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By Adele J. Haft
Department of Classical and Oriental Studies at Hunter College, The City University of New York. This work originally appeared in Studies in Iconography 14 (1995) 9-50. It appears here -- with new online links to illustrations -- courtesy of Arizona State University and the journal's former editor, Anthony Lacy Gully.
...On a round ball A workeman that hath copies by, can lay An Europe, Afrique, and an Asia, And quickly make that, which was nothing, All. -- John Donne, A Valediction: of Weeping In The Name of the Rose, Umberto Eco has created two maps to help us visualize his fictitious abbey, in which occur, over seven days in late 1327, a number of ghastly and unaccountable deaths (1). As Brother William of Baskerville, Eco's Sherlock-Holmesian sleuth, and the young novice Adso investigate the monks' untimely demise, they discover that one of the maps guides them through the abbey's labyrinthine library to the Secretum, its 'secret' known only as the finis Africae, 'the end of Africa' (2). Yet both maps contain clues for comprehending and unraveling the mystery. Though inspired by a dazzling number of sources, Eco has deliberately modeled his diagrams on medieval mazes and world maps -- splendid mirrors for viewing the culture and selfperception of the Middle Ages. For readers of The Name of the Rose, the visual importance of Eco's maps within the novel has generated not only a fascination with the classical and medieval prototypes of these maps, but a desire to understand the history of medieval cartography from the perspective of Eco's twentieth-century creation. What follows then is a detailed exposition of the kinds of medieval maps Eco might have used as models for his monastery as well as for the library within it. By examining these maps in the context of medieval theology and philosophy we embark upon an adventure of our own, in which the discovery of the 'ultimate' cartographic source for Eco's library map will lead us logically and accidentally through worlds both known and unknown, accepted and imaginary, to the center of Eco's elaborate puzzle. Of the maps produced in medieval Europe prior to the early fourteenth century, nearly 800 survive (3). These can be classified into three categories (4). One represents only that part of the earth known to be habitable and inhabited, what the Greeks called the oikoumene and the Romans terra habitabilis. Inspired by the practical maps of the Romans, this group of medieval maps nevertheless conforms to the biblical conceptions of an earth shaped like a circle or rectangle
(5). The second group represents the earth as a sphere divided into areas that are habitable and uninhabitable, known and unknown. These maps reveal their debt to the speculative sciences of the Greeks, whose works generally reached the Middle Ages only through Latin compilations and translations. The third category, best represented by the world map of Beatus of Liebana (6), is a curious synthesis of the other two. Though resembling the flat-earth maps of the first family, it depicts to the south of the equator an 'unknown continent,' terra australis incognita. In producing his own maps, Eco has drawn upon all three groups, but it is the third that most intrigues him. It embodies the fundamental contradictions that characterize these mappaemundi or 'maps of the world,' as medieval writers and map makers grappled for over one thousand years with the problem of reconciling pagan science and experience with Church-sanctioned interpretations of geography and cosmology based upon the Bible. This same tension animates The Name of the Rose. Eco has also retained, in his maps, the flavor of these mappaemundi with their overwhelming tendency to represent the world as a Christian allegory to the detriment of geographical detail, which remained appallingly vague and imprecise in Western Europe long after the turn of the millennium (7).
Figure 1: The layout of the abbey; a map inside the front and back covers ofThe Name of the Rose by Umberto Eco, Gruppo Editoriale Fabbri-Bompiani.Reprinted in a slightly modified version.
Eco's first map depicts the layout of the abbey. From the entrance in the west, a lane extends to the central church complex. Around the inside of the circuit walls stand the various buildings that contribute to the abbey's economy. But the most imposing structure is the Aedificium, the massive 'building' cleaving the northeastern comer of the walls. Seeing the abbey for the first time, Adso marvels at the sublime orientation of its church, whose entrance faces west but whose altar receives the light of the rising sun.
Later. and he surmises that the octagonal fortress.' whether the monk he sees there so often is the devil or a 'good devil. whereas three stairways lead from the kitchen and refectory to the scriptorium. the only unheated tower. in a restless dream. Furthermore. The library on the third and highest story corresponds to Heaven. From the outset. Finally. inaccessible to all but the librarian and the librarian's assistant. a noisy region heated by ovens in the west and south towers. bestial aspect.' The second floor of the Aedificium houses the scriptorium. Eco's abbey is a microcosm of the universe. Adso cannot tell whether the kitchen is 'hell. especially those of the intellect. Thus the abbot's unbending decree coupled with the discomfort of the ascent conspire to render the top floor of the Aedificium off-limits to all but those who deserve to enter. the library suggests how tortuous is the path to moral development and spiritual salvation. Although the Abbot Abo requests that William investigate the death of the monk found at the base of the Aedificium. Here animals are butchered and monks surrender to their bodies' craving for food.and by illustrating this didactic hybrid in the second of his maps: .' for here monks from all over the earth congregate to study the manuscripts contained in the largest library of the Christian world. and by an immense fireplace in the north tower. filled with the bones of monks..' The age and height of the Aedificium provide a graphic image of mankind's place in the universe. Hence the plan of the library is complex.' Ordered. Only the Aedificium disturbs the perfect symmetry of Eco's abbey. His appreciation increases when he sees the three-storied Aedificium towering over the church. the industrious and communal side of man united as they are by their desire to preserve and elucidate the word of God. one at each corner. Under the graveyard connecting the church and Aedificium is the ossarium. of the punishments and rewards in the hereafter. later at night. From the beginning of The Name of the Rose. The ground floor of the building contains the kitchen and refectory. the abbot goes on to explain. this sole access is situated in the east tower. since man is continually beguiled by temptations. As Eco's abbey is a microcosm. he refuses to allow William and Adso entrance to the library which remains. this building assumes a significance little in keeping with the religious and political duties that brought William and Adso to the abbey. which he imagines to have been erected by giants.. The first sight of this building excites Adso's rapturous description of its square shape converted into an octagon by the addition of four heptagonal towers. on the other hand. reveals. self-sufficient and isolated on the peak of a mountain. The kitchen and refectory area symbolize man's instinctual.labyrinth and world map -. the library is shrouded in mystery. knowable only by those initiated in its mysteries. The scriptorium. in the monks. leads Adso to contemplate how architecture emulates 'the order of the universe.or a paradise. Yet the Aedificium also fills Adso with dread. Eco emphasizes this aspect of the Aedificium's top floor by representing the library as two related images -. coupled with the harmonious proportions of the abbey's design. When William and Adso disregard Abo's prohibition. believed to have been pushed from the building's upper stories. described by Adso as a 'paradise on earth. his Aedificium is its focal point: a speculum mundi or 'mirror of [that] world. is far older than the rest of the abbey. The floors of the Aedificium also represent mankind's nature and needs.This feature. they discover that only one stairway leads from the scriptorium to the library. a few monks use this area to satisfy forbidden appetites as they seduce village girls who have come to beg for scraps.' which the ancients called 'kosmos. At the base of the cliff over which the Aedificium rises is found the body of a monk. to the 'celestial Jerusalem' of Adso's imagination.
Gruppo Editoriale FabbriBompiani. It owes its peculiar shape to a large thirteenth-century maze once existing on the floor of Rheims Cathedral in France (9): Figure 3: The Rheims Cathedral Maze (thirteenth century).P.95 of Mazes and Labyrinths of the World by Janet Bord. The plan of Eco's labyrinthine library derives from several sources (8). illustrated on p.II Figure 2: The library map from The Name of the Rose by Umberto Eco. Dutton and Sobel Weber Associates. . 1975. E.
like the other ten names on the library map. Africa. though the library contains more than twice that number of rooms. one view of it. and Europe: DIRECTION OF TOWER/ CORRIDOR NE. Since Eco puts these words into the mouth of the senile and raving Alinardo. NW. bore an inscription that began: "The labyrinth represents the world allegorically -. William and Adso make the startling discovery that these sequences of letters form the names. in Latin. William and Adso note that a Latin verse is inscribed on a scroll in every room. that a few of the inscriptions are painted red.Asia. NE [Europe] .spacious for the one entering. Church mazes were common in medieval Italy and France (11). These names are arranged 'geographically. SE CONTINENT IMPLIED TOPOGRAPHICAL DESIGNATION [Asia] 1 FONS ADAE (Birthplace of Adam) 2 IUDAEA (Judaea) 3 AEGYPTUS (Egypt) (13) 4 LEONES (Africa) 5 YSPANIA (Spain) 6 ROMA (Rome) 7 HIBERNIA (Ireland) 8 GALLIA (France) 9 GERMANIA (Germany) S [Africa] SW. located in the furthest east. and that every Latin verse derives from the last book of the Bible: the Book of Revelation.' so that each 'country' belongs to one of the three continents known prior to the discovery of the New World -. of countries and biblical sites. the identification of each room. then every initial letter painted in red must begin a sequence denoting a corridor of rooms. He first notices that the library's catalogue lists each book according to a formula indicating its location in the library: hence. 'iii. On their second journey into the library. and the presence of a single internal wall that prevents one from completely circumambulating the labyrinth (10). this cryptic message little prepares William and Adso for the fact that the library is a maze representing the world. Later. V in prima graecorum' suggests that that particular book is 'third on the fourth shelf in the fifth case' of a corridor or room referred to as 'the first of the Greeks. otherwise known as the Apocalypse. William realizes that no more than twenty-four verses appear on the scrolls. IV gradus. from the Church of San Savino in Piacenza and dating no later than the tenth century.This church maze is the acknowledged model for Eco's library with its essentially square shape. William surmises that the twenty-four verses indicate. The realization that the library is ordered like a world map is perhaps the most important and least ambiguous of William's victories in The Name of the Rose. or rather. its four corners or towers possessing five exterior sides or walls. N. W. Yet it. the earthly Paradise. If the first letter of each Apocalyptic verse identifies the room over which the verse's scroll appears. but extremely narrow for the one returning" (12). attests to Eco's concern with the terrestrial aspect of the earth. only indirectly. William deduces. the same number as the Apocalyptic verses on the scrolls.' On their initial incursion into the library. its octagonal center. Instantly he remembers that the Latin alphabet has just twenty-four letters. Only one of these place names is allegorical: FONS ADAE. Another maze. Since the designers of the library could have easily found fifty-six different verses from the Book of Revelation to distinguish the library's fifty-six rooms. E.
