Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole

Pre-Processing Phase:

CREATE A NEW FOLDER 1. De

ne some parameters: ANSYS Pulldown Menu

Parameters

Scalar Parameters
LENGTH = 5.0

Selection: Accept Selection: Accept Selection: Accept Selection: Accept Close

WIDTH = 2.0

RAD = 1.0

PI = ACOS(-1.0)

2. Select an element type: ANSYS Main Menu

Preprocessor
Add

Element Type

Add/Edit/Delete

Solid OK Options Element behavior K3 : OK Close

8node 82Plane

Plane strs w/thk

FEG

3

De.Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole 3.

De.ne the plate thickness: ANSYS Main Menu Preprocessor Add Real Constants Add/Edit/Delete Type 1 PLANE82 OK Thickness THK OK Close 0.125 4.

Y.ne material properties: ANSYS Main Menu Preprocessor Material Props Structural EX PRXY OK Material Models Elastic Isotropic Linear 10.0E+06 0. Create ten keypoints: ANSYS Main Menu Preprocessor Modeling Create 1 Keypoints In Active CS NPT Keypoint number: X. Z Location in active CS: Apply NPT Keypoint number: FEG RAD 0 0 2 4 .3 Material Exit 5.

Y.Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole X. Z Location in active CS: Apply NPT Keypoint number: X. Z Location in active CS: RAD*COS(3/8*PI) RAD*SIN(3/8*PI) Apply NPT Keypoint number: X. Y. Y. Y. Y. Z Location in active CS: Apply NPT Keypoint number: X. Z Location in active CS: Apply NPT Keypoint number: X. Y. Z Location in active CS: Apply NPT Keypoint number: X. Z Location in active CS: Apply NPT Keypoint number: X. Z Location in active CS: FEG 5 0 RAD 0 6 0 WIDTH 0 7 WIDTH WIDTH 0 8 WIDTH 0 0 9 LENGTH 0 0 5 . Y. Z Location in active CS: Apply NPT Keypoint number: RAD*COS(PI/8) RAD*SIN(PI/8) 0 3 RAD*COS(PI/4) RAD*SIN(PI/4) 0 4 0 X. Y.

and then 7 > < Pick Keypoints: 5. 5. and then 8 > < Pick Keypoints: 8. and then 4 > OK Preprocessor Modeling Create Lines Lines Straight line < Pick Keypoints: 1. Create lines: ANSYS Main Menu Preprocessor Modeling Create Lines Arcs Through 3 KPs < Pick Keypoints: 1. and then 8 > < Pick Keypoints: 3. and then 2 > Apply < Pick Keypoints: 3. 3. and then 10 > < Pick Keypoints: 7. and then 10 > Cancel 7. Y. and then 9 > < Pick Keypoints: 9. and then 7 > < Pick Keypoints: 7. Show the line number: ANSYS Pulldown Menu PlotCtrls Numbering on 6 LINE Line numbers : FEG .Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole Apply NPT Keypoint number: 10 LENGTH WIDTH 0 X. and then 6 > < Pick Keypoints: 6. Z Location in active CS: OK 6.

L3.Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole OK Plot Lines You should see a model similar to that in Fig. L10. L5. Figure 2: Model of plate with hole having line numbers turned on. L9. and then L4 > Apply < Pick lines: L7. 8. L4. for Area 2: L1. and for Area 3: L7. L4. L7. L6. we will create three areas. In the next steps. L7. L6. 2. Create three areas: ANSYS Main Menu Preprocessor Modeling Create Areas Arbitrary By Lines < Pick lines: L2. L9. L4. L3. for Area 1: L2. L8. L8. and then L10 > FEG 7 . and then L5 > Apply < Pick lines: L1. those areas are surrounded by lines.

3. of element divisions Ok 6 10. Control the mesh density: ANSYS Main Menu Preprocessor Lines : Meshing Set MeshTool < Pick lines: 1. 2. and then A3 > FEG 8 . Show the area number: ANSYS Pulldown Menu PlotCtrls Numbering on AREA Area numbers : OK Plot Areas 11. of element divisions Apply < Pick lines: 7 and 9 > 4 NDIV No.Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole OK 9. A2. 4. 7. 5. Mesh the model: ANSYS Main Menu Preprocessor Shape : Shape : Mesh Meshing MeshTool  Quad  Mapped < Pick areas: A1. and then 9 > Apply NDIV No. 6.

Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole NDIV = 4 PLANE42 PLANE82 PLANE42 PLANE82 Figure 3: MeshTool of ANSYS and some of its functionality. OK FEG 9 .

Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole Figure 4: The plate with hole model having area numbers turned on. Important note The results. especially the stress. of a .

less than 30 degrees. in using the mesh spacing ratio. l1 l2 l3 l4 Element Aspect Ratio: Aspect ratio (l=w) should be kept less than 3. θ FEG 10 . Concerning the mesh.nite element analysis strongly depends on the mesh. if possible. Nastran issues a warning if the angle is greater than 30 degrees [3]. However. . Nicholas M. Baran [2] suggests followings: Mesh Transition: You can use a tringle or control the mesh spacing ratio. l w w Excessive aspect ratio l Element Skewness: Try to keep the skew angle. keep l2  2l1 and l4  2l3 .

Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole Figure 5: The .

nite element mesh of the plate with hole model.  Use quadratic element instead of linear element if possible. De. Important note The general guidelines are:  Fine mesh in the area of interest  Fine mesh in the region that has high stress gradient. Solution Phase: 1.

Apply the boundary condition: ANSYS Main Menu Solution De.ne the analysis type: ANSYS Main Menu Solution Analysis Type New Analysis [ANTYPE] Type of analysis:  Static 2.

L3.C < Pick Lines: L5. L8 > OK FEG 11 .ne Loads Apply Structural Displacement Symmetry B.

Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole Important Notes Following .

see following: Symmetry point Anti-symmetry point 3. the symmetricalness does not only about the geometry. but also the constraints and the loading conditions.gures show several types of symmetry structures: (a) Axial Symmetry (b) Planar Symmetry (c) Cyclic Symmetry (d) Repetitive Symmetry However. Apply uniform stress: ANSYS Main Menu Solution De. For an example.

OK VALUE Load PRES: OK -1.ne Loads Apply Structural Pressure On Lines < Pick Line: L9 >. Solve the problem: ANSYS Main Menu Solution Solve Current LS OK Close FEG 12 .0 4.

2. Plot the von Misses stress: ANSYS Main Menu General PostProc Plot Results Contour Plot Stress Nodal Solu Nodal Solution Undisplaced shape key: FEG von Misses stress Deformed shape with undeformed edge 13 .  Def + undef edge Figure 6: The deformation and undeformed plate with hole. 6. Plot deformation: ANSYS Main Menu General Postproc Plot Results Deformed Shape KUND Items to be plotted: OK The result is shown Fig.Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole Post Processing Phase: 1.

7. Select the nodes along ligament: ANSYS Pulldown Menu Plot Select Nodes Entities Nodes OK Select Nodes:  Box < Click and drag your mouse to form a box. 8.Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole OK The results are shown in Fig. 3. for example. > OK 4. see Fig. Figure 7: The von Misses stress in the loaded plate with hole. List the results of stresses: ANSYS Main Menu FEG 14 .

K is de.67527 2.3116 SY 0.0000 0.99075E-02 SYZ 0.7877 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 SXZ 0.0000 0.0000 0.84957E-01 -0.83778E-02 0.0000 0.0000 0.24530E-02 0. General PostProc List Results Nodal Solution Nodal Solution Stress X-Component of stress OK You should obtain: NODE 2 10 12 14 16 SX 4.19128E-01 0. [1.0000 0.0000 0.28282 0.Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole Figure 8: Nodes selection using a box. 4] that the stress concentration factor.2351 0.0000 The exact solution can be seen in Refs.74895E-02 0.4619 1.0000 0.0000 SXY -0.0000 0.15242E-01 -0.0000 0.43886 0.91777E-01 SZ 0.

9). In addition.169 (see Fig. and W is the plate width. the K is 2. you also needs those nodes locations: ANSYS Pulldown Menu List Nodes Sort . or 2. 5. where d is the hole diameter. x = 4. Meanwhile.37 % lower than the exact solution. max : Nominal stress for minimum cross section (1) For d=W = 0:50. therefore.0 psi. the highest theoretical stress is max = 2:169 ¢ 2:0 = 4:338 psi: (2) ANSYS provides you.ned as K= Highest value of actual stress on hole. the nominal stress for the minimum cross section is 4=2 ¢ 1 psi = 2.2351 psi. at Node 2.

rst by: OK NODE Number FEG 15 .

0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 THXY 0.00 0.00 0.0000 0. You should obtain.169 Figure 9: Stress concentration factor for a at bar with a transverse hole in axial tension [1].00 Therefore.0000 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 Y 1.0000 0.0000 0.5 Y−Axis (in) 1 0.0000 0.00 0. Figure 10 concludes the .00 0.5 FEM Peterson 0 0 2 4 SX (psi) 6 8 Figure 10: The normal stress along the plate ligament.00 THYZ 0.00 0.Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole 2.00 0.00 0. after removing the midside nodes NODE 2 10 12 14 16 X 0.00 THZX 0.0000 0. we can now plot the stress along the ligament: 2 1.7500 Z 0.5000 1.2500 1.

