the editors want to make changes to a story or add information to a story. Use the telephone to seek comments from warring parties. 5. particularly in conflict zones and allow them flexibility to work from safe areas in case of a security threat. Assign only qualified. Run the story by the reporter after editing to make sure the sense or tone of the story is not distorted and stays true to what the reporter intended it to be 2. 4. don’t demand risky stories from your reporters in conflict zones Provide regular salaries that are commensurate with the nature and pressures of job so that journalists and media stay independent and free of yellow journalism. Removing response to allegations and controversies often make stories contentious. the editors/ publishers must talk to high officials for posting a focal person/spokesperson who can bring the government’s version to the story 20. Actively encourage reporting on development and social issues in conflict theatres to minimise risk to conflict reporters. ignoring that it may have information from authorities or armed groups important to the story. Make sure your reporters have proper identification documents. 13. senior and trained journalists on conflict reporting Have a written protocol/guide on safety and stay regularly and constantly in touch with reporters covering conflict Make sure your reporters have all information about safety and the situation they will report on. 11. particularly in conflict zones Seek your reporters’ consent before sending them to a danger zone. sometimes change the dateline of the story to protect your reporters and correspondents Discourage the trend of breaking news from conflict theatres/field sites at the expense of reporters’ safety. Immediately inform all relevant quarters if your reporter goes missing 23. Provide Internet access. While this may be important in view of safety of the reporter in case of sensitive Protecting Journalists 11 . don’t publish stories with unidentified sources or those that are one-sided. don’t send reporters to report from active conflict sites until all security arrangements are in place. 3. only daylight travel for gathering of news should be a rule 21. 7. 14.2. The News Desk should publish full story filed by the reporter after careful editing. Professional considerations editors/subeditors should follow while editing stories to minimise harm to reporters covering conflict 1. including ethics that can help minimise threats and risks Provide safety gear to reporters covering active conflict.
22. They should make the expression objective and nonopinionated without compromising on facts. in consultation with reporters covering conflict and in view of the risks involved. The editors should lay emphasis on adherence to the stylebook by both reporters and sub-editors. should be avoided. may pose risks to reporters often not trained in conflict sensitive reporting. The Desk should not press reporters to file stories in a hurry which often leads to mistakes of serious nature. Editors and sub-editors should be dutybound to educate such reporters on the sensitivities of the issue(s). They may file stories harmful to media or them without realizing the inherent risks. completeness. Anything that remotely suggests trouble for reporter in the field should not go to the press. 10. They are not media literate enough to know there are other sources of information that newspapers and TV channels subscribe to. 19. editors should contact the reporter instead of relying on other sources of information. on taking precautionary measures The News Desk should make sure that the story carries no opinion. Reuters etc. 13. 16. The Newsrooms should ensure that a story is prepared keeping in view principles of responsible. 12. Editors should balance a news story by asking the reporter to include views from all sides of the story and bring diverse opinion and voices Conflict stories should be edited on the News Desk only with editors/sub-editors with sound knowledge of the sensitivities in the conflict zone. militants or suicide bombers to minimize harm to the reporter. The agencies. they threaten local reporters thinking they have filed the story. 12 Protecting Journalists . 17. attribution. local or international. no judgment or criticism from the reporter. If accuracy. The Newsrooms should. Reporters who file stories from conflict zones don’t. If there is information in the story not favorable to the armed groups. Reporters new to the field can be adventurous sometimes. Any story about conflict from a wire service should be clearly credited to the service. The armed groups only know the newspaper or TV network and the reporters that work for them. 7.. balance. AP. have the luxury to stay nameless and cover conflict from a distance. A reporter’s story should not be tagged to or joined with that of wire services like AFP. The Newsroom staff should receive orientation about the sensitivities in the field and risks to reporters. prepare a standard stylebook for covering conflict. objectivity. Editors should edit sensational words and phrases that. whenever necessary. 9. 15. while exaggerating the situation on ground. 20. ethical journalism.’ etc. information. Likewise. Sensational headlines. Use synonymous words for armed groups that do not want to be labeled terrorists. sources. In there is confusion or information that is not clear in a story filed by a reporter. as opposed to unnamed. All opinion. the newsroom staff needs to consult the reporters who deserved to be credited for a difficult assignment. Editors should make sure that stories do not employ words like ‘terrorists. 8. 6. The News Desk should stay in touch with reporters covering the conflict zone. etc. for armed groups to which they object or which may portray them in a favorable or negative way. 11. coordination between reporters and sub editors/editors should be improved The News Desk should advise reporters. impartiality. it should contact the reporter and only carry the story once the missing information is in place. 18. especially in Urdu press.’ ‘miscreants. they should be mindful of cultural sensitivities especially when the newsrooms are far removed from areas embroiled in conflict such as newsrooms in the relatively safe metropolises. Expressions and headlines that may expose a reporter to threat or invite trouble should be avoided. The stylebook should be available in the newsroom as well to reporters in the field. is missing.5. verification.’ 14.. 21. remarks and comments should come from attributable. ‘martyrs. preferably from reporters covering conflict so they are alert to the situation on ground.
national and international media support groups. especially reporters in the field. etc. documenting and analysing threats and risks. the salaries of journalists working in FATA. All logistics related to news gathering such as travel. Be vigilant to security/threat environment around you. and for every location. However. Reporters and correspondents should be issued organisational identity documents and accreditation letters. Availability and accessibility of editors and senior management of media organizations to provide editorial guidance and support to their staff in conflict zones. b. In FATA most journalists are not even paid minimum wages.’ helmets and bulletproof jackets b.Materials/ assistance that can help journalists do their job better: a. A safety advisory and reporting hotline should be put in place for journalists covering conflict by every media organization. A directory of contacts of press clubs. Therefore. all these upgrades should be carried out after observing the individual and geographical needs of each press club after physical surveys of each location by a qualified person for detailed assessment. c. h. Be trained on safety measures of being on-field and off-field i. among other things. Security threats observed in the press clubs and its members In April 2012. read up and actively seek information on threats j. ethnic diversity. physical security surveys must be carried out individually to suit their requirement in the best possible manner. When it comes to security of press clubs. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan are not on a par with their colleagues working in safer cities. e. The security threats and risks that can undermine safety of the press clubs and the physical security of members are listed below with response. Use safety gear such as helmets and bullet proof jackets when going out to report in active conflict theatres Safety at workplace: Securing the work space (office and press clubs) The security of your office is of fundamental importance because your sense of safety flows out of the space you work and the space you inhabit with your loved ones. d. Insurance of life and equipment a. g.. f. key security agencies. we have to consider that each press club is a different entity because of its location. Salaries of journalists working in dangerous zones should be commensurate with the risks they face. the following steps should be taken in view of the safety and security needs press clubs as generic measures in diverse locations to secure the premises and the staff. The press clubs infrastructure upgrades suggested for each press club as response to common threats are as follows. Organizational compensation for journalists who have suffered because of covering conflict c. Security gear such as jackets clearly marked ‘Press. • All glass panes should have anti-shatter films • Creating a standoff distance (buffer) for reducing impact of explosives • Access controls barriers on main gates to reduce the risk of vehicles ramming into the building • Pedestrian access controls by creating air lock system Protecting Journalists 13 . members' affiliation etc. a security assessment was carried out and trainings held to secure press clubs in Pakistan. which should include. Even in big news organisations. Safe houses for in-country relocation and financial and technical support for journalists facing active threats. communications and meals should be covered by organizations d. emphasis on reporting. stay. each press club needs to be treated differently. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan. In-house protocols and guidelines on safety and security for journalists that should be mandatory for everyone. should be available for all journalists in the country but particularly in FATA. unions. Your office (and your home) is the place where you are more vulnerable because that is where you spend most of your time and your movement can be easily monitored. However.
PREVENT: Adopt safety measures such as: — Counter surveillance tactics — Home and office security(location. beside yourself. you will be best equipped to protect yourself. what has happened and how the situation is likely to develop — Geography. safety at home and office and surveillance detection. guards.) — Taking care of yourself (trauma and psychological support) Identify local resources that can help support and strengthen your defenses such as: — Local human rights networks — Media related organizations — Police and justice system — Government or embassies RESPOND: 1.. Consider — Legal assistance — Medical attention — Psychosocial support — Evacuation/relocation — Emergency funding If you are able to anticipate the threats before they happen. etc. phone. Report — Alert your external ally — Write an official statement or letter informing them and the authorities — Inform relevant human right/media networks 3. Where are you placed and how are you vulnerable — Activities: What activities might put you at risk — Assess potential threats — Who. dedicated first aid trainings and stress and trauma management Vetting of the support staff and members of each press club for affiliations that may endanger safety of the press club or members • Safety checklist ANTICIPATE: — Analyze the local context — politically. etc.) — Communication and document security ( email.. safe communication with a trustworthy ally — Identify safe houses and plan evacuation routes — Ensure documents and bank information are up-to-date. may be at risk — What type of threats are they most likely to face and from whom — With what urgency: How quickly it might happen — Create an emergency plan — Ensure your families/colleagues understand 14 Protecting Journalists . firefighting.political context: What is happening . Personal security • • • Access control policy for individual visitors to press clubs The personal security awareness of the press club members through safety trainings Different kinds of security trainings may include personal security trainings. cameras. computer. Document all threats: — Nature of threats — Perpetrator information details — Response taken or planned — The threat context 2. culturally and more importantly for conflict and security concerns — The socio. alarms.• • • • • • • • • A pedestrian search area Access control arrangements inside the building CCTV for monitoring movement inside and outside the building Firefighting instruments should be installed inside the building Installation of fire alarms Installation of fire alarms parameter lights Anti-climb measures put in place to safeguard against theft and breaking in Anti-entry measures developed in different stages to discourage forced entry Vehicle search procedures security risks — Establish regular.