Paradise has been ringed by an impenetrable wall of fire (27). a map of the T-0 type also appears to have been the model for the geographical descriptions of the important Christian authorities. Ironically. a view that was treated cautiously ever since it had been labeled anti-biblical by the early church father. for the map's design predates the fifth century BC. eleventh-century. in turn. perfectly circular.Latin for 'circle of the earth' or 'world' -. The Eden of Isidore's imagination is inaccessible: since the exile of Adam and Eve. Europe." In other ways too. Though perhaps not invented until the early fifteenth century.flat. the T0 design depicting the earth as a perfect circle accords with Isaiah 40:22. Bishop.10 ANGLIA (England) 11 ACAIA (Greece) These names bind together the rooms of the library into a coherent pattern that 'reproduces the map of the world. voluminous writer and respected polymath. To Christian writers. especially among the Romans and the Latin authors (19). its underlying assumptions began to be questioned and even ridiculed: that at the center of the universe is the earth -. he made the earthly Paradise a 'province or district' planted 'in the eastern parts' of Asia (26). Isidore began by assigning the three known continents to Noah's sons: Asia to Shem. even while Aristotle argued for a spherical earth and Ptolemy produced maps that were to remain unrivaled until the Renaissance (18). and Europe to Japheth (25). The simplicity and stylization of the T-O map reveals how little most of medieval Europe knew about geography. Image linked]. an . thus dividing the world into the three known continents occupying most of the earth's surface: Asia. Africa to Ham. the T-O map ceased to be the scientific model as early as the fifth century BC. the T-0 pattern resembled the even more primitive conception of the earth contained in the Bible. form the traditional boundaries of the three continents covering most of the earth (17). Associated with the names of Sallust and Lucan (20). The overwhelming importance of the biblical Paradise also accounts for the fact that east appears at the top of Isidore's map.' But which map? Then we turn to the so-called T-O map. St. Augustine and Orosius. Isidore of Seville accepted that challenge (23). Credited to the Ionian philosophers of Archaic Greece (16). Next. The 'T' represents the intersection of the Mediterranean Sea with the Don (Tanais) and Nile (Nilus) rivers. Furthermore. the T-0 design remained popular. one by one. Isidore says. Although the original has perished. the expression 'T-O' proves eminently useful as an abbreviation for orbis terrarum -. Despite considerable variation among the maps contained in surviving manuscripts of Isidore's Etymologies. The '0' of the T-O map is the ocean encircling a flat.and as a graphic description for one of the most popular world maps in the Middle Ages (14). wheel-shaped earth. His placement of Paradise at the eastern extremities of Asia but within the frame of the circumfluent ocean made Isidore the foremost authority in the Middle Ages for that topographical feature. at the beginning of the fifth century (21). the T-0 design was appealing because it avoided representing the earth as a sphere. saint. the learned fathers had only to adapt the pagan model to the Word. "It is He that sitteth upon the circle of the earth. and Africa (15). a general pattern emerges (Figure 4: T-O map. Lactantius (22). Beyond Paradise lies the Ocean. two books of which discuss geography (13-14). 'flowing around the earth on all sides and encircling its boundaries' (28). the few extant copies from the eighth century link Isidore with the first Christian T-0 map (24). Into Book 14 of the Etymologies was inserted a map illustrating the earth's shape and topography. when. and ringed by a circumfluent ocean from which flow the three major waterways that. Isidore produced in the early seventh century an encyclopedia known as the Etymologies or the Origins (Etymologiarum sive Originum libri XX).
Image linked]. From this time on. not unlike the Ebstorf [Figure 7: Ebstorf mappamundi.6 x 1. but also the resurrection of Christ. What makes the Psalter map especially intriguing is that. is unnamed and contains nothing but a stone altar beneath its single window. as has been seen. it appears to have been the model for Eco's map of the library [Figure 6b: Psaltermappamundi. inside of which are Adam and Eve separated by the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. however. Between his elbows. This is in accordance with Ezekiel 5:5. Although the map illustrates a Psalter. enclosed within a rectangular frame whose dimensions are 4 x 5. several rooms identified as FONS ADAE. West. on the other hand. The 'Sallust' maps follow suit. arms uplifted. Christ is shown trampling the dragons under his feet. forever divorced from . The eastern orientation of the Psalter map immediately betrays its allegorical message.5 cm). 'Thus saith the Lord God. Similar in design to the T-O map but generally more detailed and less symmetrical in their threefold division of the world. The east tower of Eco's library contains. the 'navel of the earth' (35). a new feature came to be added to the Christian topography of the T-O map -. at the bottom of the frame lurk two dragons representing Satan and his emissaries. Jerusalem's sacred position did not appear until around 1100 on a T-O map probably copied from a Byzantine original brought back from the First Crusade (34) [Figure 5: Byzantine-Oxford T-O map. elbows resting on the world. the imagery is distinctly apocalyptic. 'the Birthplace of Adam.3 m. Image linked] and the Hereford maps [Figure 8: Hereford mappamundi. Jerusalem begins to be substituted for Rome as the umbilicus terrae. The Garden. about 5. the Psalter map contains 145 legends and is believed to have been copied from an earlier and much larger map. This most easterly of all the rooms represents the Kingdom of Heaven. and the eternal damnation of sinners in Hell (38). symbolizes death.5 cm).5 feet or 1. the birthplace of the Anti-Christ. Image linked]. however. about 11. From the eighth century to the period in which The Name of the Rose is set (and beyond). a wind god releases through its mouth the waters associated in Genesis 2:10-14 with the Garden of Eden. Image linked] -. Jerome in his Commentary on Ezekiel (32) and supported by the pilgrim Arculf in his De locis sanctis of the late seventh century (33). and flanked by angels.'orientation' subsequently favored in ecclesiastical cartography of the Middle Ages (29). Thus east corresponds not only to the earthly paradise and the rising of the sun. Conversely. on the surface.two enormous wall maps that may have functioned as altarpieces in their respective shrines from the thirteenth century on (37). Jerusalem maintains its dominant position on Christian maps even after discoveries of Asia's eastern extension rendered this world view untenable in the later Middle Ages (36). Image linked]. On the reverse side of the page containing the Psalter map. One of the rooms within this corridor. An illustration in a manuscript of the Book of Psalms dating to the third quarter of the thirteenth century. But though demonstrated by St. In the spirit of Isidore. measuring less than four inches in diameter (9.Jerusalem's placement at the center of the world. and the everlasting life of the soul in Heaven. This is Jerusalem: I have set it in the midst of nations and countries that are round about her' (31).' In this area corresponding to the terrestrial Paradise of the mappaemundi.75 inches (10 x 14. appears below as a circular area. At the top of the frame stands Christ. William and Adso discover a great number of bibles and commentaries on the Holy Scripture.25 x 4. the Psalter map depicts a circular world. Despite its small size.67 feet or 3.5 m in diameter. in turn. the earliest surviving 'Sallust' maps show Rome at their center. The geographical confusion and allegorical stylization which the Christianized T-O map of Isidore inspired are nowhere more evident than in the anonymous Psalter map [Figure 6a: Psalter map. the Second Coming. the decay of the world. in the twelfth century. the T-0 or simple tripartite map appeared not only in numerous manuscripts illustrating Isidore's Etymologies but also in other works (30).
one that grows more sinister as The Name of the Rose progresses. he finds it difficult. if not impossible. at the end of one thousand years. said by Aethicus of Istria to have been erected by Alexander the Great near the Caspian Sea to imprison the man-eating hordes of Gog and Magog (40) [Figure 9: Ebstorf mappamundi. Eco has displaced his to the northeastern section of his library. the climactic destruction of the abbey begins in the northeastern part. HIBERNIA But this generalization reveals the exception. just as Eco has made his church the center of his abbey. The labyrinthine maze is only one of the problems. Another obstacle encountered on the journey through the library is the wall separating the north tower entirely from the east tower. Another unidentified room exists. many of these mappaemundi place Jerusalem at the center of the world. whose faces are regularly spaced around the earth's rim. And this room apparently has no access. Yet. The library. will free the hordes of Gog and Magog to ensure the world's demise (42). It is true that each tower has a center -. But once the uninitiated wanders from these rooms. haunt William and Adso on their first trip into the library. III The Name of the Rose library differs in three essential ways from the T-O diagrams and their successors: in its representation of the central focal point. This enclosure consists of an enormous gate. in the symbolism of the west. which depicts twelve windblowers.' the letter beginning and/or ending the name of the corridor and country located in that direction: East Tower: FONS ADAE North Tower: ANGLIA.mundane concerns. detail of Gog and Magog. But the incident that triggers this apocalypse arises in the library itself. Yet the Book of Revelation warns that Satan.an heptagonal and windowless room that in three cases is marked 'A. In The Name of the Rose. William soon realizes that the builders of the library cut slits into the external walls for ventilation. like the groans or moaning of ghosts. So great a threat did Gog and Magog pose in the Middle Ages that they are commonly shown on the mappaemundi (43). where Eco has deliberately placed his Aedificium (Figure 1). Unaccountable sounds. and from another quarter entirely. contains no equivalent to the enclosed circle forming the 'navel' of the Psalter map. and ultimately in its very depiction of the world. while the Psalter map merely incorporates into its representation of the world the twelve winds commonly recognized throughout Antiquity and the Middle Ages (39). . to return. the designers of the library have converted this familiar decoration into an unfamiliar terror. a Christian king thought to rule over a kingdom of tremendous wealth in the Orient (41). at the heart of the library's south tower. Though this wall has its parallel in the Rheims Cathedral maze [Figure 3]. but only an octagonal and inaccessible light well. one of William's models and heroes. Even the scientific Roger Bacon. four large and eight small. argued that their final incursion might be foretold through study (44). The symbolism of these rooms is emphasized by the fact that they can be reached fairly easily by means of the single stairway known to ascend to the library from the scriptorium. these tribes were restrained from overrunning the east only through the agency of the equally mythical Prester John. In this location it corresponds with the enclosure illustrated on the Psalter map at the upper-left or northeastern part of the world. To begin with. however. but angled the slits in such a way as to produce these unearthly noises. GERMANIA West Tower: YSPANIA. Ever anxious to escape. Image linked]. Once again the library maze resembles the Psalter map.
