Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Design, Analysis, and Simulation

An A Introduction I t d ti to t Finite Fi it Elements El t
S Some P Practical i lC Concepts

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Who am I?
• Bart McPheeters
– Sr. Application Engineer – BS in Naval Architecture/Marine E i Engineering i – MS in Solid Mechanics/Material Science – 20 years using and supporting FEA
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Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Introduction
• How do we solve an engineering problem? bl ? • Classical Methods
– Closed Form Solutions
• Roark
Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up

– Approximate Solutions
• Superposition, series solutions
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add them all up and get the answer of a complex problem – “Squaring the Circle” Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up 4 triangles 8 triangles Many triangles www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Introduction How can we solve a complex problem? • Solve a number of simple problems.NEiSoftware. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

NEiSoftware. and Simulation Introduction • Numerical Methods – Take the complex problem and break it up into simple problems • Finite Difference • Finite Element • Boundary Element Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . very y simple p breaking problems – The many small pieces called finite elements – The assemblage of elements is called a finite element model Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www. Analysis.NEiSoftware. and Simulation Introduction What Exactly is The Finite Element Method? The Finite Element Method is a way of analyzing a complex engineering problem by g it up p into many y small.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. Analysis. and Simulation Introduction Grid Point or Node Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up Element Example of a Finite Element Model www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

NEiSoftware. and Simulation Introduction – A continuous structure has theoretically an infinite number of degrees of freedom • Number of points that can move independently • An infinite number of simple problems! Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up – The Finite Element Method approximates the behavior of a continuous structure with a finite fi it number b of f points i t (d (degrees of f freedom) • A finite number of simple problems www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Introduction – The finer the mesh (i. Analysis. the better we can approximate the structure • Recall squaring the circle… Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up – This includes • The geometry of the structure such as curvature and thickness variations • Load application • Stress and strain gradients www. more DOF).e.NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

NEiSoftware. Cubes) – Use the computer to solve lots of these simple problems bl • And do millions and millions of simple numerical operations on these simple problems • Computers are good at this Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up – Present the results graphically • Computers are good at this too! www. Squares.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Introduction So what are these simple problems that we use? – Break B k complex l geometry into i simple i l shapes h we can deal with (Lines.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.

MARC STARDYNE. ANSYS MARC. ANSYS.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. STARDYNE and d SAP www. and Simulation Introduction • History of the finite element method – The matrix theory of structural analysis first began appearing in the technical literature in the early 1940s – The term “finite element” was coined by Clough in a paper describing the technique used for planestress analysis (Proceedings of the Second ASCE C f Conference on Electronic El t i Computation. C t ti 1960) – Large general-purpose finite element programs began to appear in the 1970’s including NASTRAN. Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware.

Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Introduction • Then things got really rolling… – Finite element graphical pre and post processors became available in the 1980’s. Automatic meshing has gained much popularity as the automatic meshing technology matures and the speed of computers continue to accelerate Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www. making the construction of finite element models prone to human error much easier and less p – Automatic meshing became a standard feature for graphical pre processors in the 1990’s.NEiSoftware.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com 1-77-Nastran . Analysis. and Simulation Introduction K N1 N2 F But what is it really? • A simple example… ƒ K = Spring stiffness (EA/L) ƒ Δu = Spring elongation ƒ F = Spring force K * Δu = F NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Δu N1 N2 Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www.NEiSoftware.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Introduction Divide the geometry into simple elements and assemble all elements [K] = Stiffness matrix of the part (Sum of all elements) {u} = Components of the di l displacements t of f th the nodes d of f the part {F} = Components of the loads on the th nodes d of f th the part t NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www. Analysis.NEiSoftware.com 1-77-Nastran .

Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. and Simulation Introduction [K] *{u} = {F} Solve this matrix equation with thousands (or millions) of unknown u’s • This is the basic ‘displacement’ approach Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Introduction • Types of finite element methods – There are two different types of finite element methods .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. the member forces are the • In the force method basic unknowns in the system of equations.NEiSoftware. Analysis. www.the displacement or stiffness method and the force or flexibility method • In the displacement method. the node displacements are the basic unknowns in the system of equations Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up method.

including NEiNastran and most others Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Introduction – Both methods can be used to solve structural problems • The displacement method is used by many modern finite element codes. Analysis.NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

and Simulation Introduction • So why use FEM? It has many advantages: – – – – – Model irregularly shaped bodies Handles general loading conditions M d lb Model bodies di can b be composed d of f diff different t materials t i l Handles many types of boundary conditions Elements can vary in size allowing use of small elements when necessary y – The Finite element model can be changed relatively easily and cheaply – Model many different types of physics – Represent non non-linear linear behavior Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware.

plates.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.NEiSoftware. and blocks • The stress and strain within each element is a function of the displacement of the grid points it is connected to Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up 3D 1D 2D www. and Simulation Introduction – Finite elements are shapes which are relatively easy to formulate and analyze: beams.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. and Simulation Introduction – The displacement of each grid point may be described by six independent degrees of freedom (DOFs). uz) Three rotations (θx. uy. θz) {u} = displacement vector = { ux uy uz θx θy θz } θz uz ux uy θx Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. θy. Analysis. A degree of freedom is defined as an independent component of translation or rotation θy Three translations (ux.

