AROUND THE WORLD

ANIMALS
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There are an amazing variety of
animals. Scientists split them into
groups of animals that show similar
features. The largest split is between
vertebrates and invertebrates.
Introduction
Vertebrates
Vertebrates
These animals have a backbone.
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Vertebrates make up
about 5 percent of the
animal kingdom.
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The largest group of
vertebrates are the fish.
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Amphibians were the first
vertebrates to live on land,
some 370 million years ago.
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Invertebrates make up
about 95 percent of the
animal kingdom.
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Most invertebrates are
found in the oceans.
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Some invertebrates, such as
corals, spend their adult lives
in one place.
Invertebrates
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WINTER
In the middle of
Arctic winter (end
of December),
none of the SunÕs
rays reach the
North Pole, so there
is never any daylightÑ
itÕs always night.
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Titles: Eyewonder-Desert (ED506)
Size: 255 x 195 (Bleed5mm)
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dry places where water and food
supply. Animals out searching for
the day also have to cope
reme heat in hot deserts.
he animals survive?
in the desert
Who needs to drink?
A spadefoot toad can stay under
ground for months. It wraps itself
a cocoon of dried skin and lives o
h d i i bl dd
The toad burrows backw
pushing sand away with
spadelike feet.
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Titles: Eyewonder-Desert (ED506)
Size: 255 x 195 (Bleed5mm)
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STOCKING UP
Camels survive in the desert through
storing foodÑnot by burying a stash, but
by eating when they can and converting
the food into fat, which the camel stores in its
hump. Some other animals share this survival
tip: both fat-tailed gerbils and Gila monsters
(a species of lizard) store food in their tails.
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Forest facts
FRAGILE FORESTS
Rain forests help to clean the worldÕs
air and water. Jungle plants give us
medicines that make us well when we
are ill. Rain forests are very important
but are shrinking every day
Ð chopped down for land and
wood. We need to value these
amazing forests, and take
care of all the animals
that live in them.
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NI AI
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e a e o s ve pe a e t g oups ca ed
prides and look after each otherÕs cubs. The
cubs play-fight, which is how they learn to hunt.
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There are about 60,000
muscles in an elephantÕs trunk.
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A lion can devour 50 lb
(23 kg) of meat in one meal.
ThatÕs about 350 hotdogs.
Amazing mammals
a
n
d
m
a
m
m
a
l
s
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Different di
What do you prefer? Vegetab
meat, fish, or a little of every
Mammals eat all kinds of thi
They eat because they need
just like a car needs fuel to g
Keep on chewing
American bison are herbivores, which m
only eat plants. They graze on grass. T
rest. Then they chew on the grass even
Make mine
A pack of gray
maul their hun
As one of the w
best-known ca
or meat eaters
bodies are desi
hunting other
They have pow
jaws and sharp
Wild mammals build
their daily routine
around finding
A mixed plate
This Alaskan brown bear, like other
brown bears, eats a meat and plant, or
omnivorous, diet. It waits to pounce on
any salmon swimming upstream, but also
chomps on plants, fungi, and large insects.
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Amazing mammals
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FINDING FOOD
Most insect-eating bats hunt using a process called
echolocation. Each bat makes a series of clicks, and
this sound is carried out into the air. This noise
bounces off any potential prey, such as mosquitoes
and moths, and sends information back to the bat.
The bat can then find the prey, and enjoy its meal!
Bloodsucker
This vampire bat is enjoying a
tasty snack of donkey blood. Its
sharp teeth easily pierce the skin,
and its spit prevents the blood
from clotting. Only three species
of bat feed on blood.
Tent making bats
These tiny fur balls are Honduran
white bats. They only appear
white under artificial light and
are well camouflaged in the murky
rain forest. They create shelters
from large rain-forest leaves.
Roosting together
Bats often gather together in huge numbers at a
single site. This may be a cave, an old building, or
a hollow tree. The site must provide the bats with
shelter and protection from predators.
