Challenges and Opportunities of Green Buildings in Pakistan | Green Building | Pakistan

Master thesis

Challenges and Opportunities of Green Building in Pakistan

By

Muhammad Zeeshan Ali (s0536325)

MSc Construction and Real Estate Management

Supervisors: M.Arch. Eric Pollock Prof. Dr.-Ing. Nicole Riediger

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Acknowledgment

First of all I would like to thank the Almighty Allah for providing me the strength and courage to complete the Master thesis and the degree in time. Without his greatness and help I would not be able to complete the work. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my final year thesis supervisor M.Arch. Eric Pollock for accepting my thesis proposal and for providing the assistance, guidance, feedback and support which helped me a lot during the thesis work. I am also grateful to Prof. Dr.-Ing. Nicole Riediger for serving as my second supervisor and taking out the time from her busy schedule for my work. I am thankful to Rana Hassan Ashraf a very good friend, for his unconditional support and motivation which encouraged me a lot during my studies. I would like to dedicate this study to my beloved parents without whom I would not be able to achieve all the success in life. They have done a lot for making me a good human and giving me a better life. Without their love, care, moral and financial support I would have not been able to pursue my studies. I would like to thank them for always being there for providing me a world full of opportunities. May Allah bless them, Ameen.

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Abstract

The increasing environmental concerns have forced world community to come up with such solutions with the least impact on the environment and potential to meet the ever increasing human needs in a sustainable manner. One such solution is of Green Building technology, which is also a focal point of this study. Green building concept actually refers to a process which is environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout the building's life-cycle. The process has applicability in all distinct phases of building life cycle which includes design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. Energy crisis, water shortage, poor waste management, less intelligent building’s spatial design and the usage of energy intensive materials in Pakistan construction industry have indeed called for analysis which could give deeper insights about the challenges and problems currently prevailing and creating hurdles in adopting and implementing green building technology in Pakistan. STEEP analysis has provided a logical and theoretical basis to visualize all the challenges and opportunities regarding Green Building technology under five distinct constructs which are Social, Technical, Economics, Environmental and Political. Thereafter, a tool, SWOT analysis, commonly used to synthesize information in terms of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats is employed. Discerning relevant challenges and opportunities in terms of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats warrants a further study of a case in a similar context to give recommendations a pragmatic shape. Therefore, a brief case study of CIISohrabji Godrej Green Business Center project in a neighboring country of India having similar climatic, cultural and political conditions is done to make the recommendations more specific, meaningful and relevant to the context.

Keywords: Green Building Technology, sustainable construction, STEEP and SWOT analysis, environmental degradation, energy crisis.

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgment................................................................................................. ii Abstract .............................................................................................................. iii List of Figures .................................................................................................... vi List of Tables.....................................................................................................viii List of Abbreviation ............................................................................................ ix 1. Theoretical Phase ........................................................................................ 1 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 2. 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 Introduction ............................................................................................ 1 Background............................................................................................ 1 Problem Statement ................................................................................ 2 Objectives .............................................................................................. 3 Research Methodology .......................................................................... 4 Theoretical Phase .................................................................................. 4 Analytical Phase .................................................................................... 5 Result Phase ......................................................................................... 5 Literature Review ................................................................................... 7 What is green building ........................................................................... 7 Why people attracted towards Green Building ..................................... 12 History of Green Building ..................................................................... 13 Green Building Strategies for Pakistan ................................................ 25 STEEP Analysis ................................................................................... 44 Social Factors ...................................................................................... 45 Technological Factors .......................................................................... 49 Economic Factors ................................................................................ 53 Environmental Factors ......................................................................... 55 Political Factors ................................................................................... 57 SWOT Analysis .................................................................................... 60 Strengths ............................................................................................. 63 Weaknesses ........................................................................................ 64 Opportunities ....................................................................................... 65 Threats................................................................................................. 67 Confrontation Matrix............................................................................. 70 Summary of SWOT analysis ................................................................ 73 Case Study of CII- Sohrabji Godrej green building center ................... 75 Project Description ............................................................................... 75 Project Details ...................................................................................... 76
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Analytical Phase ........................................................................................ 44

2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 3. 3.1 3.2 4.

Green initiatives and sustainable technology used in the building ....... 81 Sensitivity to context ............................................................................ 85 Benefits achieved ................................................................................ 86 Recommendations ............................................................................... 87 Conclusion ........................................................................................... 89

Result Phase ............................................................................................. 87

References ................................................................................................ 91

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List of Figures

Figure 1: What is a Green Building? (The Green Makover home, 2009). ........... 9 Figure 2: Energy consumption by different sectors, (NewsRoomFeatures, 2009). ................................................................................................................ 10 Figure 3: Evans Mills Our Hand in Greening the White House, (CBS Newsletter, 1994). ................................................................................................................ 16 Figure 4: Total energy consumption by buildings from 1980 to 2030 (Hong, et al., 2007, p. 8) ................................................................................................... 17 Figure 5: Growth of LEED certified buildings in India (India's leading real estate, 2010)................................................................................................................. 24 Figure 6: Our buildings today world over (Tirmizi, 2010, p. 2). .......................... 26 Figure 7: Specific Consumption of the Total Primary Energy Supply per capita (Khan, 2007, p. 5). ............................................................................................ 27 Figure 8: Share of built environment in pollution emission and resource use (Isover Sustainable insulation, 2009). ............................................................... 32 Figure 9: Forecast for Pakistan’s power generation and consumption (World News, 2005). ..................................................................................................... 33 Figure 10: Pakistan energy outlook 2008-2022, (OICCI Energy Subcommittee, 2006, p. 14). ...................................................................................................... 34 Figure 11: Estimated average composition of construction and demolition debris in urban settings (Ashmore, et al., 2010, p. 13). ............................................... 39 Figure 12: Rate of Municipal solid waste generated by countries (Gautam, 2009). ................................................................................................................ 40 Figure 13: Top 10 populated countries in the world (Index mundi, 2012). ........ 42 Figure 14: Aerial View of the CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre Building at Hyderabad India, (Solaripedia, 2013). ............................................. 75 Figure 15: Macro level location-CII Sohrabji Godrej GBC, (Subramanian, 2012). .......................................................................................................................... 76 Figure 16: Performance of green building in India, (Roy & Gupta, 2008).......... 78 Figure 17: Public transport near to the site, (Subramanian, 2012). ................... 79 Figure 18: Vehicle charging station at CII Sohrabji Godrej GBC, (Subramanian, 2012). ................................................................................................................ 79 Figure 19: Climate data of India, (imdhyderabad, 2012). .................................. 80

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Figure 20: Hyderabad climate, (Subramanian, 2012). ...................................... 80 Figure 21: Use of photovoltaic cells on the roof top, (Subramanian, 2012). ...... 81 Figure 22: Wind Towers, (Gujral, 2009). ........................................................... 82 Figure 23: Fly ash bricks in comparison with clay and concrete bricks, (Subramanian, 2012). ....................................................................................... 83 Figure 24: Bagasse board and ceramic tiles used in the building, (Subramanian, 2012). ................................................................................................................ 84

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List of Tables

Table 1: Research Methodology Flowchart. ........................................................ 6 Table 2: Sustainable building rating systems (Fowler & Rauch, 2006, p. 3). .... 21 Table 3: Historical development of Building materials (Reddy, 2004). .............. 29 Table 4: Work Breakdown structure of macro environment analysis. ............... 44 Table 5: Work Breakdown structure for micro environment analysis. ............... 62 Table 6: Confrontation Matrix. ........................................................................... 72

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List of Abbreviation

STEEP

Social, Technological, Economic, Environmental, Political

SWOT IGBC LEED BREEAM

Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threat Indian Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method

USGBC U.S AIA CASBEE

United State Green Building Council United State American Institute of Architects Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environment Efficiency

CCI WGBC OECD

Clintons Climate Initiative World Green Building Council Organization Development of Economic Cooperation and

HVAC WAPDA PV Panels MSW ECBC CAPEX DC

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Water and Power Development Authority Photovoltaic Panels Municipal Solid Waste Energy Conservation Building Code Capital Expenditure Direct Current

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ESCO UNDP PEPO EIA IAP IEP IGBC VFDs TOE VOC CPCB CLFs GBC CII NC USAID NIAP NCEA

Energy Service Companies United Nations Development Program Pakistan Environment Protection Ordinance Environmental Impact Assessment Institute of Architects Pakistan Institute of Engineers Pakistan Indian Green Building Council Variable Frequency Drives Tonne of Oil Equivalent Volatile Organic Compound Central Pollution Control Board Compact Fluorescent Lamps Green Business Center Confederation of Indian Industry New Construction United States Agency for International Development National Impact Assessment Program Netherland Commission for Environmental Assessment

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1. Theoretical Phase

1.1

Introduction

1.1.1 Background In the present time, green building has been an integral part in sustainable development as it controls the environmental crisis, strengthen the energy issue and balance the long term health and economic matters. It is a concept that builds a structure which is environmentally responsible and energy efficient. The green building is designed to overcome the negative impact on health, economy, and environment (Ali & Nsairat, 2008). In global context sustainable construction is defined as ‘’a holistic process starting with the extraction of raw materials, continuing with the planning, design, and construction of buildings, and ending with their demolition and management of the resultant waste” (Korkmaz, et al., 2009). In the past few decade green buildings concept has taken considerable recognition in the engineering, architecture and construction industry as the world has become more sensitive towards the issues of global climate change and environment. Sustainable construction requires a different conception of thinking about cost, quality, and time that traditional Benefits of green buildings are that they reduce the negative impact on the environment and also offer business opportunity and better occupant health. Many developed nations such as United States, United Kingdom, Korea, Canada and Japan have already adopted and implemented green building technology (Korkmaz, et al., 2009). The initial costs of Green buildings are higher than the conventional buildings specially when incorporating more advance technologies and selecting higher levels of LEED or sustainability. But Green buildings may cost more to build than conventional buildings, especially when incorporating more advanced technologies and higher levels of LEED, or sustainability. However, they also offer significant cost savings over time. (Greg Kats, et al., 2003, p. 9). Developing countries are experiencing exponential growth in the built environment and there is a great potential of making the design and construction practices in these countries more sustainable through green building guidelines (Korkmaz, et al., 2009).

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As a developing country, India has witnessed major progress in the context of green building guidelines since 2001 (Potbhare, et al., 2009, p. 159). Whereas also Pakistan is facing the environmental issues which is not only threatens the human health but also disturbing the economic development and environmental protection of the country. The major problems that Pakistan is facing are the energy crisis, limited water resources, recycling of solid waste and use of energy intensive construction material (Sana, 2013). Green building design and construction are the suitable possible way to overcome the water, energy, material and waste issues in Pakistan. As per confederation of Indian Industry, green building in India consumes 30 to 50 percent less energy as compared to conventional building. There are few buildings in Pakistan that are recognized as green architecture/ construction but on a larger scale still Pakistan is in need to implement green building concept country wide. To overcome the crisis such as energy, water and solid waste it is proposed that by introducing the green buildings construction in Pakistan market, it will provide an immediate solution to the mentioned problems (Aslam, et al., 2012).

1.1.2 Problem Statement Currently energy crisis is the major threat to Pakistan. The current energy crisis in Pakistan has affected all fields of society badly. A constant increase in the gap between the electricity demand and supply has been noted with each passing day (Mahboob, 2013). Major portion of the electricity consumption belongs to building sector of Pakistan as 40 percent electricity generated by Pakistan is consumed by building sector (Alamgir, 2008). Another issue that exist as a biggest threat is the water shortage crisis in the country over the past few decades. As per the experts, the availability of potable water per capita was 5600 cubic meter in 1950s but now the value is lower to 1000 cubic meter per capita. Public awareness is very necessary towards the importance of water management and its efficient use (Islam, 2013). Also commonly used construction materials in Pakistan i.e. clay bricks etc. are highly energy intensive. With the excessive use of these construction materials gives not only negative impact on the environment but also drains the energy sources (Tirmizi, 2010, p. 4).
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The traditional building design and construction in Pakistan is very congested with less movement and very less outdoor space. In Pakistan joint family system is very common so greater number of people living in small houses gives poor ventilation and bad indoor day light. In these buildings as the indoor air quality has adverse effect on occupant’s health (UN-Habitat, 2010, p. 5). Whereas green building is a practice of creating structures, which reduces energy consumption, increase in the use of renewable energy, minimum production of waste, provides better indoor air quality and efficient use of construction material (INPAPERMAGZINE, 2011). In terms of words or documents, Pakistan claims to be the part of global world but Pakistan lacks when it comes to action and implementing environmental protocols. The point of concern is that to overcome the above mentioned threats, many environmental and energy efficient policies were introduced but they were not implemented properly. Whereas India is far ahead in the implementation of green building across the country. Indian political parties are serious on this issue that they have placed the climatic matter and sustainable development on the top of their manifestos (Sana, 2013).

1.1.3 Objectives The aim and objective of the research project is to analyze and study the opportunities and challenges that Green Building technology have in Pakistan. As despite of having serious environmental and energy crisis in country, why till now green building technology is not yet introduced or implemented on a larger scale in Pakistan. The challenges and opportunities for the implementation and adoption of Green building technology exists in Pakistan are discussed in detail by doing SWOT analysis and a case study. The aim of research illustrates following research objectives.   A SWOT analyses of large scale green building technology

implementation in Pakistan. A case study to discuss the technology being already used in similar climates.

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To propose recommendations for adoption & implementation of green building technology in Pakistan as per objective 1 and 2.

1.2

Research Methodology

The research methodology will explain the procedures and methods opted to collect the desired data for this study. The research is done in an adjustable fashion so as to bolster the way of thinking and obtain knowledge on the problem space in a coherent way. The research work is divided into four stages which are explained in detail below. The following four stages are: • • • • Theoretical phase Analytical phase Result phase Results evaluation phase.

1.2.1 Theoretical Phase This is the preliminary stage where research topic Challenges and Opportunities of Green Buildings in Pakistan is explained in detail and data collection against the research topic to determine the problem associated to the research. This phase includes the introduction, research methodology and literature review part of the project work. The phase is divided into three parts which are as under:    Introduction Research Methodology Literature Review

The introduction part will define the green building and also will discuss the increase in demand of this technology in developing countries. It will also describe the present scenario of green building challenges and opportunities in Pakistan. The literature review will explain in detail that what is actually a green building is, its important features and why people got attracted towards this technology. A brief introduction, the history of the green building, its application worldwide and current situation. It also includes the green building strategies for Pakistan and what is the current development in Pakistan. The research is based on the data

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collected from the various sources including article, journals, reports, books and the website sources.

1.2.2 Analytical Phase Analytical phase comprises of STEEP analysis which is used to determine the social, technological, environmental, economic and political aspects. The results from STEEP analysis will be utilized as an input for the SWOT analysis which is also a part of analytical phase. SWOT analysis will determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of green building to be implemented in Pakistan. SWOT analysis is followed by a case study research of a green building constructed in India having similar cultural, social and political problems like Pakistan.

1.2.3 Result Phase Recommendation will be made in this phase after the detailed discussion in the SWOT analysis part and the case study. Recommendations will explain the procedure and steps to be taken in order to increase the chances of Green building technology to be introduced and implemented in Pakistan.

Recommendation part is followed by the Conclusion. Data obtained from the SWOT analysis, case study and recommendations will also be concluded in this phase. A flow chart is made to explain all the phases that will help the reader to understand the structure of this project report.