2. Secondary trauma.. If the person claims to be a hotel employee. d e m o ra l i z a t i o n . — Avoid a room with adjoining doors — Keep your cell phone by the bed — Never let strangers into room. Primary trauma. aggression — Feeling acutely alert or on guard always — Feeling vulnerable or powerless — Overlooking or otherwise disregarding new risky behavior Dealing with suspicious parcels — Do not open package from an unknown source — Delivery of mail by unusual or unconventional means should be treated with suspicion. fear — Episode of heart pounding. Direct experience of threat. What are the facts surrounding the threat? Is there a pattern of threat over time? What is the objective of the threat? Who is making the threat? Is it likely the threat can be put into action? — Always carry your cell phone with numbers and ID Home and hotel security — Do not provide your address to others — Ensure your windows and doors are locked when you are inside — Keep your phone and a flash light by your bed side — Don’t leave your personal documents unattended keep them in a safe location — Don’t leave your valuables in the open — Never let strangers into your home When staying in a hotel. fe e l i n g disconnected and numb — Inability to concentrate — Distrust. Always use the main entrance (Adapted from Protection Handbook for Human Right Defenders) Taking care of yourself: Human induced trauma is the one of the most prevalent yet least addressed element of insecurity. act sensibly — don’t stand out 15 . package that have only one way to open them — Unusual smells or odours Protecting Journalists Personal security Always.. 2. absence of or illegible return address — Incorrect name or address — Unusually restricted markings. anger.. — Know that you are responsible for your personal security — Stay informed and aware — Trust your instincts — Adjust to change in the threat scenario — Take deterrent measures — Know what is out of bound — Dress modestly. hoping that the feeling of powerlessness may deter you from your work.To assess a threat. Indirect exposures from working with individuals with such experience Common symptoms of trauma: — Nightmares. sweating shortness of breath. do not open the door without verifying the identity. Two types of trauma are common and they are: 1. cut and pasted letters and any obvious disguised script — Excessive postage. 5. 4. contact front desk and verify — When returning to your hotel. — Watch out for poorly typed or written. or assault.. disappearance of family or friend exposure to violence etc. intrusive thoughts and images of traumatic incidents while awake — D e p r e s s i o n . intimidation. 3. flashbacks. Hold all your meetings in the hotel lobby — Do not display large amount of cash — Don’t let your private documents or precious items out in open — Keep your cash in the safe provided by the hotel or deposit it at front desk and get a receipt — If someone unexpectedly knocks at the door. An aggressor may try to exploit trauma symptoms. never use the side entrance. — Try to stay on 2nd or 3rd floor — Know your fire exits — Keep your doors chained and use the deadbolts — Keep your curtains closed — Do not provide your personal information and report if the hotel staff ask for it. consider the following: 1.
4 5 6 7 8 9 10. 12. The calling number (check the phone display) 2. powder — Let an expert handle the parcel — Leave the area and go minimum 200 meters away and take shelter behind a solid cover — Do not observe the activity while the packet is investigated Suggested first aid kit for a press club: 1. scan and isolate — Do not touch or open — Isolate the package so no-one else touches or opens it — Wash hands with soap and water immediately if you have touched the parcel — Report to your management and police immediately. intoxicated — Is the voice familiar? — Is the caller familiar with the area? 4. please collect the following information: 16 Protecting Journalists . train. Contact Rescue 15 — Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes — Do not walk or touch spilled materials — Do not inhale gases. 14. Roll Cotton Gauze Disposable gloves Scissors Rubbing Alcohol Gauze Antiseptic Gauze large rolls Gauze small rolls Tongue Depressors Band-Aids Safety Pins Tweezers Aspirin Thermometer Large Sterile pad Bomb discovery procedures — Do not touch suspicious parcels or container — Open windows and leave doors open (to minimize blast) — The floor emergency officer (FEO) will check evacuation route to ensure it is safe — A senior should verbally order evacuation via emergency routes — If safe. — Voices — Machinery — The time the caller hung up — Other thoughts / remarks Handling of suspicious parcels — Be vigilant.— — — — Suspicious leakage. 18. fumes. 3. 13. Check for background noise or sound: — Music — Noises like street traffic. nasal. the designated person should store the parcel or container. Elastic bandage Ointment for wound Medical tape. wet spot or powder Suspicious sounds Protruding wires or foils Excessive wrappings materials such as masking tapes or strings Date Time 1. other — Diction: good. where the senior will ensure all personnel are accounted for Bomb threat checklist In case of a call. 2. 15. Voice characteristics: — Male / female — Nationality — Accent — Speech : fast. bus etc. Secure all classified material — Senior or designated staff should contact emergency (Rescue 15) for disposal — FEOs should confirm all personnel are evacuated safely — All personnel should proceed to the assembly point. 11. lisp — Manner: Emotional. Questions to ask the caller: — What time will bomb explode? — Where is the bomb located? — Why is the bomb placed? — What kind of bomb is it? — What does the bomb look like? — Where are you calling from? — What is your/organization’s name? 3. 16. irrational. vulgar. inspect. calm. 17. slow.
bridges and overpasses Do not light matches or use open flame. bleach) Prepare for aftershocks which can be more severe than the initial tremor Protecting Journalists Do not use elevators If in car stay in car In multi floors buildings do not go In hilly areas watch for falling into stairways where a dangerous rocks situation could develop from panic and overcrowding Do not rush for exit if in a crowded area 17 . switch off the main gas line Clean up hazardous spills (gasoline . sign boards. fans and curtains start swaying — Ground movement may vary from slight. abrupt shaking — Ground movement may be seen in open areas — You may feel dizzy or feel motion sickness Remember. When earthquake strikes INDOOR If you are indoors. Watch out for objects that may fall on you Stand under doorways.— All personnel should remain at the assembly point until instructed to leave or return to work In case of a bomb explosion: • • • • • • Call Rescue 15. Watch for falling debris Check for injuries to self and others. chimneys. the fire department and ambulance Remove injured people and provide first aid Be alert to the possibility of multiple bombs Order evacuation of all personnel If safe. Turn on radio Check power lines for damage and switch off if damaged. don’t make sudden moves. The obvious symptoms and signs of earthquakes are: — Sound varying from a low rumble to loud banging. most injuries are caused by falling debris Preparation: • • • • • Know how to turn off electricity Know the designated meeting place for head count Learn about first aid and CPR Know how to disinfect water Maintain store of dry food and water for at least one week Earthquakes Pakistan is located on geologically active areas prone to frequent and violent earthquakes. do not r-enter the building Do not light matches or use open flame If trapped. police. Stay away from windows Do not light matches or use open flame Watch for falling debris OUTDOOR Stay outdoors AFTER Remain calm Stay away from buildings . and signal for help by banging on objects. stay there. power lines. trees. slow movement to strong. designated persons should conduct search of the affected area for injured Secure the area once the local police leave — Hanging fixtures such as lamps. light posts. stay calm. next to walls or take cover under study tables. hallways.
Peshawar has become a war zone with militants spreading with a wave of killings and bombings. The blast blew out windows and damaged a guard post in front of the building and cars parked outside. The club is used by Peshawar’s journalists but the only media victim was a cameraman who was slightly hurt. a suicide bombing at the entrance to the Press Club of the northwestern city of Peshawar in Pakistan that killed four people — a policeman. bombing. — so your staff has knowledge of guidelines and can respond effectively • 18 . The police said the suicide bomber had tried to enter the Press Club building but set off the bomb at the entrance when the policeman began to search him.” said Manzoor Ali Shah of the Daily Times.” The press club and journalists in the city of Peshawar and those in the border areas have been receiving threats from militants. “I passed by the gate some 30-50 seconds before the attack and was looking at a notice-board when a loud explosion struck my ears. kidnapping. etc. Police bomb disposal experts estimated that he had been carrying 10 kilos of explosives. the club’s cashier. Follow their advice and take suggested security measures Put up clear security guidelines dealing with individual threat scenarios — fire.. “It was a huge blast. Paying tribute to the deceased police officer. do they work? Do you hold security training and drills for your staff? Do you have security guidelines for your office? Are the guidelines posted in visible places? Does your staff have knowledge of/about security guidelines? Do you have security and fire alarms in place? Do you have cameras and fire extinguishers installed in your office? Are the cars checked on arrival to the office with detectors? Do the drivers know what to do in a case of tempering of a vehicle? In case you have a security plan. In December 2009. Have you done a security and risk assessment for your office? In case you have. have you made arrangements for mitigating the risk? Do you have a security guard to look after the office premises? Is the security guard trained and hired from a reputable security company? Does the security guard have clear instructions on dealing with threat scenarios? Do you have security apparatus installed at the office to monitor traffic? Do you have a secure parking space at your office? Do you keep proper record of visitors? Is your office building insured? Is your office based at a secure location? Are the doors and walls of your office fortified? Do you have electronic scanners installed at the gate? Do you share your office with someone? Are they part of your security plan? Do you have emergency exits or exit maps installed? Do you have telephone numbers for police and fire-brigade posted at a visible place? Where there are security arrangements. Peshawar Press Club President Shamim Shahid explained that the club had been warned by the security agencies to monitor every non-journalist trying to enter the premises. Tips on Press Clubs office security • Get a security risk assessment of your office done by a professional and reputable security firm.Take this “Is your office secure?” test by ticking the following Yes or No. a passer-by and the bomber himself — and injured 17. When I went back to the gate there was human flesh and blood everywhere. have you made your neighbors a part of it? Are there garbage and debris dumps close to your office? Have you checked on your neighbors — who they are and what they do? Protecting Journalists Case study for reflection: Bombing of Press Club in Peshawar. Journalists have not been spared and many of them have either fled the city or restricted their movements.
sand bags and chains Protecting Journalists 19 .. use them. bundles of paper and stationary — any place where explosives can be planted — on and around the premises Be watchful for unattended baggage in the office and outside Install security alarm systems. debris. make them a part of your security plan Secure your office perimeter — the space around the office. make modifications Is your office in a safe location? Consider safety issues related to location before renting space In case of clear and present danger. the boundary walls etc. consider putting up blocks. have fire extinguishers and CCTV cameras Just installing equipment would not help. have a record of nationality card numbers as well If you have an office in a building where you share the premises with several tenants. Have detectors for car bombs etc. In case the building is not safe. Train your staff to use them Clear garbage. Ask the security firm to come with clear instructions for the security guard to deal with specific threat scenarios Install metal detectors.• • • • • • • • • • • • Hire a trained security guard. through cameras and razor wires etc. stay vigilant Maintain a visitor log — don’t just enter name.