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carniv
nivore (or meat e
nk of a big cat
r. But there are
eaters.
Meat!
lizards, snakes, and insects.
But they also eat plants,
fungi, and berries, which
makes them omnivores
(Òeverything eatersÓ).
Sharp tee
designed for tearing
into flesh.
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Cat facts
n31 311
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r of the pack
y chihuahua to the mighty
bers of the dog family vary
ously in size. In the wild most
pack animals, for company,
for power when hunting,
and for protection.
A wolfÕs long
snout contains
42 teeth
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IÕll look after you!
Cubs need a lot of care in
their first year. Ethiopian wolf
females such as this one tend to
A fox springs up
and dives onto a
rodent to catch it.
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38
00 11
necessities
g bodies, thick legs,
and dense fur, there is
bear. Aside from the polar
live in forests.
cozy in here
bears survive the
ctic with hollow,
pping hairs, and
of fat under the
Cubs are born in
w dens, and spend their first months
ell insulated from the icy conditions.
up!
le
elves
mbs
to
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Bears will try to intimidate
rivals by standing up and
walking on their back legs.
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A bear will not eat or
create waste while it is
in hibernation.
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Bears only have short tails.
Bear facts
oor
d
g.
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Insect bear
A Sun bear uses its
strong curved claws to
rip open antsÕ nests and
beehives. Then it will
slurp up the contents
with its extremely
long tongue.
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Rodent success
ugely successful group
own by the fact that they
ts except for Antarctica.
n social groups.
Gnaw it up
All rodents use their
powerful jaws for
gnawing. Perhaps
the most spectacular
example of this is the
beaver. Beavers build
huge dams and lodges
uts,
heir
re
ng
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A tree-loving rodent
Squirrels are known for th
climbing skills. The red squ
shown here is one of the fe
rodents to live alone (exce
a female has her young).
A porcupineÕs spines or
A prickly rodent
This rodent has an
effective defense against
possible predators. If
threatened, a Cape
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Amazing mammals
...I
bab
therÕs f
s part o
by mo
oomin
he prim
go
gence
is
for
ey weig
despite
nthusia
large
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Life on
ofed ani
pend lo
wild mo
edators
uick esca
Goats
prisingly a
an even cl
es to escap
edator. Pe
oats to su
at, wool, m
, and leat
dÕs
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Fishy facts
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Amazing mammals
Breaching giants
This humpback whale is leaping high out of the
leaping is known as breaching. All whales brea
really know why they do this. It may be to warn
to communicate with their group, or just for fun
enormous will make a huge splash when it hits
es tend to have their calves in the spring, in war
is born tail first, and its mother helps it to the su
e calf will stay with its mother for about a year.
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Feathery facts
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Swanning around
Young swans are called cygnets. With their
short necks and fluffy gray feathers, they
do not yet look like their beautiful parents.
Cygnets can swim, but they may ride on
their motherÕs back!
eeping cozy
winter, the female emperor
nguin lays a single egg then
aves for the sea. The male
lds the egg off the ice on
feet. After the chick
tches, the male keeps
warm until the
male returns.
Foster parent
This young cuckoo is
larger than the wren feeding it.
Cuckoos lay their eggs in other birdsÕ
nests. When it hatches, the cuckoo flings
out the other eggs. Now it will get all the food.
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As white as snow
Sometimes called Arctic owls or ghost owls,
snowy owls change color with the seasons
from gray-brown to white. In the
snow, a white owl can sneak
up on prey unseen.
Turning heads
Owls have forward-
looking eyes. To see
to the side or back,
this barn owl must
turn its head. It can
swivel its head a long
way around.
Swift and silent
Sweeping silently
through the skies, eagle
owls listen intently for
small sounds. Their
prey may not even hear
them approach as they
swoop down to sink in
their talons.