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Introduction

Theoretical Phase

Research Methodology

Literature Review

Research Methodology Phases

Analytical Phase

Case Study ss

STEEP Analysis

SWOT Analysis

Recommendation on the basis of SWOT Analysis and case study

Result Phase

Conclusion

Table 1: Research Methodology Flowchart.

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1.3

Literature Review

1.3.1 What is green building The construction of buildings and development of modern towns/cities have strong and substantial harmful effect on the environment. Also buildings are quite responsible for having bad impacts on the mental and physical health of their residents (JANAK, 2009, p. 1). The maximum percentage of world’s energy is consumed by the building sector. As per the research 40 percent of the total energy is consumed by the buildings, they also utilizes 12 percent of the water and dispose 40 percent of the solid waste to landfill. On a higher level scientists and think tanks agreed that this is an alarming situation as buildings are also responsible for the global problems. However buildings can be the biggest solutions to these environmental problems. (Arnel, 2012). It is realized that the global warming has been the existing threat to the environment and a fact which is not deniable. Developed counties are focused on the promotion and implementation of technique for reducing the energy and resource consumption and also the reduction in the release of CO2 gasses. The building sector is the largest energy consumer and also it produces huge amount of waste, pollution and greenhouse gases, so this sector needs serious improvement in order to stop the negative harmful effects of building on the environment. There are about 12.5 million residential and 430,000 commercial buildings in Canada. As a result, these buildings are actually consuming about 50 percent of the natural resources, utilizing 33 percent of energy and also they emits about 30 percent of greenhouse gasses (Sangster, 2006, p. 8). There have many techniques and ways are developed and introduced to reduce, minimize the environmental concerns of global warming and air pollution related to building construction industry, as these both factors are linked with the energy issues (Alnaser, et al., 2008a). As the rapid increase in the population and economy is expanding, it is now a challenging job for the builders, constructors and designers to meet the upcoming needs, requirements and demands for the new or renovated structures/facilities that are easily accessible, secure, productive and healthy and also they are not putting negative impact on the environment (Alnaser, et al., 2008b).
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With the increasing awareness of environmental problems, people are coming up with new ways to solve or decrease environmental degradation. One of the ideas is of Green buildings. Green building actually refers to a structure which is environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's lifecycle. The process includes design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition (Aslam, et al., 2012). Another definition of green building is that a building which includes the efficient usage of clean energy and water, better use of recycle material or the material ready for recycling and also it provides a healthy indoor environment (Mohindroo, 2008, p. 5). At every stage of green building construction process, special attentions to the environmental consideration is given and major phases are design, construction, operation and maintenance. The integration concept makes the major difference between the conventional and green building rest the teams of multi-disciplinary professional used to work together from the planning stage till the pre occupant phase (Zafar, 2013). Design phase has the major importance as architecture design can control the consumption of energy in the building and also its solid waste. It will be possible to reduce carbon dioxide emission CO2. Design of building that makes the solar energy usage at the maximum capacity, usage of renewable resources can control the energy consumption. As water is the most important depleting resource in India, another important area for green construction is the optimum usage of water resource (Bagchi, 2011).

1.2.3.1 Important Elements of a Green Building As per the survey in U.S, buildings are usually responsible for 72% of electricity consumption, 39% of energy use, 35% of carbon dioxide emissions, 40% of raw material usage, 30% waste output and 14% potable water consumption (DurmusPedini & Ashuri, 2010). As shown in figure 1, green building just not only address the energy consumption of the building but also there are other important elements that are being considered by the green building. Green building is generally focused on few critical elements which are energy efficiency, indoor air quality, lot development, homeowner education, global impact, resource/material

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efficiency and water efficiency and management (The Green Makover home, 2009).

Global Impact

Lot Development

Homeowner Education

Resource Efficiency

Indorr Air Quality

Energy Efficiency

Water Effciency and quality

Figure 1: What is a Green Building? (The Green Makover home, 2009).

1.3.1.1

Energy Efficiency

Energy is the most critical factor that is addressed by Green buildings because the economic costs and environmental impacts are linked with the use of energy. The major objectives includes: • • Achieving the energy efficiency and reduction in energy use by installing energy efficient appliances, lighting. Renewable sources of energy such as solar power, thermal energy and combustion of biomass are very effectively and efficiently used.

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The building sector accounts for the largest percent of produced energy consumption. It uses 40 percent of our energy resources as compared to industry and transportation, which consume 32 percent and 28 percent, respectively (NewsRoomFeatures, 2009).

Figure 2: Energy consumption by different sectors, (NewsRoomFeatures, 2009). It is commonly noticed that in green buildings, usually energy has been treated as its major or sometimes only critical element. But the building is only considering and addressing the energy element, then that building may not be called as green building. As there are also many other environmental impacts which can overshadow the benefits of minimum utilization of energy in that building (Fischer, 2010, p. 5).

1.3.1.2

Water Management

Water is the most important and valuable element for the existence of human beings. One of the cost saving factor is the reduction of water usage in the buildings (Mohindroo, 2008, p. 2). Water resource management can be achieved by the recycling of the wastewater in the buildings. It is also important to note that water management also includes how the neighboring land and building itself

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controls and handles the rain water, on site water and run off. Water management may also include how the building and associated land handle rain, on-site water, and run-off (Fischer, 2010, p. 7).

1.3.1.3

Waste management

It is another important element of the green building. It is essential to reduce the environmental impact of waste gained from the construction process of the building. This can be achieved by doing the recycling of the waste material and also it is suggested to use the material more efficiently. Papers and plastic bags foodstuffs can be recycled or otherwise processed to reduce their environmental impact (Fischer, 2010, p. 8).

1.3.1.4

Lot Development

At this phase the developers and planners actually do the lay out of the communities and cities giving the adequate access to the resources and also they design the buildings with the proper orientation towards the sun. Echo system of the building and the storm water management are also part of the low lot development (The Green Makover home, 2009).

1.3.1.5

Resource/Material Used

It is also known as material efficiency. Material selection and use in the building construction process and also in its operations is an important factor, as it is responsible for the sustainability of the buildings environment footprints (Fischer, 2010, p. 8). It is possible to reduce the landfill waste obtained from the construction and operation process of the building, if it is utilized more efficiently and designed for recycling. (Smiciklas, et al., 2012, p. 5).

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1.3.1.6

Indoor air quality

Building design should allow the best indoor air quality to maintain the healthy environment inside the building. With the use of materials such as asbestos, material without heavy metals or other toxic material can cause building impacts on occupant’s health. There are also other factors for example lighting, building design, or climate change can have major effect on human health (Fischer, 2010, p. 8).

1.3.1.7

Global Impact

It is important to keep in mind that while focusing on the building sustainability and comfort for the occupants it is recommended to have a look outward to the neighbor that the building is not going to harm the surrounding specially the neighbors (The Green Makover home, 2009).

1.3.2 Why people attracted towards Green Building Why there is a need of green building and why people attracted towards this concept is asked from many occupants of green building and 3 major reasons came out by these occupants (Srinivas, 2007). The reasons are following:

1.3.2.1

Operational Savings

The advantage of green buildings are that they consume about 40 to 50 percent less energy and also 20 to 30 percent less water as compared to conventional building. But there will be an incremental cost which will be pack back in 3 to 5 years’ time span (Srinivas, 2007).

1.3.2.2

Daylight and Views

Another important aspect is the daylight and views. The daylight and views in the working environment makes the connection with the outside environment possible. It also provides pleasant and smoothing effect which has positive effect
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on their work. As per the research the productivity is increased by 12 to 15 percent of the people having access to daylight and views (Srinivas, 2007).

1.3.2.3

Air Quality

Fresh and healthy air quality is an important aspect of green buildings. To maintain excellent indoor air quality green buildings use interior material with low voltaic compound (VOC) emissions. About 15 cfm/person of fresh air exclusion is needed by the office building to maintain the healthy and fresh environment inside the building (Srinivas, 2007).

1.3.3 History of Green Building

1.3.3.1

How it got started

Henri Becquerel was the first person who witnessed the conversion of solar energy into electrical energy which is also called as photovoltaic power. In late 18th century till the start of 19th century sun energy was used to be converted in to the steam energy with the help of solar power plants. Then from 1950s solar energy was used on a smaller scale, making way 20 years later for the solar panel solution. Green building moved to reality from development and research stage during the 1970s energy crisis. Due to the initial high costs, solar panels on a smaller scale were installed in the buildings. Since then developers constructed more efficient and lesser expensive solar panels making possible the maximum use of solar energy. In the meantime, a research had begun as if solar panels can be more helpful towards the energy consumption as they make the building more energy efficient with lower energy bills and also they have minimum negative effect on the environment (BStone, 2011). Due to the energy crisis in 1970s American institute of Architects (AIA) made an energy task force along with the AIA Committee on Energy. They had made two groups of teams, assigning different jobs to them. One team was responsible for the passive systems, for example saving the energy. Second team was looking at the technological solutions like triple grazed windows. The building energy
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conservation efforts were kept on moving ahead as in 1977, Willis Faber and Dumas Headquarters grass roof were used to make the maximum use of daylight. Also In 1977, the Solar Energy Research Institute which was latterly renamed as National Renewable Energy Laboratory was established to examine energy technologies and Department of Energy was made to look at the usage of energy and conservation (Duro-Last Roofing, et al., 2003, p. 4). Norwegian Prime minister Gro Harlem Bruntland gave the first definition to Sustainable development in 1987 UN World Commission on Environment and Development, as the development which “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Duro-Last Roofing, et al., 2003, p. 5). The first national eco labeling program was used in Germany in 1977. The program is known as Blue Angel. This program contains different types of product covering all fields including building construction. It is used in the multiple environmental factors like for pollution prevention, safety, emissions, and for hazardous substances. In 1989 Nordic Swan, a voluntary echo labeling program was introduced. The event was attended by the northern European countries such as Iceland, Finland, Denmark and Sweden (Duro-Last Roofing, et al., 2003, p. 19). Globally, in 1990 the Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM), world’s first environmental assessment method and rating system for buildings was established in the UK. The U.S Green building council (USGBC) was established in 1993 and Indian Green Building Council was formed in 2001. CII Sohrabji Godrej Green is the India first USGBC LEED Certified (Meghraj, 2007, p. 5). In 1990, the very first internationally used environmental assessment tool introduced to the world is BREEAM, which stands for Building Research Environmentally Assessment Method. The assessment method is also used in other countries like Canada, New Zealand and Australia (Duro-Last Roofing, et al., 2003, p. 18). The earth summit held in June 1992, was attended by 2400 non-government and 172 government organizations. Agenda 21 which focuses on the achievement of global sustainability, environmental and development issues, climate change, biodiversity and announcements on forest principles is a document of historical importance and its formal passage marked the historical event. In June 1993, at
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UIA/AIA Congress of Architects, sustainability was chosen the theme for the event by the AIA president due to the inspiration from June 1992 Earth summit. U.N.’s 1985 Bruntland Commission definition of sustainability was being referred at this event and AIA president Maxman signed the Declaration of Interdependence for a Sustainable Future. (Duro-Last Roofing, et al., 2003, p. 5). In the same year 1993, the US Green Building Council (GBC) was formed. The membership of U.S Green Building Council consists of 150 groups. The member groups represents all divisions of the building sector which includes managers, design companies, universities and offices, professional societies, financial firms, city and state and minimum twelve federal government agencies (Landman, 1999, p. 20).

1.3.3.2

The Greening of the White House

Greening the White house was the instruction given by the newly elected President of U.S Bill Clinton 1993. White house has the tradition of accepting and demonstrating the new technology innovation. By taking the initiative of greening the White House had increased and improved the environmental and energy performance of the building. The outcome of this exercise had reduced the waste, controlled the energy consumption and improved the proper use of renewable resources. The Department of Energy carried out the auditing of energy performance of the White House. By year 1996, $300,000 annual savings has been achieved from water, energy, landscaping and solid waste costs and also the reduction in the emission of carbon by 845 metric tons (House, 1994). About $1.4 million savings was achieved by the White House greening project in the first 6 years. The major changes made to the building were insulation, lighting, heating, air conditioning, energy and also minimizing the water and energy consumption. (Kubba, 2012, p. 10). The successful greening of the White House encouraged the government to take further steps towards sustainable development. Pentagon, U.S department of Energy headquarters and the Presidio were also instructed to be given the green treatment. A memorandum of understating was signed between United State Department of Energy and AIA/COTE in 1996, to conduct joint research and
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development (R&D) and to promote and start the series of building projects in 21st century. (Duro-Last Roofing, et al., 2003, p. 5).

Figure 3: Evans Mills Our Hand in Greening the White House, (CBS Newsletter, 1994). As the rapidly increasing growth of green building in U.S set an impression that though the green building U.S has large numbers but the in Europe Green Building has been more advanced then U.S. One of the few huge projects of Green building by such as Foster and Partners (London) is Commerzbank headquarters in Frankfurt opened in 1997 was recognized as the greatest skyscraper in Europe. It is also the Europe’s tallest building with 60 stories. Other major projects include German Parliament also known as German Reichtag in Berlin and the pickle shaped Gherkin in London are another great examples of green movement in Europe (Yudelson, 2008, p. 5).

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1.3.3.3

Green Building Movement in Asia

On other hand in Asia Green building movement gained momentum since 2000 where significant government initiative were taken to promote and bring awareness towards the Green Building introduction in respective Countries. Japan, India and China took the imitative as being the largest energy consumers in Asia. Since 2000 China has three new building standards has been issued by China in order to make the energy savings of the building sector possible by 30 to 50 percent (Hong, et al., 2007, p. 22). China, for example, has issued three new building standards since 2000. It has increased the energy-saving target for new buildings from 30 to 50 percent. The percentage of energy saving is different for the major cities as a higher target of 65 percent was recommended for these cities. Targets were established for making the existing building energy efficient. Japan the other largest energy consumer country in Asia has been working on establishing the building energy policies to meet and support the national goal of Carbon Dioxide emissions reduction after the Kyoto Protocol was negotiated in 1997. In 1999 Japan revised the energy standards for both residential and nonresidential buildings. The housing Quality Assurance law and also energy efficiency labeling system was made in 2000 in Japan. CASBEE stands for Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency was established in 2004 and was updated in 2006 (Hong, et al., 2007, p. 22).

Figure 4: Total energy consumption by buildings from 1980 to 2030 (Hong, et al., 2007, p. 8)

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The first national building energy standard for India was developed in 2001. The goal was to ensure reduction of 25-40 percent of energy consumptions in new building. Green Building movement in other Asians countries were also started in the same time and building energy standards were revised and upgraded in Singapore 1999, Malaysia 2001, Hong Kong 2005, Thailand 2001 to 2005, and the Philippines 2005. South Korea has developed their first building energy standard in 2004 (Hong, et al., 2007, p. 22).

