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StandardForm

IndexNotation
Power/index(pluralindices)

integer
3=3x3
3=3x3x3

Usingindexnotationisashorthandwayofwritinglargenumbersandallows
foreasiercalculations.
Ifanumberhasanegativeindexitwillcalculateasanumberlessthan1:
e.g.

Generalrule:

3 isthesameas1
3

an = 1
an

e.g.101isthesameas1
10

a=aninteger
n=power/index

0.1=1=101
10
0.01=1=102
100
0.001=1=103
1000
1)Completethetablebelow

104

103

102

101

101

102

103

104

105

Thereisagapat1:Tocompletethepatternadd100.Thus1=100
StandardForm(orScientificNotation)
Standardformisawayofexpressinglargenumbersinamoremanageable
format.Itisaverylengthyprocesstokeepwritinglargefiguresandthereisa
greatermarginoferrorduetotheriskofleavingoutoradding0s.
0.0000003067iseasytomisread.Mistakesina0hereortherewillmakea
seriousdifference.
3.067ismucheasiertoreadbutisn'tcorrect.
Standardformgivesawaytowriteverybigandverysmallnumberswithout
gettinglostinawholestringof0's.

Preparedwithreferencetoandexamplesfrom:
Cooke,H(2000) PrimaryMathematics.London:OU/PCP.
Haylock,D(2001) MathematicsExplainedforPrimaryTeachers London:PaulChapmanPublishing
Suggate,Jetal(2001) MathmaticalKnowledgeforPrimaryTeachersLondon:DavidFultonPublishers

StandardForm
AnumberconformstoStandardFormIndexwhenitiswrittenas:
ax10n

So

Whereaonlyhasasingledigitbetween1and9before
thedecimalplaceandnisaninteger(apositiveor
negativewholenumber,or0).
Thesetwonumbersmultipliedtogetherequalthevalueof
theintendednumber.

1200canbewrittenas1.2x103

(1.2x1000)

And 7.9x102 canbewrittenas790

(7.9x100)

Also 0.0371canbewrittenas3.71x102

(3.71 100)

Toconvertnumbersintostandardformyouneedtoconsiderhowto
representyournumberintheformofax10tothepowerofsomeinteger.

Considerhowthenumberwouldbewrittensothatonlyonedigit(nota
zero)isinfrontofthedecimalplace.
Thenthinkwhatyoudidtothatnumbertogetthere.
E.g.

850is8.5x100or10tothepowerof2
Or

8.5x102

Whenyouconvertnumbersfromtheirstandardformyouaremultiplyingor
dividingbypowersof10.
Iftheindexisapositivenumberthenyouaremultiplying(i.e.movingthe
decimalplacetotheright)toreturnthenumbertoitsequivalentlargerform.
Iftheindexisanegativenumberthenyouaredividing(i.e.movingthe
decimalplacetotheleft)toreturnthenumbertoitsequivalentsmallerform.
Thenumberbetween1and10canbecalledthecoefficientandtheinteger
connectedtothe10isapower.
2) ExpressthefollowingnumbersinStandardForm:
a)600000
d)25000
g)40000000

b)35000
e)7000
h)1210000

c)5400
f)236000
I)54000

Preparedwithreferencetoandexamplesfrom:
Cooke,H(2000) PrimaryMathematics.London:OU/PCP.
Haylock,D(2001) MathematicsExplainedforPrimaryTeachers London:PaulChapmanPublishing
Suggate,Jetal(2001) MathmaticalKnowledgeforPrimaryTeachersLondon:DavidFultonPublishers

StandardForm

3) Writeasordinarynumbers:
a)3.42x105
d)2x106
g)2.7x106

b)5.75x104
e)2.56x105
h)1.6x107

c)8.04x103
f)3.06x104
i)8.09x103

4) ExpressthefollowingnumbersinStandardForm:
a)0.009
d)0.00043
g)0.0000094

b)0.08
e)0.038
h)0.0008

c)0.45
f)0.0096
i)0.0000777

5) Writeasordinarynumbers:
a)9x103
d)9.82x104
g)5.5x107

b)7.4x104
e)4.65x105
h)1.34x104

c)2.8x103
f)5.61x103
i)6.502x103

CalculatingwithnumbersinStandardform
Youcancalculateverylargenumbersintheirnonstandardform,butbe
carefulasthereareopportunitiesformistakestobemadegiventheamount
offigurestobekeptintheirproperplaces(torepresenttheircorrectplace
value).