Only recently freed. the cabalas of the Jews. it had also endured the trials of the damned. the Arab threat to the Christian world. Adso succumbs to 'the temptations of the noontime Devil. No sooner has William translated LEONES as 'Africa' than he recognizes the connection between the south tower of the library and the 'monsters' that the abbot had hinted were in the library: "books by wizards. like these fabulous creatures. Sciopods or Sciapodes.' then. he had felt that . in other words. the lies of the infidels.' Here William and Adso find Latin works by pagans born in North Africa. and works in 'unknown languages. was every bit as real. Eco graphically represents this danger by room 'S' in the south tower area: the one room shared by LEONES. its pages open to the beautiful yet terrifying illustrations of the red dragon and the Whore of Babylon. Spain had become a hotbed during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries for the dissemination of dangerous works and ideas inspired by the infidel Moors. Abo had admitted that heretical books are.' Contiguous with LEONES are AEGYPTUS and YSPANIA. 'his country was being visited by a genuine. including Martianus Capella (45). At the time in which Eco has set The Name of the Rose. for copies of it line the shelves and tables. But if Catholic Spain had given birth to Isidore and Beatus. Although nothing is said about the books contained in 'Egypt.' the sequence of rooms forming 'Spain' yields more manuscripts on the Apocalypse than any other Christian library and an enormous number of commentaries devoted to this final book of the Bible: in particular." But fearing their danger. texts by Arab authors. the Commentary acts as an admonition to those passing through the library. Room 'S. But in the library the temptations that beguile the intellect and damn the soul are lurking in the south. with one giant 'foot' that they use to 'shade' themselves from the sun's heat [Figure 10: Herefordmappamundi. flesh and blood Antichrist: the Moslem invader' (48). Though this coincidence could be explained simply by the geographical proximity of these three countries.Which leads to the second difference. AEGYPTUS. and the first two rooms of YSPANIA (YS).. symbolizes the potential extermination of the Christian world by the Arabs. the fables of pagan poets. and YSPANIA.' The dragons in the west at the bottom of the Psalter map correspond. dissertations on the occult. the designers of the library must have been all too aware of the persistent Arab threat in the West. the last three rooms of AEGYPTUS (TUS). to the sins of the flesh and their localization in the warmest part of the Aedificium's bottom floor. 'dog-headed' races. which William quickly identifies as 'Africa' with its motley collection of books by 'infidel authors. codices of the twelve-book Commentary on the Apocalypse by the eighth-century Spanish abbot. detail of Africa. only gradually being expelled during the eleventh through fifteenth centuries. For hundreds of years the Moors flourished in Spain. Described elsewhere by Eco as a medieval 'best seller' both prior to and following the turn of the millennium (47). Eco says. whose relationship to the south involves not only their invasion of western Europe from that quarter but their decided preference for orienting their world maps with south at the top. Beatus of Liebana (46). these books by the 'Africans' are filled with falsehoods and correspond to the monstrous creatures believed to exist in the unexplored parts of Africa: Blemmyae. Ringing the exterior wall of the south tower is LEONES. headless tribes with faces fixed in their chests. it was precisely that proximity that had allowed the Arabs to sweep out of their original home in Arabia to conquer Egypt and North Africa by the seventh century.. Cynocephali. To the abbot and those controlling the library. Since the Aedificium and its library predate the Romanesque abbatial church (49). though no longer military. In the kitchen by the oven of the west tower. "part of the divine plan." William also discovers why room 'S' contains not only Arabic scientific texts but several bestiaries written in Latin. then Spain early in the eighth. The south tower area includes parts of three corridors or countries: all of LEONES.a pale reflection of the divine wisdom. Even as Beatus was writing his commentary. Image linked].
thought to lie in the equatorial zone and to be unnavigable because of its vast expanse. a theory that failed to account for the other two-thirds of Africa's actual size (51). Yet William recalls the wordsfinis Africae. but also developed the savage Aethiopian tribes into the monsters fabled to exist in that oppressively hot region (56). and an Aethiopia extending along the southern limits of the world (55). or the sun's unbearable heat (52). twelfththirteenth century. Unfortunately. by the fifth century Ptolemy's views on Africa and its southern extension had been discounted. William realizes its importance. its treacherous waters. But since the most southerly point known in Africa lay to the north of the equator. the continent was believed to be almost twice as wide from east to west as it was long.' Suddenly. thereby converting the Indian Ocean into a landlocked sea (50) [Figure 11: Ptolemaic world map. this fact coupled with the virtual disappearance of his Geographyin western Europe until the fifteenth century. and the subsequent expansion of the militant Arabs insured that. For prior to Ptolemy.' Associated with Homer's 'blameless' Aethiopians (53) were mysterious and savage tribes. Cape Non continued to be thought of as the southern boundary between the known world and the uninhabitable regions beyond. Ptolemy exaggerated the evidence by proposing that Africa was part of an enormous land mass stretching across the southern hemisphere from Africa's southern extremities to southeast Asia. Image linked]. Nor was the ignorance of medieval Europe much enlightened by the establishment of friendlier relations with the Moslems in the twelfth century. the economic and political stagnation accompanying the fall of the Roman Empire. With regard to the inhabitants of southern Africa. As a result. Africa was thought to be shaped like a right-angled triangle. The tribes living below this promontory were still popularly deemed to be monstrous even as late as the sixteenth century. The finis Africae does not refer to any of the rooms in LEONES. before the twelfth century.' Adso assumes that they have stumbled upon 'the African poets' and their mysterious association with riddles. and by the ocean running from northwestern Africa to its southeastern tip.' Not until late in the thirteenth century did intrepid Italians sail as far down the western coast of Africa as Cape Non (57). a designation for lost books in the library's catalogue as well as part of a coded message that he had found amidst the books of a murdered monk and that he had deciphered as beginning Secretum finis Africae. an uncrossable equatorial ocean. described in quasi-mythical terms throughout much of Antiquity and located further and further south as the Greco-Roman knowledge of Africa increased (54). medieval Europe had even less information about the African continent than their ancestors had possessed in the first century. Africa remained the most mysterious and least explored. Of the continents known in ancient and medieval times. which they called the 'Sea of Darkness. in the scriptorium. for the Moslems had an innate dread of the Atlantic Ocean.' Remembering these conversations when William translates LEONES as 'Africa. Greco-Roman knowledge of the dark continent had reached its height in the second century with Ptolemy's demonstration that Africa extended well below the equator. two hundred years after the fictitious events described in The Name of the Rose (59).these books must be concealed from those who might be corrupted by their influence. the early Greek poets knew of people living south of Egypt and called them Aethiopians after their 'burnt faces. To the south of Africa lay part of the circumfluent ocean. bounded by the Nile on the east. Later. but to the 'secret' heptagonal room he knows must exist at the heart of the south tower. The plan of Eco's library consciously mirrors the ignorance and misconceptions . The early Middle Ages not only adopted the notions of an abbreviated Africa. by the Mediterranean on the north. and later Portuguese explorers worked their way down the coast until they crossed the equator in 1477 and rounded the southern tip of Africa in 1488 (58). William and Adso overheard the scribes speaking of riddles and 'African poets. the 'secret of the end of Africa. Although Catalan.
popularized. Bounded by the 'uninhabitable frigid zones' at the earth's northern and southern extremities. remains mute on this point. Ptolemy's theory of an unlimited extension of Africa in the southern hemisphere failed to gain support in the Middle Ages. For the Greeks and those they influenced. Was there an unknown southern continent. And here we turn to the second group of medieval mappaemundi: those that show the earth as a sphere and derive from the ancient Greeks. equatorial tract too 'parched' for human habitation (64). does not require that it be inhabited. Nevertheless. individual geographers and map makers dealt with these questions differently. by two fifth-century pagan writers whose texts proved to be extremely influential throughout the Middle Ages. the idea of dividing the spherical earth into five zones defined by the Arctic Circles and the Tropics (63). the library map is not what it seems. the world maps exemplified by the Psalter illumination portray only the known world with its circumfluent ocean forever encircling its three continents. appears to have been the first map maker to assert that the temperate zone in the south contains Antipodes. however. Like so much else in The Name of the Rose. whoseCommentary on the Dream of Scipio discusses and preserves part of Cicero'sRepublic.' Eco has cleverly placed the most heretical of the library's books in the heart of the south tower -. Eco's library adopts the medieval representation of that continent as being grossly abbreviated in size. IV The Greeks often wondered what lay to the south of the known world. does not stop here. the 'cape at the end of Africa. While the T-O maps retain Africa's triangular shape.' one in the northern hemisphere containing 'our' known world.' (60) Eco converts this label into his Secretum finis Africae: his 'secret' room known as the finis Africae or 'end of Africa. Yet another interpretation of Eco's finis Africae shatters the last resemblance between the library map and these tripartite mappaemundi. In this belief. Mela calls the southern inhabitants Antichthones. The T-O and 'Sallust' maps.reflected by medieval cartography. another adherent of the zone system.' And while the Psalter map arrays the monsters of Ethiopia in tiny panels along the southern border or 'end of Africa. which had incorporated the system of Crates. in turn. was it inhabited? If so. Both inherited from the Greeks. Eratosthenes. and the other in the southern hemisphere. Eratosthenes was followed not only by Macrobius and Capella but by another pagan authority important during the Middle Ages. a terra australis incognita? If so.in the terra incognita located between the most southerly place known in Africa and the ocean.the zone theory and the Cratesian system -. people who stand on the other side of the globe with their 'feet opposite' to ours (65). This southern terra incognita is beautifully represented by the inaccessible heptagonal room in the library's south tower. self-contained fourth continent lying to the south of Africa and separated from it by an unnavigable ocean (61). the 'temperate zones. the first-century Latin author Pomponius Mela (66). speculation on the austral continent reached medieval scholars through two distinct routes -. nor is the secret of his finis Africae exhausted by this apparent correspondence. For they make no reference to an unknown. the concept of this terra incognita was predicated upon their belief in a spherical world. Aristotle. Only two zones were considered habitable. by whom? During Antiquity and subsequently the Middle Ages. for example. 'those who dwell in an opposite land. author of the allegorical compendium On the Wedding of Mercury and Philology (62). The second is Martianus Capella. among them Aristotle. the temperate zones were separated from one another by a central.' and suggests . But Eco. While the Carignano sea-chart of 1300-1305 designates Cape Non as Caput finis [Africae]. To suggest that a habitable zone exists to the south of the Tropic of Capricorn. The first is Macrobius.