Analysis. and Simulation The FEA Process • There are basically 7 steps that a user and a finite element code go through to solve the problem – Some S are user choices h i • How to approximate reality Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up – Some are things an FEA code does for you • Solving lots of equations www.NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

Construct element stiffness matrices 5. Choose a displacement function 3. Calculate the strains. Choose stress/strain and strain displacement relations 4. Analysis. 1 Discretize Di ti the th structure t t 2. forces and stresses from the displacements Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation The FEA Process • The 7 steps (user/software) 1. Construct a global stiffness matrix and apply loads 6.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. Solve for the unknown displacements 7.

Analysis. and Simulation The FEA Process • Step 1: Discretize and Select Element Type – Discretize usually y means some kind of auto meshing.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Patran or any preprocessor FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7 www. which can be done in FEMAP.NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. MSC.

a 4-node shell element may be a more appropriate choice – If you have a structure that looks like a bunch of y connected beams. then a 2-node beam element may be a good choice FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7 www. and Simulation The FEA Process • An element type is selected based on the analysis j of the system y to be solved for and the objectives geometry of the problem – For example if the objective is to find how much a widget displaces in a linear structural analysis then a 10 node tetrahedral may be a good choice – If you have a plate-like structure.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. Analysis.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation The FEA Process • Step 2: Select Displacement Function – The displacement function describes the displacement at any point in the element as a function of its grid point displacements – This function is defined within the element using nodal values of the element. while a 20 20-node node Hex element has a quadratic displacement function – You likely did this without knowing you were doing it in step 1 when you chose the element type! www. Analysis. a 4noded QUAD has a linear displacement function. For example.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation The FEA Process – Most functions are linear or quadratic. Linear elements are referred to as h-elements and higher order d elements l t are referred f d to t as p-elements l t • Quadratic elements are really p-elements. but are usually referred to as just quadratic elements p-element element is usually reserved for elements • The term p which can change their displacement function during an analysis FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7 – The result is an approximation by a discrete model composed p of a set of p piecewise-continuous functions defined within each finite domain or finite element www. Analysis.NEiSoftware.

NEiSoftware. and Simulation The FEA Process • Step 3: Define the strain/displacement and stress/strain relationship – Strain/displacement is defined as the relationship l ti hi b between t strain t i and d displacement – Example: for small deflection in one dimension this could be: u2 – u 1 L Δ .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.com 1-77-Nastran .= ----------------ε x = -----L L NEi Sensitive/Proprietary FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7 www.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. is defined as the relationship between stress and strain The simplest constitutive strain. and Simulation The FEA Process – Stress/strain law. Analysis.NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . law is Hooke’s law. where E is the modulus of elasticity FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7 σx = Eε x www. also called the constitutive law.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

The FEA Process
• You probably did this without knowing it too!
– Finite Element materials incorporate the constitutive relations relations.
• A Nastran MAT1 implies a certain stress/strain relationship
FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7

– All elements have an implied strain/ displacement relationship
• This is part of the element formulation
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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

The FEA Process
• Step 4: Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix
– The three most common method for developing the stiffness matrix are
• Direct Equilibrium Method • Work/Energy Method • Method of Weighted Residuals
FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

The FEA Process
– The Method of Weighted Residuals allows finite elements to be applied directly to any differential equation
• Commonly used in FEA codes
FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7

– All these methods will ill gi give e the same res results, lts however one or the other may be more efficient in specific cases – When you chose an element type type, this was chosen as well.
• Someone already derived it for you!

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[K] is the global stiffness matrix .com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation The FEA Process • Step 5: Assemble the element stiffness matrixes to create the global stiffness matrix – The final assembled stiffness matrix is a piece of the global equation {F} = [K]{u} where {F} is the global force vector.NEiSoftware. and {u} is the global displacement vector FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7 www.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

The FEA Process
– Assembly of the global stiffness matrix is contingent upon the elements being compatible i.e. there are no seams or gaps in the model
• The nodes of one element connect to the nodes j elements of adjacent
FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7

– “Compatibility” requires that the displacements on the element boundaries are the same for g g elements ( (C0 continuity) y) neighboring
• C1 continuity requires that the element curvatures/slopes are compatible – this is usually not the case as it causes numerical problems

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

The FEA Process
• Step 6: Solve for the unknown degrees of f freedom f d
– The global equations are a N set of simultaneous i lt equations, ti where h Ni is th the number of degrees of freedom – Common methods of solving the global equations are Gauss Methods, Conjugate Gradient Methods, and Sparse Methods
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FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