In the second part.rst part of this module. we will discusss the top-down approach in creating a .

FEG 16 .nite element model. we also discuss about ANSYS-APDL code for the present problem. In addition.

In the next section.Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole Top-down Modeling Approach Two approachs in modeling: Bottom-up approach: keypoints Top-down approach: primitives lines area volume meshing boolean operations meshing We study the top-down approach in this section. the APDL code also will be based on the present log .

CREATE A NEW FOLDER Pre-Processing Phase: 1. Select element type.le. de.

and also de.ne the thickness.

the .ne material properties. Repeat the previous pre-processing phase.

Create two rectangles: ANSYS Main Menu Preprocessor WP X WP Y Width Height Apply WP X WP Y Width Height OK Modeling Create Areas Rectangle By 2 Corners 0.0 WIDTH WIDTH WIDTH 0. 2. Turn on the keypoint number.rst four steps.0 LENGTH-WIDTH WIDTH 3. the area numbers and the line numbers: ANSYS Pulldown Menu FEG 17 .0 0.

0 RAD 5. Create a circle: ANSYS Main Menu Preprocessor WP X WP Y Radius OK Modeling Create Area Circl Solid Circle 0. Merges coincident Keypoints: ANSYS Main Menu Preprocessor Numbering Ctrls Merge Items FEG 18 .Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole PlotCtrls Numbering On KEYPOINT Keypoint numbers: AREA Area Numbers LINE Line numbers OK On On 4. Substract Area A1 to Area A3: ANSYS Main Menu Preprocessing Modeling Operate Booleans Substract Areas < Pick Area A1 > OK < Pick Area A3 > OK You should see the new area which has a number of A4 6.0 0.

Create a keypoint: ANSYS Main Menu Preprocessing Modeling Create Keypoints In Active CS NPT Keypoint number X.Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole Label Type of item to be merge OK Keypoints 7.0 8. Cut the area into two areas: ANSYS Main Menu Preprocessing Modeling Operate Booleans Divide Area by Line < Pick Area A4 > OK < Pick Line L1 > OK You should obtain A1. Y.0 0. Create a line: ANSYS Main Menu Preprocessing Modeling Create Lines Lines Strainght Line < Pick Node 100 and 8 > OK OK 9. A2.0 0. Z Location in active CS 100 0. and A3 10. Merges coincident Keypoints: ANSYS Main Menu FEG 19 .

L2. Control the mesh density: ANSYS Pulldown Menu Preprocessor Lines Meshing Set MeshTool < Pick Lines L10. L4. Create a new parameter: ANSYS Pulldown Menu Parameter Scalar Parameters Selection: OK NOE = 4 12. L14. L3. L13. of element divisions FEG NOE 20 . L11. L6 > Apply NDIV No. 11.Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole Preprocessor Numbering Ctrls Merge Items Keypoints Label Type of item to be merge OK Figure 11: Model with the line numbers turned on.

Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole Apply < Pick Lines 5. and 7 > Apply NDIV No. A2. of element divisions OK Shape Shape Mesh < Pick Area A1. Mesh Sensitivity Study The stress depends on the mesh in a . A3 > NOE*3/2 Quad Mapped OK Close See the previous solution phase.

In this study. physically it should not. although. we change NOE. The important lines from your log . we analyse the structure for a number of the mesh-size. In short. and see how it a ect the maximum x . To study how the stress depend on the mesh. we perform a mesh sensitivity study.nite element analysis.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 *SET.6.0 R.5..0..le are reproduced following.1..EX..ACOS(-1.2 *SET..1.WIDTH.0 MPDATA..PRXY.1.1.3. MPTEMP.5 *SET..1.1. MPTEMP.RAD.0.1..PI..0 KEYOPT.1 *SET.1.LENGTH.125.PLANE82 KEYOPT.3 FEG 21 .10E6 MPDATA.3 KEYOPT.0) /PREP7 ET.

34. Those funny stu s.SYMM SFL.LENGTH-WIDTH.P51X.NOE. .0.1 LESIZE. .WIDTH CYL4. LAYER1. SOLVE 100. ._Y1. NL1.2D MSHKEY. LSTR.0. KYNDIV where NL1 is the line number.WIDTH BLC4. 3 1 The commands that need to be retouched are shown in lines 26.NOE. ASBL. 1.0.0.4 LESIZE. KP *SET. SPACE.WIDTH.PRES._Y1 FINISH /SOL ANTYPE.-1. ANGSIZ.0.0 DL.0. .0. .100. .NOE*3/2. NUMMRG. .WIDTH.1 AMESH. . 27. . . For the command LESIZE in lines 26 and 27.Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 BLC4. are the problem.0. .0.RAD ASBA.0. .0. and NDIV is the number of elements. and 35.1 MSHAPE. NDIV.0. KFORC. . 3 K. LAYER2._Y1. 4.0. SIZE.0. We modi. the complete command is (see manual) LESIZE.P51X.0. Y1 and P51X.0.