the Mediterranean Sea. Crates wished to reconcile Homer's descriptions with the scientific knowledge of his own day. And the third notion suggested that unknown peoples dwell across the earth from the known world. one of the most compelling and enigmatic authorities in The Name of the Rose. Which brings us to the pivotal eighth century. Like Beatus. remained the orthodox view until the fourteenth or fifteenth centuries (68). Crates believed that the other three land masses were also inhabited. On hindsight. Europe. Crates' third notion proved the most controversial. and Africa as far south as the Aethiopians. The . and to Beatus of Liebana (75).' but stipulated that the land is pre-historic and no longer inhabited (73) [Figure 14: World map from Cosmas Indicopleustes' Christian Topography. Depending upon the geographer or map maker. But in terms of medieval cartography perhaps the most influential Greek theoretician was Crates of Mallos.that the six-day destruction of the world and the Last Judgment of the seventh day are at hand. In the seventh century. Crates' unconventional representation of the world has proven strangely prophetic of the location and habitation of the 'New World. In the mid-sixth century. that a branch of the circumfluent ocean occupies the uninhabitable torrid zone surrounding the equator.' Furthermore. Lactantius had denied the sphericity of the earth. V That Beatus' Commentary on the Apocalypse provides a key to the resolution of the mystery is indicated by several signs. St. A Homeric scholar of the mid-second century BC. sixth century. twelfth century. to the Venerable Bede who subscribed to the earth's sphericity but not to the human habitation of the Antipodes (74). Augustine took a less dogmatic approach. at least three of Crates' notions passed into the Middle Ages. illustrated by generations of map makers who persisted in making tripartite maps.that the Antichthones remain unknown because of the heat in the intervening region. to Virgil of Salzburg. Image linked]. so does the monks' conviction that the deaths in the Abbey follow the sequence of the seven trumpets as revealed in the final book of the Bible -. both early in the Middle Ages and for centuries afterwards. he produced a ten-foot globe depicting the world as divided by two thin belts of water that intersect at right angles to form four separate but roughly uniform land masses (67) [Figure 12: Reconstruction of the world according to Crates. the monks inhabiting Eco's abbey five-and-a-half centuries later are obsessed with the Apocalypse. Some mortals dwell in that quadrant we now know as North America. In so doing. Cosmas Indicopleustes may have been inspired by the Cratesian system propounded by Macrobius (72) and Capella to portray his own 'land beyond the Ocean. refusing to discount the concept that the earth might be spherical or that another land mass might exist at the Antipodes. One of these contains the known world: Asia. was accepted by Macrobius and most medieval scholars [Figure 13: Macrobian world map. As the mystery deepens. and most important. This mistaken and retrogressive belief. One was that the world is composed almost entirely of land. south of the known world are the Aethiopian Antoikoi. Image linked]. One hundred years later. Isidore produced his Etymologies. or even the Red Sea (69). in what is now South America. thereby eliminating the 'ridiculous and false' belief of the pagans in the Antipodes (70). but he concluded that any races living at the Antipodes could not be descendants of Adam (71). The second. Image linked]. often referred to as the 'terrestrial' or 'continental' theory. In the early fourth century. this equatorial ocean might be called the Atlantic Ocean. who was nearly excommunicated when accused of believing that other men exist outside of the known world. bishop and author of aCosmography under the pseudonym Aethicus of Istria. an unknown race of Aethiopians 'living opposite' their African counterparts. below them live the Antipodes.
All depict a circumfluent ocean. as was the case with Isidore. Beatus may have modeled his map on an early but rare type of world map contained in a few manuscripts of Isidore's Etymologies14. there is a fourth part further away in the south and unknown to us because of the sun's heat. portrayed by the Church on the Madrid Beatus. several points need to be considered. it is impossible to prove that Beatus believed in a spherical earth (81). c. Sever Beatus. despite the depiction of this southern continent. has illustrated another one of his works with the exquisite Mozarabic Madrid Beatus of about 1047. Nevertheless. does not occupy the exact center of the world (79). Second. The apocalyptic verses on scrolls in the library's rooms indicate to William not only the 'terraqueous' layout of the library map but also the final solution to the coded message concerning the Secretum finis Africae. where the displaced but appropriately rubricated Red Sea divides the known world from a fourth continent. He may have derived this concept. Three features. Isidore's words are repeated verbatim on the St. experiences an apocalyptic vision similar to that described by John. our gaze is irresistibly drawn to the south. however. an eleventh-century copy often deemed the most representative of Beatus' world maps (84) [Figure 17: St. moreover. Lest Beatus' piety come under suspicion. a confusion concealed by the tripartite T-O design of the map illustrating most copies of his encyclopedia. Sever Beatus map [Figure 16: St. Isidore referred to an unknown southern land in Etymologies 14. Furthermore. in fact. In its borders. the world divided by the intersection of the three waterways into the known continents with their various countries and cities. Immediately apparent is its similarity to the T-O and 'Sallust' maps. detail of the Antipodes. Though the eighth-century original is lost. the symbolism associated with the east has no apparent contrast in the west. Beatus may not have been the one who created or inserted the world map into his prologue of Book 2 (80). And the apocalyptic imagery becomes unmistakable as William and Adso begin their journey across this final boundary: Two hours after compline. it is not surprising that the map of Eco's library bears a chilling resemblance to the world map most representative of the third family of medieval mappaemundi: the map illustrating Beatus' Commentary on the Apocalypse. while gazing at the illustrations in one of Beatus' commentaries. First.5-17: Besides the three parts of the world. Image linked]. Adso. some fifteen copies of Beatus' map survive in manuscripts of his commentary dating from the tenth to the thirteenth centuries (77). Sever Beatus. Image linked] (78). Eco. from Isidore.'deserted land near the sun and unknown to us because of the heat. and a circular or oval world with east at the top. at the end of the sixth day. an inaccessible Paradise located in the east but within the encircling ocean.' Finally. we entered the finis Africae. an illumination Eco imagined that Adso might have encountered in YSPANIA [Figure 15: The Madrid Beatus. and especially to the mappaemundi represented by the Psalter map. in the heart of the night that was giving birth to the seventh day. prove that Eco had Beatus' map in mind when designing his library. 1047. In view of the apocalyptic aura saturating The Name of the Rose (76). Image linked]. the narrator of the Book of Revelation. They are also echoed on the Madrid Beatus in the legend accompanying the southern continent: DESERTA TERRA VICINA SOLI AB ARDORE INCOGNITA NOBIS -. Instead. and best illustrated by the . in fact. Jerusalem. whose discussions of the earth's sphericity reveal his equation of 'sphere' and 'circle' (82). Antipodes are fabulously recorded to dwell (83).library silently reinforces this anticipation and dread.
it emphasizes that the Word has not penetrated its boundaries. a canon who finished his encyclopedicLiber Floridus or Anthology with its accompanying maps around 1120. by mankind). then. is the most obvious and popular representative of the third family of maps that so fascinates Eco: that ambiguous compromise between two 'distinct' categories of medieval maps. Above the Sciopod is a Latin legend announcing: Hec pars ab ardore solis incognita nobis et inhabitabilis. and theologians. but only inhuman monsters. like Beatus' mappaemundi. On this Beatus-type map gone berserk and in a legend resembling . eo quod per estum in terra resupini iacentes pedum suorum magnitudinem adumbrantur. The Beatus map. while both Isidore and the Osma Beatus map refer to a fourth land as 'unknown to us. however. Nevertheless. the fourth part of the world (14.17).5. inanes Scopodes fer(un)tur habitare singulis cruribus et celeritate mirabili. originates before the turn of the millennium. Nowhere is the influence of Macrobius and Capella more apparent than in the work of Lambert of St. Image linked] (92). Significantly.24). none of their pictures appear in the southern continent. Thus. (emphasis mine) This legend actually combines two passages from Isidore's Etymologies: one describing the Sciopod (11. the fabulous creatures often associated with Africa's southernmost extremities in Ethiopia have been transferred to the other side of the uncrossable equatorial sea. placed them in Africa. Yet Isidore. The design of Eco's library. not in the fourth part of the world as is the case on the Osma Beatus map.23) (89). quos inde Sciopodas greci vocant. Furthermore. several factors were at work to render Beatus' southern continent of primary concern to geographers. Omer.' only the Osma map adds that this land is also 'uninhabitable' (that is.Vatican map (about 775) and the St. a fact that helps account for the extreme age of the Aedificium. renowned for its 'extraordinary speed' and desperately seeking shade under its overgrown foot from the sun's rays. furthermore. except to become less geographically accurate. One is the set of twelve apostles charged with spreading the Gospel to all mankind (88). typified here by the T-O as opposed to the Cratesian-style maps. By the time of the events described in The Name of the Rose. The Osma Beatus map of about 1086 exemplifies this purpose [Figure 18: Osma Beatus. At the same time. From at least the ninth century on. Image linked] (86). in other words. Though the Beatus world map changed little over centuries of copying. map makers. since this terra incognita does not contain the race of Adam. Instead the Osma map depicts a second vignette of the original world map: the 'illusory' Sciopod. Beatus would have had a special reason. the influence of Macrobius' and Capella's conception of the world became so great that maps representing the world as a globe were copied and adapted in numbers rivaling those of the more conservative mappaemundi that represented only the known world (91). Gall map (about 700) (85). And so the message of the Osma Beatus map is clear. only the Osma Beatus map retains two features believed to have been on the original (87). who believed in human monstrosities like the Sciopods (90) and his socalled Antipodes (11. the Church grew reconciled to the notion of a spherical earth. for incorporating a world map into his Commentary on the Apocalypse: to show the expansion of the Church throughout the world. All depict a fourth part of the world located in the south but notat the Antipodes.3. the other. One of these maps pictures the southern continent occupying half of the earth [Figure 19: 'Sfera geometrica' in Lambert's Liber Floridus. The Osma Beatus map shows their pictures beside the area where each of them taught.3. Although acknowledging the existence of a fourth continent to the south of the known world. the library map presents an ecclesiastical picture of the world that remained popular even in the early fourteenth century.