The FEA Process
• Step 7: Calculate the element strains and d stresses t
– Using the node displacements strains can be calculated ( (from the earlier equations) q )
FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7

u2 – u 1 L Δ - = ----------------ε x = -----L L

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Analysis. for example) can be calculated l l t d if th they are a f function ti of f displacement. FEA Process •Step 1 •Step 2 •Step 3 •Step 4 •Step 5 •Step 6 •Step 7 www.NEiSoftware. and Simulation The FEA Process – Using the strains the stresses can be calculated σx = Eε x – Other derived quantities (element forces.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis. which is fixed at x=0 and has an applied axial force P at x=L X P Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up L www.NEiSoftware. and Simulation An Example • Model Description p – Consider a Tapered Rod of Length L.

and Simulation An Example • Step 1 – Descretize and Select Element Types – Let’s use two elements and three nodes to represent the bar Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Element 1 Element 2 www.NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

that is F1y=0 and F2y=0.NEiSoftware. – Hooke’s law applies. σx = Eε x NEi Sensitive/Proprietary www. this element has two degrees of freedom Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 • Assumptions – The bar cannot sustain shear force.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. – Any effect of transverse displacement is ignored.com 1-77-Nastran . Thus. and Simulation An Example • Let’s choose a 2-node 1D element type for this model – A 1D element is defined by two nodes at either end of it. it – Axial translations u1x and u2x are the only displacements at nodes 1 and 2. Analysis.

which is somewhat at odds with the taper in the real part • The taper will be accounted for by using multiple rods of shrinking cross-section • Obviously. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 1-77-Nastran . more elements = better answer • Common C t trade-off d ff i in FEM modeling d li • A better choice might be a tapered beam element www. and Simulation An Example In the next step we are going to choose a linear displacement element element.

Analysis. to L – If you use a Nastran CROD element. this is the way it works www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation An Example • Step 2: Select a displacement function f i – Assume a linear displacement variation along the x x-axis axis of the bar. bar This is a common for line elements Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 u = a1 + a 2 x u = global displacement at any distance x along the element x = local distance in element and varies from 0.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. and Simulation An Example – The ai are coefficients for the linear displacement di l t equation ti – In matrix form this will look as follows: Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 ⎧ a1⎫ u = [1 x ]⎨ ⎬ ⎩a 2 ⎭ www. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

and Simulation An Example • Express u as a function of global nodal displacements d1x and d2x by using them as boundary conditions • This is done by evaluating u at each node and solving for a1 and a2 as follows: ( ) Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 u 0 = d 1x = a1 u (L ) = d 2 x = a 2L + d 1x NEi Sensitive/Proprietary www.NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis. and Simulation An Example – Solving for a1 a1 = d1x Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 – And a2 d 2 x − d 1x a2 = L www.

com 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. and Simulation An Example – Substitute back into the original equation for u ⎛ d 2 x − d 1x ⎞ u = d 1x + ⎜ ⎟x ⎝ L ⎠ – In matrix form Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 ⎡ x u = ⎢1 − ⎣ L x ⎤ ⎧d 1x ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ ⎥ L ⎦ ⎩d 2 x ⎭ NEi Sensitive/Proprietary www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.

NEiSoftware. and Simulation An Example – Or write this as: u = [N 1 – where ⎧d 1x ⎫ N 2 ]⎨ ⎬ ⎩d 2 x ⎭ x N1 = 1 − L x N2 = L NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. and Simulation An Example – Comments: • Ni’s are commonly referred to as shape functions – They are pretty simple for rod elements – They describe the displacement at any point inside the element as a function of the nodal displacements at the corners of the element Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www. Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

Analysis.NEiSoftware. N1 = 0 and N2 = 1 – N1 + N2 = 1 anywhere inside the element Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www. N1 = 1 and N2 = 0 – At X=1.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation An Example • Required properties for shape functions: – At x=0.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation An Example • Step 3: Define the strain/displacement and d stress/strain t / t i relationships l ti hi – Strain/displacement (CROD uses this) Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 du d 2 x − d1x d εx = = dx L – Stress/strain (a Nastran MAT1 uses this) σ = Eε x x www. Analysis.NEiSoftware.

Analysis.com 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation An Example • Step 4: Derive the element stiffness and load matrix f1x f2x Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 – Starting from the definition of stress P σx = A – Where P is the applied force and A is the area the force is applied to NEi Sensitive/Proprietary www.

Analysis. and Simulation An Example Using the strain/displacement and stress/strain equations: ⎛ d 2 x − d 1x ⎞ P = AE ⎜ ⎟ L ⎝ ⎠ The applied load at end 1 of the rod is: Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 f x1 = P www.NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com 1-77-Nastran NEi Sensitive/Proprietary .