Afridi had moved to nearby city of Peshawar after being threatened by N militants. Normally based in Bara. was killed in May 2011 by a powerful bomb planted in his car. which he had parked outside the Khyber Super Market. Police said the bomb was set off by remote control when Afridi returned to his car. This was confirmed by eye-witnesses. a leading journalist in Pakistan’s restive Tribal Areas. which he had parked in an area where many news media are located. in the Khyber Agency tribal area. The blast shattered the windows of several news media that have 20 Protecting Journalists .CHAPTER 3 Travel Safety and Security Case Study: Tribal Areas journalist killed in Peshawar by car bomb asrullah Afridi.
The rear-view and side mirrors adjusted to the driver’s convenience 4. unsafe points along the road 6. try and stop at a security checkpoint or crowded place to check if you are being tailed. call for professional help — Stay vigilant at the security checkpoints — Stay alert to road conditions and surroundings Road passenger safety 1. where security personnel use chemical detectors antennae. At the checkpoints. first aid. etc. — If you feel you are being followed. Watch the car but don’t touch.. — If you see or suspect something. If the journey is long and on unsafe routes. brakes. Carry seatbelt cutters in case of an accident 2. don’t travel alone — Keep the doors locked — Try to stay on hard. Safety belts should be adjusted and always worn. camera. objects that don’t belong — Change routes to keep your movements unpredictable — Car maintenance — Your car should be in top working condition in case you have to run — Don’t pick strangers while travelling — Information sharing: Map the route in case of travel and communicate your location with office and colleagues — Carry life-saving kits in the car (medicine. Keep windows closed. Planned stops on the route — for lunch and dinner and tea etc. Your life is more important than material things — Keep laptops..) — Have a bullet proof jacket if reporting in a conflict theatre — Take someone along when travelling.offices nearby. metaled road in case of mined areas — To navigate security check points. Other details such as military checkpoints along the way Tips on travel and car safety — Be unpredictable: Vary time. 8. look into: 1. routine while leaving home and the office — Park car at a safe place — Check your vehicle for possible tempering — loose wires. which had threatened him several times. don’t resist. The correspondent of the Urdu-language daily Mashriq. Also turn off headlights 3. Origin and destination of journey 4. Keep any item that would attract robbery out of sight (laptop visibly placed in car. purses. Estimated time of arrival — arrive 30 minutes before sunset 9. The intended route and alternatives if any 5. condition of engine and suspension. etc. mobile phones. Vehicle details — what vehicle you will travel in? Is it in top working condition? Do you have registration papers? 2. No group claimed responsibility for the bombing but colleagues suspected the militant group Lashkar-eIslam. shocks. Estimated time of departure 8. leaving the purse or wallet or mobile phones in the car) 6. keep your ID with you — Don’t travel after dark — Stay alert — Is anyone following you? — Does your car have a car theft mechanism? — In case of carjacking. what possible safe havens are there — both for you and criminals along the way. etc. Afridi had made a lot of enemies by writing articles critical of certain political and militant groups in the Bara area of Khyber Agency. Also check equipment — what is life of tyres. Keep a good distance away from vehicle in front (what’s a good distance — if the next car brakes Protecting Journalists 21 . 7. you have to open the entire window. Think about vehicle extrication when parking somewhere hazardous 7. Keep the doors always locked (check central locking system to manage locks) 5. Driver and passengers — who will come with you? 3. — Preplan the routes to take — short routes doesn’t necessarily mean safe routes Travel management While preparing for travel. what are the sensitive. equipment. out of sight in the car — Car inspection: Don’t start or move the car or check yourself. wallets.
what might they want.IEDs : Improvised Explosive Devices attached to the vehicle body . use stones or people as cordon C — Control – call the police C — Check – Let the police check suspicious item Protecting Journalists - - 22 .Loose wheel nuts . Be vigilant on junctions where lots of people are loitering around — don’t give lift to anyone 11.Damaged tyres . use volunteers. Are they checkpoints or roadblocks? Didn’t know about the checkpoints?: Ask around how many there are along the route. why are they there. and put on the lights in case of dark if you are sure it is a security checkpoint. so you don’t hit it when you brake 9.Daily before use . one statement. who have raised them (law enforcing agencies or possible ambush). Keep the car running and only lower your window a little or someone might snatch the keys All of those in the car should know about the purpose of travel and who and what is in the car: One spokesperson. assess: How might they look. keep your ID and car registration papers handy.Radiator leak Check vehicle for tampering ….After service and repair Check the four sides Front: Check under the front bumper (fender) and engine Rear: Rear bumper or fender Check the boot Underneath: Inside the arches of wheels and the space at the back of tyres Under the vehicle — look for unusual shapes Tampering of fuel portal Loosening or cutting of brake lines Inside: Anything that appears out of place Safety at security checkpoints Stay vigilant at the security checkpoints. maintain a maximum possible safe speeds — Use the right vehicle — on mountain roads take four by four jeep not a car — Take the safest NOT shortest route — Make sure that others (colleagues) know the routes you take and the expected time of arrival and departure — Keep communication with office and colleagues open Vehicle security Risks to Vehicle: What are we looking for? . Be aware of ploys (vehicles that bumps into your car.Brake cables cut . How will you communicate or behave: Cooperate by slowing down. Principles of route selection — Avoid routine travel — Secrecy of times and dates (don’t write on the travel requisition form the destination and time/ don’t tell the people you are going on holiday or servants) — While on road. keep the windows half open to communicate.. Who are manning them? Did they just come up or have they always been at the same location. Beware beggars and street vendors etc. . what might be checked. who are the people manning them. don’t create confusion Be prepared that routes might be blocked and you may have to take alternative routes In case you suspect tempering.Clutch/brake/other oil leak . Once there.After being left unattended .or stops. road blocks) that are meant to stop you and get out of the vehicle 10. depending on speed. remember the 5Cs rule C — Confirm (but don’t touch) C — Clear the surrounding area from people and don’t let anyone touch or come close to the vehicle C — Cordon – announce to people that the car has a bomb.
" The RoE take two forms: (1) Actions that a military commander may take without consulting a higher authority. c/ If the distance is less than 30 meters and you don’t stop. These can cover circumstances such as how to retaliate after an attack. which territories the soldier is bound to fight into. more than 30 meters. unless explicitly forbidden (sometimes called "command by negation") and (2) Actions that may only be taken if explicitly ordered by a higher authority (sometimes called "positive command") In addition to a typically large set of standing orders. how to treat captured targets. then “auto engagement” — fatal fire to stop the intrusion Protecting Journalists • • • • • • 23 .Travel Safety: Check Points — the rules of engagement What are Rules of Engagement (RoE) • "Directives issued by competent military/police authority which delineate the circumstances and limitations under which forces will initiate and/or continue engagement with other forces encountered. they are carefully thought out in detail well before an engagement and may cover a number of scenarios. the soldiers may fire two “effective” shots on legs or at the car d/If the movement continues. military personnel are given additional rules of engagement before performing any mission or military operation. watch out for: a/Stop Sign usually 100-150 meters before you arrive at the checkpoint b/ There may be a verbal or whistle warning if you get close to the checkpoint say. understandable and repeatable standard on how forces act Typically. and how the force should be used during the operation The RoE addresses four topics: When military force may be used Where military force may be used Against whom force should be used in the circumstances described above How military force should be used to achieve the desired ends It is important to know the RoE because: • • They provide a consistent. with different rules for each The first rule of engagement is always the right to use force in self-defense To consider RoE.
sit near other people Sit close to the door so you are not trapped inside the car or bus easily When using taxis. possible need for appropriate preventive medication and emergency reserves. preferably 4–8 weeks before departure Malaria: Request information on malaria risk. i. conflict) • Availability of medical facilities Subscribe to a medical insurance with appropriate cover abroad. a certified well-maintained filter and/or disinfectant agent can be used Specific local diseases: Consult the appropriate 24 Protecting Journalists . Such as: • Risks related to the area (urban or rural) • Type of accommodation (hotel.Travel safety — Using public transport and taxis • • • • • • • • Plan your travel route While travelling on bus.int and national travel health web sites Be aware of accidents related to: • • • • • • Traffic (obtain a card showing blood group before departure) Animals (beware of venomous marine or land creatures and rabid dogs) Allergies (wear a medical alert bracelet) Sun (pack sunglasses and sunscreen) Get the following check-ups: Medical — obtain prescriptions for medication according to length of stay. camping) • Length of stay • Altitude • Security problems (e. Boil drinking water if safety is doubtful. model and registration number sections of this volume as well as www. diabetes) • • • • Insurance: Checklist for the traveler Obtain information on local conditions depending on destination. pregnancy. not outside — someone outside can snatch away your wallet or belongings because you are busy paying Make a discreet note of the car you are using — the details: color. accident. and obtain advice from your physician on assembling a suitable medical kit Dental Ophthalmological — pack spare spectacles Others according to specific conditions (e.who. prevention of mosquito bites. hire one from a reliable company Do not choose unmarked taxis. Sit where you can observe the driver. sickness. only registered yellow ones Don’t sit behind the driver.g. For disease prevention: Vaccination: Contact the nearest travel medicine center or a physician as early as possible. and plan for bed nets and insect repellent Food hygiene: Eat only thoroughly cooked food and drink only well-sealed bottled or packaged cold drinks.e.g. medical repatriation. the road ahead and the sides Deactivate the child lock in case you have to evacuate in emergency Pay inside the vehicle. make. If boiling is not possible.