Following the Paris Beatus map of 1250 and Dante's description of a southern Eden are at least three maps dating from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries -. In a conservative vein. copies of maps that would have been oriented to the east or to the north. however. suggesting that the only reason peoples of the northern and southern hemispheres had not yet communicated with one another was because of the difficulty in crossing the southern deserts and mountains of magnetic rock. But he then goes on to say that Lucifer. Equally intriguing is Dante's description of the southern hemisphere. invisible to us because of the sun's heat. The legend goes on to say that philosophers allege that Antipodes live in this southern region.all of which picture the early Paradise as located in Africa's central or southern regions (104). But he went even further.that found on the St. an anonymous Spanish monk writing around the time in which Eco has set The Name of the Rose claims to have sailed to a River of Gold originating somewhere south of the Tropic of Capricorn near the Garden of Eden (105). as in the case of the Macrobius-type mappaemundi suddenly have south at the top in accordance with the favored Arab orientation (97). As Marco Polo's travels to the Far East became known. The land originally there escaped his demonic influence by forming the Mountain of Purgatory. On top of this mountain. By the end of the twelfth century. Bacon's German contemporary. but believed that a land mass existed at the Antipodes of the southern hemisphere (94). Dante places his terrestrial Paradise (103). One of the reasons why Henry the Navigator sent his Portuguese adventurers to try to circumnavigate Africa in the fifteenth century was to find the Christian king of Ethiopia. Sever Beatus map. In this same period.who drugged his 'pious' assassins -claimed to live in the eastern Paradise (99). which Lambert calls the Mediterranean: an unnavigable expanse. where only the dead now dwell. Among the churchmen most influenced by this non-Christian learning were Roger Bacon and Albertus Magnus. were crossable in places (96). which pictures Paradise at the top but in the extreme south [Figure 20: Paris III Beatus. Bacon demonstrates his conviction that the torrid or equatorial zone could be crossed and that an inhabited region in the southern hemisphere below the Tropic of Capricorn was not inconsistent with the patristic teachings of Basil and Ambrose (95). Separating the known world from this plaga incognita is the equatorial ocean. he believed. Perhaps the most disorienting of these is the Paris Beatus map of the late twelfth century. for Henry hoped that its Prester John would ally himself with the Christian world in countering the Moslem threat (101). By the eleventh century. The translation and dissemination of Arabic texts in western Europe around the time of Lambert also played a part in the growing prominence of the southern continent. Lambert informs us that this is the southern temperate zone. so were his reports that Prester John had been slain by Genghis Khan. Albertus Magnus or Albert the Great. yet these too. a region unknown to the sons of Adam. Arab geographers not only knew that the equatorial zone was habitable and inhabited. Image linked] (98). alighted in the southern hemisphere. exiled from heaven. an obvious sign of the influence of the Cratesian system and of Lambert's acceptance of an antipodal land inhabited by human beings. most of Aristotle's works and their Arabic commentaries as well as other 'lost' Greek texts like Ptolemy's Almagest or Greatest Work had been translated from Arabic into Latin. But Lambert places his Antipodes on one of the two small islands rimming the earth (93). Then too. . resulting in the scientific revolution and Aristotelianism of the thirteenth century. This thirteenth-century Beatus map is by no means an isolated example. and that the Old Man of the Mountain -. In his Opus Majus or Greater Work. argued for the habitability of the equatorial and the southern temperate zones. he calls the southern hemisphere 'a land without inhabitants' (102). that the Christian kingdom in the Orient was much diminished. No wonder that the location of Prester John's realm is often transferred from Asia to the world's southern extremities in Abyssinia or Ethiopia (100).
William and Adso step behind this door to find a man. the only man who has long since known that the finis Africae exists and can be entered by not one but two secret passages. Yet it is also the promised home of the righteous following the Last Judgment. It is the place where Lucifer first landed. like the equatorial sea of medieval geography and cartography. its invisibility to the naked eye. But he [Aristotle] had not succeeded in overturning the image of God. they managed to identify the room containing the mirror as room 'S.' Moreover. Waiting insidiously inside the Secretum flnis Africae. It is terra australis incognita. and a man who so influenced The Name of the Rose that Eco named the most learned and venerable monk in his abbey. On their first trip into the library. located at the southern extremity of an abbreviated Africa.had become an object for open interpretation. Though he has just murdered a sixth monk.. Jorge of Burgos (107). Ironically. The finis Africae. this volume contains among the foolish works of the infidels a single copy of a work by Aristotle 'The Philosopher. and YSPANIA.every trace of center [will] be lost.. AEGYPTUS. therefore.' he intends to let William and Adso die there. this man boasts that he is the faithful agent of God and part of the divine plan to punish the intellectual pride corrupting the abbey's Christian values. as he begins to succumb to the death he helped inflict upon others. On their final trip into the library. not surprisingly. an invisible door concealing an apparently inaccessible room.it is the opinion of some that paradise is located there [beyond the tropic of Capricorn]. his explanation for his role in the mysterious deaths plaguing the abbey smacks of the same justification that had led Lactantius. Eco represents these difficulties metaphorically by borrowing the symbol of mirror-as-door from Jorge Luis Borges. He then describes to William his greatest fear: that the monstrous races of terra incognita and their blasphemous ways will become the center of the world: . William and Adso had discovered the existence of a mirror which distorts and renders monstrous the image it reflects. unexpectedly faced with his own image reflected in the poor light. The people of God [will] be transformed into an assembly of monsters belched forth from the abysses of the terra incognita. to condemn the notions of a spherical earth and of an antipodal race of human beings in the south: Every word of the Philosopher. Roger Bacon says that the idea of Paradise located in this region derives from Aristotle: . but generally not by human beings.Finally. this man clutches to his bosom a volume he believes will destroy the world he knows. or all three.. he . by whom now even saints and prophets swear.' the very room that forms the intersection of LEONES.' considered to be habitable. its great expanse. But the ingenious reflecting device is also. Adso. had shouted 'a devil!' On their second trip. If this book were to become.. It is the land of the Ethiopians. has overturned the image of the world. has any number of topographical meanings in The Name of the Rose... thought to be uncrossable because of the extreme heat. author of 'The Library of Babel' and other short stories. since it is the noblest place in this world according to Aristotle and Averroës in the second book of the Heavens and the World (106). a room that is both 'secret' and 'secluded for the purpose of reading the Bible. we would have crossed the last boundary. one thousand years before. Separating this fourth land mass from the known world is the equatorial ocean of orthodox belief. the 'unknown southern continent. Tortured by his fear of a world turned upside-down.
takes on the appearance of the very monsters he fears. Dutton and Sobel Weber Associates. the finis Africae becomes 'an accursed room' whose evil spreads throughout the entire library and abbey. MS.uk/maps/webimages. William uncharacteristically calls his enemy 'the Devil' and 'the Antichrist. Bord's diagram is a sketch of an illustration in the Bibliothéque Nationale. Gruppo Editoriale Fabbri-Bompiani. 28681. Those interested in discovering other maps on the web can access Siebold’s site through the WWW Virtual Library: History.Hereford Cathedral. E.P. "Cartographic Images. English translation. each of the figures in the text is linked to a "slide" and "monograph" on Jim Siebold’s site. Inc. Sonzogno. Courtesy of Gruppo Editoriale Fabbri-Bompiani. Etas SpA (1980). Etas SpA (1980). and Martin Secker and Warburg Limited (1983). Parigi.' In the climax of The Name of the Rose. Figure 2.[but] can be born from piety itself. "History/Map History/History of Cartography: THE gateway to the Subject. The mystery ends with an apocalyptic fire that destroys Eco's all-too-mortal library: that 'celestial Jerusalem. Byzantine-Oxford T-O map.sas. Map Librarian.' And in his anger and frustration.P. Figures 6a and 6b. from excessive love of God or of the truth. England.com/MAPS His identifications and slide numbers indicate the images to which my figures are linked. MS français 9152: folio 77. edition of Beatus’ Commentary.ac. Ebstorf mappamundi (original destroyed during World War II). and Martin Secker and Warburg Limited (1983). 1975. slide 224. Online Figures Except for five figures (1-3.html Figure 1. Psalter mappamundi -. Figure 4. English translation. Gruppo Editoriale Fabbri-Bompiani. and 15). 9r). London.henry-davis. The British Library. The library map. Courtesy of E.' as Adso once called it. fol. Figure 5. Hereford mappamundi -. Figure 8. slide 223.95 ofMazes and Labyrinths of the World by Janet Bord. . 6b.British Library (Add. the very world William's enemy had tried so hard to preserve. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Figure 7. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Courtesy of Gruppo Editoriale Fabbri-Bompiani. slide 226. illustrated on p. that 'underground world on the border between Terra Incognita and Hades' (108). February 2001: http://ihr." compiled by Tony Campbell. slide 205BB. from an 11th century MS. William recognizes at last that evil does not spring 'from a far land. on page 321 of The Name of the Rose by Umberto Eco." an educational service hosted by Henry Davis Consulting: http://www. Sonzogno. Inc. Figure 3. Hereford. Dutton and Sobel Weber Associates.. a map inside the front and back covers of The Name of the Rose by Umberto Eco. slide 205Y. The layout of the abbey. T-O map.. The Rheims Cathedral Maze (thirteenth century). Gazing upon this disfigured visage. 6a.