1.3.3.4

Current Situation

Green building is still a new concept in many part of the world as the history of sustainable building is few decades old. The demand of sustainable building construction is increasing rapidly. Today, it is the requirement and need of the occupants to have clean, environmentally friendly and safer homes for their use (BStone, 2011). As per the predictions by many observers, in the next 30 years half of the world’s new building construction will occur in China covering area of 220 billion square feet. It is nearly impossible to tackle with the world climate change without introducing the energy efficiency in the buildings. Currently energy crisis is a serious problem in major part of the world. Among world’s 40 largest cities by population, mostly are not in the developed world. Some of these cities are, Karachi and Lahore in Pakistan. Pune, Mumbai, Delhi in India, Beijing, Chonqing, Wuhan in China. Out of 40 largest populated cities of the world there are only 2 cities in U.S and Russia, 1 in Japan, 1 in western Europe U.K and in developed East Asia countries there is only 1 city from Singapore. These figures indicates that there is a need of introducing sustainable buildings on a worldwide scale to meet the energy shortages in the coming years. An attempts and efforts are being made by the developers, architects and owners to discover whether it is possible to construct a sustainable building on conventional building budget (Yudelson, 2007, p. 4). Global building energy efficiency retrofit program of about US$5 billion was initiated by Clintons Foundation’s Clinton Climate Initiative (CCI) in May 2007. The objective of this initiative is to improve the energy savings and installation of energy efficient products that can save the energy between 20 to 50 percent. 16 cities were selected for this project out of which 5 cities Karachi, Mumbai,

18

Bangkok, Tokyo and Seoul are in Asia. Including Asia across the globe currently there are many sustainable building project are going on. (Hong, et al., 2007, p. 4). Green building design and construction has been the fastest growing building trend which has been adopted globally. Newsletters, articles and magazines on monthly basis on the current development of Green Building. Green Building concept has been adopted by major part of the world. Even developing countries like India has got its first Platinum Green Building CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Center in Hyderabad in year 2003 as per LEED standards. It was also the first LEED Platinum rate Green Building outside the U.S inaugurated in 2004 (Thüring, 2009). Pakistan having the similar environmental and energy issues as of India, but still Green Building technology is not accepted and implemented the sustainable building in the country. It is the matter of concern that in Pakistan building construction is not done as per the need of the climatic changes. That results in the extra energy consumption by the occupants and the owners (Tirmizi, 2010, p. 3).

1.3.3.5

Green Building Rating Systems

It is necessary to discuss about the green building assessment tools which are being used worldwide. What are the rating systems used in India as the climatic conditions are quite similar to Pakistan? As right now there is no such practice going on in Pakistan as far as green building rating systems are concerned. Green building rating systems are required to examine whether the building is really green against the predefined rating systems (Shailesh, 2012). Throughout the world different building assessment tools are being used to determine the environmental performance of a building through its life time. The different parameters of the building against its design, construction and operation are established through various set of criteria’s. The major reason of creating th e green building rating system is that the buildings are considered to be the largest contributor to the world’s energy usage, waste management and diminishing green space. (Modak, 2012).

19

Some of the internationally used green building rating systems are as under:      BEEAM (Building Research Establishment’s Environmental Assessment Method). GB tool Green Globe™ U.S. CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Building

Environmental Efficiency) LEED ® (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design).

Table 2 contains the list of Green building assessment tools that are being used worldwide. Column 2 in the table shows the development basis of each tool (Fowler & Rauch, 2006, p. 3).

Table 2. Rating System Source(s) Sustainable Building Rating Systems BREEAM (Building Research Development Basis

Establishment’s Original

Environmental Assessment Method) BREEAM Canada BREEAM BREEAM Green Leaf BREEAM BREEAM, Leaf™ Calabasas LEED LEED® Green

CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Original Building Environmental Efficiency) CEPAS (Comprehensive Environmental LEED®, BREEAM, HKBEAM, IBI Original

Performance Assessment Scheme) GBTool

GEM (Global Environmental Method) For Existing Green Globes Canada Buildings (Green Globes) – UK

20

GOBAS System)

(Green

Olympic

Building

Assessment CASBEE, LEED®

Green Building Rating System – Korea

BREEAM, BEPAC

LEED®,

Green Globes Canada Green Globes™ US Green Star Australia

BREEAM Green Leaf Green Globes Canada BREEAM, LEED®

LEED® (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Original Design) LEED Canada LEED India LEED Mexico LEED® LEED® LEED® Green

MSBG (The State of Minnesota Sustainable Building LEED®, Guidelines)

Building Challenge '98, and BREEAM

SPiRiT (Sustainable Project Rating Tool) TERI Green Rating for Integrated

LEED® Habitat Original

Assessment TQ Building Assessment System (Total Quality Original Building Assessment System) HK BEAM (Hong Kong Building Environmental BREEAM Assessment Method) Table 2: Sustainable building rating systems (Fowler & Rauch, 2006, p. 3).

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1.3.3.6

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED ®)

There are many rating systems followed in the world. But it is noticed that LEED rating system is the most accepted and used system worldwide. In fact many other systems are influenced by LEED rating concept and processes. It is also called as mother of all rating systems (rating, 2012). U.S Green Building Council (USGBC) was formed in 1993. With its formation, it was observed that there is a need of system that could review and measure ‘’green buildings’’. In 1998 U.S Green Building Council developed Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design also called as LEED green building rating system. In the same year, 1998 first LEED pilot project program was initiated. It is also called LEED Version 1.0 and it was presented in USGBC Member Summit in August 1998 (Council, 2009, p. 7). It is possible to achieve large range of cost savings and occupant benefits with the help LEED certification. It also include the lower operating cost, increased asset value, better indoor air quality, reduced landfill waste, reduced energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission and other benefits. There are four levels of certification in LEED Green Building rating system. These rating includes:     Certified: Silver: Gold: Platinum: 26-32 points 33-38 points 39-51 points 52-69 points (India, 2007, p. XVII).

These points correspond to the number of credits that can be obtained in the Green Building design categories:        Sustainable sites: Water efficiency: Energy and atmosphere: Materials and resources: Energy and atmosphere: Indoor environmental quality: Innovation and design: 14 points 05 points 17 points 13 points 17 points 15 points 05 points

22

Minimum 26 points are require for a building to get LEED certification (Johnston, 2009). The new and nest version of LEED also named as LEED v4 will be launched in fall of 2013 and builds on the core fundamentals of the current version of LEED while streamlining the certification process and will put more emphasis on performance of the building. Already beta version of LEED v4 is being implemented in more than 100 building projects in 11 countries (Crea, 2013). In Pakistan, there have been no building constructed as per international standards. Though there different projects in Pakistan with sustainability approach but still no such project is linked with LEED rating (Hyder, 2010). LEED® India

1.3.3.7

Where as in India green building movement started in 2001 with the establishment of Indian green building council (IGBC). Confederation of Indian Industries (CII) took the initiative for the formation of Indian green building council along with the World Green Building Council (WGBC) and U.S Green Building Council (USGBC). The LEED India Core committee was set up by the Indian Green Council (IGBC) to concentrate on LEED specifications to be moulded as per Indian context. The committee consisted of architects, industrial representatives and building owners. Then the very first Indian LEED rating system, also called as LEED India Version 1.0 was launched at the Green Building Congress Conference in October 2006. LEED India is also called as LEED India Green Building Rating System for new construction and Major renovations (India, 2007, p. XIII). Now Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design India (LEED-India) is globally recognized and accepted for the design, construction and operation of the high performance buildings. As it provides the basic tools and helps the owners, architects, facility managers to design, construction and operate the green building as per the international standards. By recognizing in the key 5 areas where LEED- India promotes the entire approach of the building to sustainability.   

Sustainable Site Development Water Savings Energy Efficiency

23

 

Materials Selection Indoor Air Quality

Figure 5: Growth of LEED certified buildings in India (India's leading real estate, 2010) As shown in the figure 5, in India LEED Certified buildings are increased to 120 by 2010. There is also increase in the registered building in India. The total number of registered buildings in India are 720. India achieved 442mn sq. ft. of green building footprint by 2010 (India's leading real estate, 2010).

1.3.3.8

Situation in Pakistan and LEED Earth

Green building movement in India and also LEED® India has been discussed in detail in this report because of the fact that Pakistan has the similar climatic conditions as of India. This is a matter of concern as Pakistan government is not taking this issue seriously. On the other hand the neighbouring countries like India and China are far ahead in implementing Green Building technology in their respective countries. So to start with the green building approach and its implementation in Pakistan, it could be possible to adopt the LEED- India rating system and guide lines to bring the green building awareness in Pakistan on a

24

larger scale. Keeping in view the great benefits of green architecture in Pakistan but unfortunately this concept has to find an application in Pakistan. Also green building implementation in Karachi Pakistan which is largest city and economic hub, can overcome existing electricity shortages. Sustainable building concept is spreading rapidly across the globe but in Pakistan no such efforts in the application and implementation of sustainable theory is seen as per international standards (Hyder, 2010).

For countries like Pakistan where LEED certification has not yet implemented or got introduced, by adding a new layer to LEED Earth campaign U.S Green Building Council (USGBC) who created the LEED® green building rating system is offering a free certification of LEED® to the first ever Platinum projects that certify using the latest version of LEED. This is an attempt to promote sustainable development around the world (Crea, 2013).

LEED Earth was announced to encourage the sustainable development and green building practices around the world by offering free certification for the very first project in 112 countries where LEED has yet to take root. LEED Earth is a new benchmark and opportunity for the businessman in building design, construction, operations and maintenance so that they could have greater aim and target of achieving energy efficiency and environmental sustainability. Pakistan is also included in the list of 112 countries (Release, 2013).

1.3.4 Green Building Strategies for Pakistan There is high energy need in the industrialized countries so the quantity of energy consumption is more. But in developing countries the proportion of energy usage is higher in the building sector due to the inefficiency of systems and it’s more significant than the developed countries because there is extreme energy shortages. In Pakistan Building sector consumes 43 percent of total energy produced whereas 10 percent of the energy is used in the transportation and manufacturing of the materials and components (World resource institute, 2007; as cited in Tirmizi, 2010). It is a matter of serious concern that most of the building constructed in Pakistan are not designed as per the climatic conditions. It is observed that the excessive use of concrete and glass materials along with use of high level of illuminations and heavy reliance on space conditioning are the
25

common features of our buildings. So in Pakistan owners and occupants consume extra energy in order to make the living comfortable for themselves. By improving the building design it is possible to reduce the energy bills by 20 percent and this figure can be 50 percent with the proper use of energy efficient appliance (Enercon, 2008; as cited in Tirmizi, 2010).

1.3.4.1

Our Buildings today

As shown in the Fig. 6, buildings today consumes 40 percent of the total world energy and they are responsible for 45 percent of the carbon dioxide emissions. 40 percent of freshwater consumption, 70 percent of all timber consumption, 40 percent of human produced waste and also 50 percent of the world’s material consumption (OECD, 2010; as cited in Tirmizi, 2010, p. 1). As discussed earlier the amount of energy consumed is greater in any industrialized countries for example in United Kingdom 56 percent of the energy is utilized in order to operate the buildings, and 10 percent is used in the manufacturing of the materials.

Figure 6: Our buildings today world over (Tirmizi, 2010, p. 2). Where as in United States buildings consume 39 percent of energy and 68 percent of electricity, also 38 percent is utilized in carbon dioxide emissions and 49 percent of the sulphurdioxide, 25 percent of the nitrogen oxides and 15 percent

26

is used in the manufacturing and transporting of the building material. As far as energy consumption in Europe is concerned about 42 percent of the energy is used by the buildings and 13 percent is utilized by the building materials (Tirmizi, 2010, p. 2). Figure 8 show that the energy consumption per capita of Pakistan is 1/5 th of the OECD countries and also it is half of the world’s average. These figures shows that possible increase in the energy demand will be excessive with the improve standard of living and with the growth of gross domestic products unless some actions are taken (Khan, 2007, p. 4).

5 4.5 4

TOE/Capita

3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 OECD World Middle East Asia Pakistan

Figure 7: Specific Consumption of the Total Primary Energy Supply per capita (Khan, 2007, p. 5). In Pakistan it is a normal practice that new buildings constructed in Pakistan are not being designed as per the local climatic conditions. Also the material selection such as concrete, glass, high levels of illumination and heavy dependence on space conditioning are the common aspects of building design in Pakistan. So there is lack of awareness as the owners and occupants are consuming extra energy in order to make their lives comfortable. It is estimated that by improving the building design as per the climatic conditions and by selecting the best materials will decrease the energy bills by 20 percent and also this figure can be

27

improved to 50 percent with the usage of energy efficient appliances (Tirmizi, 2010, p. 3). Green buildings are not only beneficial in reducing the energy consumption but also they are helpful to avoid the global warming, reduce the demand on the power grid, improve inside air quality and save consumers money. Now the selection of the procedure in the design and construction of new buildings in Pakistan will definitely effects the energy use for many coming years. The most economic process of developing a cost effective opportunity is catered by building design and construction methodologies in such a way that they last for the lifetime of the building. Thus it is critical to make energy efficiency a fundamental part of sustainable building design and construction (Tirmizi, 2010, p. 3).

1.3.4.2

Construction industry of Pakistan

The changes developed in the recent times with the modernization in construction industry and aim to construct the huge buildings has stretched the technology to its limits. Introduction of the better and developed composition of high strength concrete, structural steel, new cladding and glazing material, new developments in glass industry, HVAC systems and air conditioning have brought greater change in the construction industry. Such changes have resulted in the environmentally adverse buildings. In order to maintain better indoor air quality, these buildings are reliant on non-renewable energy resources and also on the higher carbon foot prints which will increase the maintenance and operational costs of the building through its life time. The traditional buildings of the past were suited to the local weather conditions because the facilities were developed over the years. On the other hand, the new age buildings are using mechanical means to monitor the comfort level of the users. Moreover, due to the lack of usable space, the clients and developers have to use the optimum space available for development. Urban development has brought to the fore excessive heat, pollution and greenhouse gas emission that has prompted for renewable energy use for mechanical HVAC and other associated tasks (Tariq, et al., 2012, p. 18). Building construction industry of Pakistan is considered to be the largest industry in terms of whole volume of natural resources and material consumed, economic expenditure, volume of products and materials manufactured, employment opportunities produced and its environmental impacts. Huge amount of material
28

consumption is done in Pakistan construction industry. Due to the increase of the housing demand, there has been increase in the material need is observed in the last 2 decades. Which doubled the demand of brick, steel and cement (Tirmizi, 2010, p. 4). As per the table 3 below, the raw material used for the building construction is actually utilizing the earth resources on a larger scale. As for the brick making procedure, it is a common practice that the valuable and precious top soil is being continuously and rapidly consumed. Material Mud, stones, wood/thatch Sun dried bricks Pottery products Burnt bricks Lime Glass Iron products Lime-pozzolana cement Aluminium Portland cement Plastics Period Prior 8000 BC 6000 BC 4000–8000 BC 4000 BC 3000 BC 1300 BC 1350 BC 300 BC–476 AD 1808 AD 1824 AD 1862 AD

Table 3: Historical development of Building materials (Reddy, 2004). In Pakistan we have variety of arable land comprises of different types of soil for example black soil, red soil, laterite soil alluvial soils and desert soil. Area under the soils suitable for brick making may not exceed 50% of the arable land. The attempts in making the bricks to meet the present and future demands can utilize and consume the fertile topsoil of arable land in about 100 years (Lunt, M. G., 1980; as cited in Tirmizi, 2010, p. 4). Similarly the pressure on raw materials like limestone to manufacture cement and energy requirements to produce these materials has to be addressed.
29

Production of construction materials has gradually transitioned from concentrated labour intensive approaches to a mechanical approach, which relies more on modern day machinery. This concentrated production methodology requires the transportation of raw materials and dispersion of finished products over large areas. These activities again require spending of fossil fuels for transportation. Another concerning and serious issue is the transportation of finished and raw materials which can be the reason of the increased energy requirements, material cost and environmental issues (Reddy, 2004). The commonly used building material in Pakistan such as cement, brick steel, aluminium, glass etc. are transported over a long distance. The use of such material can drain the natural energy resources and could be harmful to the environment. But the fact that with the use of only energy efficient materials such as mud, thatch, timber it’s not possible to meet the desired growing building construction demands. So it is necessary to utilize the available energy resources and raw materials to develop energy efficient, environment friendly and sustainable building alternatives and techniques to satisfy the increase the increasing demand for buildings. Some of the guiding principles in developing

the sustainable alternative building technologies can be summarized as follows (Tirmizi, 2010, p. 5):          Use of renewable energy sources. Energy conservation Decentralized production and maximum use of local skills Minimize the use of high energy materials; Concern for environment Environment-friendly technologies Minimize transportation and maximize the use of local materials and resources Utilization of industrial and mine wastes for the production of building materials Recycling of building wastes (Tirmizi, 2010, p. 5).