Use zoom lenses instead of getting too close If you are a reporter who is not filming or taking pictures you do not need to be in the crowd. if you think that this may attract unwanted attention. and have a wet towel and water available to cover your face. protest or an operation involving firing. such as a demonstration. it can be a disadvantage to get into the crowd and be too close to the action. flash points and safety routes Investigate the scene in advance to select vantage points and alternative ways out. Knowing where people belonging to different ethnic or religious communities live may determine your travel routes in and out of an area If your team has to disperse. Is it a blast.. Try to have a direct means of communication such as mobile phones Carry a cell phone with an emergency number pre-loaded on the speed dial facility of your phone in case of emergencies Carry press identification.? When covering a planned event. extras batteries. camera. pre-arrange contact points and time to rally again. If you cannot carry a gas mask. riot. However. squeezed over the affected area. as long as you have a clear line of sight and can catch the sounds Protecting Journalists • • • • 25 . will help to neutralize the effects of irritants You also need a means of extinguishing the flames if you are splashed with petrol from a Molotov cocktail Check that you have all your equipment: recorders. • • • 2. Positioning • • • • Think about how to position cameras and reporters to get an overall view of the scene Positioning yourself on a higher ground is better There should be more than one way to leave a position in case of emergency If you are filming. etc.CHAPTER 4 Safety in the Field Safety in the field: What safety measures to take while covering insecure events You may follow the five steps process for coverage of insecure events: • conceal it If tear gas is a possibility try to position yourself upwind. lens. Preparation • Find out about the nature of the event. first aid kit 1. transport. gather intelligence in advance about the likely crowd movements. then citrus fruit such as a lime or lemon.
during disaster response and relief Staying mindful of series of bombs when you are out to cover a bombing. especially in conflict zone. However. Stay together or withdraw together Withdraw early rather than late If you are working as an individual. rather than just part of it. in case you are there before the police or forensic experts If you have a helmet and jacket —wear them. The assignment editor should call and keep track of the journalist in field Carry your identity card around your neck. culture and location. You are put at serious risk. region or country that you are operating in What is the policy of your news organisation? If it is not possible to protect material within the country. Move with permission from security or police • • • • • • • • • • • • After the event • • Debrief in the newsroom so lessons are learned for the next occasion Protect the integrity of your material. What is the law in the country about the right of security forces to demand film and video material? You must understand the legal • • • 26 Protecting Journalists . have a dummy disc in case you are forced to hand one over In high-risk situations. You may be rivals — but you are also colleagues If you are working alone. Know where to safely position yourself. You may be at risk even if the crowd is not hostile Do not be tempted into taking unreasonable risks just to obtain the same pictures or film that someone else has already shown • implications for you as a journalist working within the area.g.• • You can do interviews with participants before and afterwards the protest. be aware of booby traps. journalists. prominent locations. but at the time you just need an overview of what is happening In case of bombing. either as a reporter or a photographer. team up with another photographer so that you can look out for each other. in some places journalists are treated as spies Know impression of media the local population have — People or authorities may be angry or harm you e. Follow advice or alerts from the security personal — police or army While going out to cover a story in a conflict zone. Wear media — jackets. know that sometimes revealing identity can lead to threats While in the field. security force locations and the nearest hospital facility. if those taking part in a riot see you as part of the evidence gathering process Safety in the field • Familiarize yourself with the geography. During the event • • • If you are part of a team. and occasionally stop and check that they are still clear If you fear film or tape will be seized. is it possible to set up a system so that film of civil disturbance is archived outside the country? Remember that your ability to do your job safely is adversely affected if the police are given access to your material after demonstrations and civil unrest. Don’t touch anything at the sight of an incident. Set up your phone so that ‘last number redial’ is to a source of instant help Try to keep a mental map of the main exit routes. or local contacts you can depend on in case of emergency Create a contact mechanism whereby you can keep your colleagues or family informed about your movement so they know where exactly you are at any given time Stay in touch with your office. work with the team. try to remain aware of when you are becoming the focus of a crowd. carry dud exposed film or tape in your pocket and hide your proper material as soon as you take it from the camera If using digital equipment. stay away from the crowds in view of more explosions • 3. inform the local organizations. ensure that you have good means of communication with someone who can get help if need be.
Be honest to yourself and your profession.• • personnel Map locations. your feelings. While you can carry a map with you. Evaluate the risks. you must not jeopardise their safety by association with you. The journalistic principle of objectivity and maintaining distance from the subject of your story assumes special importance in case of conflict reporting where people who want to control information will try to cultivate or force you to do their bidding. independent. there to uphold people’s interest. will the story serve? Will it expose you to danger? Can the story wait and maybe be told another day. addresses of media and media support organisations. Remember. often emergency situations allow little time to consult them. Stay objective: Do not become part of the story. military or authorities. colleagues and friends in the community who may be able to help you quickly in times of trouble. in a better way? Plan ahead. in people’s eyes and those in conflict with that group. not an activist or advisor to a group. your biases. In a situation of conflict. fair. You are not a spokesperson for an armed group or those party to the conflict or beholden to a certain ideology. the following key safety guidelines can dramatically reduce the threat and risk framework for journalists in the field. or ambition? What. Look at them before you go to field and have a mental image of the major roads and routes. Always assume the worst and be prepared for it in a situation of conflict. Anything irresponsible or unethical you do will have consequences for them because you have the list of contacts with you. these in themselves aren’t enough and additional steps should be adopted keeping in view specific and local conditions in conjunction with the below: No story is worth dying for: Question your motives for covering a story. “be a journalist. the contacts should be only for friends of media. and whose purpose. your chances of safety and which way circumstances may go. this will also help people trust media through responsible. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan. Is it a sense of duty to yourself and the community? Or appeal of danger. Do not let your associations. While you can depend on them to help you. transparent and accountable for your work. Have contacts that can help: Keep handy contacts. If you allow it. have a local person explain them or better still. Help people trust each other by being truthful. unbiased and balanced reporting. there may be attacks on public property which can lead to violence locations as soon as you change them. Careful journalists should go around the place familiarising themselves with entry and exit points if time allows. your entry and exit points to prepare for contingencies such as attacks or tear gas While covering protests. there may be anger against authorities or media. roads. not those party to conflict or may be seen or construed as party to conflict. impartial. keep them informed about your movement so they know where you were last and with whom. In the words of one FATA journalist. Stay impartial: You are a journalist first and foremost. Do not allow yourself or someone to turn you into one or use you to propagate their stance. However. likes and dislikes affect your reporting. byways and streets or work with someone — a local driver or a fixer — who is familiar with them. Leave footprints: Call friends and family from 27 . phone numbers. Keep your opinions to yourself and report only facts. draw you a map. plan carefully: Study the situation you will be working in. This can help save time for helpers in case you need to be rescued or traced in a hurry.” Your position of influence as a journalist and access to information flows from Protecting Journalists Safety guidelines for minimizing risk In view of the threats and responses suggested by media professionals covering conflict in FATA. Mind map your entry and exit: A journalist should have working knowledge of all routes. In case maps are not available. gauge what the public mood is like — in case of a mob. you become part of that group or camp. Follow ethics: Remember you are there to serve the community.
Tell them you are there to report. impartial journalist upholding ethics and principles of good journalism but it is often not enough when it comes to covering or working in conditions of conflict. In case of a conflict like the one in FATA where a journalist can only invite trouble if seen to be directly hitting on a party to the conflict. In case of a controversy or allegation. T\the reporter is taking sides. This is especially important for freelance journalists who usually have little or no organisational support. People’s voices and perspectives will create pressure on the combatants and actors to resolve the situation. Find strength in numbers: When you go out to report.community’s trust and interest. favouring one party or another (‘martyr’ vs the ‘dead’ or ‘killed’). nor change content. The editors and sub-editors should be equally trained in concepts of conflict reporting. Tribal Union of Journalists and other chapters of journalists unions need to support each other and be there for each other in time of danger and conflict. do not give by-line/dateline in case of a sensitive story or threat. Be careful with by-lines and content: If you are in the Newsroom. reputation and safety. Mind your language: Stay mindful of the meanings and connotations that words convey. Talking to all actors and bringing diverse voices and opinions will ensure that the story is not onesided. It is easy that way to be identified as a reporter and easier still because conflicting parties cannot bear pressure on you of any kind when you are there as a group. that facts are established in case of a controversy. To ensure your independence and safety. 28 Protecting Journalists . which distort sense of stories. Changes to stories should be made only in consultation with the reporter who filed the story. And that you mean to do no harm. especially those working under perilous conditions. educate the community and armed groups about your role whenever you can. is not seen as favouring a certain group or stance. and that the audience is well informed to make their own judgment about facts once they have all sides of the story backed by diverse opinion of people and experts. Don’t violate that trust. always give the party that is accused of a wrong the chance to reply in the same report. camera persons and technical staff. Bring balance to news: Your story should be representative of all parties to a conflict. Train the Newsroom also: Conflict reporting and safety trainings should not be for reporters alone. Are your words loaded with a meaning that: convey to someone out there that the offence that they are being maligned or accused of something is not true. Bring people’s perspective: Always bring in the people’s perspective on an event and development and how they are affected by it. press clubs. favours and other inducements at the cost of your independence. go with a group of journalists. not just one. the journalist or media. Stay independent: Do not give in to pressure tactics or accept bribes. that the report is seen as impartial because the reporter has made an effort to talk to everyone involved. that you. the training preferably conducted or designed by involving reporters in the field to bring first-hand insight to the sessions. Visible. Strengthen your fraternity: Journalists. would keep external pressures away from them because you are there to watch over them. comment or remark is not distorted as to convey a wrong meaning. not to judge or propagate. even words and quotes. Educate others about journalism: You may be a responsible. Tell stories of how they are affected by a conflict. Give right of reply: Stick to facts with proof and evidence. tell people’s stories. vocal support for your fraternity. or the sense of a quote. Regional Standard Operating Procedures for the field The Khyber Union of Journalists — the union representing journalists in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa — has put together the following Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs) for journalists.