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation An Example • Substituting… f 1x AE (d 2 x − d 1x ) = L f x 2 = −P – And at the other end… Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www.NEiSoftware. Analysis.

Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation An Example – And putting that into the equation: f 2x ⎛ d 2 x − d 1x ⎞ = − AE ⎜ ⎟ L ⎝ ⎠ – Combining everything and putting them in matrix form Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 ⎧ f 1x ⎫ AE ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ d 1x ⎫ ⎨ ⎬= ⎨ ⎬ ⎢ ⎥ L ⎣− 1 1 ⎦ ⎩d 2 x ⎭ ⎩f 2 x ⎭ www.

Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation An Example – But this is familiar now! F = K u Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 ⎧f 1x ⎫ AE ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧d 1x ⎫ ⎨ ⎬= ⎨ ⎬ ⎢ ⎥ ⎩f 2 x ⎭ L ⎣− 1 1 ⎦ ⎩d 2 x ⎭ F are forces K is the element stiffness u are the displacements NEi Sensitive/Proprietary www.com 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. and Simulation An Example • Step 5: Assemble the element stiffness matrixes to create the global stiffness matrix and introduce boundary conditions Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 P Element 1 Element 2 Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Node 1 is fixed -> u=0 Node 3 is loaded -> f2x = P www.com All other loads = 0. Analysis. all other displacements unknown 1-77-Nastran NEi Sensitive/Proprietary .

and Simulation An Example – Based on our derivation of stiffness matrix for a rod element element.com 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. we can write the following element stiffness equations: ⎧ f 1 x ⎫ A1 E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ d 1 x ⎫ ⎨ ⎬= ⎨ ⎬ ⎢ ⎥ L1 ⎣ − 1 1 ⎦ ⎩ d 2 x ⎭ ⎩ f 2 x⎭ ⎧ f 2 x ⎫ A2 E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧d 2 x ⎫ ⎨ ⎬= ⎨ ⎬ ⎢ ⎥ f 3x − 1 1 L2 ⎣ ⎩ ⎭ ⎦ ⎩d 3 x ⎭ NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Element 1 Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Element 2 www.

Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation An Example – Let’s simplify the stiffness matrices Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 [K ]1 ⎡ k1 − k1⎤ =⎢ ⎥ ⎣− k1 k1 ⎦ AE k1 = 1 1 L1 ⎡ k2 − k2 ⎤ [K ]2 = ⎢ ⎥ k 2 k 2 − ⎣ ⎦ d and k2 = A2E 2 L2 where h www.NEiSoftware.

− K2 0 ⎤ ⎧d 1x ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ − K 2 ⎥ ⎨d 2 x ⎬ ⎪d 3 x ⎪ K2 ⎥ ⎦⎩ ⎭ Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www.com Global Stiffness Matrix [K] NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . + K 2 .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. K 1.NEiSoftware. and Simulation An Example – Assemble the two elements into a global system of equations [K ]1 = ⎡ ⎢ k1 ⎣ − k1 − k1 ⎤ k1 ⎥ ⎦ [K ]2 − k2 ⎤ ⎡k =⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎣− k 2 k 2 ⎦ ⎧F 1x ⎫ ⎡ K 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨F 2 x ⎬ = ⎢− K 1 ⎪F 3 x ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ − K 1. Analysis.

Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ K 1. + K 2 − K 2 ⎥ ⎨d 2 x ⎬ ⎪d 3 x ⎪ .NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. − K2 K2 ⎥ ⎦⎩ ⎭ Load P at Node 3. and Simulation An Example – Include the boundary conditions Zero displacement at Node 1. 1 Unknown at other nodes Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 ⎧0 ⎫ ⎡ K1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ 0 ⎬ = ⎢− K 1 ⎪P ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ − K 1. no load at other nodes www.

− K2 K2 ⎥ ⎦⎩ ⎭ NEi Sensitive/Proprietary www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.NEiSoftware. and Simulation An Example • Step 6: Solve for the unknown d degree of f freedoms f d which hi h are displacements d2x and d3x This displacement is known.com 1-77-Nastran . + K 2 − K 2 ⎥ ⎨d 2 x ⎬ ⎪d 3 x ⎪ . known so we can eliminate that row and column Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 ⎧0 ⎫ ⎡ K1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ 0 ⎬ = ⎢− K 1 ⎪P ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ − K 1. 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ K 1.

and Simulation An Example • Which reduces to a simpler equation: ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎡K1 + K2 − K2 ⎤ ⎧d2x ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎨ ⎬ ⎥ − K2 ⎦ ⎩d3x ⎭ ⎩P ⎭ ⎣ − K2 It doesn’t take a lot to solve this simple p system y of equations q Solve for d2x and d3x Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. the stresses can be calculated σ x = Eε x – Other derived q quantities can be calculated if they y are a function of displacement (element forces) NEi Sensitive/Proprietary www. and Simulation An Example • Step 7: Solve the element strains and stresses – Using the nodal displacements strains can be The d’s we found! calculated Introduction FEA Process An Example Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 u2 − u1 εx = = L L ΔL – Using the strains.com 1-77-Nastran .

