Comparative Anatomy on the

Braceros, Jann Denise Jopia, Fe Marie Zoo 113 C – 1L

Respiratio n
oProcess of obtaining oxygen from the external environme nt & eliminating CO2

Respiratory System of Shark
oIn fish, the pharynx contains the visceral or branchial arches and gill pouches. oSpiracle is differentiated from the first gill pouch. It forms between the jaws and the hyoid arches. oSplanchnocanium cartilage: Branchial bars = visceral bar =

oGill rays are internal cartilaginous suports for the gill lamellae that form on the lateral sides of the branchial bars. oGill rakers prevent debris or food entry to gills and form on the medial or internal sides of the branchial bars. oGill filaments or Gill lamellae

Respiratory System of Shark

Respiratory System of Shark
SPIRACLE

Respiratory System of Shark
SEPTAL GILLS

GILL RAKERS

Respiratory System of Shark

oAir Sacs (diverticula of lungs) are extensively distributed throughout most of the body oArrangement of air ducts in lungs: no passageway is a dead-end oUnidirectional air flow through lungs (parabronchi)

Respiratory System of Birds

oAssociated structures: TRACHEA and SYRINX

Respiratory System of Birds

o TRACHEA •usually as long as a vertebrates neck •reinforced by cartilaginous rings •spits into two primary bronchi where SYRINX is formed

Respiratory System of Birds

Respiratory System of Birds

Respiratory System of Birds

Respiratory System of Mammals
oMammalian lungs are multichambered and usually divided into lobes. oAir flow is bidirectional.

Respiratory System of Mammals
Trache a Primary bronchi Alveoli

Bronchiol es

Secondar y bronchi

Tertiar y bronch

References
De Iuliis, G. and D. Pulera. 2007. Dissection of Vertebrates Laboratory Manual. USA: Hing Yip Printing Co. https://segue.middlebury.edu/view/ht ml/site/biol0202a-s08/node/1877608 http://courses.washington.edu/chord ate/453labs/453lab13-09.pdf