P. 1
In this design example we will try to present how to calculate the wind loads subjected to signboards according to Eurocode 1.docx

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10/28/2013

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In this design example we will try to present how to calculate the wind loads subjected to signboards

according to Eurocode 1 (EN 1991-1-4). The dimensions of the signboard are h=7,00m and b=5,00m.
It is separated from the ground by a height z
g
=1,50m. Finally, the value of the basic wind velocity is
V
b
=33m/s and the category of the terrain I (flat horizontal area with negligible vegetation and
without obstacles).

z
0
=0,01m and z
min
=1,00m (EN 1991-1-4 Table 4.1)

Reference Height - ze

z
e
=z
g
+h/2=1,50+7,00/2=5,00m (EN 1991-1-4 Figure 7.21)

Force Coefficients - c
f

z
g
=1,50m < h/4=7,00/4=1,75m

b/h=5,00/7,00=0,714m < 1,00

c
f
=1,80 (EN 1991-1-4 Clause 7.4.3 (2))

Roughness factor - cr(z)

z=z
e
=5,00m > z
min
=1,00m

c
r
(z
e
)=k
r
*ln(z/z
0
) (EN 1991-1-4 Expression 4.4)

Terrain factor - k
r

k
r
=0,19*(z
0
/z
0,II
)^0,07=0,19*(0,01/0,05)^0,07=0,1698 (EN 1991-1-4 Expression 4.5)

c
r
(z
e
)=k
r
*ln(z/z
0
)=0,1698*ln(5,00/0,01)=1,055 (EN 1991-1-4 Expression 4.4)

Turbulence Intensity - I
v
(z)

z=z
e
=5,00m > z
min
=1,00m

Orography Factor: c
o
(z)=1,00

I
v
(z)=k
I
/(c
o
(z)*ln(z/z
0
))=1,00/(1,00*ln(5,00/0,01))=0,1609 (EN 1991-1-4 Expression 4.7)

Basic Velocity Pressure - q
b

q
b
=0,50*ρ*V
b
2
=0,50*0,00125*33
2
=0,68kN/m
2
(EN 1991-1-4 Expression 4.10)

Mean Wind Velocity - V
m

V
m
(z)=c
r
(z)*c
o
(z)*V
b
=1,055*1,00*33=34,82m/s (EN 1991-1-4 Expression 4.3)

Peak Velocity Pressure - q
p
(z)

q
p
(z)=(1+7*I
v
(z))*0,50*ρ*V
m
(z)
2
=(1+7*0,1609)*0,50*0,00125*34,82
2
=1,61kN/m
2
(EN 1991-1-4
Expression 4.8)

Wind Force - F
w

F
w
=c
f
*q
p
(z)*A
ref
=1,80*1,61*(5*7)=101,43kN (EN 1991-1-4 Expression 5.3)

Horizontal Eccentricity - e

e=0,25*b=0,25*5=1,25m (EN 1991-1-4 Clause 7.4.3 (3))

82m/s (EN 1991-1-4 Expression 4.00/0.e e=0.z=ze=5.00m cr(ze)=kr*ln(z/z0) (EN 1991-1-4 Expression 4.00/(1.00125*33 =0.00/0.61kN/m (EN 1991-1-4 Expression 4.82 =1.00 Iv(z)=kI/(co(z)*ln(z/z0))=1.61*(5*7)=101.3) Horizontal Eccentricity .05)^0.01)=1.01))=0.25*5=1.Fw Fw=cf*qp(z)*Aref=1.1698*ln(5.4) Turbulence Intensity .kr kr=0.07=0.Iv(z) z=ze=5.10) Mean Wind Velocity .50*ρ*Vb =0.4.7) Basic Velocity Pressure .19*(z0/z0.055*1.50*0.68kN/m (EN 1991-1-4 Expression 4.1698 (EN 1991-1-4 Expression 4.00m Orography Factor: co(z)=1.5) cr(ze)=kr*ln(z/z0)=0.3) Peak Velocity Pressure .00*33=34.00m > zmin=1.1609)*0.07=0.25m (EN 1991-1-4 Clause 7.00m > zmin=1.3 (3)) 2 2 2 2 2 2 .00125*34.00*ln(5.80*1.50*0.4) Terrain factor .25*b=0.50*ρ*Vm(z) =(1+7*0.19*(0.43kN (EN 1991-1-4 Expression 5.055 (EN 1991-1-4 Expression 4.8) Wind Force .1609 (EN 1991-1-4 Expression 4.01/0.qp(z) qp(z)=(1+7*Iv(z))*0.Vm Vm(z)=cr(z)*co(z)*Vb=1.qb qb=0.II)^0.

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