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. and Simulation But what about more complicated li d models? d l ? • There are a number of confounding things now… Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www.

CTETRA) Large strain. Large displacement (LGDISP) Membrane Bending (PSHELL) Membrane.NEiSoftware. and Simulation Complex Models • Step 1 – Discretize the model – Lots of different elements available • Shells (CQUAD4. CTRIA3) • Solids (CHEXA. CTETRA) • Different displacement functions Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 – Different Diff t “types” “t ” of f elements l t • • • • • • Linear.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Revised Formulation (CQUADR) Different strain/displacement functions (MAT8) Etc… www. Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Quadratic (CQUAD8.

and Simulation Shells and Solids • Meshing – What Wh t type t of f element l t to t use? ? – How distorted can my elements be? – Can I use triangles or tets? • Your ability to sufficiently discretize the model may determine which element types are available – Solid-like structures may not be appropriately modeled with shells.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . etc. Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. Analysis.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. and Simulation Shells and Solids • In general. use 2D Shell elements • If it is a 3D widget. if the structure looks like a bunch of bars.com 1-77-Nastran . use 3D solid elements – Just because you have a 3D CAD model doesn’t mean 3D solid elements are the best way to model it! NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www. Analysis. bars use 1D bar elements • If it is built from plates.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Shell and Solid elements elements… • There are a number of confounding things thi in i Step St 2 as well… ll Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.NEiSoftware.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. other Nj = 0 N1 + N2 + N3 +N4 N4 = 1 at all ll points i Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 – Shape functions are defined in parametric space • Element mapped to parametric space www. and Simulation Step 2 – Displacement functions still often linear. but now involve 4 equations for a 4 4-node node quad in 2D space: • • • • • • N1 = ¼ (1-x)(1-y) N2 = ¼ (x+1)(1-y) N3 = ¼ (x+1)(y+1) N4 = ¼ (1-x)(y+1) Ni = 1 at each node. Analysis.

NEiSoftware. Analysis. and Simulation Shells and Solids • • In 3D elements. the functions increase in number p y and complexity… Triangles and TETs… – Triangles are special elements.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. in that they have a different approach and mapping function • The Strain/displacement functions for many do not work as well as for QUAD elements • The basic triangle is a “constant strain” element. but with a linear displacement function Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 – Tets are also special elements • Linear ones often have problematic strain/disp functions www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

FEM codes do it for you • You just have to pick the appropriate element f formulation l i Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 – Lots of different formulations depending on what you are trying to do: • Linear analysis • Nonlinear analysis • Large strain • Large displacement • etc… www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Plate and Solid elements… elements • Step 3 – Heart of the matter – Choosing g strain displacement p functions is the central problem of FEM – Fortunately.NEiSoftware. Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

and Simulation Plate and solid elements • General Strain Displacement relation: – Derive Deri e some relation of internal strain to the boundary bo ndar node displacements: • {e} = [B]{ui} Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 • [B] is the strain-displacement strain displacement matrix – A number of ways to calculate it • Assumed strain field • Assumed displacement field • Assumed stress field – In reality y often use hybrid y technique q www. Analysis.NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 1-77-Nastran . Analysis. and Simulation Plates and Solids • Strain/Displacement relation – Suffice it to say that [B] is usually a complex expression for most 2D and 3D elements involving lots of integrals and differentiation – Complex expressions are difficult or impossible to evaluate closed form for arbitrary element shapes • Hence the need to map to parametric space www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.

and Simulation Plates and Shells • Step 4 – Element stiffness matrices – Numerical methods and tricks used to evaluate for FEM models • Map the arbitrary element shape to an easily evaluated square or cube – Plates map to 2x2 squares – Solids map to 2x2x2 cubes Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 • Approximate surface and volume integrals using Gaussian Quadrature – Numerically calculate values at a limited number of places – Similar to Simpson’s Rule Integration www.NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .1) Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 (-1.-1) (1. Analysis.-1) 4 Gauss G points for f performing f numerical integration www.NEiSoftware.1) (1.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Plates and Solids • Standard plate mapping (-1.

a quadratic 20-node hex will have 27 (3x3x3) Sometimes bending. boundary and often have 9 Gauss points (3x3) A linear hex element will have 8 integration points (2x2x2).com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Plates and Solids • • A quadratic plate element will have 8 nodes defining the boundary.NEiSoftware. shear and extensional loads will be evaluated differently – “Reduced shear integration” elements use 2x2 or 2x2x2 2 2 2f for b bending di and d extensional t i ll loads. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. d and d a single point for shear to prevent numerical problems Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 • www.