Macrobian World map from a French MS. AD 1200-1500. 2.C. 1987.. Beatus world map. slide 202. Gruppo Editoriale Fabbri-Bompiani.14.C. Figure 20. Figure 16. in International Geographical Union's Monumenta Cartographica vetustioris aevi (Amsterdam 1964). translated by William Weaver. Omer (copy from Wolfenbüttel. Sever world map after Beatus. 12th century. All subsequent references to Eco's The Name of the Rose. 151-53. suppl. St.). Andrews." FMR (Franco Maria Ricci) 2:64-65. 12-13th century. Maps and excerpts from The Name of the Rose by Umberto Eco. M. T. Mappemondes. Sonzogno. slide 201. slide 207D1. Imago Mundi. Beatus world map. detail of Gog and Magog. 1999. The Madrid Beatus: Biblioteca Nacional. slide 207D. 4. Reconstruction of Crates’ Globe (mid-1st century B. 21-23. and Martin Secker and Warburg Limited (1983). 4. 1. Inc. Figure 11. detail of Africa. The maps inside the front and back covers and on page 321 of The Name of the Rose are reproduced here as Figures 1 and 2 courtesy of Gruppo Editoriale Fabbri-Bompiani. slide 119. Germany). copy. Simar. Paris III. Destombes. The abbreviationKNOTR followed by a page number indicates material incorporated from The Key to "The Name of the Rose. Ptolemaic World Map. Zonal world map from the Liber Floridus of Lambert St. Osma copy (from Miller).Figure 9.2. Figure 17. Figure 15. folios 63v-64. This paper expands upon several ideas contained in a guide I co-authored with Jane G. Figure 19. slide 207I. "Waiting for the millennium. The University of Michigan Press. White and Robert J. slide 226D. slide 217A. St.' Revue Congolaise. 'La Géographie de I'Afrique centrale dans I'antiquité et au moyen a âge. 'The Study and . Notes Footnotes from the original article in Studies in Iconography. Etas SpA (1980). See especially the sources of Eco's labyrinthine library. Figure 13. M." 3. slide 207H. slide 224B. Ebstorf mappamundi. White: The Key to "The Name of the Rose. Figure 10. Figure 14." New Jersey. will be abbreviated NOTR. 3. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. editor. revised edition. Figure 12. Sever world map after Beatus. Cosmas Indicopleustes’ world picture in the Christian Topography. Vitr. Figure 18. 1912-13) 159-69. 6th century. detail of the Antipodes. illustrated in Umberto Eco. Hereford mappamundi. English translation. slide 113.
Harley and D.1. All Biblical quotes are taken from the King James version. ([above note 3] 815). 1975. 298 notes 20607. See figure 147 on page 95 of Bord's book.: folio 77. 1965. 1987. and 181. Parigi.5. San Diego.. 188. B. see W. 6392. 7. 57). see Destombes.27-28. Martianus Capella. 15. For later citations. Matthew 24:31 and Psalm 107:3. MS français 9152. 3. Campi's 'Ecclesiastical History of Piacenza' (1651). 5. translator. 1925. that the Nile River (not the Red Sea) formed the boundary between Asia and Africa (Libya). 43 8 notes 31-32. editors. 68-74.29.15. Ancient. Medieval sources usually adopted the belief. Uhden. 10. attested in several classical sources. See Umberto Eco. Milan. 23. Orosius. 14. rpt.P. K. Parma. Anaximander of Miletus (about 610-540 BC) and Hecataeus of Miletus (flourished .47ff. 674-76. 1922. reproduced here courtesy of E. 149-51.1.The History of Cartography. 88-97. for the full Latin legend.' FMR (Franco Maria Ricci). 47.' Geographische Zeitschrift. 55. 75. Egypt. 1980.1 1: 'Un T dentro ad un 0 mostra il disegno/ Come in tre parti fu diviso il mondo.9. therefore. KNOTR 122. 13. R.3. 1931. and J. Collectanea Rerum Memorabilium.Classification of Medieval Mappae Mundi. 294-99.' Archaeology (or Miscellaneous Tracts Relating to Antiquity). 6. and in hisPostscript to 'The Name of the Rose.626. The Geographical Lore of the Time of the Crusades.' 15. 50. 14. see J. an excellent work released after this paper was written. 6. 16.1-3. a condensed version of his Beato di Liébana: Miniature del Beato de Fernando I y Sancha. see KNOTR. 14. Woodward. See Wright (above note 13).De Nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae. See Gregorio Dati's (1362-1436) La Sfera 3. Depicted on the cover of Eco's Il nome della rosa. 153. Bord's diagram is a sketch of an illustration in the Bibliothéque Nationale. medieval maps picture the world covered predominantly by land in accordance with the apocryphal II Esdras. Historiae adversum Paganos. Isidore. Generally.27-35. Figure 3 derived from Mazes and Labyrinths of the World by Janet Bord. 5. 1984. volume 1: Cartography in Prehistoric. Natural History.42.2. See Bord (above note 9). 1924-25. This paragraph summarizes KNOTR 27.M. 2. who quotes from P. 'Zur Herkunft und Systematik der Mittelalterlichen Weltkarten. was regarded as part of Asia: Pliny the Elder. 52. See below. Etymologiae. 122. 6.' William Weaver. 9.3. 321-40. 11. 5. Solinus. New York. Matthews (Mazes and Labyrinths. Wright. 8. 1. 1973. London. and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean. For translation of these names. 19. 'Waiting for the millennium. 372 note 70. H. Isaiah 40:22. in American Geographical Society Research Series. especially section V. Dutton and Sobel Weber Associates. 37. For a summary and alternate classification into four groups. 12.
1:275 note 1. 18. 22. 86-35 BC) wrote the Bellum Jugurthum.History of Ancient Geography. Sallust (prob. Brown. 1967-79. Maps and Man. Ptolemy (flourished AD 127-48) in hisGeographia. and Wright (above note 13). No one knows whether Isidore relied on an earlier map. 2:576-77. Cambridge. E. Lucan. reprinted New York. see Beazley (above note 19).O. 1972. Destombes (above note 3). andEveryman's Classical Atlas. NJ. Augustine. 53. A. 21. 300-1420. 1:276. 51. Boston. according to Herodotus (flourished first half of the fifth century BC) History.520-500 BC). That the world map associated with Lucan's Pharsalia might have influenced Isidore's map.8. New York. Dilke. Isidore.115. 14. and Orosius.R. See Herodotus' complaints at History. No pagan T-O maps have survived. New York. 4. 3 volumes. 46-47) suggests that Isidore's library would have included the works of Sallust. in Columbia University Studies in History. 293b34-298a20 andMeteorologica. 37-38. Oxford. 383 note 45. 1. Beazley. H. see Destombes (above note 3). 1970. 1879. H. 55. 17 volumes.A. St.1977. Thrower. in Aspects of Greek and Roman Life.W.430) in his De Civitate Dei. 1912. 41-43. A Short History of Geographical Study. Sharaf. London.6. Bagrow and R. Thomson. 74 and plate G=VIa. O. 5. L. Its seventeenth chapter contained a world map which may have been inserted by Sallust or another prior to AD 700.49. Scullard. 1964. H.T. all those after AD 300derive from the New Catholic Encyclopedia [NCE]. 48. 1967. 2. The Story of Maps. and Orosius (about 390after AD 418) in his Historiae adversum Paganos. 1897-1906. Cambridge. London. and Public Law. 23.8. Aristotle (384-322 BC) in his De Caelo. 2:579. Economics. 9.9-16. About AD 560-636. 16. whose combined efforts were reproduced on a world map engraved upon a bronze tablet carried to Sparta by the Milesian tyrant Aristagoras in 500 BC. Lactantius (about AD 240-about 320) tutored the eldest son of Constantine. History of Cartography. 3. 7. and L.A.10.G.2-37. see E. 65-66. created one of his own. 328-30.W.3. . 20. editors.H. 1961. 1. or inspired a later map produced in accordance with his geographical description: Destombes (above note 3).17. 2 volumes.2.24. 1949. (All dates prior to AD 300 derive from the Oxford Classical Dictionary. London. 35. For detailed examinations of Greco-Roman maps and geography. Augustine (AD 354. compare Genesis 9:18-10:32. Hammond and H. 62731.L. 1948. N. MA.J. History of Ancient Geography. 19. NY. 362b31363a20. Skelton. A world map was also incorporated into the ninth chapter of the Pharsaliaof Lucan (AD 39-65). Bunbury.) 17. editor. Ithaca. See C.2 N. The Dawn of Modern Geography: A History of Exploration and Geographical Science. reprinted New York. For other churchmen who agreed with Lactantius' views as expressed in hisDivinae Institutiones. 1985.2. Brehaut (An Encyclopaedist of the Dark Ages: Isidore of Seville. 3. 45. 24. Scullard.A. Greek and Roman Maps. 25. 1959. J. London.Englewood Cliffs. see Beazley (above note 19).
614-18. Compare Ezekiel 38:12 and Psalm 74:12. compare Genesis 2:8. preface by H. Early Maps. For bibliography. 3:118-20.see KNOTR. 1938. and volumes 4-5. Mappaemundi: Die ältesten Weltkarten. Destombes (above note 3). 34. The east-west symbolism is unmistakable in the Ebstorf map. Wright (above note 13).21: 'quasi umbilicus regionis totius' (that is. 14. 21. the mappamundi of Henry of Mainx (about 1150). 10. 261-62.''1. the Ebstorf map was housed in the German monastery at Ebstorf. Isidore. 37.. Migne. 2:578. 37-43 and tables 2-3..T. in J. folio 6. Isidore. 121-22. 10-11. W. 14.. also. John's College Library. Another. reprinted New York. 14. G. 127-28. 3:110-15. 'On the Holy Places.. 2:576-78. 460 note 14. 32. New York.in orientis partibus'. 189598. 1:332-34. 259.1. 1952. 35. 65-66. 631-32.1-2: 'provincias multas et regiones. See Beazley (above note 19). compare Genesis 3:24. Animals and Maps. Lindsay. Wright (above note 13). lat. 3:116-22. Brown (above note 17). Destombes (above note 3). 168-70. The Hereford map is still preserved at Hereford Cathedral in England. which was . Berkeley. for maps dating from the thirteenth through fifteenth centuries. 32-34. Thrower (above note 17).undique enim Oceanus circumfluens eius in circulo ambit fines. For discussion and illustration. 1911. 1981. 3:28-29. quia sicut rota est. Latin text from Isidori Hispalensis Episcopi Etymologiarum sive originum libri XX.Miller (above note 30). Hanover. Stuttgart. 6 volumes.' 29. recorded by the abbot Adamnan (about 625704). see Miller (above note 30). 2:9.3. editor. MS 17.3. 2: Pl. Ebstorf. (above note 19). London. of Asia). Miller.26. 36.3. plate E=Va and Vb. Isidore. 1011.3. 30. 33. CC=XXV. see Beazley (above note 19).M. 2:578-79. 2:563-69. 2835. Bagrow (above note 19). St. 18 and 24. Pls. Jerome or Hieronymus (about 340/42-420) in his Commentaria inEzechielem. 25. Isidore. Before its destruction in World War II.).11. 1845. Die Ebstorfer Weltkarte. which is like a wheel'': 'Orbis a rotunditate circuli dictus. 16. Oxford. 194-202 and plates DD=XXIV. 1969. Oxford. George. 52. See K.2. Rosien. 117-48.has been associated with the Psalter. 1:339. 29-35.H. Wallis. series Latina(Pat. Beazley (above note 19). 38. Beazley (above note 19). For 'Sallust' maps. W. 'so-called from its roundness. see Beazley (above note 19). 1968. 27. col. Kimble. 37. 13. W. 2 volumes. T. 31. That map is housed at St. Patrologiae cursus completus. 42-50. 14. and 3:528-29. 28. and Hereford maps. 628-31. Geography in the Middle Ages.P. The entire line describes the orbis [terrarum]. Destombes (above note 3). Beazley. Miller (above note 30). 186 and note 5. Paris. 97 and note 33. Campbell.