ToxnumbersinStandardForm,multiplythenumbersandADDthe
integers.
e.g 4.5x104 X2.2x102
(4.5x2.2)X(104 x102 )
9.9x10(4+2)
9.9x106

To numbersinStandardForm,dividethenumbersandSUBTRACTthe
integers.
e.g 1.632x106 1.6x103
(1.632 1.6)X(106 103 )
1.02x10(63)
1.02x103

Preparedwithreferencetoandexamplesfrom:
Cooke,H(2000) PrimaryMathematics.London:OU/PCP.
Haylock,D(2001) MathematicsExplainedforPrimaryTeachers London:PaulChapmanPublishing
Suggate,Jetal(2001) MathmaticalKnowledgeforPrimaryTeachersLondon:DavidFultonPublishers

StandardForm

To +or numbersinStandardForm,firstchangethemintononstandard
formandmakesuretheymaintaintheircorrectplacevalue.
DothecalculationandconvertbackintoStandardForm

OrConvertthenumberstothesamepower(orderofmagnitude)and
then+orthecoefficients
e.g.

3.6x107 +8.2x108
3.6x107 +0.82x107

=4.42x107

Questions
6) Thenumber10100iscalledagoogol.
Writethenumber50googolsinstandardform.
7) Workoutthefollowinggivingtheanswersinstandardform:
a)6.3x103+8.5x102
c)7.2x107x8.4x103
e) 5.4x1011
4.9x107

b)1.2x1061.24x105
d)1.3x103x6.1x107
f) 2.4x108
7.1x104

g) 6.1x107
1.5x104

8) Lighttravelsataspeedof3x108meterspersecond.Workouthowfar,in
meters,lightwilltravelin10000years.Take1yeartobe365days.
Giveyouranswerinstandardform.
9) ThemeandistanceoftheEarthfromtheSunis149.6millionkm.Write
thisnumberinstandardform.
10)TheEarthtravelsadistance,Dkm,inoneday.ThevalueofDisgivenby
theformula:
D=2P xmeandistanceofEarthfromSun(inkm)
365
CalculatethevalueofD,givingtheanswerinstandardform.
11)Ananometreis109meters.Write50nanometresasanumberin
standardform.

Preparedwithreferencetoandexamplesfrom:
Cooke,H(2000) PrimaryMathematics.London:OU/PCP.
Haylock,D(2001) MathematicsExplainedforPrimaryTeachers London:PaulChapmanPublishing
Suggate,Jetal(2001) MathmaticalKnowledgeforPrimaryTeachersLondon:DavidFultonPublishers

StandardForm
Answers
1)
10000

1000

100

10

0.1or
1/10

0.01or
1/100

0.001
or
1/1000

0.01or
1/10000

0.00001
or1/100
000

104

103

102

101

100

101

102

103

104

105

2)
a)6.0x105 b)3.5x104 c)5.4x103 d)2.5x104 e)7.0x103
f)2.36x105 g)4.0x107 h)1.210x106
i)5.4x104
3)
a)342,000 b)57,500 c)8,040
d)2,000,000e)256,000
f)30600
g)2,700,000h)16,000,000
i)8,090
4)
a)9.0x103 b)8.0x102 c)4.5x101 d)4.3x104 e)3.8x102
f)9.6x103 g)9.4x106 h)8.0x104
i)7.77x105
5)
a)0.009
f)0.00561

b)0.00074 c)0.0028
g)0.00000055

d)0.000982 e)0.0000465
h)0.000134 i)0.006502

6)50x10100
7)
a)7.15x103 b)1.076x106
c)6.048x103
d)7.93x104
e)1.10x104
f)3.38x103
g)4.06x103
8)
Numberofsecondsinday=60x60x24=86,400secs
Numberofsecsinayear=86,400x365.25=31,557,600secs
Numberofsecsin10,000years=31,557,600x10,000=3.15576x1011 secs
Velocity=Distance/Time, therefore,Distance=velocityxTime
Distance=3x108 X3.15576x1011
Distancelighttravelsin10,000years=9.47x1019 m(3sf)
9)
149600000km=1.496x108 km
10)
D=(2 x1.496x108) 365
D=2.58x106 km(3sf)travelledbytheeartheachday
11)Writing50nminstandardform
50x109 m=5.0x108 m
Preparedwithreferencetoandexamplesfrom:
Cooke,H(2000) PrimaryMathematics.London:OU/PCP.
Haylock,D(2001) MathematicsExplainedforPrimaryTeachers London:PaulChapmanPublishing
Suggate,Jetal(2001) MathmaticalKnowledgeforPrimaryTeachersLondon:DavidFultonPublishers