If the manufacturing of the building technologies are being done as per these principles then they could become sustainable and efficient sharing of the energy

30

resources will result in the minimum damage to the environment (Tirmizi, 2010, p. 5). As we know building materials uses large quantity of natural resources, in other words construction activities utilizes 60 percent of the raw materials. Salvaging building materials and reusing them not only saves energy but also reduces the greenhouse gas emissions. It will be done by minimizing the need to extract and process raw materials and shipping of new material from a long distances. The negative impact on the environment will be reduce as the greenhouse gasses generated from the waste decomposition, the requirement to build new landfills or the emission of the air pollutions from waste burning (EPA, 2012).

1.3.4.3

Current challenges

In present time, one of the serious threats to our planet is the climate change. There are various factor that causes the climate change. One of the major factor that is putting negative environmental effect to the climate are buildings. To give way to buildings resources such as forests, water, and energy are depleted. Today, as per the expert analysis energy utilization in the building sector for its construction and operation is twice as much as of cars and trucks. As per the experts there will be 40 percent increase in the energy consumption of building by 2050 emitting 3800 mega tons of carbon which is actually causing global warming (Mohindroo, 2008, p. 6). Buildings and construction works have the largest single share in global resource use and pollution emission. Figure 8 shows that the OECD countries where the built environment is responsible for the 30 percent of the raw material, 30-40 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions, 25-40 percent of total energy use and 30-40 percent of solid waste generation. 30-40% of global greenhouse gas emissions and for 20% of water effluents (Isover Sustainable insulation, 2009).

31

Figure 8: Share of built environment in pollution emission and resource use (Isover Sustainable insulation, 2009). The requirement of green buildings in Pakistan based on some major factors. The following factors are explained to develop an idea why and how green building can safeguard the future of Pakistan.

1.3.4.4

Energy gap

In the present time, energy crisis is the major threat to Pakistan. The current energy crisis in Pakistan has effected badly all fields of society. There is constant increase in the gap between the electricity demand and supply every passing day. It is need of the time to bring the change in the lifestyle and attitudes at the national level to conserve electricity in order to overcome the energy gap. Energy conservation is the only short term measure which can fill the gap between demand and supply. We can save a lot of electricity through energy conservation which must be taken immediately to cope with the shortage of electricity. With the ongoing energy failures in Pakistan has destroyed 50 percent of the industrial sector which results in the increase of the unemployment. It increases the costs

32

of services and goods which has also effected the fixed income group (KHAN, 2011). Domestic consumption of electricity in Pakistan is 45 percent of the total electricity produced. Large portion of energy in buildings in Pakistan are used in heating, lighting and cooling and derived from non-renewable sources. With the application of green building practices with its alternative renewable sources to power buildings, and energy efficient methods in new as well as existing buildings will reduce the energy demand (Ebrahim, 2009).

Forecast of Pakistan Power Generation and Consumption
25000

20000

15000

10000

5000

0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Consumption 2007 2008 2009 2010

Generation

Figure 9: Forecast for Pakistan’s power generation and consumption (World News, 2005). Figure 9 shows the electricity demand touched the record of 20000 MW in year 2010 in Pakistan, whereas the total power generation for the electricity is approximately 15000 MW. The other major problem is the power theft. While it is impossible to precisely measure theft (as opposed to line loss), it is obvious that it creates a sizable proportion of Pakistan's overall 30 percent energy loss rate. In the past Pakistan army was given responsibility to check and control the illegal connections to transmission lines and rigged meters. That action has helped to

33

increase revenues, but power theft is just one part of the financial problems for the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) (World News, 2005). Karachi is the largest city of Pakistan and also economic hub. But the most alarming situation is the electricity short fall in the city. The duration of electricity load shedding is approximately 57 percent of the time from 10 am till 12 pm midnight. Green buildings can be useful in controlling the huge electricity load shedding. With the installation of photovoltaic panels (PV) which convert the sunlight in to electricity can cover more than 20 percent of the electricity demand.

Figure 10: Pakistan energy outlook 2008-2022, (OICCI Energy Subcommittee, 2006, p. 14). Also if there is more uncovered area in the building than number of photovoltaic panels (PV) can be increased which could meet the electricity demand up to 50 percent (INPAPERMAGZINE, 2011). According to the Petroleum institute of Pakistan, from year 2008 till 2022 the expected energy growth in Pakistan will be doubled energy consumption as per capita basis from 381 kg per capita to 700 kg per capita. A quantity of energy saved via efficiency and conservation measures during this time span would
34

enable our independence from foreign imports and decrease financial pressure on our native resources (OICCI Energy Subcommittee, 2006, p. 14). The application of energy reducing techniques and procedures in existing and new buildings will help out in overcoming the energy crisis in the country. It is the need of time to implement the Pakistan building energy code in new buildings and existing building are required to be renovated as per the standards mentioned in the code. The government needs to embark on a programme to encourage energy reduction in buildings in the form of incentives and rebates to the private sector that undertake these kinds of projects. Pakistan`s building energy codes should be enforced in new buildings and in existing buildings to be renovated. Future generation should be aware of the green building concept in Pakistan by promoting education in this field. So the design and construction of green buildings in the country will help in reducing the building energy usage without sacrificing comfort (Ebrahim, 2009).

1.3.4.5

Air Pollution

In Pakistan air pollution is the serious concern, as polluted air hits directory the respiratory system. Air is essential for all living creature in the world without which no one can survive for a couple of minutes. This is manmade environmental disasters that are currently taking place all over the world including Pakistan. The rate of air pollution is much more in the third world countries as compared to the developed countries. Pakistan is also included in the list of these third world countries. There are various reasons which causes air pollution in Pakistan for example, brick work emissions, industrial smoke, hospital waste etc. Brick kiln emission produces gasses like carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, hydrocarbons and particulates like dust are extremely dangerous for the environment and health of the living organisms itself living in its surroundings (ISMAIL, et al., 2012). Burning of fossil fuels produces air pollutant gasses such as particulates, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide. Particulates cause illness whereas nitrogen oxide are a component of smoke. Sulphur dioxide causes acid rain and carbon dioxide is the major global warming gas and is implicated in climate change (Dawn news, 2008).

35

47,920 tons of solid waste per day has been generating in Pakistan. Out of which 19190 tones is generated in urban and 28730 is generated in rural areas. There is no waste disposal system in Pakistan. Wastes are found dumped on the side of the roads, streets or dumped in a low lying areas. All these wastes are burnt at low temperature which is really dangerous and harmful technique. By burning these wastes will produce particulate matters and also dioxin, which is a persistent organic pollutant. A project is initiated in cooperation of Japanese government for capacity building for waste management in the country. The objective of the project is to develop a community based soled waste management action plans, their implementation and evaluation as per the guidelines (Pakistan environmental protection agency, Ministry of environment, 2009, p. 3).

1.3.4.6

Water Shortage

The most dangerous and upcoming threat for Pakistani nation, who are already suffering and bearing the electricity and gas load shedding, is the water shortage in the country. According to the experts the drinking water in 1950s was 5600 cubic meter per capita which is now lower to 1000 cubic meter per capita and by every passing day this value is decreasing rapidly. It is really important to make people aware about the importance of water and the concerning issue related to its shortage in the country. Every person uses approximately 60 to 70 percent more water than its need and requirement. People are sloppy and careless while using the water. With the careful approach it’s possible to control the water scarcity issue (Islam, 2013). In few countries around the world strict monitoring has been done for the usage of water. For example at the time of water shortage in the country watering the lawns and gardens is banned. State of the art recycling system should be installed in schools, colleges, universities, hospitals and all other buildings so that all household water including sewerage water is rendered fit for garden and lawn use (ANUM, 2011). With the use of household containers almost 0.06 percent of the total annual rainwater is harvested, which is very less. By improving the rainwater harvesting up to 0.25 percent of the annual rainfall will help in reducing and minimizing water shortage in the country. Sukkar foundation. A non-governmental organisation
36

constructed a water shortage pond with a curb evaporation in Morry-je-Wandh is part of that effort. A geo-membrane sheet under the floor of the pond is laid to check the seepage and cover them with roof that help checking the evaporation of stored during the sizzling summer days. In the coming future there can be severe problems climatic changes and availability of limited water in the country (Shaikh & Tunio, 2011). Pakistani cities also vary in their responses to water problems, and these responses include innovations in water-conserving design. There are three very important aspects or types of urban water conservation, which are as under:    Waterworks conservation i.e., hydrologic features and infrastructure. Water resources conservation i.e., water use, re-use, and quality. Water experience conservation i.e., equity, enjoyment, symbolic meaning, hazards. In Pakistan, for the high income groups like five star hotels and cooperate buildings, low water fixtures, advanced building conservation systems and urban plumbing and irrigation standards can reduce the water use. Now on grounds these innovations are not yet implemented in most of the south Asian cities. There are many upper income buildings which have hot heaters, air conditioners and conventional chiller plants all in areas subject to frequent load shedding. However, Karachi’s warm coastal climate offers good potential for passive solar heating, cooling, and ventilation systems. Wash water reuse is the necessity in katchi abbadi (slum areas of Pakistan) and also in water conscious household of every class. It can be as simple as bucket collection of wash water, or as complex as re-plumbing buildings to divert wash water to outdoor irrigation uses (Altaf, et al., 2009, p. 141). The most commonly used method to influence the consumer behaviour to control the water consumption in Pakistan is the requirement and installation of water meters for all water connections and bills by volume of use. Though this is an unpopular measures but still it will reduces great amount of water losses and unaccounted for water. Use of high efficiency washing machine which uses less water should be encourage. Also the installation of ultra-low flow toilets and low flow showerheads should be encouraged in the hotel industry. The water conservation programme should be made to educate the public of the efficient
37

use water to minimize its wastage and also some incentives should be announced for reduced water use through the changes in consumer behaviour and also by installing the water saving equipment. The reason of water shortage in Pakistan is not that Pakistan do not have enough water but because we are not capable of preserving it. This is the critical time to take some serious steps to overcome the water shortage so that the coming generation should be safe from this disaster. Efforts to promote the education among the consumers to understand the long term advantages of using less water or low-water use landscaping and rainwater harvesting i.e. collecting rainwater in storage systems and save it for watering gardens, car washing or even toilet flushing. Businesses like hotels can also be encouraged to adopt “green” building codes, which include modifications designed to considerably slash the use of piped potable water (Dawn News Pakistan, 2010).

1.3.4.7

Improper waste management

In Pakistan, waste management system from its collection till disposal is really worst and bad. Approximately 50 percent of the solid waste collection is done by the government services. But to keep the cities cleans about 70 percent of wastes should be collected. The migration from rural to urban areas in the last few decades added extra load of urban infrastructure which results in the decline in the quality of urban life. Kachi abadis (shorter settlements) has been developed in every major city of Pakistan. These settlements accounts 35 to 50 percent of the total urban population. With the development of urbanisation the generation of waste has been increased rapidly. There are minimum resources with the municipal institutes to meet the needs of increasing urban population. (Mushtaq, 2012). All the middle and low income countries still don’t have better and efficient municipal solid waste (MSW) management system. Municipal solid waste management is the most neglected system in this part of the world (Batool & Chuadhry, 2008). There are different types of waste generated depending upon the nature and location of the disaster. There are different categories of waste production which are as under. • Domestic waste
38

• • • • • •

vegetation, soils and sediment, ash and charred wood Industrial waste Building waste Damaged household goods Environmental/hazardous waste Material packaging (Ashmore, et al., 2010, p. 10).

Building waste is collected or obtained from the demolition, reconstruction and rehabilitation of damaged buildings. It is the most voluminous types of building waste. But it should be noted that the building has the tendency of becoming a valuable resource. Its use in emergency shelter and reconstruction efforts can contribute to a reduction in natural resource extraction. Labour intensive public works clean-up programmes can assist affected communities in their postdisaster recovery (Ashmore, et al., 2010, p. 5).

1% 12% 3%
Paper

12%

27%

Plastics Wood Inert Materials Plasterboard

13%

Roofing Others

32%

Figure 11: Estimated average composition of construction and demolition debris in urban settings (Ashmore, et al., 2010, p. 13).

39

The average composition of building waste in cities in developed countries is shown below. In developing countries, the percentage of inert materials can reach up to 90 per cent of all building waste (Ashmore, et al., 2010, p. 13).

3

2.5

kg/Capita/day

2

1.5

1

0.5

0 Bahrain Kuwait Oman Qatar UAE Saudi Arabia

Figure 12: Rate of Municipal solid waste generated by countries (Gautam, 2009). Now for modern cities adoption and implementation of scientific way of waste management is becoming a challenge. If we consider and talk about the civic authorities in gulf countries where the ratio per capita of solid waste generation is higher than many other countries in world, have even bigger challenge to face. The major factors which actually are responsible for the increased waste generation problems are construction boom in the region, industrial growth, rapid increase in population and urbanization and also improved living lifestyle. Initial studies indicates that the solid waste generated in GDD region is about 120 million tons per year. Great quantity of waste is actually generated from the construction and demolition activities and it is followed by the municipal waste which is second largest waste category (Gautam, 2009).

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The revision and implementation of waste management law in Pakistan is the need of the time. The responsibilities of citizens, enterprises and the government must be clearly defined. Once the changes are being made in the legislation, it is duty of government to ensure its proper implementation, monitoring, control and evaluation. Influential prebuilding pole should also be taken on task if found violating and breaking the law and factories should be held accountable for the industrial waste they generate (Batool & Chuadhry, 2008).

1.3.4.8

Effects of Population growth

The urban population growth rate in Pakistan is 4.8 percent per year. There has been an increase of 25 percent of urban population from 1972 to 1981, which is 28 percent of Pakistan’s total population growth increase during that time. This figure reached 40 percent mark in 2005. The urban population of Pakistan in 1992 was 32 percent of the total population. Over 42 percentage of this population lives in the five major cities of the country namely Rawalpindi, Lahore, Islamabad, Karachi and Faisalabad (Trimizi, 2007, p. 487). As per the experts opinion, during next the 12 years about 90 percent of the estimated increase in urban population will settled and adjusted in the existing towns and cities which will put extra load and burden on the already weak infrastructure facilities. It is calculated that costs of population absorption are 6 times higher than in rural areas at existing infrastructure. Even if significantly reduced standards are applied in urban areas population absorption costs would still be 3.7 times higher. Therefore, a very severe resource constraint will be faced in providing even the minimum facilities of health, transport, sewage disposal and housing. Even with an optimistic 6.9 percent GDP growth over the next decade resources will be less than 33 percent of infrastructure requirements at current standards (Hussain, 1988).