For bibliography. 68. 180-81). Pierre in Moissac (about 1115-36). in Umbrae Codicum Occidentalium. including the Franciscan Spirituals. compare Ezekiel 38:2. author of a Cosmographia (NOTR. and KNOTR. see Bagrow (above note 19). Bord (above note 9). 1897-1900. Compare Eco'sPostscript (above note 10).M. compare Revelation 7:23) and Abo's assertion that 'the universal government' begins in the east but travels towards the west as the world deteriorates (NOTR.H. plate XXII. 49. see C. See Wright (above note 13). while his arms indicated north and south. Wright (above note 13). See the sermon on the Book of Revelation (NOTR. McGinn. Firestone. 1928. referred to in the NOTR as Aethicus Peronymus. by T. 40. B. Bridges. 173-75. Philadelphia. Martianus Capella wrote De Nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae. 50. New York. 400-04. 'Waiting for the millennium' (above note 7). Oxford. For further elaboration and the medieval sources for Gog and Magog as well as Prester John. editor. Flourished AD 410-39.63132. 44. xii. 48. intro. Apocalyptic Spirituality. 10. 5.B. NCE (above note 16).38-39). Kimble (above note 36). Compare the twelve winds on the Ebstorf and Hereford maps. translator. That Eco's abbatial church is Romanesque. under the heading 'Antipodes. 1.B. whose head and feet marked east and west respectively. 68. 1:302-304. 2 volumes. 18586. For more on Beatus and his Commentaria in Apocalypsin. .A. compare KNOTR. 1966. Aethicus of Istria has been identified as Virgil of Salzburg (about 710-784:below. 184.' 41. and. Pierre Olieu and Ubertino of Casale. 1.superimposed over the figure of a crucified Christ. 1924. Genesis 10:2. for the resemblance between the tympana featuring the Last Judgment over the NOTR abbey church and the Romanesque French Church of St. 3 volumes. Bishop. see Wright (above note 13). see below. Dilke (above note 17). Eco. Eco's. They are the imundas gentes (unclean races) on the Ebstorf map. Francis (about 1181/2-1226) had inaugurated the sixth age (KNOTR. See The Opus Majus of Roger Bacon. 233-35. 43. 36-37). 40. R. see NOTR. 114. who believed that St. section v. The Coasts of Illusion: A Study of Travel Tales. 42. 235-39. end of section iv). B. 1:321-23. which shows them devouring human flesh.27-28). 283-88. 47. 95. Revelation 20:7-9. New York. 1979. 12326. 45. ill. and The Opus Majus of Roger Bacon. 216 note 49. 2:644. Brown (above note 17). In the 'Greater Work' of Roger Bacon (prior to 1220-about 1292).. trans. Burke. That the world had reached its 'sunset' or sixth age prior to its destruction in the seventh was a view shared by many (compare Isidore. see below section iv. See Aethici Istrici Cosmographia Vergilio Salisburgensi Rectius Adscripta. 39. 2:234-35. Amsterdam. 46. for the connection between church mazes and geographical symbolism. 39:1-2.
2. See Augustine. Divine.8. 74. 1969.23. New York: 1932. 1893. Beazley (above note 19). 1. For example. 51. 258-59. 1 . 5. and see Friedman (above note 56). Paris. New York. 26-27. 3:410-60. Le continent austral: hypothèses et découvertes.172. 57. Solinus (probably soon after AD 200).E. 58. 302-04.75.46.196-197.848. 112 (fourth century BC. M. Pomponius Mela (flourished AD 37-41: Chorographia.199. The Monstrous Races in Medieval Art and Thought. 114. J. MA. Wilford. from Ptolemy to Captain Cook. reprinted Stuttgart. 1. 221 note 32. The world map of Ptolemy is illustrated in Bunbury (above note 17). 1553) as well as by earlier Greek authors.1-8.. 1. In the first century AD. 27. 104. According to the Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World. 37. See Martianus Capella.' in Martiani Capellae: Satyricon or De nuptiis philologiae et mercurii. Leipzig.1-6.674: 'post hos [ceteros monstruosae nouitatis] finis est Africae.3-5. Seltzer. 2:578. the Aethiopian creatures found their way into medieval sources through Mela. MA. 5.216. New York. 4. 2. Bunbury (above note 17).' For a general survey. 69: 'Terra Incognita (or Australis). N. 6. 3. 167.L. 1:392). 29015'. Though these monsters are described in the fifth century BC by Herodotus (History. For a thorough listing of the medieval sources.68.1. 1981.3. 1973. 1. 6. vol. E. for recent bibliography. Wright (above note 13). Iliad.36. 16.9-10. 61. 8. 17.4. 56.8. 3. A. The Mapmakers. 8.77.15-16. 1356. Brown (above note 17). As Eco suggests in 'Waiting for the millennium' (above note 7). 1970.2. editor.Cambridge. summarizing how Strabo's view of the world (64/63 BC-about AD 21: Geography. Cambridge. 53. New York. 37. 3. 7.50.72.B.35.12-23.128. Pliny the Elder. 60. Wright (above note 13)..124. 306.3.167.44-46. Campbell (above note 37). Stevenson.. Friedman. Mela. 6. See the map of the 'World as Known about AD 1260-1360' in Beazley (above note 19). 7.9. Detailed by Beazley (above note 19). 55.20. 59. editor. Snowden in hisBlacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience. that a single continent occupied the entire southern hemisphere below the Tropic of Capricorn. Ptolemy's Geographia. 2.1.4.N. 31. 157-58. 30. 2.9-90.21-32.2. 1925. 2.171-75. see Simar (above note 4).423.L. Dick. 1962. the anonymous Physiologus.58-60. 11. 1981.85-107) and Pliny the Elder (AD 23/24-79: Natural History. see Bunbury [above note 171. 107-11. editor and trans. 52. D. The Geography of Claudius Ptolemy. J. The Opening of the World: The Great Age of Maritime Exploration.18. 108 note 4.reflect[s] the general belief of European explorers and cartographers. 12-13. Ephorus (about 405-330 BC) in Pliny. compare 5. Periplus of Scylax.191) and Aristophanes (Birds. Isidore.. . 54.) recalls that of Eratosthenes (about 275-194 BC: Geographica). 35. see A. Rainaud. 1:327-28.187) also accepted Eratosthenes' Hellenistic model. a Christian allegory 'describing nature' and her marvels. Kimble (above note 36). 3:519 Kimble (above note 36). The historical reality of these tribes is discussed by F.
1972. Aristotle Mete. 70. 1. 73. 1968. London. 2. see P. A fragment retained from Eratosthenes' lost Hermes. editor.1-3). Cosmas 'Who Sailed to India' was a merchant-turned monk and author ofChristian Topography (about AD 547). and Perusta inhabitabilis.233-39. 162-63. editor. see Kimble (above note 36). For example. 147. and 14. Macrobius.2. 71. Divinae Institutiones. New York. Martianus Capella 6. Dilke (above note 17).. 604-608. 2. 13. and Pliny the Elder.10-17. . Crates' representation of the Homeric east-west division of the Aethiopians (Odyssey. Ramsay. 12. W.8-9 and De Genesi ad Litteram. lat.1-8. 1:291.. beyond which is located the land 'where men . See also. 5.73-78. 158-59. For discussions of Crates. 3.62.16. C. 19. 64.5-1. cols. for other citations. Dilke (above note 17). Conington. Isidore. 21. in De chorographia libri tres. Somn. Leipzig. 65. Vienna. Roger Bacon rejected Ptolemy's hypothesis that only one sixth of the earth was composed of land.8. Dilke (above note 17). 1:185.. Figure 6 derived from James Oliver Thomson's History of Ancient Geography (above note 17). .1-5.3. 2.2. or nostra incognita). Dei. and Burke's edition (above note 44). 171.6. J.602.. 12. His world map depicts a rectangular earth surrounded by a circumfluent but bizarrely angular ocean.24. 2. antipodum. 16.14. Stahl. 66 and note 46. Macrobius maps from the ninth through fifteenth centuries usually contained the legends: Temperata habitabilis (or nostra). 2. For illustrations. 1890-97.604-615.H.5. and Martianus Capella 6. 3637.24. 2. 66. 203. 24-5.24ff. Brand. under the heading Georgics.falsa' (above note 22). Bridges' edition (above note 44). whose map incorporates the terminology of Martianus Capella. Paris. 1880. see Bunbury (above note 17). For further discussion. Mela 1. and notes 45. 68. Destombes (above note 3). 2.1-5. 214.5. Opus Majus. 1952. Temperata habitabilis (oranteorum.1. 1:31 1.602. see Macrobius: Commentary on the Dream of Scipio.17. 85.23-36. 34. figure 27 on page 203 of Thomson's work is reproduced here courtesy of Cambridge University Press. R. see Wright (above note 13). 6. Compare Macro. 1. 63. Pat. Scip. Vergili Maronis Opera. Stahl (above note 63). 201-02 and notes. 32-33. plate 0=XIIIc. No Longer on the Map: Discovering Places that Never Were.21. Dilke (above note 17). for Martianus Capella. Civ. 1881. though Parmenides is believed to have devised the system (compare Strabo 2. Macrobius (flourished about early fifth century) in his Commentarius in Somnium Scipionis.. 1. 72.5-3. see above (beginning of section iii). and argued instead that land comprises six-sevenths of the earth.H. in Divinae institutiones. reprinted Stuttgart.5-6=362b-365a. Kimble (above note 36).7-7-21. 174. 60. 270-71. frontispiece.22-24) failed to gain much support in antiquity (compare Strabo. 2.9. S. in Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum latinorum.9.5.8-43). translator. editor. Macrobius 2. 2. Though followed by Macrobius.2: 'ridicula. 1845. Frigida septentrionalis (or) australis inhabitabilis. New York. 25-9. and Martianus Capella.2-3. 69. Frick. 67. 2.20-22. in Migne.