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Feathery facts
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grip
t p
t ca
eak
t lik
ots
p to
nd
ng
nin
y
a
nd
bir
whit
heir
ais
are
tene
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CanÕt catch
The smaller
South Ameri
running. Th
almost lev
Not
ed b
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0 dd 72
Penguin facts
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The Crocodilians
Crocodiles, alligators,
caimans, and gharials all
belong to the Crocodilia
group. Most make their
homes in warm freshwater
rivers, lakes, and swamps.
Squamata
everywhere!
The Squamata order
contains every single species of
lizard and snake. It is by far the
largest group of living reptiles. Amazingly,
nearly all reptiles are lizards and snakes.
The Chelonia group
Tortoises, turtles, and terrapins are
known as Chelonians. All members
of this group, or Òorder,Ó have
a body that is protected
by a shell.
Sn
a
k
e
s

m
a
y

h
a
v
e

h
a
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,

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All Crocodilian reptiles, like these crocodiles, have
tough, armorlike skin covering their entire bodies.
Tortoises live on land. Turtles
and terrapins live in the sea
(saltwater) or in rivers and
ponds (freshwater).
Desert tortoises
The reptile house
Reptiles are scaly-skinned, Òcold-bloodedÓ creatures with a bony
skeleton and a backbone. They live on land, in freshwater, and
in the sea. There are four main groups of reptiles alive today.
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Reptiles are known as cold-blooded
creatures, but they do not always have
chilly blood. An animal is Òcold-bloodedÓ if
its body temperature changes depending on how
hot or cold the surroundings are. Reptiles bask in
sunlight to heat up. This keeps the body working
well. If a reptileÕs body is not
warm enough,
its stomach
cannot deal
with (digest)
its food.
o
w

t
h
e
y

w
r
i
g
g
l
e

a
r
o
u
nd
.
The world is
home to
about 6,500
different
reptile species.
A rare breed
Today, there is only one
species of reptile remaining in
the Rhynchocephalia group Ð
the tuatara. Tuataras are
only found in one area of the
world Ð a set of small islands
off the coast of New Zealand.
COLD BLOOD?
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Feeling the heat
Some snakes have special
gaps around their lips that
are sensitive to heat.
These are called heat
pits. They are
used to detect
warm-blooded
animal prey.
76
This emerald tree
boa has lots of heat
pits along its lips.
Reptile file
¥
Snakes do not have ears on the
outside. They ÒhearÓ vibrations as
they travel through their jawbones
and into their inner ears.
¥
The organ in snakes and lizards
that ÒtastesÓ their environment is
called the JacobsonÕs organ.
Double vision
A chameleon can move
one eye, on its own, without moving
the other. This means that it can look in
two different directions at the same time.
It can use one eye to hunt insects, and
the other to look out for attackers.
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00 888
The taste test
A snakeÕs tongue
flicks in and out to
collect up chemicals
in the air. A sense
organ inside the mouth
ÒsmellsÓ and ÒtastesÓ
these chemicals, helping
the snake to sample
food, find a mate, and
to detect prey or enemies.
Most reptiles can see, hear, and
smell, but they also have other ways
of detecting things. Some reptiles
rely on one sense that is very
well-developed, while others use
a mixture of sense skills to get by.
Sssenses
Fully aware
Iguanas have very clear sight
and full-color vision. Like most
lizards, they detect sounds in
the air using an eardrum in the
skin behind the eye.
Snakes use their
senses of smell,
taste, and touch
more than their
eyesight and
hearing.
The body heat of this
rat can be sensed by a
snakeÕs heat pits.
The eardrum
is very thin
and flexible.
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0
Reptile file
he beard.
on has a se
just like a m
o that the l
rs
r the
of reptile
t. These
ncredible
ust as str
nd in fai
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00
IÕm all grown up
I am a newt
Newts have long bodies, four limbs, soft skin,
and, typically, live most of their lives on land,
returning to water to breed.
nd and water
ome creatures can move happily
etween water and land, some even
ng a part of their lives in water, as
mphs, before moving onto land as
lts. They are called amphibians.
him his skin releases a bad taste.