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Figure 13: Top 10 populated countries in the world (Index mundi, 2012). As the world’s half population lives in cities adding 80 percent to the worlds GDP. It is noticed that dense high rise cities are more inclusive, productive and provide more residential spreads which our planning models of city favors at the cost of agriculture and environment. In order to make cities as centers of commerce, our growth strategy propose (Haque, 2011, p. 12). • • • • Relaxing of zoning and building regulations to allow space for mixed-use activities, energy efficiency, and facilitate vertical expansion of cities, Unproductive state owned land should be privatized. Making arrangements and possibilities for the foreign investors to compete in the Pakistani market. Focusing on research and development in low-cost energy efficient construction techniques (Haque, 2011, p. 13).

1.3.4.9

Climate Change

Globally the one of the most important are in the recent years which raise issues of global justice and equity is the climate change. Although the responsibility of the greenhouse emission goes to the richer industrialized countries. But the developing countries will face and bear the climatic change problems. In Pakistan climate change is one of the serious issues. As the large population of Pakistan

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and economic growth is dependent upon the natural resources. Pakistan agriculture sector is dependent on the river water which is collected from the melting of the glaciers. There are difficulties and problems which are being faced by the urban and rural population in Pakistan like in urban areas in Pakistan there is urban congestion, declining air and water quality and waste management and rural areas are having deforestation, habitat loss, crop failure, desertification and land degradation issues. The National climate change policy 2011 has been looking after the climate change threats in Pakistan. The policy provides a comprehensive framework for the development of an action plan for national efforts on adaptation and mitigation. The goal of the policy is to ensure that climate change is mainstreamed in the economically and socially vulnerable sectors of the economy and to steer Pakistan towards climate resilient development (Naqvi, 2011-12, p. 16). In Pakistan the largest source for GHG emission is energy sector. Energy sector contributes 51 percent to these emissions which is followed by agriculture sector which contributes 39 percent, industrial processes contributes 6 percent, land use and forestry contributes 3 percent and wastes contributes 1 percent. The efforts made for the reduction of GHG emission. In the energy sector, integration of energy policy and climatic change has gained a lot of importance because nowadays investment will lock in the fuel, technologies and infrastructure to be used for coming decades. The design of the building and transportation should meet the future needs. So the building energy codes and long transport planning needs extra attention (Change, 2011, p. 22).

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2. Analytical Phase

2.1

STEEP Analysis

This is macro environmental framework used mainly to evaluate the external factor impact on the organization and it is used as an analytical technique (Kyler, 2003). In the project STEEP analysis is used to get the better understanding of Challenges and Opportunities of Green Building in Pakistan and also the outcome of STEEP analysis will be utilized as an input for the SWOT analyses. A brief introduction of STEEP factors is as under:

STEEP Analysis Social Technological Economic Economic Growth, Unemployment Environmental Environmental impact, Environmental legislation Political Pakistan government approach towards green buildings, Formation of

Demographics, Current Education, Lifestyle trend construction trends Pakistan, Energy trends in

Pakistan green building council

Table 4: Work Breakdown structure of macro environment analysis.

Social factors

This factors discuss about the cultural, demographic aspects and also include the education and lifestyle trends.

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Technological factors

Technology is really an important element/factor of globalization. In analysis it will discusses the current construction practices being adopted in Pakistan and also will evaluate the competing technologies and energy use.  Economic Factors

This factor is equally important as it covers the economic growth of Pakistan and it will also discuss the unemployment issue in the country. Which can be reduced with the implementation of green building concept.  Environmental factors

Environmental impacts will discuss in detail about the Energy consumption, Environmental Degradation, waste management and environment impact.  Political factor

They include government regulations and legal issues which have a huge influence upon the regulation of businesses, spending power of consumers and other businesses (Mohindroo, 2008, p. 19).

2.1.1 Social Factors

2.1.1.1

Demographics

Pakistan is the world’s 6th most populated country. It has 177 million population with the population rate of 2.05 percent and fertility rate 3.5 per women. Then the age distribution is like about 60 percent population includes working group, 30 percent of population consists of youth from 15 year to 29 years and 2/3 rd of the population is below 30 years old thus providing opportunity of demographic dividend (Bibi, 2010-11, p. 7). The rise in the urban population has been noticed as the proportion of people living in the urban areas have increased to 36 percent in Pakistan. Since 1950s it is estimated that the urban population in Pakistan is increased over sevenfold (Nizami, 2010, p. 236). Pakistan is the 9th largest country in terms of the size of labor force since 2010. The total labor force in

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Pakistan is 54.92 million. With this huge size of labor force Pakistan has been facing the unemployment issue as about 3.05 million labor are unemployed since 2009-10. The unemployment rate is 5.6 percent (Bibi, 2010-11, p. 7). 60 percent of the Pakistan’s population is living below poverty line, as stated in World Bank report entitled World Development Indicators (WDI) 2013. The international poverty line is 2 dollars a day or an income of Rs. 200 per day. Approximately 21 percent of Pakistan's population lives below $1.25 per day (Abbasi, 2013). The increase in the urban population has made the cities crowded and overfilled. The immediate increase has put pressure on the existing infrastructure which is becoming insufficient for the present population growth. Coping up with the increased urban population has created the demand of more construction needs in Pakistan from residential to commercial sector (Bibi, 2010-11, p. 10). The more demand of construction will create more job opportunities and will become an important aspect of inclusive growth. Government should take steps to attract foreign investors and builders to compete in Pakistan construction market, by reducing the cost of construction, facilitating research and development in low cost and energy efficient construction techniques (Planning Commission of Pakistan, 2011, p. 39).

2.1.1.2

Education

A huge climate change in the world’s environment is an alarming and threatening situation. These changes are occurring due to the human involvement like with the rapid development in the world is one big reason. Green architecture is one of the solution to overcome the prevailing issue. Sustainable construction practices are being implemented all over the world along with the further innovations in process but in Pakistan sub consciously sustainable practices are being implemented like in northern areas where recycling of the construction material is usually practiced because people could not get the material to build buildings easily. There is a need to educate people to practice some important sustainable techniques such as water treatment, proper sewerage, as these techniques are applicable for all areas including small villages to large cities. Public awareness is a need of the time. Different organizations and institutions should start educating people about sustainability and its benefits in the long run.

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All the private and government buildings including offices, institutions, public and residential buildings should be made according to the green principles of architecture. People in the large metropolitan cities like Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Faisalabad and Islamabad are not aware of the advantages and benefits of the green buildings constructions. As this concept can provide them cost effective and ecofriendly solutions. A grass root effort is needed to implement this concept in Pakistan, otherwise still majority of the population have no idea about green building construction (Aslam, et al., 2012). The increasing urbanization across the world and in Pakistan in linked with some critical problems like energy consumption, resource shortages and environmental pollution. These problems occurs in major urban cities which results in the need of implementing sustainable development practices. For this purpose, public awareness for accepting sustainable development practices is very important. A sustainable approach to the design, construction and execution of the built environment addressing building and the spatial environment is required (Lehmann, 2010). Efforts are being made towards the energy conservation building code (ECBC) of Pakistan. With the implementation of Energy conservation Building Code in Pakistan, there will be dramatic changes in the sustainable development. As the code facilitates energy saving measures in buildings and would be made mandatory in both public and private buildings (Shahid, 2012). UN-HABITAT in Pakistan has noted that the energy efficient design and construction topic is not part of current architecture and engineering curricula, which shows that the coming generation of engineers and architects will not have enough knowledge of energy efficient design. So it should be important for the technical professional to get this knowledge from the reputed institute and also from the trainings, guidance materials and public information. UN-Habitat has started the project to create awareness among the technical professionals and public in a practical and accessible way. This should be considered as a first step in improving housing. Options for further development may include for example (UN-Habitat, 2010, p. 24):    Training for energy efficient building Energy audit training for technical professionals and house owners Improve measures for girder and tile roofs

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 

Improvement measures for walls Improved energy efficiency, water proofing and hazard resistant roofing

Educating people about the implementation and practicing of green buildings is very important and construction companies in Pakistan should be involved in implementing the practices. Students should be educated and should be encouraged to design green buildings and take tests which mark them as green building architects. Like all other countries UK, china, USA, Singapore and specially India, Pakistan should develop its own rating system to evaluate the energy efficiency of the building along with other aspects (Aslam, et al., 2012).

2.1.1.3

Lifestyle Trends

Inflation rate has been on the rise since 2007. There has been an increase in the prices of goods, food which is the point of concern for the middle and lower classes of Pakistan (Farid, et al., 2012, p. 2). Now people prefer to live in big cities for better life standards and opportunities in terms of services and facilities. They have to live in a different housing setup with small and congested living space, very less outdoor space, less movement especially for children and women and the elders. Very high density because of the great number of people living in a smaller space results in poor levels of indoor day light and poor ventilation. After migration to cities in order to improve their living standards they are not only increasing the population of cities but also living in very congested spaces with very little or no space or verandahs as compared to their living style in villages. Many household tasks in villages like cooking, laundry are being done outside, also the villagers sleep in open air during summer nights. Where as in cities, outdoor spaces are less open even if available and do not have the same level of privacy (UN-Habitat, 2010, p. 1). It’s really a worst scenario in Pakistan for poor and middle class people to build their own houses due to increase in inflation rate of building materials. Almost all the construction material are being developed and produced in Pakistan but during last few decades average construction cost has increased a lot about more than three times. The demand of 30,000 housing unit per year is not achievable by the building construction industry of Pakistan (BAJWA, et al., 2006, p. 70). The social and cultural aspects of the lower and middle class group affected the
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housing need and the requirements for the design of the house. In mid 1970s huge number of Pakistani workers went to Gulf States for the employment. All the money earned by them was sent to home which was used to build their own houses and to invest in the real estate so that they could become a status symbol of that particular social class. With this approach the property value in Pakistan reaches new heights which gave new shape to the housing demand (Tirmizi, 2006, p. 93).

2.1.2 Technological Factors

2.1.2.1

Current construction trend in Pakistan

There has been increased growth in construction activities in Pakistan, as construction industry is the second largest sector in Pakistan economy. This sector has great role in terms of jobs and also facilitate revival of the economy. Now the present government has taken construction industry as backbone of country’s economy. They realized that the engineering infrastructure, housing and building sectors can play important role to strengthen the economy. There has been growth in the construction industry of Pakistan. The demand for construction materials has been increased. Many international and national companies have started their construction projects in Pakistan which has brought the new combination of construction material, equipment and technology in the Pakistan construction industry. So the construction activity in Pakistan has accelerated (Farooqui, et al., 2008). Commonly used construction material such glass, plastics, bricks, aluminium are energy intensive materials used for building construction in Pakistan. With the extensive use of materials, can drain the energy sources and have negative impact on the environment (Tirmizi, 2010, p. 490). In Pakistan research on buildings materials and construction techniques are being done by few institutions. But their research approach is very limited and also their research outcome does not reach and educate the public. So people are bound to use and buy the conventional building material and construction techniques. There are various factors that became the reason of increased cost of development. These

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factors are use of conventional material and construction techniques, high overheads, inefficiencies, bureaucratic procedures and profits of contractors (Trimizi, 2007, p. 488). No details and specifications are available and followed for the environmentally friendly materials and products in Pakistan which makes it a bit difficult for designers to specify such materials and for developer and contractor to procure the said material (Rana, 2013). In cities mud houses and traditional roofs are being replaced by the reinforced concrete slabs which results in the absorption and emission of more heat. So the reinforced concrete slabs are increasing the heat island effect of built up cities and towns. The present construction methodology utilizes great amount of electricity in cooling and maintaining thermal comfort in residential buildings in the summers. In urban areas of Pakistan traditional construction methodology, technique and materials are being replaced by the conventional materials like fire bricks, cement concrete block walls and reinforced cement concrete roofs. Due to the reinforced concrete slab at roof level, heat is gained by the roof which impacts directly the rooms beneath. In Pakistan many residential buildings are kept at 1-2 storeys height. 1-2 storey height of the building has significant impact over the most of the accommodation. As reinforced concrete slab once get the heat in the day time, retain and emit for the several hours which makes the rooms and the building uncomfortable during the night time. Along with the poor ventilation it affects the people’s health and comfort. This problem of discomfort in the buildings can be reduced and removed by the implementation of better building design, construction and landscaping (UN-Habitat, 2010, p. 1). The quality of reinforced concrete structures in Pakistan is influenced by the following factors. • • • Absence of a national code of practice and specifications Environmental and infrastructural restraints Climatic conditions

Till now Pakistan is unable to produce its own construction code of practice. For the design and construction of most of reinforced concrete structures are done by using American and British Code. Also there is very less trend of using Euro codes for construction industry. All the teaching to engineering students at universities are being done by consulting American and British codes, practices

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and standards. Also in Pakistan there are shortage of desired material that suits the environmental condition. This results in the infrastructural restraints. These restraints are normally caused by the shortage of material, equipment, and also limited skilled labour. Climatic conditions in Pakistan have great influence on the reinforced concrete structures. Reinforced concrete structures under extreme climatic conditions require extra precautionary measures (Mahmood, 2004, p. 373). The major causes of environmental pollution in Pakistan are building, construction and transportation industry. With the passage of time, people have realized and started accepting the concept of sustainability and green construction and buildings. The concept has taken importance in Pakistan and efforts are being made towards sustainable buildings and constructions. But these are just individual level efforts that on a larger scale they could not affect the global market in a positive way. The lack in cooperation among different government organisations and individuals working on green buildings and construction in Pakistan results in the inconsistency in legislation and regulations. There is no system in Pakistan to analyse the sustainability of any building or projects and also there is a gap in knowledge and understanding of sustainable construction and development. In addition there is no documentation done for any construction project against its sustainability, technology and techniques. General trend in Pakistan in the building construction project is that initial costs (CAPEX) of the projects are considered not the life cycle costs and long term benefits. Due to this approach initially projects are built at low costs but they are later on they are reconstructed in a short period after completion because the operation and maintenance costs are very high. Government is not showing up towards these issues as they have not set incentives for sustainable projects and no specific standards are set for environmental impacts of construction activities. The problems related to the building and construction industry are not just linked with the environmental degradation but also huge social element is attached to it due to the difficult social-economic and political situation in the country (Rana, 2013).