photographer. Bullet proof life jackets and helmets are important in this regard. camera persons. while a team going to such assignments must also carry a first aid box 3. army/police operations. while covering aforementioned assignments 9. 23. Managements of TV channels and newspapers should be asked to ensure life insurance cover and security gears for their workers 6. army/police operations. etc. drivers and guards must wear bullet proof jackets and helmets. Digital Satellite New Gathering (DSNG) staff. DSNG staff. baton charge or teargas shelling. photographers. etc. 25. preferably war insurance cover 2. 18. 26. fire and firing incidents. and other beats related to war against terrorism. army operations. etc. Never go beyond that distance Be cooperative and polite at the spot with the security personnel as well as common people Never violate security forces' guidelines News managers should keep in mind the limitations of their colleagues while sending them to a conflict zone News managers should avoid sending field staff to the troubled areas after 8pm. Avoid this practice. However. 15. demos and protests..1. [Always keep in mind a second blast] 11. First aid training should be made compulsory for the entire field staff 5. camera persons. don't go very close to the spot — you can get shot — and provide information from a distance 10. this rule can be relaxed Trainees should never be allowed to go to conflict zones and risky areas as they are neither registered with their organisations nor properly trained for the situation DSNGs and other vehicles should preferably be plain-coloured instead of having prominent colours and logos Prominence as media people should be avoided Identification signs and boards should be used only at the time of need Apart from news collection somebody from the office should remain in constant touch with the field staff about their well-being and travelling plans Avoid rumour mongering Protecting Journalists 29 . Reporters. pellets and nails. organisations can provide cheaper jackets with hard steel sheets in the front and at the rear of them. must have maximum insurance. News managers and administration /HR departments of TV channels and newspapers should encourage the field staff to use security gear. weather and people laughing at you. TV channels must keep life jackets. drivers. Always stay scattered 12. Journalists' trade unions and press clubs should also make endeavours to provide insurance cover and security gears to their members and other media workers 7. 21. in case of blasts and suicide attacks DSNG vans and other vehicles of media persons should be parked at the maximum possible distance from the spot as well as from each other DSNG guards/drivers should be trained and "sensitised to keep an eye on their vehicles and surroundings Minimum distance from spot for covering an incident should be determined in consultation with the bomb disposal unit. Avoid getting closer to groups of people standing at bomb blast scenes. 16. 8. You have to save yourself from flying shrapnel. photographer.] must be provided with every possible security gear for the coverage of bomb blasts. camerapersons. It's your life you have to save If a proper bullet proof jacket is not possible. Usually journalists [especially camerapersons] are seen standing in groups at the scene. while covering bomb blasts. Don't be shy to wear bullet proof jackets and helmets at blast scenes. 19. helmets and first aid boxes in all vehicles. 17. demonstrations. if there are proper security arrangement or the incident is too big. guards]. Field staff [Reporters. 14. including DSNG vans 4. especially those covering bomb blasts. DSNG staff. 20. FATA. Forget about the hot 13. In case of bomb blasts. etc. 24. Field workers [Reporters.. which may lead to violence in shape of firing. 22.
colleagues. food and fuel for emergencies — Maps. first aid kit. emergency. editors. get out — fast — Do not move into an area where a bomb has exploded — beware of follow up blasts — Do not leave your vehicle unattended — Avoid bias — operate as a professional journalist. — Identify your vehicle as “media”. Plan your escape routes. Safety is your responsibility — Be polite. reliable fully charged phones — Program an “ICE” number into your phone: — Contact your district union and the PFUJ hotline 051-2870221 and alert colleagues. Do not endanger yourself or others. contact numbers. or at least travel with someone who is familiar with the location — Dress appropriately. explain your role as a civilian journalist 30 Protecting Journalists . Do not carry anything that may look like a weapon — Keep editors. Do not argue.CHAPTER 5 The Do’s and Don’ts of Staying Out of Harm’s Way The following are 22 steps to safety put together jointly by Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists (PFUJ) and the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) Person to call “In Case of Emergency” — Papers that identify you as a journalist and who you work for — Extra cash. Make sure colleagues aware of plans. Relocate to a safer place If you get into trouble: What to take with you: — Additional water. a short wave radio to keep in touch with events and a white flag Before you go to report: — Know all you can about where you are going and what to expect. set time for phoning or texting to confirm safety — Consider how to report on violent areas from a safe distance What to do on location: — No story is worth your life. If threatened. camera or recorder — Balance risks against benefits before going anywhere dangerous. batteries. You are not a participant — Seek permission before you bring out a notebook. Travel with other journalists — Ensure you have reliable local contacts in the area. family and friends informed about your journey. Treat people with respect. friends and family — If detained.
do not travel alone — Meet unfamiliar contacts in public places and tell your office or trusted colleagues of your plans — Ensure you are physically and mentally fit — Vary your routes and routines. Check in frequently — As much as possible. Learn the national laws and international covenants that protect news people. Study possible alternative routes — Get local information. citing the circumstances and possible source — Report the threat to PFUJ and IFJ — Ask for police protection only when absolutely necessary and if the police in your area can be trusted — Publicise the threats. were received including date. colleagues and family — Seek support from unions. trusted police and lawyers. Knowing where people belonging to different ethnic or religious communities live may determine your travel routes in and out of an area. including the Geneva Conventions as they relate to civilians in areas of war and conflict — Be prepared but do not be paranoid Covering riots and civil disorders Survival Tips • • • • • • • • • Carry press ID … but only show it when safe Stay upwind of tear gas Take wet towel. Ask friends in the media to help If you have already received threats before and they remain unsolved. water. Breaking your usual patterns makes your movement unpredictable for would-be attackers — Know the different entrance/exit points of places you frequent. pre-arrange contact points and times and try to have a direct means Protecting Journalists 31 .e. i. time and persons involved — Save threats sent by SMS in your phone memory so that you have evidence — Let others know immediately — your superiors. take the following precautions: — Always keep emergency numbers ready. and some citrus fruits Consider wearing goggles Consider protective clothing if firearms may be used Carry first aid kits — and learn how to use them Wear loose clothing. Investigate the scene in advance to select vantage points and alternative ways out. gather intelligence in advance about the likely crowd movements.— Never resist if you are kept hostage or someone holds you at gunpoint Protecting the media. • If your team is separating. for example. made of natural fibers Cover arms. colleagues and family where you are going. press associations. It is better if you and your editor make the report in writing. car or office — Identify safe havens or places where you feel you would be safe. protecting yourself The following are “20 steps to respond to threats” by journalists jointly developed by PFUJ and IFJ for Pakistani media practitioners: As soon as you receive a threat: — Document the exact working and circumstances by which threats. flash points and safety routes. Program them into your mobile phone’s speed dial — Inform your editors. including the PFUJ hotline 051-2870221 and the numbers of your editors. your workplace and locations on your beat. your intended time of arrival and expected return. media groups and international organisations — Report the threat to the police. direct or veiled. close relatives. legs and neck Carry a day’s food and water Plan in advance When participating or monitoring a demonstration. press clubs. They may observe something that would help you — Be careful with phone calls. Have them ready for emergencies in case you feel you have to lie low for a few days — Know your rights. from a trusted neighbour or a street vendor.. Don’t keep sensitive documents or recordings in your home. text messages and other forms of electronic communication that can be easily tracked.
work with the team. it can be a positive disadvantage to get into the crowd and be too close to the action. This will expose as little of your body as possible to the effects of irritants in tear gas • Carry a small backpack with sufficient food. squeezed over the affected area. long trousers and a high collar. If you are working as an individual. so long as you have a clear line of sight and can catch the sounds. try to remain aware of when you are becoming the focus of a crowd. this will not burn as readily as synthetic material Wear long sleeves.• • • • of communication Carry official identification. What is the law in your country about the right of security forces to demand material? You must understand the legal implications for you as a HR defender working within the area. carry dummy discs or dud exposed film or tape in your pocket and hide your used material as soon as you take it from the camera. rather than just part of it. and occasionally stop and check that they are still clear • If you fear your computer. If you are a journalist filming. film or tape will be seized. If you are a reporter who is not filming or taking pictures you do not need to be 32 Protecting Journalists . conceal it Carry a cell phone with an emergency number pre-loaded on the speed dial facility of your phone in case of emergencies If tear gas is a possibility try to position yourself upwind. will help to neutralize the effects of irritants You also need a means of extinguishing the flames if you are splashed with petrol from a Molotov cocktail in the crowd. If it is not possible to protect material within the country. then citrus fruit such as a lime or lemon. However. Stay together or withdraw together. water and materials to last you for at least a day in case the unrest spreads and you have difficulty in getting back to your office After the event Protect your integrity and that of your material. and have a wet towel and water available to cover your face. You can do interviews with participants before and afterwards. is it possible to set up a system so that it is archived outside the country? Remember that your ability to do your job safely is adversely affected if the police are given access to your material after demonstrations and civil unrest. Higher up is better. prominent locations. have a dummy disc in case you are forced to hand one over. In highrisk situations. • If firearms are likely to be used. wear the same protective clothing as in war zones • Carry first aid kits and know how to use this equipment • Wear loose natural fabric clothing. During the event If you are part of a team. team up with another HR defender so that you can look out for each other • If you are working alone. region or country that you are operating in. if you think that this may attract unwanted attention. ensure that you have good means of communication with someone who can get help if need be. • Try to keep a mental map of the main exit routes. If you cannot carry a gas mask. security force locations and the nearest hospital facility. Set up your phone so that ‘last number redial’ is to a source of instant help. If using digital equipment. but at the time you need an overview of what is happening. Positioning Think about how to position yourself in order to get an overall view of the scene. Do not be tempted into taking unreasonable risks just to obtain the same pictures or film that someone else has already shown Improvise • • A magazine/newspaper can be inserted under a jumper as a make-shift anti-stab vest A hardened baseball hat can protect your head In an environment where tear gas is likely to be used. You may be at risk even if the crowd is not hostile. Withdraw too early rather than too late. There should be more than one way to leave a position. eye protection should be considered Swimming goggles or industrial eye protection should be sufficient.