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090-091_whatisafish_kj003.indd 91 0 j d 9911 11 S f SS f 090-091_whatisafish_kj003.indd 0-091_whatisafish_kj003.ind 090 091 hh ti ffii h kj kkjj00003 inddd 91 91 99 0000 90 90 9900 09 09 0099 3333 03 03 0033 afish kj003. afish kj003... 3333 0000 kkkkkkkk hhhhhhhh tisa tisa ttii tttt whatisafish kj003. w 3 03 033 0000 091 0 00 fi h fi h US 90 91 h ti fi h i dd ddddddd9dddd1 9 9 499 4499 6:4 6:4 66 44 56 56 09:5 : 099 5 8 0 000 088 /0 /0 /0 / 6/ 6 /6 //6 / 0/ 00000 11 8888 9999 0000 0000 0000 6666 1111 88 0000 99999999 88 11 6666 16/ 6/7 /7/ 7/0 /08 15 9999 6666 5555 444499 6666 9 9 03 29
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092-093_fantasticfish_kj003.indd93 93 0
Dra
Leafy
in sh
wate
avoid
looki
Thei
weed
up
danger, porcupine
down water and
ike balloons.
are too large
ly for most
to swallow!
on
coil
crevices
mall for
. They
h for
A relaxed
porcupine fish with
spines lying flat.
Slimy,
k
m
u
c
h
m
o
r
e
l
i
k
e
snakes!
S f f SS 092-093_fantasticfish_kj003.ind 2-093_fantasticfish_kj003.ind 0922 92 92 992222 09 09 0099 0000US_
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00
(though it is rare) attacks humans
a serrat
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27/5/08 16:36:24 2 4
Hammerheads
signals in the water given out by
all living creatures. A big head
means there are lots of sensors,
which helps the shark detect prey.
seen of all hammerheads.
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Angling for fish
Angler fish have a long
fishing-rod fin with a light
at the end. Small fish think
that this is food. Lured
toward it, they swim into the
angler fishÕs open jaws.
No light reaches as far down as the oceanÕs
midnight zone. Here, strange creatures
live in freezing cold and total darkness.
They are small so they can survive
on little food.
Down in the depths
Fearsome hunter
The viper fish swims with
its jaws open. It catches
fish with its extra-long,
sharp teeth.
Mouth has
more than
350 lights.
Stretchy stomach
expands if the fish
lures in a big meal.
Low life
Parts of the ocean floor look
like the surface of the Moon.
Here, rattail fish dart in and
out of crevices. ItÕs easy to
see how they got their name!
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The gruesome looks of the
fangtooth explain its other
name, Òogre fish.Ó When a
fish or shrimp swims past,
the fangtooth sucks
them into its
gigantic mouth.
If you have seen a firefly sparkle on a
summerÕs evening then you have
seen a creature that produces
its own light. For fish in the
dark depths of the ocean, the
light serves a purpose. It helps
them to find food or lure prey.
Shining like stars
A bladelike, silvery
body gives hatchet fish
their name. They have
light organs along
their bellies
and tails.
Daggerlike teeth
line the fangtoothÕs
huge jaws.
ALL AGLOW
Large eye helps
the fish to spot
prey in the dark.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
r an
s ma
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Orb spider
sticky, cat
insects fas
In the
One of the
widely known m
invertebrates
starfish, or sea
These animals h
special ability: the
regenerate a lost
There is a huge vari
starfish, with some ha
more than 40
The w
Many i
hunters
are the
They h
of build
prey co
¥
The largest invertebrates are
giant deep-sea squid, which can
reach more than 60 ft (18 m)
in length.
¥
Invertebrate fossils have been
discovered that are at least 550
million years old.
¥
Scientists estimate that the
combined weight of all the
invertebrates on our planet would
outnumber humans many times.