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2.1.2.2

Energy Trends

There are high energy crisis in Pakistan. The major problems are large and growing shortages of energy, insufficiencies and high costs that prevent the sector from financing all costs. The easy possibilities to reduce or minimize these problems are to improve the lighting and air conditioning in buildings, street lighting and water pumping in municipalities and waste heat recovery in industries. Long time ago importance of energy efficiency in Pakistan has been recognized as Enercon was established in 1990s (Aziz, 2013, p. 6). It has been observed that the sun and wind are both forms of renewable energy if used sensibly and properly. But in case of buildings sun energy has been proven more useful source. Solar panels when placed over the roof of the building will convert sunlight to direct current (DC) energy (Goffman, 2006). Pakistan is blessed with abundant solar light which is present 12 months a year. It is the need of the time that Pakistan should give importance to solar energy concept in the country, Building industry professionals, engineers and architects should design buildings or residential houses utilizing the solar power at its maximum. Solar cells, technology and mirror reflectors should be adopted in the building design and construction in Pakistan. University and college students should research on different forms of solar energy. Pakistan is gifted with abundant solar energy if west has the same solar power by today they would have obtained very cheap power (KHAN, 2012). There has been limited work done on this direction for example the installation of large scale energy efficient lamps, as a result great potential of energy savings across the buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors estimated to be 20 to 30 percent, remain largely untapped. There are many opportunities to achieve the energy savings across the private and public buildings, transport and agriculture sectors. Energy savings will be achieved with the combination of policy based and market driven decisions and through financial incentives and capacity building measures. The important steps to be taken are to implement the energy efficiency codes, minimum energy performance standards for appliances, involvement of energy service companies (ESCOs) and development and utilization of energy efficiency credit lines and funds. To overcome the said crisis

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in Pakistan international experience and expertise can be used and adapted to implement an effective and proven delivery model in Pakistan, which results in the improvement of energy efficiency and thus meeting and reducing the energy shortages and crisis (Aziz, 2013, p. 11). Efforts are being made by Pakistan Ministry of Energy and Water to save 15 to 20 percent of energy across the government’s offices, departments and independent bodies. Pakistan is facing severe energy crisis in the present is because of the supply chain issues and shortages in generating capacity. The best solution is improve the energy efficiency in all sectors. In order to reduce the energy shortfall it is required to bring change in the attitude with the adoption and implementation of energy efficient lighting, occupancy sensors, and airconditioning and ventilation products. The Ministry of Water and Energy in Pakistan asserts the energy efficiency strategies in government offices and departments to start the campaign of raising the awareness of energy saving techniques will help in motivation the energy efficiency methodology acceptance in all sectors of Pakistan. So the energy efficiency in all sectors of Pakistan specially building construction industry is the cheapest and easiest way to control the extensive load shedding in the country and also controls the energy waste (Enigin News, 2013).

2.1.3 Economic Factors

2.1.3.1

Economic Growth

A downward and unsustainable trend of Pakistan economy has been recorded over the years. This decline is a threat for the politicians, policy makers and donor agencies. The current unsustainability in economy is due to the inflation rate, increasing foreign debt, low level of physical and human capital, political instability, and corruption and also failing law and order situation in the country (IQBAL & ZAHID, 1998). The construction sector of Pakistan has great importance in terms of economic and social development of the country. As Pakistan is a developing country having great growth in the construction sector. Construction industry is today second largest contributor in Pakistan economy

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(Farooqui, et al., 2008). The natural disasters and conflicts are very common in Pakistan. Pakistan is defenseless to such natural disasters like other Asians countries. There has been two big natural disasters in the country, one was the 2005 earthquake which came in the northern areas of the country and second was the 2010 floods which affected the entire country. In last 10 year Asia has witnessed 3/4th of global casualties from the natural disasters. These figures actually support the need of building resilience in Pakistan as a part of the sustainable development agenda. Building resilience will help the country to not only withstand for environmental, natural and economic shocks but also long term climate change threats. So planning to spend on such social, environmental protections is not a cost it is an investment for nations (Ghaznavi, et al., 2011, p. 19).

2.1.3.2

Unemployment

Unemployment in Pakistan is a serious issue these days. Construction sector in Pakistan can be useful in minimizing the unemployment issues in the country. It can be the source for creating job opportunities for huge number of unskilled, semi-skilled and skilled work force. There is a need for the development of national level construction strategy in the country for utilizing the true potential of the construction industry in Pakistan. As construction sector has significant influence in Pakistan economy so it does have positive effects in allied industries like, iron, cement, electrical, steel, transportation which results in the creation of millions of jobs in Pakistan which would reduce the unemployment (INP & Nation, 2011). Housing sector is the industry which is directly or indirectly linked with almost 40 industries. This industry is also known as a productive economy activity (Rana, 2003). Pakistan population is almost 180 million with the extreme shortage of housing across the country. It is estimated that the housing shortage is now touching 8 million housing units. It is now the need of the time to have sustainable solutions for example housing microfinance. Housing microfinance will provide the low income families the hope of their own home (Kazim, 2013). The increase in the growth of housing finance will eventually contribute to the economy in terms

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of new employment and support to a variety of associated industries (Rana, 2003, p. 2).

2.1.4 Environmental Factors

2.1.4.1

Environmental Impact

In Pakistan there is not much work done in the saving of the environment. Environmental degradation is now has reached the extreme stage in Pakistan as it is directly affecting the lives of general public in urban and rural areas. The reason for the environmental degradation is the land sliding and erosion of agriculture land due to deforestation, air pollution, water pollution due to the submission and release of the toxic sewage and waste onto the sweet water and also the mismanagement of sewerage development plans and allowing sewerage water to enter in to the sea (Khan, 2013). Environment could be explained as set of geographical, cultural, physical, social and political conditions that is linked with an individual and that determine its nature of survival. Environmental impact describes the way people live and how societies progress. So this indicates that the people, economic reasons, progress and environment are interlinked with each other. There is direct impact of environment to the population health and it affects the balance between the environmental protection and economic development. In Pakistan environmental crisis are of great concern. In terms of words or documents, Pakistan claims to be the part of global world but Pakistan lacks when it comes to action and implementing environmental protocols. There have been many environmental policies being introduced over the time in Pakistan. Out of these some are of National conservation Policy (1992) which aims to enable integration of environmental considerations in social and physical decisions, household communities and government and cooperate objectives conservation of natural resources, sustainable development and improved use of efficient management of resources. (Sana, 2013). In Pakistan reinforced concrete is commonly an excessively used in the construction of all types of buildings, bridges, houses, dams and all other types of structures constructed in Pakistan. For multistory buildings reinforced concrete

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framed structures are being designed and constructed for high rise multi-storey buildings but for some small single or double-storey buildings are designed and constructed using various methodologies like by using stone or brick masonry and Reinforced concrete beams, columns and slabs (Mahmood, 2004, p. 371). In Pakistan construction activities mostly become the reason of environmental issues. Construction of oil and gas exploration, high rise buildings and also construction of power and energy plants would result in bringing a great change in the surroundings which will straight away has worst effect on the ecology. It will affect the humans, plants and animal in the surrounding of the construction area due to the variation in the water, soil quality, air, noise and disturbance by noise. Now this has become a great challenge for the construction industry, developers and environmental managers. The process of deforestation or removing vegetation cover for clearing land for development also contributes to loss of biodiversity due to loss of habitat (Aslam, 2006, p. 9). United Nations Development Program UNDP is working to save the environmental crises in Pakistan. It promotes the sustainable development by the use of natural resources and also creates opportunities to the institutions to understand the efficient use of environmental management strategies for sustainable construction (Programme, 2012).

2.1.4.2

Environmental Legislation

As already discussed in the report that Pakistan is going through the continued environmental degradation over the years. The main reason for the environmental crisis is the lack of strategic approaches in environmental and development conservation. The techniques and methodology used for the

assessment of environmental degradation are less effective when they are applied and checked against the policies, programs and plans. In order to improve the environmental condition of the country many efforts have been made in this regards which include the donor funded projects and government initiatives. The steps towards the making of Environmental legislation in Pakistan were taken in 1983 when Environmental Protection Ordinance (PEPO) was established in 1983 which later on replaced by Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997.
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But the existing act and the Environmental Impact Assessment regulation are not that much effective to address the prevailing environmental issues in Pakistan. To address the issue Government of Pakistan has initiated National Impact Assessment Program (NIAP) in collaboration with embassy of Kingdome of the Netherlands and Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment (NCEA). The main objective is to strengthen the process of Environmental Impact Assessment EIA in the country for that purpose NIAP contribute to sustainable development in Pakistan. So EIA will be helpful to develop more environmentally conscious development in the project level. But the induction and inclusion of Strategic Environmental Assessment will be advantage to improve planning with the help of integrating potential impacts into the decision making and through improved coordination between the authorities involved in planning (Khan, 2011, p. 2). It was a difficult task to adopt and implement Environmental Impact Assessment EIA in Pakistani culture, as the environmental industries and institutions were weak and there was very low awareness level. But now EIA has been implemented and accepted in Pakistan but still a lot of improvement is required in this sector. As the capabilities and abilities of agencies are very limited, who are responsible for protecting the environment in relation to the environmental impact assessment reports for new developments? Also work need to be done on public awareness and also there is no training programs for the persons responsible for the Environmental Impact Assessment reports evaluation (Islam, 2006, p. 7).

2.1.5 Political Factors

2.1.5.1

Pakistan Government approach towards Green Buildings

In Pakistan unfortunately there has not been any efforts made on a larger scale in the promotion and implementation of Green Buildings. The major industries that cause environmental pollution in Pakistan are building, construction and transportation. Very less but important efforts are being done for the awareness among the general public. Due to prevailing environmental crisis in the country

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the concept and idea of sustainable development and especially of green buildings design and construction have started to gain importance in Pakistan and special attention is being given to this concept but on a smaller level. However, these efforts are still individual efforts that by themselves cannot really impact the global market in a positive way. The Organizations and individuals working on this industry have lack of coordination between them. For the development, awareness and promotion purposes the efforts very small and immature in Pakistan. Despite of present crisis in Pakistan, government has yet not taken initiative to launch a country wide project. There is extreme lack of interaction and coordination among the different organization, individual and stakeholders. The fragmentation between the different stakeholders often have negative impact and its plays adverse role. There is inconsistency in legislation and regulations for the green building implementation in Pakistan. Also there is no building in Pakistan which is LEED certified as till now there is no system established to assess the sustainability of building projects or build environment. Especially for green building construction there is limited knowledge an awareness in Pakistan. There is no documentation of sustainable projects. No techniques, technologies or methodologies are developed in the country (Rana, 2013). The political leadership in government is not ready to face these challenges. For the sustainable projects there are no incentives and benefits. Standards set of environmental impact of construction projects are minimum. The building and construction industry is not just linked with the problems related to the environmental impact of construction activities but also in Pakistan the huge social component is attached to it because of the difficult and worst socioeconomic and political situation. So an effort at the government level is required to overcome the social, economic, environmental and political issues for the progress of sustainable development in Pakistan (Rana, 2013).

2.1.5.2

Formation of Pakistan Green building Council

These are the critical reasons that Pakistan need an organization which could gather all the companies, individuals, professionals that are already working on bringing the sustainability in building design and construction on one platform. It

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is very important now to establish and make a Pakistan Green Building Council an effective organization. So that it could help and guide the Pakistan government for a consistent legislation and creation incentives for sustainable projects, can create awareness among general public regarding the importance of green buildings in Pakistan, to create professional networks around sustainability which can improve the built environment (Rana, 2013). The people inside and outside of Pakistan working in construction industry has actually started the Green Building Council Pakistan. They realized that in order to overcome the environmental problems and to sustain the growing population we cannot keep destroying the environment. For this purpose it is required to adopt sustainable design and construction practices in the country. Many people in Pakistan has an idea or plan for the formation of a sustainable development organization. So by 2009 people in the industry realized that this is time to form Pakistan Green Building Council which is going to help in achieving the sustainable targets in the country. So 2009, World Green Building Council WBC was being contacted and an application for the formation of Pakistan Green building Council was submitted. Other government and private organizations like Institute of Architects Pakistan (IAP), institute of Engineers Pakistan (IEP) and experts from Europe, Canada also approached World Green building Council. In November 2012, Pakistan Green Building council was given license to run as a nonprofit organization (Rana, 2013). Who should be involved with Pakistan green building council?      Government/public sector Private sector General public NGOs Academia

Pakistan green building council is on a mission to introduce, support and promote sustainable practices and concepts in the Pakistan building construction industry. Also the aim is to improve the style and quality of life by enabling the environmentally and socially responsible, healthy and prosperous environment. Following are the main tasks of Pakistan Green building Council (Rana, 2013).

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Circulate among the general public about the importance and benefits of using sustainable technologies and methodologies during the design, construction and operational phases of the building.

Public awareness is one of the main objective of Pakistan Green Building Council. The development of sustainable environment in the country by promoting, encouraging and presenting technologies and concepts that have very less impact on the environment and creates healthy and sustainable habitat.

   

Provide assistance to the consumers and industry professionals for such sustainable practices and technologies. Educating industry professionals about the sustainable construction practices, technologies and concepts. Establishing a standard for the certification of buildings and facilities in Pakistan. Providing assistance to the government and other responsible institutions for establishing legislation compatible with the international standards (Rana, 2013).

2.2

SWOT Analysis

SWOT analysis stands for Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunity and Threats. A SWOT analysis helps in identifying the challenges and opportunities a green building is currently challenged with its implementation in Pakistani market. STEEP analysis has been performed in this project to collect an input data for the SWOT analysis. A SWOT analysis is an important strategic development component as it helps in identifying the external and internal factors that have both positive and negative aspects in the achieving the desired objective (Schultz, 2013). In this study SWOT analysis has been performed to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that a green building introduction and implementation concept have in Pakistani market. All the data in SWOT analysis is got by performing STEEP analysis.

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Strengths

Strengths are the characteristics of the project or business that give an advantage over others.

Weaknesses

Weaknesses are characteristics that place the team at a disadvantage relative to others.

Opportunities

Opportunities are the elements that the project could exploit to its advantage.

Threats

Threats are the elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business or project (Dailey, 2012).

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A flowchart of the SWOT analysis performed in this research is as under:

SWOT Analysis

Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

S1- Tackling energy crisis. S2- Efficient water management

W1- High initial cost as compared to conventional building W2- Visibility of high

O1- Availability of cheap labour O2- Extraordinary prospects of real estate expansion. O3- Emerging construction market O4- Urban areas

T1- Ineffective government policies T2- Bad economic situation in country T3- Instability of Pakistan government T4- Architecture and engineering curriculum not encompassing the energy efficient design and construction T5- Lack of will to implement environmental protocols T6- Inconsistency of legislation T7- Lack of cooperation btw different stakeholders T8- Absence of a benchmark for LEED certified building in Pakistan T9- Lack of public awareness T10- no or less interest in learning new techniques

S3- Operational savings S4- Better and healthy lifestyle S5- Discouraging use of energy intensive construction material

initial costs as compared to benefits W3- Low buying of Pakistani nationals

lifestyle trend O5- Increased chances of implementing building technology in existing building by employing building assessment tools O6- Abundant sunlight

Table 5: Work Breakdown structure for micro environment analysis.

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2.2.1 Strengths

2.2.1.1

Tackling energy crisis in a country plagued with extensive load shedding – S1

The energy crisis in Pakistan are on a rise. Buildings usually consumes 40 percent of the world’s total energy. Pakistan is lacking in developing and implementing the energy efficient techniques. The implementation and adoption of green building concept can be helpful in overcoming the load shedding and energy crisis. Green building technologies in terms energy efficiency are much better than conventional techniques already being practiced Pakistan.

2.2.1.2

Efficient Water management – S2

Pakistan has been going through the serious water shortage crisis over the past few decades and therefore public awareness about the importance of the water management is essentially required. Green building as compared to conventional buildings consumes 20 to 30 percent less water, as green buildings provide the opportunity to save the water through the proper recycling mechanism of wastewater in the buildings.

2.2.1.3

Operational Savings – S3

If compared to conventional building, green buildings have the tendency to consume 40-50 percent less energy and 20-30 percent less water. Although there is an initial cost involved but a typical breakeven is expected to be reached within 3-5 years.

2.2.1.4

Better and healthy lifestyle – S4

Conventional building design and construction techniques in Pakistan provides very small and congested living spaces to the occupants also it gives poor ventilation and bad indoor air quality. Whereas green buildings fresh and healthy

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air quality is an important aspect of its design. For the better indoor air quality in green building, interior material with low voltaic organic compound emissions is used. So green building has the edge of conventional building design techniques in terms of providing better and healthy lifestyle of the occupants.

2.2.1.5

Discouraging use of energy intensive construction material – S5

In Pakistan, commonly used construction materials in conventional buildings are highly energy intensive and have adverse effect on the environment. Darth of research on new building techniques has also contributed its part in maintaining the status quo on conventional construction material. Switching from the conventional to energy efficient construction material will not only save energy but will also minimize the greenhouse emissions. In other ways reduce the carbon footprint is to encourage recycling of industrial wastes which will ultimately reduce the need of extracting and processing of the raw material and its shipping from a long distance to the project site.

2.2.2 Weaknesses

2.2.2.1

High construction cost of green building as compared to conventional building – W1

As green building concept is not accepted in Pakistan market one reason is that people have made an idea that green building construction is an expensive solution as compared to conventional building construction. Though they are unaware of the fact that this incremental cost will be paid back in few years of time.

2.2.2.2

Visibility of high initial costs as compared to benefits – W2

The general trend in Pakistan is that more importance and concentration is paid to the initial cost of the project during the design and construction phases of the project and not much or very less importance is given to the operational cost of
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the project. Architects and designers gave more attention to the initial benefits of the building through its life time but ignoring the operational savings of the structure for the occupants.

2.2.2.3

Low buying power of Pakistani nationals – W3

60 percent of Pakistan’s population is living below poverty line and the GDP per capita is among the World’s lowest at 1500 USD. This information suggests that the economic conditions of Pakistan do not provide sufficient grounds to its nationals to bear relatively higher expenses of green building at the initial stage despite of its financial effectiveness in the longer run.

2.2.3 Opportunities

2.2.3.1

Availability of cheap labour – O1

The total labor force in Pakistan is 54.92 million. With this huge size of labor force Pakistan has been facing the unemployment issue which results in the availability of cheap labor force. The implementation of green building technology will be supported by the availability of unemployed cheap labor force. It is an opportunity to encourage the utilization of cheap labor for the implementation of green building.

2.2.3.2

Extraordinary prospects for real estate expansion in Pakistan – O2

The rapid increase in the Pakistan population and the increase in the migration trend from rural to urban areas of Pakistan has eventually increased the housing need in the country. As per study the demand of housing units has increased to 30,000 units per year which shows a fertile ground for the growth of real estate sector. Other things being equal, the prospects for such enormous growth is a real blessing for green building sector to flourish and generates rents for longer period of time.
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2.2.3.3

Emerging construction market – O3

The Pakistani construction market is the 2nd largest contributor towards its economy. As the construction industry is growing in Pakistan over the last decade many multinational firms have shown interest towards investing in Pakistani market. So Pakistani construction sector professionals are accepting and welcoming the new technologies, materials and equipment’s and it may promote energy efficient, environmental friendly approach towards Pakistan construction industry.

2.2.3.4

Lifestyle trend in urban areas of Pakistan – O4

People preferred to live in the cities to have better and improved living style but hence in Pakistan joint family system is the common way of living, the current housing style is very congested for the human health. It is an opportunity to bring the green housing concept which will encourage people to enjoy the benefits of the green building technology over the conventional construction which is neither energy efficient nor intelligent enough to address space issues and indoor air quality effectively.

2.2.3.5

Increased chances to implement green building technology in existing buildings by employing building assessment tool -- O5

There are many building assessment tools and rating systems that exist to assess and evaluate the existing and new constructed building whether it is a green building or not. By introducing and developing the green building rating systems in Pakistan will bring opportunity to evaluate, examine and assess the energy efficiency and other factors of the existing buildings which may create an extended opportunity for the green building implementation in Pakistan besides the area of new construction.

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2.2.3.6

Abundant sunlight in Pakistan – O6

Pakistan has been blessed with abundant sunlight and solar power. More emphasis on the use of this abundant energy source has led to the maximum development in this field. More sunlight for 12 months a year would make the buildings self-efficient in meeting their energy requirements and reduce the dependency on the electric grid.

2.2.4 Threats

2.2.4.1

Ineffective government policies – T1

One of the major problem is that the government either has not yet made policies on mentioned serious issues in this report or if the policies exist then there is possibility that these policies are not being implemented and practiced in real sense. There have been no incentives set for the sustainable projects and also no standards are set to minimize the environmental impacts of building construction.

2.2.4.2

Bad economic situation in the country – T2

Pakistan economy has experienced decline in the last decade or so. This decline is a threat for the politicians, policy makers and donor agencies that results in the lack of interest of foreign investor’s which ultimately leads to insignificant foreign investment; such investments are crucial for the promotion and development of delegate and new concepts like green building technology.

2.2.4.3

Instability of Pakistan government – T3

There is a possibility for changes in the policies and laws as the new government comes into rule. This could have some impact on the operation of the existing and new businesses. Such instable practices of successive governments shuttle

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the confidence of potential investor which ultimately discourage the possibilities of implementation of green building in Pakistani market.

2.2.4.4

Architecture and engineering curriculum not encompassing the energy efficient design and construction – T4

In Pakistan engineering and architecture curriculum has no energy efficient design and construction studies plan, which is a greater threat as the new coming engineering and architecture professionals will not have enough idea about the energy efficient buildings and technologies.

2.2.4.5

lack of will and implementation regarding Environmental protocols – T5

As of today Pakistan is membered to many organizations like United Nations etc. which apparently shows the determination of decision making bodies of Pakistan in addressing the global environmental concerns within its geographical boundaries. However, the ground realities are in contradiction to such theoretical and impractical perceptions. The real basis of this contradiction is inherent in the difference between the ‘verbiage’ and the real action of concerning policy making bodies of Pakistan. As it has been mentioned elsewhere in this report, inconsistency in environmental legislation give us good deal of an idea about the non-seriousness, in competent and the absence of focused and holistic sense of direction.

2.2.4.6

Inconsistency of legislation – T6

There is inconsistency in legislation and regulations for the green building implementation in Pakistan which has resulted in the less effective strategic approach made towards the control of environmental degradation. The inconsistent legislation and regulations have paved the way for the methods and techniques, used to assess the environmental degradation, that are obsolete and less effective.

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2.2.4.7

Lack of cooperation between different stakeholders – T7

There is lack of cooperation among different government organisations and individuals working on green buildings design and construction in Pakistan. Such lack of cooperation has not only resulted in the stagnation of green building implementation but also has encouraged the unawareness of relevant stakeholders.

2.2.4.8

Absence of any precedent regarding successful implementation and its subsequent validation by International Standards i.e. LEED – T8

Right now there is no building which is LEED certified because the building rating system is not yet developed in Pakistan. The absence of such benchmark, LEED certified green building, does not provide the impetus required for the implement a novel like green building.

2.2.4.9

Lack of public awareness of environmental issues in Pakistan – T9

Public awareness regarding the green building design and construction and its benefits are lacking in Pakistan. Government is not actually putting effort to educate the general public about bringing the sustainable approach in the general lifestyle. So there is lack of awareness as the owners and occupants are consuming extra energy in order to make their lives comfortable. For this purpose public awareness for accepting sustainable development practices are very important.

2.2.4.10 No or minimum interest of local contractors towards learning new techniques – T10 An informal nature of construction industry of Pakistan where most of the staff at the lower level does not go through any vocational training signifies its lack of ability to conceive, absorb and implement new ideas at the pace matching with

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the rest of the world. Green building technology being a novel concept of 21st century and requiring a staff aptly skilled in its conceptualization and implementation is an obstacle for local contractors to consider its implementation due to their lack of interest, skills and awareness in this particular area.

2.2.5 Confrontation Matrix All the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of doing Green building business listed in the SWOT analysis will be placed into confrontation matrix for understanding the different combinations. Confrontation matrix or expended SWOT analysis is useful for getting an idea about new strategies from information we already have from the SWOT analysis. It is made by combining the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. In a broad sense, the options can be classified as follows:

Strength/Opportunities (S/O)

Strategies to make use of opportunities through our strengths.

Weaknesses/Threats (W/T)

Strategies to minimize the potential dangers lying in sectors where weaknesses meets threats.

Weaknesses/Opportunities (W/O)

Strategies to make use of opportunities to minimize weaknesses.

Strengths/Threats (S/T)

Strategies to prevent threats through our strengths (Thieme, 2012).

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Opportunities O1- Availability of cheap labour O2- Extraordinary prospects of real estate expansion. O3- Emerging construction market O4- Urban areas lifestyle trend

Threat T1- Ineffective government policies T2- Bad economic situation in country T3- Instability of Pakistan government T4- Architecture and engineering curriculum not encompassing the energy efficient design and construction T5- Lack of will to implement environmental protocols T6- Inconsistency of legislation

Analysis

O5- Increased chances of implementing building technology in existing building by employing building assessment tools O6- Abundant sunlight

T7- Lack of cooperation btw different stakeholders T8- Absence of a benchmark for LEED certified building in Pakistan T9- Lack of public awareness T10- no or less interest in learning new techniques

Strengths S1-Tackling energy crisis. S2- Efficient water management

SO strategies S1, O6 - Tax free regime to promote industry regarding solar products.

ST strategies S1, S2, S3, T2, T5 - Paradigm shift in building codes, construction methods and contractor selection procedures – implementing the green building technology and harvesting financial economical gain by regulating and incentivizing simultaneously. Such incentives may include assigning weightage to the experience and knowhow

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S3- Operational savings S4- Better and healthy lifestyle S5- Discouraging use of energy intensive construction material

S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, O3, O4 Spearheading the green building technology implementation by the public sector – setting a precedent for private sector to follow.

of contractors regarding green building tech. during the bid evaluation process ultimately giving preference to technological implementation over money. S3, T7, T8, T9, T10 - Incentivizing public authorities from the savings generated by implementing green building technology – such financial incentives in poor countries like Pakistan would really help in paradigm shift of construction. These incentives shall encourage authorities to legislate, formulate laws, develop public awareness, developing policies to attract foreign investor and lastly incorporating green building technology in public sectors project which will act as precedent to private contractor.

Weaknesses W1- High initial cost as compared to conventional building W2- Visibility of high initial costs as compared to benefits W3- Low buying of Pakistani nationals

WO strategies O2,O3,O4,W3 - Using the concept of economy of scale, large real estate developers in Pakistan could produce housing facilities in mass numbers using the principles of green technology – ultimately reducing cost of the project considerably low.

WT strategies W1, W2, T5, T7, T9, T10 - Educating the masses and incentivizing the authorities simultaneously – the two prong strategy will ultimately render the collusion of ‘’unawareness of masses’’ and ‘’high headedness of authorities’’ as significantly less threatening.

Table 6: Confrontation Matrix.

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2.2.6 Summary of SWOT analysis SWOT analysis has been carried out to identify the factors that could have direct or indirect influence on the implementation and adoption of Green building technology concept in Pakistan. It is possible to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats independently. Confrontation matrix has been made to develop the strategies which could be helpful to develop a way to establish, implement and adopt green building technology concept in Pakistan in a larger scale. Pakistan is currently facing the challenges such as energy crisis, water shortages, usage of environmental intensive construction material and poor water and waste management. Strengths in SWOT analysis explained the potential advantages a Green Building over conventional building in the realm of reducing the energy crisis, water and waste management issues, minimum or less use of energy intensive construction material. As strengths are the characteristics of a project that give an advantage over others, it was essential to see strengths in a dyadic paradigm of strengths-opportunities (SO) and strengths-threats (ST). The dyadic paradigm allows us to conceptualize and present strategies suitable in respective situations paving the way for strategies which are near to reality and free of obfuscation. There are weaknesses that are linked with the Green Building technology concept, which act as a hurdle in the introduction, implementation and adoption of this technology in Pakistani market. If compared to conventional buildings, green buildings have higher initial costs which gives an outlook of perhaps a very expensive and un-pragmatic technology. However, people are unaware of the fact that this incremental cost will be paid back in few years of time as green buildings offer lesser operational costs than conventional buildings. Also, the buying power of Pakistani nationals are very low making it unaffordable for them to bear the higher expenses of green buildings required at the project’s initial stage. As weaknesses are the characteristics of a project that place the team at disadvantage relative to others, it was essential to see weaknesses in a dyadic paradigm of weaknesses-opportunities (WO) and weaknesses-threats (WT). The dyadic paradigm allows us to conceptualize and present strategies suitable in respective situations paving the way for strategies which are near to reality and free of obfuscation. Both dimensions of dyadic paradigm – WO & WT¬ will be
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presented in forthcoming paragraphs under the relevant heads of opportunities and threats. The Pakistani market provides opportunities and creates a scenario which predicates the idea of development and proliferation of Green Building technology in Pakistan. The factor of availability of ‘’cheap labour’’ in combination with the emerging construction market and real estate expansion has the tendency of attracting the investors and authorities to promote the concept of Green buildings in Pakistan. The abundant sunlight in Pakistan for entire year is a plus point to encourage the Green Building concept in Pakistan. Now, summarizing, strategies conceived in the paradigm of strength-opportunities (SO) are ‘’Spearheading the green building technology implementation by the public sector – setting a precedent for private sector to follow’’ and ‘’tax free regime to promote industry regarding solar products.’’; also, the strategy for weaknessopportunities (WO) paradigm is conceived and presented as ‘’Using the concept of economy of scale, large real estate developers in Pakistan could produce housing facilities in mass numbers using the principles of green technology – ultimately reducing cost of the project considerably low.’’ The major problems that exists and pose a threat towards successful implementation of a Green Building technology are required to be addressed immediately. Bad economic situation, ineffective government policies and instability of government raises the threat level for the policy makers, donor agencies and politicians ultimately manifesting itself in the form lack of interest of foreign investors in Pakistani market. Now, summarizing, strategies conceived in the paradigm of strength-threats (ST) are ‘’paradigm shift in building codes, construction methods and contractor selection procedures – implementing the green building technology and harvesting financial economical gain by regulating and incentivizing simultaneously.’’ and ‘‘incentivizing public authorities from the savings generated by implementing green building technology – such financial incentives in poor countries like Pakistan would really help in paradigm shift of construction.’’; also, the strategy for weakness-threats (WT) paradigm is conceived and presented as ‘‘educating the masses and incentivizing the authorities simultaneously – the two prong strategy will ultimately render the collusion of ‘’unawareness of masses’’ and ‘’high headedness of authorities’’ as significantly less threatening.’’

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2.3

Case Study of CII- Sohrabji Godrej green building center

2.3.1 Project Description The one of the world’s greenest building is situated in the city of architecture and pearls Hyderabad India. CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre received the prestigious LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Platinum rating in 2003 and it was also first Platinum rated Green Building outside United States of America USA. The center was inaugurated by H.E Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam on 14 July 2004 (Kumar, 2004). The building is a perfect blend of India’s rich architectural splendor and technological innovations, incorporating traditional concepts into modern and contemporary architecture.