What to do Tear gas is usually delivered in the form a grenade.g. Sometimes an initial incident is set up so that police or military forces can be ambushed when they arrive. since there is less air circulation and therefore a lower concentration of the gas. Tear gas grenades often explode in the air. nose. mouth. and skin excessive tearing blurred vision runny nose salivation (drooling) exposed tissue may develop a rash and a chemical burn coughing and difficulty breathing. which should give you sufficient time to get upwind or reach higher ground. so do not touch it. paramedics or journalists.. delivering a metal container which will spew gas. The best defense against tear gas is a gas mask. disperse crowds. It is intended to cause pain. This is a look at how to prepare for a potential encounter with tear. Goggles are a great thing to have. The disorientation and confusion may not be totally psychological. Look up when you hear the shot and avoid being in the path of the grenade. Do not pick up an unexploded tear gas canister. CS. you can breathe the air inside your shirt. If you are wearing contact lenses. Don't wear contacts anywhere you might encounter tear gas. whether police officers. Breathing difficulties are treated by administering oxygen and in some cases using medication that are used to treat asthma. if those taking part in a riot see you as part of the evidence gathering process. You can wear your clothes again after you wash them. Your contacts are a loss as is anything else you can't wash. You can breathe through the acidified cloth for several minutes. Medicated bandages can be used on burns. but that is counterproductive once the fabric becomes saturated. immediately remove them. You can expect relief from most of the symptoms within a couple of hours of exposure. If you don't have goggles or any sort of mask. If you think you might encounter tear gas you can soak a bandana or paper towel in lemon juice or cider vinegar and store it in a plastic baggie. However. the solvent used to prepare the tear gas may contribute to the reaction and may be more toxic than the lachrymatory Protecting Journalists 33 . with tips on how to respond. you may hear shots being fired when tear gas is used. pepper spray) is used to control riots. so exposure to it is not fun. the effects of the gas usually are temporary. including a feeling of choking disorientation and confusion. are at risk of being killed or injured by secondary bombs. CR. You can use tight-fitting swim goggles if chemical safety goggles aren't available. In some cases. One bomb may be set off to bring the emergency services to the scene. which may lead to panic intense anger First aid First aid for eyes is to flush them with sterile saline or water until the stinging starts to abate. but wash them separately that first time. Exposed skin should be washed with soap and water. since it could explode and cause injury. when a bigger bomb is detonated. Don't assume you are being shot at. agent.You are put at serious risk. Do not panic. Symptoms of tear gas exposure • • • • • • • • • stinging and burning of the eyes. Terrorist attacks HR defenders face the same risks as all civilians from terrorist attacks and face extra risks when their offices and staff themselves become targets for bombs or shootings. and subdue individuals. but if you don't have a mask there are still steps you can take to minimize damage from tear gas. which is fitted onto the end of a gas gun and fired with a blank shotgun cartridge. This container will be hot. Mace. Tear gas exposure: How to deal with tear gas Tear gas (e. All those who operate behind police cordons. Attending the scene of a killing or a bombing also carries risks. Therefore.
• • • not wear camouflage Remember that cameras can be mistaken for guns Flash photography may be taken as weapon flash Camera lenses. glasses. shiny patent leather.CHAPTER 6 Embedded Journalism – Blurring of the Lines If you travel with the military or with one side in a conflict you risk becoming a target. Do 34 Protecting Journalists . buckles on belts. either because you are mistaken for a soldier or because you are considered to be associated with the enemy. watches (turn them around) can Don’t be mistaken for a target • Make sure your clothing is not military style.
it is necessary to keep this in mind and avoid panicking when you are attacked. never try to resist. Think about a higher. Do not be drawn into lethal situations by other journalists. This confidence is maintained through regu¬lar meetings.” their side is provided by the army information department. position. not show off cameras or tape recorders. against your instincts • Closer is not always better. Explicit images are rarely broadcast • Never pick up a souvenir. Then. What someone does may be rational in the context of a hostile environment. Confidence is built. Leaving the place quickly when one does not feel safe. which provokes certain combatants. • Do not be overconfident. it would not like that to be known to all. Army does organize convoys to visit con¬quered zones saying. The rebels may give their confidence only at the end of several months of contacts. The officers say they need to “control sensitive information”. • Because you are a journalist See yourself through the eyes of the soldier “Put yourselves in other people’s shoes. when an army undergoes human losses. • Because you are wrongly perceived to be a military threat. The soldier may be a 17 or 18-year-old kid who is poorly trained and frightened. which ease as they Protecting Journalists The army suspected me of collaborating with “the enemy” Army does not like working with journalists in the fighting field. even many months of preparation with the rebels. The soldiers or rebels are often drunk or drugged. they have to plan the visits in the battle areas for safety reasons. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder When it’s all over. Common sense in the battle zone Prudence and patience are vital to deal with rebels Prudence. Mines can be disguised as all sorts of attractive objects • Never carry a firearm or weapon — you lose your civilian status • Be aware of the potential for error if observing artillery. It can take many days. an effective weapon It’s almost impossible to go to the rebels without their agreement. Many have short-term reactions. two attributes are necessary for the journalist: patience and discretion. the best weap¬on being prudence. If one is arrested. like alcohol and cigarettes. For the soldiers “sensi¬tive information” is information that is likely to run down the morale of the troops. particularly at night Lit cigarettes can be seen from a long distance and may attract Becoming a target You may be targeted for one of three reasons: • Because you are in the wrong place at the wrong time (bad luck). All in all. there’s more trouble… People who live through horrific events are all affected in some way — including the HR defenders. it is a question of creating a climate of confidence between them and you. This is not a defined rule. So there is no safe place in a battle field. But it’s not easy for a monitor or a journalist to work in these conditions where he has to wait for such a long time. For ex¬ample. But even in military convoy journalists are not safe as they can be targeted. You are at risk of being hit by so called ‘friendly fire’. over several days’ even months of regular contacts.• • flash in sunlight Camera lights attract attention from a long way off. bombs or missiles on nearby positions. That’s why you find yourself using oth¬er means to speed up things. The only informa¬tion available from 35 . Do you know where the combatants are? Where is firing likely to come from? Take your bearings and try to keep a sense of how you would get out in an emergency. Know your own limitations • Take responsibility for your own decisions. more distant.
opportunity or prestige. Traumatic incidents can hurt… do something about it! • • If the trauma happened in your normal environment (e.talk through issues with colleagues or families. friends or coworkers) as much as possible by sharing feelings and checking out how they are doing • Give yourself permission to feel rotten and afraid and share your feelings with others • Keep a journal. You don’t need to complicate this with a substance abuse problem Keep to your normal exercise routine Structure your time — keep yourself occupied Things that family members and friends can do • Listen carefully. you won’t be yourself for a while • Don’t make any big life-changing decisions for a while • Get enough rest and sleep • Realize others who shared the traumatic experience are under stress • Reoccurring thoughts.g. • Eat well balanced and regular meals — even if you don’t feel like it Things to try • • • • • Reach out to others and ask for support Maintain as normal a schedule as possible Talk to others about your experience. alcohol or medication to ease your symptoms. caring for the family. place of work. Some symptoms may endure longer. important. Their reactions are appropriate • Help them with everyday tasks like cleaning. home. dreams and flashbacks are normal — don’t try to fight them. They should decrease as time passes. minding the children • Don’t take their anger or other feelings personally • Don’t tell them they are “lucky it wasn’t worse” — traumatized people are not consoled by those statements. Do not try to carry it by yourself You are normal and having a normal reaction — don’t label yourself as crazy or weak Be careful of using drugs. There should be voluntary access to independent and knowledgeable counseling. HR workers should routinely debrief after hazardous assignments. They will decrease over time and become less painful 36 Protecting Journalists . Local and freelance journalists are at risk of being left without support. Instead. tell them that you are sorry that such an event has occurred and you want to understand and assist them The bottom Line — be prepared Most people recover from a traumatic event within three to four weeks. HR defenders must be confident they will not suffer loss of position. very distressing and not their fault. Some need more help — often if feelings of helplessness and fear have been suppressed. write your way through those sleepless hours • Do the things that you enjoy doing • Be patient with yourself. cooking. family. Your reactions are normal even though you do not feel good. give the traumatized person time if they need it • Help them regain a sense of safety • Understand what they went through is real. in the traffic) it is important to return to that environment and resume routine activities as soon as possible • Help anyone who shared the traumatic experience with you (e.g. Seek counseling as soon as possible — before problems arise — to avoid any possible complications. Those with symptoms need an easy route to treatment.
Kidnap and Hostage Taking Abduction is forcible capture and removal of person where no ransom is demanded. Abduction. Kidnapping is forcible capture and detention with the explicit purpose of gaining some concession. Hostagetaking is forcible restraint as a means of gaining leverage often in a siege situation. Protecting Journalists 37 .CHAPTER 7 Personal Security – Dealing With Detention.
radio frequencies Carry legally required identity papers. defecation / voiding of bladder. withdrawal Where and when can abduction happen? — At home — To/from work 38 Protecting Journalists . blood group card Carry small supply of medication you need Carry photos of family. fear. warm clothing in cold climate. wrong place Local dispute — personal issue Unhappy with aid delivery “Protective abduction” Human shields Prisoner exchange Sexual abuse Terror/repression • • • • • • • Keep a low profile: — Reduce visibility — Reduce exposure — Avoid routine movement and activities Be alert at choke points (slow road sections.g. possible motives can be: • • • • • • • • • • • Financial Political or ideological Gain publicity Unplanned — wrong time. especially of related children Dress appropriately e. good shoes for long walks Surveillance — Suspicious vehicles — parked or following you — Questions about routes or activities etc. guilt. unlawful detention. hyperventilation. understand the threat(s) Understand. physically sick. agency ID.In case of disappearances. review and adhere to security procedures: — Communications — Convoy rules — Appropriate documentation — Curfews in operation — Travel restrictions Abduction / capture Immediate reactions (in the first minutes) — shock. traffic lights) Be aware of being observed: countersurveillance Put yourself under local protection Armed protection — in extreme circumstances Public policy of no ransom Raise an immediate alert when a ‘disappearance’ is reported Phases of an abduction Note: Motives can. and do. by those with no need to know — Suspicious individuals monitoring your activities — Unusual activity (or absence of activity) — Taxis aim particularly for you — Unusual phone calls Minimizing risk • • Know the context. legal arrest. denial. anger. change during captivity The danger is greatest when the situation is changing and everyone is agitated during particular phases: • Surveillance (if targeted) • Abduction / capture • Movement from one place to another • Captivity • Further movement + possible exchange from one party to another • Rescue attempt • Escape attempt • Release Who are the perpetrators? • • • • • • • Criminals Political extremists / fanatics Oppressive regimes or militia / rebel groups Mentally ill Terrorists “Wronged persons” “Contractors” on behalf of others Basic precautions • • • • • • Know the environment — have a mental map Learn key contact details — telephone numbers. threatened. disbelief.