Amazing facts
A sea anenome has a
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102-103_oceandrifters_kj003.indd102 102 102 11
OCEAN DRIFTER
In warmer parts of the world, the
Portuguese man-of-war drifts on
the surface of the waves. It is
held up by a balloonlike float.
A relative of jellyfish, its other
name is Òblue jellyfishÓ. It
catches fish in its long tentacles.
These shoot tiny stings into any
animal that touches them.
People are sometimes stung by
a Portuguese man-of-war. The
stings are not fatal to people,
but they are very painful!
Dinner delivered
Long tentacles trail
from the jellyfishÕs body.
When a small animal
swims into them, the
tentacles spear it with
poisonous stings.
Adrift in the oceans since
prehistoric times, jellyfish are
more than 95% water. They
have no brains, bones, hearts, or
eyes. Their stinging tentacles act
like fishing lines to catch prey.
Underwater umbrella
Jellyfish have soft bodies
called bells. The bell moves
in and out like an umbrella
opening and closing.
This drives the
jellyfish along.
Jellyfish
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103
Jellyfish may look
like a parachute but
they are probably
traveling upward!
Ghostly glow
Many jellyfish are nearly
transparent. Some also
produce their own light,
so that they glow in dark
water. They may only do
this when disturbed.
Up, up, and away
Jellyfish are attracted
to light even though
they have no eyes.
They swim toward the
waterÕs surface. This
keeps them within
range of food.
invertebrate Despite their
name, jellyfish are not fish.
They are invertebrates. An
invertebrate is an animal
without a backbone.
transparent A transparent
animal or object is one that
can be seen through.
G
l
o
w
i
n
g
j
e
l
l
y
f
i
ff
s
h
r
ising to
th
e
w
a
t
e
r
Õ
s
s
u
r
f
a
ff
c
e
o
n
d
a
r
k
n
i
nn
g
ii
h
g
t
hh
s
h
a
v
e
b
e
e
n
m
i
s
t
a
k
e
n
f
o
ff
r
g
h
o
h
s
t
s
!
Fishy facts
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Have home will travel
.
ave
aner
yes on
ood
ision.
Too cramped!
A hermit crab is an
unusual crab because
it has a soft abdomen.
It protects itself by
hiding in another
creatureÕs discarded
shell. It moves its
home regularly,
when it finds suitable
(larger) mollusk shells.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
110
Trapped in
We know that
were around ov
million years ag
some were trap
substance calle
which hardened
Abd
What is an
You can spot a
counting its bo
They all have
body parts Ð a
and an abdom
Extreme bugs
¥
The petroleum
puddles of crude o
on insects that ge
¥
Some midges c
into boiling water
¥
Snow fleas can
sub-zero temperat
pick one up it will
die in the heat of
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If you hear a buzzing sound in
Buzzing around
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PAPER MAKER
There is a legend in China that the inventor
of paper, TsÕai Lun (AD 89-106), watched
wasps while they made their paper homes
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Moon moth
The first time it flies, the Indian
moon moth takes to the air after
dark to avoid being eaten. It doesnÕt
have a mouth because it only lives
long enough to survive on the food
it ate when it was a caterpillar.
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11
121
The spider also
holds its net in
the air, ready
to catch insects.
Glowworm
Glowworms are not
worms, they are beetles.
This female glowworm
cannot fly. It glows all the time
to attract insects to its light so
that it can catch and eat them.
Web master
The netcasting spider
weaves its fatal net before
dark. Then at nightfall it
hangs upside down and
drops it on any delicious
insect that wanders past.
¥
The cicadaÕs clicking sound
can often be heard at dusk.
It has a flap under its stomach
that clicks loudly at very
high speeds.
¥
Moths are attracted to
artificial light because they use
the Moon to navigate and
confuse lights with the Moon.
Light fantastic
Fireflies and glowworms
use a special organ in
their tummies to flash light
signals in order to communicate
with each other. Sometimes
hundreds gather together to
attract mates, and can be
seen for miles, like the
ones in this tree.
Dark stories
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