cols. and Cosmas Indicopleustès: Topographie Chrétienne. D. KNOTR. folios 45v and 46r) is illustrated in Miller (above note 30). 1:15. Scherer 1875. oblong. Hildesheim. and depicts the fourth part of the world as a thin. Klein. 90. 1983. for Beatus. 16-17). 591-605. St. Pat. Isidore discounts the idea of an antipodal people with their 'feet opposite' to ours. 82. In NOTR 314. 26466. 179-84. W. 79. 6018. 443-44. 78. lat. Matthew. 37. Compare Orosius 1. p. 1976. 85. Destomes (above note 3). and 2: Tables 2-9. 9. Augustine. The St. 264. McCrindle. 28. J. 79. Especially in Isidore's De Natura Rerum. reprinted 1965. 34. 2:550-59. suggests that the Beatus map implies a spherical earth. especially 389-90 and plate 6. Der altere Beatus-Kodex. 14-1 der Biblioteca Nacional zu Madrid: Studien zur Beatus. but Kimble ([above note 36]. For discussion and illustrations. Paris. Beazley (above note 19). Destombes (above note 3). 83. 74. 81. R. 76. 1:58. trans.' See Brehaut (above note 24). 80. chapters 32. 1936. Facundus. New York. Wright (above note 13). MS Lat. K. 237. Vitr. chapter 46. 'unknown island' (insola incognita) located just south of Ethiopia. and De temporum ratione. 69. 3. 83-84. 8878.2. The St. 1968-70. 50-54. Kimble (above note 36). 6:58. 'De Quinque Circulis. editor. Wolska-Conus. 47. 69. Eco refers to its illuminator. For discussion and illustrations of the other Beatus maps. 36-37 and note 2. 25. 1 33. 2 volumes. folios 64v-65r).9-18. 'Die Weltkarte des Isidorus von Sevilla. Cod. 1:545. see above (end of section ii) and note 40.W. Sever or Paris I Beatus (Bibliothèque Nationale. see Miller (above note 30). Mozarabes y .used to live before the Flood': 'Ge peran tou Okeanou entha pro tou katakoun katokoun hoi anthropoi' See The Christian Topography of Cosmas. above (beginning of section iii) and note 46. and editor. 75. figure 27. an Egyptian Monk. 383-84 note 48. See also the Turin Beatus of the twelfth century. Paris.2. Beazley (above note 19). 6. Atlas of Medieval Europe. G. 456. Uhden. 64-65. for instance. 16. see Beazley (above note 19). Gallen Stiftsbibliothek (Cat. Destomes ([above note 3]. See also. 2:556. 122-24. Wright (above note 13). and depicts the southern continent occupying one-third of the world. Later copies tend to place Jerusalem closer to the center. Menéndez Pidal.. inside front cover. 77. 84. 40-42. I). 1:23-70. see Miller (above note 30). The Vatican map is housed in the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana (MS Vat. Gall map is housed in the St. 37) denies that such a connection is necessary. 1862. See Bede's De Natura Rerum. For Aethicus.'Waiting for the millennium' (above note 7). 22-25. London. Wright (above note 13). 1897.' Mnemosyne 3 ser. 2:550. About AD 673-735. in Publications of the Hakluyt Society. 98. in Migne. lat.
91. 92. Destombes (above note 3). Aschendorff Hossfeld. 1:35. 3 volumes.. Legend II Hic Antipodes nostri habitant. 2:550-53. 95. 86.. nec ulla ratione ad hanc zonam permittet transitum. De Natura Locorum. 93.. an early twelfth-century climate map of Peter Alphonsi. see Miller (above note 30). Eco inBeato (above note 7). 94. quos a nobis diversitate temporum diversos asserunt.7. 16. Madrid.. 1930: compare Beatus 2. 1 .1). and plate U=XIX.Astor. 1954. Beazley (above note 19). 55. Albert's dates are about 1200-1280. Isidore 11. For further discussion of the Osma Beatus. per aestum. Sanders. Lenox and Tilden Foundations. 83. and above (end of section iv).. 1980. Wright (above note 13) 124. H. prologue to Book 2 (2. 403-404. 415-16. Differing slightly from the legend of the Osma map. Compare St.' 90. para el Estudio de los Codices del 'Commentario al Apocalypsis' de Beato de Liébana.Mare namque mediterraneum. 87. illustrated in . Madrid.. 12-13.A. in Alberti Magni: Opera Omnia. See Beatus. and 2: plate. editor.accessus repellit hominum. see the illustration in L. photographed from this rare book courtesy of the Map Division of the New York Public Library -. Kimble (above note 36). quem solis ardore semper illustratum..1:27376. The Oña Beatus of the late twelfth century (Biblioteca Ambrosiana. P. 89.. Milan. 221.humanus oculus non videt. 7. 97. Figure 8 derived from Konrad Miller's Mappaemundi: Die ältesten Weltkarten (above note 30). For example.. 5. Hanc inhabitare philosophi antipodes autumant.17-18. 55-56... Vasquez de Parga's 'Un mapa desconocido de la serie de los 'Beatos'. 2:591-92. 17. in Boletín de la Real Academia de la Historia. 80. 3b. 24. see also the Type III Globus Terrae form.'Skiopodas' Graeci. in Papers and Monographs of the American Academy in Rome. Bridges (above note 44).3. Westphalia. 96. 1978 80. Beazley (above note 19) 2:570-74.8. Friedman (above note 56). 150) also shows the twelve apostles but not the Sciopod. Rome. Legend I Plaga australis temperat sed filiis Adae incognita.. 3:43-53.asturianos en la cultura de la Edad Media.magnitudine. and Burke (above note 44). Beazley (above note 19). editor. For further discussion see Miller (above note 30)...3.23 reads: 'Sciopodum gens fertur in Aethiopia. 1:12. 88. qui. 1:305-308. sed noctem diversam diesque contrarios perferunt. Augustine. 34-36... MS folio sup..2:14. 1:324-27. Destombes ([above note 3] 113 and plate L=X) classifies this example of theSfera geometrica as the fourth of ten map types found in manuscripts of Lambert's work.3.. in Beati in Apocalipsin libri duodecim. 158.' in Actas del Simposio.. Destombes (above note 3).
and Lordships that are in the World.K.A. Prefect of the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. D. se Kimble (above note 36).W. 100. Quoted from Burke (above note 44). and. Irby. Jordan Zinovich. 95. plate Nc=XII. Peter Barber. 181-82. 1926. 1937. 101. Yates and J. Inferno. Labyrinths: Selected Stories and Other Writings. 105. and a thirteenth-century zonal map of William of Conches. 1:326. Harold.A. compare 175). editors.C. and Bruce Haft. 106. 33. in The Book of Ser Marco Polo. 3:127. J. especially 51-58. 1912. see also Bridges (above note 44). This paper is a revised version of one presented at Hunter College: CUNY in November 1984 and March 1988. 184. R. translator. see Book 1. Cordier. C. 315. 28. Book of the Knowledge of All the Kingdoms. New York.33-35 and 50. and Aristotle Cael. See also Destombes (above note 3). and at the Spring 1988 meeting of the Classical Association of the Middle West and South. In addition to my colleagues at Hunter. Lenox and Tilden Foundations. 26. Beazley and E. See Aristotle's On the Heavens. Marco Polo (about 1254-1324) is Eco's 'Venetian traveler' (NOTR. London. to . 285bl5-16 and 23-25. at the Spring 1987 meeting of the Classical Association of the Atlantic States. 1939. translators. Jorge Luis Borges. and. as well as the staffs of the Clymer Library and the Rare Books Division of the Bryn Mawr College Library. 99. Jane and Robert White. 1:307. See Kimble (above note 36). 133-34 and note 1. Cambridge. the Map of Albertin de Virga (1415). and plates IX-XI. 28. Markham. while the south pole is to ano (the one above). in Publications of the Hakluyt Society. Senior Research Assistant of the British Library. second series. 1:139-48 and 244.M. C. 98. Boyle. 29.A. See Gomes Eannes de Azurara's Chronicle of the Discovery and Conquest of Guinea. MA. Finally. and the Este World Map (about 1450). 42. 1962/1964. Dante (1265-1321) in his Inferno. plate 15. These include the Laurentian World Map (about 1351). Jarvis. W. 121-26. translator and editor. Guthrie.Miller (above note 30). New York. Prestage. 1896. 107. Deputy keeper of Western manuscripts at the University Library. 241-44. Lands. Barbara McGrath-Loch of the Eaton Public Library. Alice Hudson and Nancy Kandoian in the Map Division of the New York Public Library–Astor. in Publications of the Hakluyt Society. 34. 108.3 H. W. translator. 104. 1 1 7: 'mondo sanza gente' 103.Yule and H. As in the fourteenth century Mirabilia of Jordanus of Severac and theCronica of John Marignolli. Biemans. several others have provided encouragement and assistance in providing invaluable research materials: Leonard E. Nancy Moore. New York. Housed in the Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris (MS NAL 1366) and illustrated in Bagrow (above note 19). My special thanks go to those without whose insights and support this paper might never have been completed: Virginia. for illustrations. where it is stated that the north pole is to kato (the one below). London. 102.E. SeeKNOTR. most importantly. Leiden. The World in Maps. illustrated in Destombes (above note 3).
' Adele Haft is one of the authors of The Key to "The Name of the Rose. for making scholarship so much fun. gratias tibi ago.Umberto Eco. ." The Modern Word would like to thank Professor haft for making this paper available to Porta Ludovica.
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