Talk about family issues. mentally and physically — Keep as clean as possible and ask for washing and toilet facilities — Accept and eat food — Look after your spiritual well-being: pray. physically and/or mentally unwell. uncomfortable. blindfolding. emotional & mental well-being. If not … ”) Movement From the captors’ perspective: — Captors will be anxious. feel fatalistic Conditions and atmosphere: — Basic living conditions 39 . play upon guilt. challenge your legitimacy — Attempts to dehumanize through suggesting you mean nothing. newspapers. powerless. instill fear. intimidate. nobody cares. Act the “grey person” — Build rapport — personalize yourself. yoga. radio and be prepared to request them — Avoid becoming a “pain” to the captors by being too demanding. demoralize. Captivity You may feel: — uncomfortable. Try to exercise. Avoid politics and controversial topics — Look after your physical. Be prepared for intermittent periods of movement and possible exchange to other parties as you are passed or “sold on”. perhaps in a hurry — They will take measures to avoid detection — They will act to reduce exposure — Others may attempt to stop them From the victim’s perspective: — You may be blindfolded or restrained — Expect rough handling — You may feel disorientated. isolate. vulnerable. combined with physical and mental abuse — Atmosphere of rewards and sanctions (“do this and we’ll look after you. frightened. nervous.— Travelling on duty — Personal time when relaxed. inner peace — If you can stay calm your captives may stay calm — Support colleagues and help them to remain calm — Try to stay together — Passively co-operate — Do not issue threats Protecting Journalists Further movement + possible exchange Victims may be moved several times. helpless. possibly in pain — Maintain self-control and control your fear — Follow directions — Remain alert. anger. ride guilt. on holiday? The moment of capture can be the most dangerous moment because: — Captors are nervous and so dangerous — Captors have the advantage — Escape may be possible but high risk — Remain alert — use all your senses — To provoke by any means is to increase risk — Maintain dignity — Remember: they want you alive — Remain calm and follow instructions — Control any urge to resist — Do not be threatening — Try to keep hold of personal property — Sensory deprivation. meditate. physical restraint or beating — Torture. Take advantage of books. physically sick. recall details Stages of adaptation to captivity — — — — — — Startled/panic (seconds to minutes) Disbelief (minutes to hours) Anxiety and hyper-vigilance (hours to days) Resistance/compliance (days to weeks) Depression and despair (days to months) Gradual acceptance (weeks to years) Survival during captivity — Prepare mentally for a long wait — perhaps months — before release — Stress your humanity. interrogation — Verbal abuse and humiliation — Threats of injury or death — Physical and/or sexual abuse — Indoctrination/brainwashing — Psychological cruelty: wear you down.
Do not enter into negotiations yourself as this may compromise other actions being taken to save your life. take advantage of support During a rescue • • • • • • • Lie on the ground — stay low Do not attempt to help Keep under cover — hands on your head (to show you are unarmed) Avoid sudden moves Be prepared to identify yourself by calling out your name Do not get up until told to do so. government(s) not just an ‘official’ exercise — Expect media coverage. you have survived a traumatic event. During a release: • • • • Follow instructions of captors Remember it is still a time of danger Make no sudden moves or noises Keep calm and alert Post-release — Debriefing with agency.— Do not try to negotiate — Take mental notes of captors and surroundings — Be skeptical of information given by your captors — Find a way of keeping a record of time Apart from exceptional circumstances: DO NOT TRY TO ESCAPE adverse reactions. There may be no conditions or a deal may have been negotiated. betrayal. and experience physical or emotional changes — Family issues will need to be addressed — Recovery — you are the priority. unload the experience. Say nothing substantial. Seek assistance and counseling — May have feelings of guilt. it is normal to have 40 Protecting Journalists . Prepare a statement with your agency — Post-release stress reactions are normal. etc. Follow rescuers directions Be prepared to be handled roughly by rescuers until they have clearly identified you Release You may not be aware of the conditions of the release. security authorities.
This will prevent you from being suspected of Protecting Journalists 41 . which should be credible. reliable and relevant. facts and statistics before publishing or airing your story. The workshop was facilitated by the International Media Support (IMS). Make all possible efforts to name the sources. T Truth and accuracy 1.CHAPTER 8 Ethical Journalism As Safety Strategy – Do’s and Don’ts hese ethical guidelines were prepared by a group of news editors. Verify all names. desk heads. slander and libel 2. senior reporters and bureau chiefs at a journalism safety best practices workshop conducted by Intermedia Pakistan and Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists (PFUJ) in Multan in Oct 2011. This will keep you safe from charges of defamation.
Do not consider yourself above the law — the right to hold others accountable flows from being accountable yourself 2. In case of accusation or controversy in your story. This will prevent inadvertent slants to the story that may put you at risk 7. Assign a team leader before leaving for field coverage who will take decisions in an emergency 2. This will prevent you from being perceived as part of a story 5. likes. financial status. especially in case of women and children. This will reduce any potential threats to your reporters 6. which can put the life of reporters at risk be perceived by others as supporting them Minimize harm/fairness 1. Don’t take sides or slants favoring one party over the other in your story. This makes you professional 3. always give the accused the right to reply in the same story. disability. Don’t compromise on accuracy in the race for breaking news. this will prevent mass fear 6. Do not let your allegiances. not private interest Accountability 1. Without context. favors or inducements that can compromise your independence. This will prevent you from actual or perceived contempt of court 9. the reporter’s life may be put at risk. be humble enough to say sorry — it makes you responsible and credible Independence 1. This ensures that your reporting is based on public interest. This will prevent sharp reactions to your story and minimize chances of harm to you 2. Try not to leave office just after submitting the story — stay in touch with the subbing / editing process/persons. Public opinion and critique should be respected and published/broadcast if genuine — don’t allow others to use the media to violate the fundamental rights of people 3. press cards. Always state facts within their context to prevent mistaken meanings. This will minimize the chances of your story changing emphasis 8. The reporter should suggest headlines and visuals to go with their stories. which can put you in danger 10. class. This will ensure you are not perceived as biased 3. This minimizes chances of harm to you 4. Keep changing the beats (if you are on a sensitive beat) to prevent being misunderstood.ulterior motives 3. Always question the motives of sources that insist on anonymity. Court-related or legal reporting should stay true to the court’s version. Stay above all political. ethnic or religious affiliations. visuals and soundbites in a story should be used responsibly so as not to defame someone. The competition may not allow time for balancing the news. To avoid this present pictures and visuals. While respecting right of privacy. All images. Respect the privacy of people if they choose not to speak to you. dislikes and opinions affect your story. This will establish your professional objectivity 5. Do not expose gruesome images and identity of victims. age. and comments and soundbites that are accurate and verifiable 11. gender. Always keep your identity cards. Newsroom staff should double check with reporters in the field on any omission and additions to the story. ethnicity. Do not report on the basis of religion. This will prevent anger and harm against you 4. Do not judge a subject before the law has judged them — let the law take its course. Do not accept bribes. try to avoid the breaking news competition. This will prevent you from being manipulated 4. While editing a story. biases. Carry timely and visible corrigendum or apology in case of mistakes. take special care the message is not distorted by mistake. Small compromises lead to big risks 2. a 42 Protecting Journalists . color or creed. Continued reporting on the same groups may Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) on security for journalists: Do’s and Don’ts for Newsrooms and Reporters Preparations for reporting assignments 1.
notably employers and public authorities — Journalists should. etc. Don’t rush to the spot in case of bomb blast. In case of a blast. first aid. is one of the fundamental liberties of every human being — The rights and duties of journalists devolve from the public's right to have access to fact and opinion — A journalists' responsibility to the public must come before any they bear towards a third party. Educate them on the threats and security SOPs 3. Stay calm and normal Making travel plans for covering conflict 1. especially when travelling 7. and extra batteries for phones. Inform authorities in case of threats or attacks as soon as possible 8. Travel in a group and travel during day. 7. cross-firing. Record all happenings 3. friends and office in the loop on your travel plan through phone/text Family security 1. office and vehicle 4. geography and exit routes Editors/ desk staff should be informed before leaving and tasked to keep track of the team. Reveal your identity and be neutral in hostile zones with the help of a white flag and press logos 6. In case of a riot. In case of kidnapping. Always keep a close look at your surroundings to read signs of trouble 4. 6. Do not come between the police and protesters 4. The cameramen should use zoom lens to shoot from a safe distance. 4. Cooperate with law enforcing agencies 7. Always keep your assignment and travel plan discreet except for your supervisor 2. Always keep your vehicle doors closed and locked 6. Always watch your back while travelling 7. Ensure and check the security of your home. allow time before getting close to the scene in case of a second blast 3. Don’t go inside a building damaged by a blast or on fire 8. food and torches Do advance planning. Observe the location carefully and make a mental map of exits 2. helmets. Such is the object of the 'Declaration of Duties' below — In order to carry out their journalistic duties in an independent manner. Check your vehicle for security regularly 5. including knowledge of area. hospital. Give them a list of emergency contact numbers. including your office numbers What to do on location 1. In case of threats. adopt the rules necessary to accomplish their mission to inform. Make them part of your contingency plan 2. do not stay close to either party. etc. Do not carry weapons in conflict areas Keeping safe by adhering to rights and responsibilities of journalists Declaration of the duties and rights of a journalist (The Swiss Press Council Foundation) Preface — The right to information. Park your car at a place where you can quickly evacuate 2. Don’t risk your life for your story or picture. Be mindful of any suspicious behavior/ activity/persons around you. Do not be tempted by the “breaking news” syndrome 5. “media” placard and maps of the areas Always carry a list of important numbers to contact in case of an emergency (police. riots. together with freedom of expression and criticism. The team leader should stay in constant contact with the Desk/Newsroom. of their own accord. inform editors and others concerned. Avoid travelling in the dark 5. The team leader should brief the team about the travel/coverage and contingency plans 3. Planning individual security 1.) Do not forget to take along safety gear such as bullet proof jackets. 5. Avoid using a single route — keep changing travel patterns and routines 6.3. threats or attacks do not resort to heroism. Do not take anything lightly. Keep your family. and in accordance Protecting Journalists 43 .