NOE. . .NOE*3/2. . . . . .NOE*3/2.1 LESIZE. .1 LESIZE. .1 LESIZE.NOE. Value1. . . .NOE. the complete command is DL. . . . . 4. . 14. 6. . . .1 LESIZE. . .ed those two commands with following commands: LESIZE. 2. .1 For the symmetry constraints.NOE. LINE. 10. . . 11. . . we rewrite line 34 with FEG 22 . AREA. . . Value2 where LINE is the line number. . . . . Lab. . .NOE. .1 LESIZE. . . .NOE. 3. . 5. . . . . .1 LESIZE. therefore. . 13. . . . . .1 LESIZE. . . .1 LESIZE.NOE.

. 0. . prxy. . 0. . . NOE. .1 mshape. 14.1 lesize.. width ! Create a rectangle cyl4. 0 r. ex. 0. 14. 5..0. 0.1 lesize. . . plane82 keyopt. 0. . . . 10e6 mpdata. 1. we have a working APDL code: /clear *set. . . . acos(-1. 1. 3 asbl. . . 4.125. 100. NOE. 3. . When we put everything together. 100. 2d FEG 23 . lesize. 11. . width.0. NOE.. 3 k. rad.1 lesize. NOE*3/2.. 0. 0. lesize. 13.0. .SYMM DL. . . .1 4. 1 *set. 3 keyopt. NOE. NOE. 128 /prep7 et. . 1. 10.0. . width. . . 1.0) *set. 1. 0. width ! Create a rectangle blc4. 5. length-width. 5. mptemp. . NOE.. . . lesize. . . . 0. mptemp. 1. . . 0 keyopt. . . 0.. as you may guess.0. pi. .1 ! NOE along L10 lesize.SYMM The last is SFL command. 5 *set. it should be replaced with SFL.-1. .. . 6. . kp ! Create a circle ! Cut the rectangle ! Create a point ! Create a line ! Divided an area ! Merge nodes lesize. . 6. . .Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole DL.1 2.0. . . 3.1 6. NOE. 0. . . 2 *set. NOE. NOE*3/2. . .. rad asba. 13.1 lesize.0. .. 1. width. . PRES. length. . .SYMM DL.3 ! Young’s modulus ! Poisson’s ratio ! Thickness ! Eight-node plane element ! Plane stress with thickness blc4. . 0 mpdata. 1. . . 1. . lstr. 1 nummrg.

169*2.symm sfl. append *vwrite. . pres. 1 amesh. sensitivityStudyResult.0. myNode.5. NOE. RAD.Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole mshkey. E15. xStress. 2 amesh. 5. xStressExact.4) *cfclos finish which produce a nice formatted data in the . 14. solve finish ! Static analysis ! Symmetric constraints ! ! ! Apply uniform tensile stress ! Solve ! Mesh Area 1 ! Mesh Area 2 ! Mesh Area 3 Within the miracle of APDL and a set of untold bedtime stories. . node. dat. S. 0 dl. xStress. 2X. X error = ABS(xStressExact .4. E15.0. 0. 2X.0. 1 amesh. 3 finish /sol antype. 6.-1. E15. . error (F15.0 myNode = node(0. 2X.0) *get. following lines may save your time and may keep your laziness above everything: /post1 xStressExact = 2. .xStress)/xStressExact*100 *cfopen.symm dl.symm dl. 13.

4336E+01 0.43380E+01 0.43380E+01 0.4348E+01 0. you know what you see.4887E-01 0. grasp the reality that ANSYS may dissappoint you. 64.2452E+00 such as: or graphically Finally.4349E+01 0.43380E+01 0. 16. FEG 24 .2372E+01 0.43380E+01 0.7178E+00 0.4235E+01 0.le: 4.4307E+01 0.4345E+01 0.43380E+01 0. 0.dat.1673E+00 0. 8. 128. 32.2287E+00 0.43380E+01 sensitivityStudyResult. 0.

FEG 25 .28 4.32 SX (psi) 4.24 4.Linear Static Analysis of a Plate with Hole 4.3 4.26 4.34 4.36 4.22 0 FE Solution Exact Solution 50 100 150 Number of elements (NOE) Figure 12: E ect of mesh density to the maximum stress.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful