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ekoleza@cc.uoi.

gr

Abstract
In the discipline of Mathematics Education, during the last fifty years, various learning theories
concerning mathematical concepts have been proposed. Each theory employs a certain terminology, a
fact making the formation of a unified approach, a difficult task. As far as the learning of geometrical
concepts is concerned, on the one hand there is a trend for investigation independently of similar efforts
in the fields of Algebra and Analysis and on the other hand most of the research concentrates on proof
ignoring the very important stage of visualisation. This work analyses basic components of the
geometrical way of thinking aiming in the formation of a unified approach in the learning of
Mathematical concepts.

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(Halmos 1985),
(Anderson 1976), (Kaput 1979, Davis 1975, 1984),
(Dubinsky & Lewin 1976).
/ (Douady 1987),
(Henrici 1974). ,
(Lesh & Landau
1983, Hiebert 1986), (relational) (instrumental) (Skemp1976).
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(figurative), ,
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(mental images).

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(thematized objects
of thought or assimilation). O Dienes (1960), Piaget,
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(procedure) ( )
(process)(Davis 1983, .257).
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(thing),
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(process),
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(structural) :
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Sfard (Interiorization),
(Condensation) (Reification) .

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(operational) (Sfard 1992 .64-65).
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APOS: (ActionProcessObject. APOS:
--,
(Object),
(:Process Encapsulated into an Object),
(Schema).
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(Level of an Action Conception)
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(Interiorization of an Action).
(Level of a Process Conception)
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(inputs)
( outputs), ,

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:Process Encapsulated into an Object). ,
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(Tall 1994).
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procept, ( Sfard),
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1994), procept, : (process)
(concept),
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(Procedure),
(Action), APOS, Davis (1984)
(Procedure) (Process).
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(procedures).
(process), :
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APOS, procept:
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(structures, being structured by stronger structures) (.70).
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Tall et al. (2000),


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(1999), David Tall,
APOS, , ,
(real-world prototypes),
(-gestalts). ,
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(processes) - (, ,
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:
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perceived object ( )
conceived object ( ).
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(Davis, Tall & Thomas 1997, .135).
H perceived object conceived object
Piaget,
(empirical abstraction)- -,

- (pseudo-empirical abstraction),
:

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(Piaget 1970, p.16, in Sfard 1991)
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(processes). ()

(Sfard 1991, 11).
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Sfard, Dubinsky)
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( Sfard), ( Dubinsky)
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,
(visual representations),
(intuition) (imagery)
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Bruner (1966),
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(visual objects), .
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experiments).
- (visuo-spatial).
Fischbein (1993) ,
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(. 141).
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(figural concepts). ,

( -figure)
.

,
. (- : visuo-spatial gestalt). ,
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(prototypical mental images (Rosch et al. 1978),
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. ,
(visual object), ( )
(object-defined) (defined object),
(Tall 1994 ).
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van Hiele (1986).
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Peirce (abduction)
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(Duval 1995 , 181).
Duval (1995),
(cognitive apprehension) :
(perceptual apprehension),
(
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, ( ) ,
(sequential apprehension),

(
) ,
(discursive apprehension),
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(operative apprehension),
.
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. Piaget (1969),

(intelligence)
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(imagery) (Krutetskii 1976, Presmeg 1992, Arnheim
1969, Hebb 1968).
,
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2D 1D 0D,
(discursive apprehension).
,
(van Sommers
1984).
.

, Duval (1995, .181-182),
: perception
(gestaltist) ,
(: 1D 0D).
(perceptual apprehension)
(sequential apprehension) .
(operative apprehension) .

,
:
1.
.
,
.
, ,
..

, , .
Dual Coding Theory (Paivio 1986)
. Paivio
: imagens , logogens
.
- (,
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(Sfard 1994) ,
(Poincare 1913, Hadamard
1945). , ,
(Skemp 1979).
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Hardy (1967 . 125):
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(visuospatial imagery), - (Pinto 1998, Pinto &
Tall 1999). , Pinto & Tall (2002, .2),
:

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. Dubinsky

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Pinto & Tall (2002),
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2. ,
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2003). , ,
(Hasegawa 1997).
,

( 2003).

3. (perception)
(visualization).
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(Piaget 1972, . 65).
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= ,
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(Vurpillot 1972)

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4.

(conversion), ,

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D DC,
, (Duval 1997).

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Duval (1998) ,

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( 2003)

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analytic thinking), , (discursive representation)
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0D, 1D 2D)
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(synoptic function) .

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Schoenfeld (1986),
(inappropriate compartmentalization):

13

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(Duval
1995.)
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1997), Joel Hillel
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. (1994)
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& Vinner 1981)
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1993).
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(prepositional proofs) (thought experiments).
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