legitimate organisations determining professional ethics. This policy must be communicated in writing before the journalist's 44 Protecting Journalists . in the interests of the public's right to know 2) To defend freedom of information. image or sound to a person's ethnic or national origin. and never to accept conditions laid down by advertisers directly or indirectly 11) To take journalistic directives only from designated editorial superiors. The journalist's duties are: 1) To seek out the truth. the Press Council or similar. The reporting of war. journalists should not suffer any prejudice c) The right to refuse any directive or interference that is contrary to the general policy of the organisation with which he or she is collaborating. gender. While recognising the laws of each country. Thereby. the journalist must avoid any allusion by text. acts of terrorism. a n d t h e independence and dignity of the journalistic profession 3) Not to publish information. images or sound recordings of which the origin is unknown to the journalist. documents. image and sound should respect the victim(s)' suffering and the feelings of their loved ones 9) Not to accept any advantage nor any promise that could limit his or her professional independence or expression of opinion 10) To avoid as journalists any form of commercial advertising. accidents and catastrophes by means of text. document. Not to manipulate them. If information is unconfirmed. Not to misrepresent any text. nor people's expressed opinions. journalists must be able to count on general conditions adequate to the exercise of their profession.with required quality standards. the following rights: a) Free access to all sources of information and the right to investigate without impediment anything that is in the public interest. they only accept in professional questions the judgment of their colleagues. freedom of co m m e nta r y a n d c r i t i c i s m . As a result. Declaration of Rights Full respect by journalists of the duties articulated above requires that they enjoy. or have them manipulated by a third party with a view to falsification. Not to suppress information or any essential elements of a story. To d i s re ga rd a n o ny m o u s o r u n fo u n d e d accusations 8) In respecting human dignity. edits. Declaration of duties The journalist who gathers. selects. religion. sexual orientation as well as to any illness or physical or mental handicap that could be discriminatory in character. interprets and comments on information is ruled by general principles of fairness in his or her honest treatment of sources (the people with whom he or she is talking) and the public. and to respect those directives only when they are not contrary to this Declaration Journalists who are worthy of this title accept as their duty a strict adherence to the principles of this declaration. they reject any interference by the state or any other authority. Such is the object of the 'Declaration of Rights' that follows. at the minimum. images or documents. recordings. image or sound recording. Public or private confidentiality can only be invoked against the journalist in exceptional circumstances and with the provision of clearlydefined reasons b) The right not to act in any way nor express any opinion that is contrary to professional rules or personal conscience. To prohibit plagiarism in not passing off the work or ideas of others as one's own 5) To rectify any published information that is revealed to be factually incorrect 6) To respect professional secrecy and not reveal the source of any information obtained in confidence 7) To respect peoples' privacy insofar as the public interest does not demand otherwise. To indicate when photographic and/or sound material has been combined to make a montage 4) Not to use dishonest methods to obtain information. to clearly say so.
employment. receive and impart information through any media. It cannot be modified or revoked unilaterally under pain of breach of contract d) The right to transparency as to the ownership of the company for which the journalist works. NoProtecting Journalists 45 . Universal Declaration of Human Rights defines this freedom through the following clauses: Article 15: The right to form. In particular. will provide for a broadly free framework within which media organisations and other civil society bodies can operate. if met. the United Nations International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights — also ratified by Pakistan — and the Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of August 12. here below is a rundown of journalists’ rights outlined under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR to which Pakistan is a signatory). equal access to all channels of communication. held in detention or exiled without a legal expression — Universal Declaration of Human Rights. an appropriate remuneration corresponding to the journalist's function. regardless of any frontier…” The above clauses. detention or exile. members of the editorial staff must be informed and heard before final decisions determining the composition or organisation of the editorial department e) The right to adequate and continuous professional training f) The right to benefit from work conditions guaranteed by a collective agreement. hold.” — UN International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Article 9 (1): “Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person. Article 9: “No-one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest. The circumstances in which governments can limit these rights are outlined in Article 29 of the universal declaration The Political Covenant of the Declaration details the restrictions on these rights. 1940 relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol 1). any decision that affects the future of the company. article by article. No-one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention. The right of a member of an editorial team to be informed in time. and to be heard before. responsibilities and social role — s h o u l d e n s u re h i s o r h e r e co n o m i c independence Other than the rights and responsibilities outlined in the Declaration of the Duties and Rights of a Journalist adopted by The Swiss Press Council Foundation). receive and impart opinions Article 16: Free and equal access to information inside and outside state borders Article 17: Freedom of speech and expression. hostility and violence — Journalists have the right not to be arrested. including the right to be active in professional organisations without suffering discrimination g) The right to benefit from an individual employment contract guaranteeing material and moral security. order public (the circumstances necessary to keep a state governable). public health or morals — To prevent incitement to discrimination. as follows: — To ensure respect for the rights and reputations of others (anti-defamation) — To protect national security. see below) Article 18: The duty to present news and information fairly and impartially Article 19: The right to freedom of expression and opinion including “freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek. and no censorship (though restrictions under defamation laws are allowed. In particular.
No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those which are prescribed by law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety. This article shall not prevent the imposition of lawful restrictions on members of the armed forces and of the police in their exercise of this right. paragraph 1. Journalists situated in dangerous areas have the right to be considered as civilians and treated as noncombatants. They shall be protected as such under the Conventions and this Protocol. in writing or in print. Article 22: “Everyone shall have the right to freedom of association with others. including the right to form and join trade unions for the protection of his interests.” — UN International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Article 79 – Measures of protection for journalists: “Journalists engaged in dangerous professional missions in areas of armed conflict shall be considered as civilians within the meaning of Article 50. Article 19: “Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression. without obstruction by any party or government — Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression. either orally.one shall be deprived of his liberty except on such grounds and in accordance with such procedure as are established by law — Journalists have the right to not be subjected to any form of torture or inhuman treatment — Universal Declaration of Human Rights. provided that they take no action adversely affecting their status as civilians. and without prejudice to the right of war correspondents accredited to the 46 Protecting Journalists . but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary: For respect of the rights or reputations of others. and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol 1). the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. unions or peaceful assemblies. public order (order public). receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds. in the form of art.” — Journalists have the right to hold opinions and express them in any means they choose. public order (order public). Article 23 (4): “Everyone has the right to form and join trade unions for the protection of his interests. be subject to certain restrictions. this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference from and to seek. regardless of frontiers. or of public health or morals. and Journalists have the right to form associations.” — Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 19: “Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference. the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. without interference — Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 21: “The right of peaceful assembly should be recognised.” — UN international Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety. It may therefore.” The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this article carries with it special duties and responsibilities.” — Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1940. or through any other media of his choice. Article 5: “No-one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel.” — UN International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Article 20 (1): “Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. and for protection of national security or of public order (order public). This right shall include freedom to seek.
some 90 journalists have been killed in line of duty. there is a need for efforts to build and support mechanisms that can help equip journalists to remain safe. In case of doubt whether a person is a civilian. including safety trainings. including support for their families when they are threatened. The Fund is established and managed by a Steering Committee comprising independent and credible personalities including senior media practitioners and persons with backgrounds of activism and development sector. Short-term trauma counselling activities. journalists are equally in danger and facing threats quite similar to the threats faced by the journalists in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and Balochistan. They may obtain an identity card similar to the model in Annex II of this Protocol and this card. Legal assistance to journalists under threat / victims. (2). The militancy fuelled conflict in general and incidents like armed resistance from a mosque in Islamabad in 2007. The Safety Fund has a flexible mechanism to support short-term initiatives on the urgent security needs for Pakistani journalists. harassment. which shall be issued by the government of the State of which the journalist is a national or in whose territory he resides or in which the news medium employing him is located. Some of the activities supported by the Pakistan Journalists Safety Fund: Urgent in-country relocation of threatened journalists. During this period. (3) and (6) of the Third Convention refers to members of armed parties or organisations and inhabitants of a nonoccupied territory who take to arms in order to defend themselves from an approaching enemy.” Article 50 (1): “A civilian is any person who does not belong to one of the categories of persons referred to in Article 4A (1). To address this issue. legal and human rights civil. injuries and even death. assault.armed forces to the status provided for in Article 4A (4) of the Third Convention. shall attest to his status as a journalist.000 — as a result of media expansion in the country between 2002 and 2011. In collaboration with the Pakistan federal Union of Journalists (PFUJ) a Pakistan Journalists Safety Fund (PJSF) was set up in mid-2011 with assistance from the International Media Support (IMS) for threatened / harassed / intimated / injured journalists and families of victims. the magnitude and intensity of threats to the journalists have also increased.” Articles 4A (1). You can also contact organisations that work for safety of journalists all over the world. including Protecting Journalists 47 . Assistance to journalists who need short-term safe lodging incountry. The fund aims to provide some financial security along with physical and social security to keep Pakistan’s threatened journalists safe. Pakistan Journalists Safety Fund (PJSF) — Help for journalists in distress The working conditions of journalists in Pakistan are extremely difficult.000 to 17. in particular. in non-conflict areas of rural Sindh and south Punjab. (3) and (6) of the Third Convention and in Article 43 of this Protocol. A hot-line for journalists under attack. you can approach the local chapter of the Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists. Financial and technical assistance to deserving parties. Swat operation and exodus in 2010. that person shall be considered a civilian. Moreover. equipment and financial resources that can support them in difficult times. With the increase in number of journalists — from 2. particularly those in conflict regions. The criteria and process to extend financial and material support to threatened journalists is transparent and expeditious as any delay can result in a major problem for the threatened journalist. (2). have put the lives of journalists in real danger. Assistance resources for journalists For more on safety of journalists and assistance from Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists. and military operation in tribal areas since 2008. and any other activities that the Steering Committee can approve. The myriad threats they face in performance of their work include intimidation.
hrw.org 48 Protecting Journalists .org Committee to Protect Journalists: www.freedomhouse.org Human Rights Watch: www.hrcp-web.org/en/region/pakistan Human Rights Commission of Pakistan: www.rsf.ifj.org Reporters Without Borders: http://en.pk/ International Federation of Journalists: www.org Amnesty International: www.Pakistan.cpj.org Freedom House: www. through their websites: • • • • • • • • Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists: http://pfuj.amnesty.
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