Figure 14: Aerial View of the CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre Building at Hyderabad India, (Solaripedia, 2013).

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There is extensive energy simulation exercises performed in the building by orientating building in a way to reduce and minimize the heat entrance into the building while allowing the natural daylight to enter abundantly. The building incorporates several world-class energy and environment- friendly features, including solar PV systems, indoor air quality monitoring, a high efficiency HVAC system, a passive cooling system using wind towers, high performance glass, aesthetic roof gardens, rain water harvesting, root zone treatment system, etc. The extensive landscape is also home to varieties of trees, most of which are native and adaptive to local climatic conditions. CII-Sohrabji Godrej saves 50 percent of electricity, 35 percent of reduction in potable water consumption and 80 percent of recycled or recyclable material usage. CII-Sohrabji Godrej building is the first green building in India so it enabled the Green building movement in India (AsiaBusinessCouncil, 2012, p. 2).

2.3.2 Project Details

2.3.2.1

Location

The building is situated in Hyderabad, India. The macro level CII Sohrabji Godrej location is shown in the figure below.

Figure 15: Macro level location-CII Sohrabji Godrej GBC, (Subramanian, 2012).

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2.3.2.2

Project Name

The name of the project is CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre.

2.3.2.3

Developer

The project is a unique and successful model of public-private partnership between the Government of Andhra Pradesh, Pirojsha Godrej Foundation, and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), with the technical support of USAID.

2.3.2.4

Architectural design

The architecture design of the building was done by the Karan Grover and Associates, India.

2.3.2.5

Project Size

The total area of the building is 4.5 acres. The total built area is 1,858 m2. Building footprints are 9.32 percent of site. Minimum disturbance to the existing site features. There is large area for landscape to enhance micro climate and for visual daylight.

2.3.2.6

Building Ratings

CII-Sohrabji Godrej has been awarded the LEED Platinum Rating for New Construction (NC) v 2.0 by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) in November 2003.

2.3.2.7

Building type

CII-Sohrabji Godrej is an office building. It has seminar hall with Green Technology Centre displaying the latest and emerging green building materials

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and technologies in India. Large numbers of visitors are escorted on green building tour (AsiaBusinessCouncil, 2012, p. 1).

2.3.2.8

Project Cost

As CII-Sohrabji Godrej green business centre is the first well publicized commercial green building in India, so the incremental cost was 18percent higher than a conventional building in India. But all the new projects of green buildings in India has an incremental cost of 6-8 percent and this initial incremental cost of the building usually gets pay back in 3-4 years (Raghupathy, 2011). The payback time of CII-Sohrabji Godrej green building centre is 7 years as shown in the figure below (Roy & Gupta, 2008).

Figure 16: Performance of green building in India, (Roy & Gupta, 2008).

2.3.2.9

Parking and Accessibility

Building is located near to the public transportation station, which indicates the easy approach to the site as shown in figure 17. Main entrance gate is located on the main road and it is surrounded by small commercial buildings which are under construction. The main gate opens to a long drive way along with the lush greenery on both side creating emphasis to the entrance (Subramanian, 2012).

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Figure 17: Public transport near to the site, (Subramanian, 2012). About 30 percent of the employees in CII Hyderabad come to work on carpools, bicycles or on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Also the use of battery operated vehicles are encouraged as charging facility is available at the building site. Such efforts helps in the reduction of about 62 percent of harmful emissions. Also building occupants are encouraged to make less use of fossil fuel based transportation.

Figure 18: Vehicle charging station at CII Sohrabji Godrej GBC, (Subramanian, 2012).

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2.3.2.10 Hyderabad India Climate

Figure 19: Climate data of India, (imdhyderabad, 2012). The weather in Hyderabad India is tropical wet and dry climate. In summers from March till June it is hot and humid. The maximum temperature recorded in summers in 2012 is 45.5 °C and in winters last for 2.5 months’ time where and minimum temperature recorded was 6.1 °C in January.

Summer MarchJune, Hot and Humid. Avg. 30 °C Max > 40 °C

Spring Feb. Max. Sunlight exposure

Monsoon S-W, Jun-Sep. Ann. Rainfall 812.5mm

Winter Dec- Jan 14.7-28.6 °C

Autumn OctNov

Figure 20: Hyderabad climate, (Subramanian, 2012).

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Figure 20 shows that the climatic situation of Hyderabad city in India over the entire one year. It has tropical wet and dry climate with hot semi-arid climate.

2.3.3 Green initiatives and sustainable technology used in the building

2.3.3.1

Energy efficiency

In CII- Sohrabji Godrej green business centre there has been building management system installed for real time monitoring of the energy consumption. The reduction of air conditioning load by 15- 20 percent is achieved by using of aerated concrete blocks. Double-glazed units with argon gas filling between the glass panes enhance the thermal properties. Energy efficient lighting design through Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs). The green building boasts a 50% saving in overall energy consumption (AsiaBusinessCouncil, 2012, p. 2).

Figure 21: Use of photovoltaic cells on the roof top, (Subramanian, 2012). The 60 percent of the roof of the building is covered by the roof garden as a good insulating property and to cut down the load on the air-conditioning system. The balance portion of the roof is covered by solar photo voltaic with 24 KW capacities. The 100 to 120 units of power generated per day are fed into the grid meeting 20 per cent of the total energy cost of the building (Jafri, 2004).

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Energy efficiency at CII- Sohrabji Godrej GBC has been achieved by two wind towers which cool the air by 8°C. The air is supplied to the air handling units which reduces the load on the air conditioners. These wind catchers or wind scoops are the Persian architecture element to create natural ventilation in the building (Subramanian, 2012).

Figure 22: Wind Towers, (Gujral, 2009).

2.3.3.2

Water efficiency

All of the wastewater, including grey and black water, generated in the building is treated biologically through a process called the Root Zone Treatment System. The outlet-treated water meets the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) norms. The treated water is used for landscaping. Also approximately 35 percent reduction of the potable water consumption has been achieved.

(AsiaBusinessCouncil, 2012, p. 1). The building discharges zero water as all of its used water is recycled. It has a huge capacity for the collection of rain water. The building has used many innovative ideas including a waterless urinal in which the chemicals are used to store and recycle urine without any odour. As per the

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LEED standards the site of the building was not at all disturbed for the construction of the building (Jafri, 2004).

2.3.3.3

Material and resources

80 percent of the materials in the building are sourced within 500 miles distance from the project site. Industrial waste is used as a raw material for most of the construction material during the manufacturing process. Fly-ash based bricks, glass, aluminium, and ceramic tiles, which contain consumer and industrial waste, are used in constructing the building to encourage the usage of recycled content. Office furniture is made of bagasse based composite wood. More than 50% of the construction waste is recycled within the building or sent to other sites and diverted from landfills (AsiaBusinessCouncil, 2012, p. 2). 65 percent of the building is built with fly ash. The manufacturing process of fly ash bricks communes less energy and reduces pollution. As compared to the clay or concrete bricks, fly ash bricks have higher strength as they don’t break during transportation. They absorbs less water than other type of bricks. They are lighter in weight than clay bricks and also have higher recycle content and less CO2 emissions.

Figure 23: Fly ash bricks in comparison with clay and concrete bricks, (Subramanian, 2012).

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The bagasse Board is actually a by-product of sugarcane industry. It can be used as a good substitute for plywood or particle Board. It is used in building for the making of partition walls, furniture etc. The recycled content such as broken tiles and glass, fly ash bricks, recycled aluminium and paper, bagasse wood and minerals and cellular fibres etc. has been as 77 percent of the entire building materials (Subramanian, 2012).

Figure 24: Bagasse board and ceramic tiles used in the building, (Subramanian, 2012).

2.3.3.4

Renewable energy

Photovoltaic cells have been used in building which covers 20 percent of the building energy requirements. The solar PV has an installed capacity of 23.5 kW (AsiaBusinessCouncil, 2012, p. 2).

2.3.3.5

Indoor air quality

Indoor air quality is continuously monitored and a minimum fresh air is pumped into the conditioned spaces at all times (AsiaBusinessCouncil, 2012). Fresh air is also drawn into the building through wind towers. About 7-8 degrees the incoming air is cooled by the help of 2 air conditioning towers by spraying the water (Jafri, 2004). The pre-cooled water is fed into the air conditioning system further lowering the energy costs. The use of low volatile organic compound (VOC)

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paints and coatings, adhesives, sealants, and carpets also helps to improve indoor air quality (AsiaBusinessCouncil, 2012, p. 2).

2.3.3.6              

Other important features

Fenestration maximized on the north orientation. Rain water harvesting. Water-less urinals in men’s restroom. Water-efficient fixtures: ultra-low and low-flow flush fixtures. Water-cooled scroll chiller. HFC-based refrigerant in chillers. Secondary chilled water pumps installed with variable frequency drives (VFDs). 60 percent of the building area is covered by the roof garden. Large vegetative open spaces. Swales for storm water collection. Usage of maximum day lighting. Operable windows and lighting controls for better day lighting and views. Electric vehicle are being used for the staff. Shaded car park (AsiaBusinessCouncil, 2012, p. 2).

2.3.4 Sensitivity to context      The built form responds to the rocky site. Small footprint, design retains site contours and existing boulders. To avoid sedimentation and erosion, contour trenching concept is adopted for this purpose. Minimal damage during construction and occupancy, to the natural elements of water flow, air quality, vegetation, and topography During construction, barricades were installed to prevent contaminants from spreading to surrounding areas (Subramanian, 2012).

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2.3.5 Benefits achieved The benefits so far achieved by CII-Sohrabji Godrej are following.         31000 kWh of renewable energy generated per year. Over 20 000kWh energy savings per year as compared to ASHRAE 90.1 baseline. A reduction in CO2 emissions of 100 tons per year since 2004. 55 percent of energy savings as compared to conventional building. Potable water savings of 40 percent compared to a conventional building. Excellent indoor air quality. 100% day lighting (Artificial lights are switched on just before dusk). Higher productivity of occupants (Raghupathy, 2011).

Since 2001, the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) of CII has embarked on the path to guide in a Green Building movement in the country. Currently in India over 1827 projects of Green Building are coming up. The footprints of the projects will be over 1.34 Billion sq.ft. This growth has been possible with the participation of all stakeholders in the green building movement. One of the biggest reasons why green buildings are now widely accepted by the cross section of the society is the fact that green buildings make good business sense and they are financially very attractive (Prem C. Jain, 2012).

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3. Result Phase As per the objective number 3, as stated in theoretical phase of this study, the recommendations are drawn on synthesis of swot analysis described and tabulated in confrontation matrix and also from the case study. Following lines will postulate the recommendations:

3.1 

Recommendations Building’s energy efficient design and construction should be made part of engineering and architecture curriculum to start cultivating a breed technically sound and rich in knowledge to cater the demanding needs of green building technology implementation.  It is recommended to train industry professionals against sustainable design and construction practices to meet the technological challenges in present and in near future.  Encourage sustainable technologies and develop public awareness to minimize the impact on environment and to attain a sustainable and healthy lifestyle.  A culture rich enough to understand the value and principles of sustainable construction is highly recommended to promote this concept nationwide with minimum resistance.  Enact legislation that is compatible with the international standards and consistent with other national regulations to provide a regulatory framework necessary to introduce and implement new technologies without legal hindrance.  Develop the Building rating system according to national environmental standards to enable the assessment of both existing and new constructions in green building technology context.  Ensure incentivization of public sector from the savings generated by green building technology implementation. This incentivization would encourage authorities to legislate, formulate laws and to monitor implementation as per standards.  Incentivize contactors by assigning weightage to the experience and knowhow of contractor’s regarding green building technology during the
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bid evaluation process. Such incentives will not only encourage contractors to develop their in house competency but also contribute in developing a culture necessary for the adoption of radical concepts nation and industry wide.  More emphasis and utilization of maximum daylight in the architectural design of building should be taken into consideration. As Pakistan is blessed with abundant sunlight 12 months a year so making appropriate use of the sunlight will be helpful in meeting the energy requirements.  It is recommended to implement energy efficient techniques in the building to reduce energy consumption. Approval of the pending, energy building conservation code of Pakistan will act as a catalyst for green building technology implementation. The case study of CII-Sohrabji Godrej GBC is an example in which building management system is installed for real time monitoring of the energy consumption. As 50 percent savings of energy efficiency is achieved by tapping the potential of various technologies some of which are photovoltaic cells, roof gardening and installing wind towers etc.  Ensure the water management in buildings by introducing and complying with already tested and proven procedure for example root zone treatment system and waterless urinals. These methods ensure the effective use wastewater by employing recycling and making usable for purposes like gardening and landscaping.  The case study discussed in thesis delineates the undeniable and significant role the recycling of industry wastes plays in the holistic picture of green building technology implementation. Therefore, it is highly recommended to start setting up the industry to process industrial wastes and making them usable as alternative construction materials ultimately reducing the need of extracting and processing of the raw materials and its shipping from a long distance to the project site.

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3.2

Conclusion

There has been lack of awareness towards resolving the environmental issues in Pakistan. The Green Building technology is one of the ways to cater the existing environmental threats which includes energy crisis, water shortage, poor waste management, less intelligent building’s spatial design and the usage of energy intensive materials. But on real grounds minimum or very less efforts are being made towards bringing and implementing the Green building technology concept in Pakistani market. If all the concerned stakeholders such as government, policy makers or institutions get serious about the growing mentioned crisis in Pakistan and also they promote the implementation of Green building concept in Pakistan then several very important steps are required to be taken towards introducing Green Building concept to be accepted in Pakistani market on a larger scale. On the other hand being a developing country India which also had been through the same situation, Indian government had taken interest in Green Building technology and worked effectively to promote the concept across the country. With the positive approach India inaugurated the first Green Building CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green business center in 2004. Whereas in Pakistan, public awareness is lacking towards the design and construction concept of Green Building technology. It is required to train and educate the industry professional about the design and construction of Green Building technology. Also building energy efficient design and construction is not part of engineering and architecture curriculum, it is required to be made part of academics as it will be helpful to start educating the upcoming engineering and architecture professionals that will definitely help to cater the demanding needs of green building implementation in Pakistan. The inconsistency in regulations and legislations for the green building implementation is one of the reasons that resulted in the less effective strategic approach made to control or reduce environmental degradation. The inconsistent legislation and regulations have paved the way for the methods and techniques, used to assess the environmental degradation, that are obsolete and less effective. In order to adopt and implement Green Building technology in Pakistan, efforts are required to be made on the grass root level. Also it is necessary to form a building rating system which evaluates and checks the energy efficiency in the buildings, as countries like U.S, UK, Japan, Singapore, China and even India have their own rating systems.

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It is worth mentioning here that SWOT analysis provides an opportunity to weigh the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed alternative system; weaknesses being drastically higher in number than strengths raise a red flag towards the adoption of that very alternative system. Thus far, analysis has revealed that strengths have outweighed the weaknesses, indicating that the alternative system, Green Building technology, enjoys better chances for its successful adoption. On the other side of the analysis threats give us an idea of the obstacles preventing the successful adoption & implementation of the alternative systems; numerous identified threats point towards the significant challenges the alterative system of green building technology is currently challenged with in Pakistani market. However, as strengths outweigh weaknesses, challenges could be sufficiently addressed with political will and wide-spread understanding of potential benefits of green building technology.

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