and Simulation Plates and Solids • The mapping transformation loses accuracy as the th element l t looks l k less l and d less like the mapped shape – This is why distorted elements are “bad” bad – The accuracy of Gaussian Quadrature gets worse as the element shape di distorts as well ll Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. Analysis.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. idea but but… – “extraordinary models require extraordinary techniques…” www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Plates and solids • Step 5 – Assembly of global K – Individual I di id l matrices ti are much h more complicated • Can be 24x24 size or larger Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 – Once the element matrices are done done.NEiSoftware. assembling them into a global matrix is a simple task • Step 6 is the same idea. Analysis.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . [K] usually has a lot of zero terms – The matrix is often “almost” diagonal • Iterative solvers sometimes faster – Guess at a solution and iterate and adjust until it works Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www. Analysis. and Simulation Plates and Solids – Solution usually stated as: – { {u} }=[ [K] ]-1{ {P} } – In reality a number of different techniques are used to find {u} – we don’t invert [K] per se • Gaussian elimination that you learned in school is very slow • Upper/Lower Decomposition techniques faster • Sparse solution methods often used – Since most elements of a model usually connect to only a limited number of other elements.NEiSoftware.

etc. internal forces. you can get strains from {u} – From strains. depending on the element formulation.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . – Recall that we were numerically evaluating the solution at a limited number of places – the Gauss Points – Results often reported at Gauss points – Centroidal (element center) and Nodal (element corner) results must be interpolated and extrapolated from the Gauss point values using the shape functions (from step 2) Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 www.NEiSoftware. Analysis. you can get stresses.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Plates and solids • Step 7 – Finding results from displacements – Using the defined [B] strain/displacement equation.

NEiSoftware. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Plates and Solids • So how do we choose all these things? • Let’s look at a simple model that can be solved in many ways – Illustrate advantages and disadvantages of different element types – Help guide your choices Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.

Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Some Comparisons… Consider a simple cantilever beam: P = 10 psi Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up 10” 1” www.NEiSoftware.

Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .0833 www.00500” Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up l = 10 in E = 30x106 I = bh3/12 = 1x13/12 = . and Simulation Cantilever test “Theoretical” “Th ti l” Roark R k Solution S l ti for f the th end d deflection: d fl ti δ = wl4/8EI w = 10 lb/in δ = .NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Cantilever test Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up “Theoretical” Solution for the root moment is: M = wl2/2 M = 500 in-lb “Theoretical” Solution for the root stress is: σ = Mc/I σ = 3000 psi www.NEiSoftware. Analysis.

Analysis. and Simulation Cantilever test • We’ll start with the simplest approximation – A beam model – Beams are ‘theoretically ‘ correct’ ’ so it should be a slam dunk.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. right? Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

But I get the following answers: δ = .00507 σ = 3000. and Simulation Cantilever Test OK.com 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis. psi Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up . so I run it through my FEM code.00507? 00507? Shouldn’t the beam be giving me the exact Roark answer? NEi Sensitive/Proprietary www. it sounds simple OK simple.NEiSoftware.

-.85012 4 1. Analysis.5 .85012 3 1 .5 0 Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up •Nastran is including the shear deflections here.5 -. the shear stress is not included in the stress report.5 0. 5 6 7 8 . so the www.083333 .140833 .5 9 -.NEiSoftware.083333 .com stress value agrees with the Roark solution NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Cantilever Test Not necessarily – Nastran may just make a different set of assumptions: Nastran users typically use a PBAR card like this: $ PBAR 2 1 .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.5 -.5 0.5 0. so the deflection is greater by the amount of the shear •However.

Roark doesn’t – Even simple beams can get complicated!! • Nastran CBAR is a simpler element NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.com 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.NEiSoftware. and Simulation Cantilever Test • If the section were non-symmetric. there would ld be b additional dditi l considerations id ti – Offset of centroid and shear center (twisting) – Warping – Non-uniform shear distribution • Nastran CBEAM does these.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis. you can use fewer bars Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www. and Simulation Cantilever test • One further note – My model used 10 elements along the length – Identical results res lts would o ld be obtained for this problem using a single element • If the deflection along the beam (or the deformed shape is unimportant).Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.

and Simulation Cantilever test OK.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .00504 σ = 2713 psi Very nice ~10% 10% low www. now let’s make it from shell elements. Analysis.NEiSoftware. and try different meshes to see what works: Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.00505 σ = 3083 psi All nice! www. Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Cantilever test • With more Elements… Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = .

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Cantilever test • Now about if we turn the elements on their side so they g are in bending? Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Cantilever Test • 1x10 mesh ƒ δ = .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. Analysis.00502” psi ƒ σ = 2797 p Nice A little low Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.

and Simulation Cantilever Test • With a 4x40 mesh? ƒ δ = 00502” psi ƒ σ = 3174 p Nice A little high.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . but not too much Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www. Analysis.NEiSoftware.

NEiSoftware.00117 σ = 823 psi Terrible! Even worse! Recall that triangles have different formulations that are not as effective as QUADs! www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Cantilever Test How about triangles? Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = .com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.

And because they are stiffer than quads quads. but you don’t want a whole model made from them.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.00439 σ = 2558 psi Still too stiff Still low 4-node triangles are too stiff – you can use them here and there in a model.NEiSoftware. NEi Sensitive/Proprietary www. and Simulation Cantilever test • Or lots of triangles? g Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = . Analysis. they will preferentially take the load.com 1-77-Nastran .

Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .00429 00429 σ = 2194 psi Bad.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. but not too bad Same… www.NEiSoftware. and Simulation Cantilever Test How about ‘bad’ elements? Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = .

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.00481 σ = 2937 psi Much better Very much better QUADR elements tolerate distortions much better then QUAD4s www. and Simulation Cantilever Test How about bad elements with QUADRs? Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = .

Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Cantilever Test What about solid elements? Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.00499 σ = 2479 psi Great for one elment! Not too bad here either www.

www. and Simulation Cantilever test • Or lots of solid elements… Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = . Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.00501 σ = 3006 psi Very nice Very nice too.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

NEiSoftware.00127 σ = 850 psi •They are often ‘too too stiff stiff’ As bad as triangles Terrible! Recall that TET elements. like triangles. Analysis. have different formulations www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Cantilever test Why h d does everyone tell ll me to avoid id TET4 elements? l Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = .com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.00385 σ = 2330 psi Still bad www.NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Cantilever test • Lots of TET elements? Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = .

NEiSoftware. and Simulation Cantilever test But what if I use parabolic TET10 elements? Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = .00490 Not bad for a single element! σ = 2403 psi Not great. Analysis. but more are needed for stress www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. but not terrible Most meshers automatically create these instead of TET4 elements! A single element is good for displacement displacement.

but it required 4129 grids!!! www.00501 σ = 2998 psi This is a very good answer. and Simulation Cantilever test • And with lots of them… Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up δ = . Analysis.NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

NEiSoftware. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. especially for distorted geometries and places where you are forced into tets • Many meshes give good displacements. displacements but still give bad stresses • It’s j just hard to g get g good stresses – be wary! www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Conclusions from this test • A fine mesh cures many ills – Unless you use the wrong elements elements… • It takes a lot of tets to get the right answer • Parabolic tets can help a lot.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. and Simulation Conclusions from this test • One last conclusion: – The structure looked like a beam – The beam model g gave the best answers with the fewest number of elements Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

getting results… – FEM codes really only calculate Gauss point results • Nastran has no mechanism to get the Gauss Point stresses • Nastran interpolates to get centroid values • Nastran extrapolates to get element corner results Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up – These are not “Nodal” stresses –they are www. Analysis. and Simulation Getting Results • Now lets revisit step 7.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.com calculated by each element for its own nodes 1-77-Nastran NEi Sensitive/Proprietary .

com 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. Analysis. and Simulation Getting Results • Post-Processors plot nodal results (usually) not element corner results • The extrapolation usually produces different values from different elements for the same nodes • Element results therefore must be manipulated at the nodes to create a single value for the plot • Consider this example… NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary N3 G3 Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up N1 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. Analysis. and Simulation Results • This is a typical yp element N4 G4 Centroid G1 G2 N2 www.

and Simulation Results • Results are reported p at element corners and centroids like this: 100 G4 80 G1 G2 60 www. Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 90 G3 Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up 70 1-77-Nastran .Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.

Analysis.com G3 90 Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up 80 65 70 1-77-Nastran NEi Sensitive/Proprietary . and Simulation Results • Consider another element connected to this element: 125 G4 95 G1 G2 110 G3 100 G4 80 G1 G2 60 www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware.

the elements have different answers! – This is typical (and not necessarily wrong) – To get a ‘nodal’ nodal value for the post processor.NEiSoftware.com 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Results • And at the connected nodes. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. it is necessary to come up with some ‘best g guess’ NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.

and Simulation Results • Some typical yp ways y to do this: – Average the connected elements • 110+100/2 = 105 • Most common default method • ‘Stress Averaging’ Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up – Pick the largest • Max(110.100) = 110 www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.NEiSoftware.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.NEiSoftware. and Simulation Results • This is fine as long as the elements are the same thickness and that the results are something that makes sense to average or pick the max of – But if they are different? – Consider… Consider Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. and Simulation Results • A beam made from plates of two thicknesses: thi k Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up • You expect a stress distribution like this: www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.

and Simulation Results • But if the element results are averaged it could look like this: averaged. Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. The peak is now in wrong location and wrong magnitude! Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

Analysis.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Results • The moral of the story y is… – Be careful with what you plot • Smooth contours look nice but may hide high stresses Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.

NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . and Simulation Results • • Look at the real element results! Don’t average g adjacent j elements – especially p y if they y are different thicknesses or materials Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation FEM Codes • • Not all FEM Codes are created equally Different codes designed for different purposes – Linear codes – optimized for infinitesimal displacements – Nonlinear codes – optimized for iteration • [K] changes during solution – Implicit codes –statics.NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . level nonlinear – Eulerian codes – for fluids (constant volume) – Thermal codes – heat transfer There is no one code that can do everything! Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up • www. build and solve [K]-1 – Explicit codes – fast. Analysis. fast solve at [Ke] level.

NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation FEM Codes • Infinitesimal displacements – The Th motion ti of f the th node d is i inconsequential to the solution of the problem • Example – cantilever beam Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up • Large displacements – The motion of the nodes changes the solution l ti • Example fixed-fixed beam • Bouncing ball • Contact C t t www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.

com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. Analysis. and Simulation Infinitesimal Displacements • Cantilever beam Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up – Tip motion does not affect root load significantly for small displacements – Effect Eff t is i proportional ti l to t sin(theta) i (th t ) • =~ 0 for small deflections (<1/10 length) www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

Infinitesimal Displacements
• Fixed-Fixed Beam
Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up

– Initially no bending, no axial load – all shear – Once center deflects, bending and axial loads appear and grow
• Becomes primary load path!

– Motion of the beam center affects the responses significantly
• Not an infinitesimal deflection problem • An ID code will not show this effect!
NEi Sensitive/Proprietary

www.NEiSoftware.com

1-77-Nastran

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

FEM Codes
• Linear ( (Most FEM codes including NEi Nastran do this)
– Stiffness matrix stays y the same for the entire solution
• Single unique static solution
– Loads can be applied in any order
Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up

• Unique steps for other solutions
– Transient, Transient frequency response response, modal
www.NEiSoftware.com
NEi Sensitive/Proprietary

1-77-Nastran

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
Design, Analysis, and Simulation

FEM Codes
• Nonlinear (NEi Nastran does this too!)
– Stiffness Stiff matrix t i changes h as solution l ti evolves l
• Load applied in increments • Solutions necessary for each increment to get answer
– May require multiple iterations to get results for each increment – Solve the static problem many times! Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up

• Solution is load path dependent
– Order of loads is important

• Large displacements require a nonlinear solution
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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis. and Simulation FEM Codes • Implicit (NEi Nastran or NEi Fusion) – Full F ll stiffness tiff and d mass matrices ti assembled bl d and d solved – Variety of solutions • Transient. static Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up • Explicit (NEI Explicit for example) – – – – Solved at element level – no big matrices O l t Only transient i t solution l ti available il bl Good for highly nonlinear problems Good for very large models www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware. Transient modal modal.

the finite element method can be applied to any continuum described by partial differential equations • Thermal Analysis • Fluid flow/wave propagation • Electromagnetic • Dynamics www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Other Applications • In general. Analysis.NEiSoftware.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results FEM Codes Wrapping Up 1-77-Nastran .

NEiSoftware.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Other Applications – Example: Steady-state heat conduction • Replace the structural stiffness matrix with the matrix of thermal conductivities • q = kT where where.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up 1-77-Nastran . q is heat flow k is thermal conductivity and T is temperature • Single DOF at each node (temperature) • This is why most FEM codes also do thermal problems! www. Analysis.

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Shaeffer MSC/NASTRAN PRIMER.NEiSoftware.N. 1994 J. C. and Simulation References • • K.com 1-77-Nastran . Cook Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis John Wiley & Sons. 1984 NEi Sensitive/Proprietary • www. 1998 Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up • • • Richard H. Reddy An Introduction to the Finite Element Method McGraw-Hill. Zienkiewicz The Finite Element Method McGraw-Hill. 1989 Harry G. Analysis. ti H ll 1982 R. Bathe Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis P Prentice-Hall. D. MacNeal Finite Elements: Their Design and Performance O. J.

and Simulation Conclusions • Now you should be somewhat familiar with some FEM buzzwords: – – – – – – Gauss Points S Shape Functions Continuity Explicit/Implicit Large Displacements Etc… NEi Sensitive/Proprietary Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up www.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. Analysis.com 1-77-Nastran .NEiSoftware.

Analysis.Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design. and Simulation Conclusions • But seriously.NEiSoftware. you should have a passing familiarity Introduction with these concepts FEA Process – Why there are all sorts of different element types An Example Complicated • Which type is or is not appropriate to use Models – Approximation issues with FEM Choosing Elements • Linear assumption Interpreting • Infinitesimal assumption Results Wrapping Up • Shape p functions • Distorted elements • Triangle and TET issues – Results and where they come from • Averaging by post-processors www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran .

Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Design.NEiSoftware. and Simulation The End Introduction FEA Process An Example Complicated Models Choosing Elements Interpreting Results Wrapping Up Thank You for Joining Us! www.com NEi Sensitive/Proprietary 1-77-Nastran . Analysis.

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