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We may usefully define dialects as sub-forms of languages which are, in general, mutually comprehensible, while languages as forms are not. English an unusual language. Already a blend of early Frisian and Saxon, it absorbed Danish and Norman French, and later added many Latin and Greek technical terms. In the US, Canada, Hawaii, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and elsewhere, it absorbed terms different items from native and immigrant languages. Plus, the various dialects, from Cockney to Jamaican, and innumerable sources of slang, from Polari to hip hop, continue to add new terms and expressions to the mix.
so fire becomes /fai'/. in its variants). • "long o" is pronounced /'u/. where GA uses /ou/. • regular use of "broad a" (/a:/). where GA changes it to /d/. vowels are lengthened or have an /'/ off-glide. where GA (General American) would use /æ/. . unless followed by another vowel.Southern Southern English engages in r-dropping. and so on. r's are not pronounced after vowels. where GA uses /i:). that is. Instead. • t between vowels retained as /t/ (or a glottal stop. • final unstressed i is pronounced /i/. far becomes /fa:/.
• diphthongs change. . sometimes dramatically: time > /toim/. • initial h is dropped. • /th/ and /dh/ become /f/ and /v/ respectively: think > /fingk/.Cockney Originally the dialect of the working class of East End London. brother > /brœv'/. etc. brave > /braiv/. so house becomes /aus/ (or even /a:s/). • t between vowels becomes a glottal stop: water > /wo?i/.
stink porkies -.stairs Jimmy -.lies [from pork pies = lies] titfer -. it includes a large number of slang words. including the famous rhyming slang: north and south -.face trouble -.car pen and ink -.suit [from whistle and flute = suit] oily rag -.dead .wife [from trouble and strife = wife] whistle -.urinate [from Jimmy Riddle = piddle] loaf -.hat [from tit for tat = hat] apples and pears -.mouth boat race -.fag = cigarette jam jar -.Cockney Besides the accent.head [from loaf of bread = head] brown bread -.
But it does reveal a great deal about their social and/or educational background.Received Pronunciation An instantly recognisable accent often described as ‘typically British’. ‘Oxford English’ or ‘BBC English’ are all a little misleading. such as ‘The Queen’s English’. that is it does not contain any clues about a speaker’s geographic background. while the English we hear at Oxford University or on the BBC is no longer restricted to one type of accent. • RP is also regionally non-specific. speaks an almost unique form of English. . The Queen. Popular terms for this accent. • RP is an accent. for instance. since all RP speakers speak Standard English (avoiding non-standard grammatical constructions and localised vocabulary). not a dialect.
RP is also a theoretical linguistic concept.Received Pronunciation As well as being a living accent. and it is widely used (in competition with General American) for teaching English as a foreign language. It is the accent on which phonemic transcriptions in dictionaries are based. .
It combines some of the characteristics of Cockney(replacement of [t] with the glottal stop in weak positions. and even Kent. the vocalisation of [ɫ] (dark L) to [o]) with RP. a new working and middle class dialect has evolved and is rapidly become "the" southern dialect.Estuary English From London down the Thames and into Essex. . Sussex. but makes much less use of Cockney slang.
is a dialect(and/or sociolect) of English that emerged in the late 20th century. • θ/ is replaced by [t]. or children of Jamaican parents. • Hypercorrections like [fʊθ] for foot are also heard from Jamaicans. colloquially called Blockney or Jafaican. for example both /boːt/. The speech of Jamaicans. in London shows interesting combinations of the Jamaican accent with the London accent. .Multicultural London English Multicultural London English (abbreviated MLE). It is spoken mainly by youths in inner London.
• /ai/ becomes /oi/: time > /toim/. t.East Anglian This easternmost area of England was probably home to the first-ever form of language which can be called English This dialect is very similar to the Southern: t between vowels usually becomes a glottal stop. as in American English. d.. making chair and cheer homophones.. • Merger of the vowels of near and square (RP /ɪə/ and /ɛə/). . • RP yu becomes u: after n.
Yourself. as in American English. Reflexive pronouns are characterised by the replacement of Self with 'Sen' Y'usen .. Ussens . Thisens . becomes u: after n. t. is now predominantly RP. • RP yu." (We shall have to do it ourselves) Grammar Personal pronouns differ from standard English as follows: yorn yours mine Mine theirn Theirs ourn ours .Themselves/Yourselves. R's are dropped.Myself. but h's are pronounced.. Mesen . d. The only signs that differentiate it from RP: • ou > u: (so go becomes /gu:/).Ourselves Example "We sh'll ay to do it ussens. once filled with interesting variations.East Midlands The dialect of the East Midlands.
or one who feels the cold Oakie ice cream (common in Leicestershire) . Twitchel alleyway Tuffees sweets. confectionery Nesh a weak person.Dialect words Badly hungover/ill Clouts trousers (usually pronounced claarts) Mash to make a pot of tea (i.") Tabs ears Wazzerk/wassock fool (used across the east & west midlands) Sketa useless person.e. "I'll go mash the tea.
•r's are not dropped.West Country Owing to the West Country's agricultural history. •initial f often becomes v (finger > vinger). . •vowels are lengthened. •vowels are lengthened. This can be seen in literature as early as the 18th Century in Richard Brinsley Sheridan's play The Rivals. •initial s often becomes z (singer > zinger). with lack of education and rustic simplicity. as an effect.initial f often becomes v (finger > vinger). the sound of the West Country accent has for centuries been associated with farming and. set in the Somerset city of Bath.
those. that. E. "Thic" (North Somerset) – that . possibly "Boris" (Exeter) – daddy longlegs "Crowst" (Cornwall) – a picnic lunch. e. irgendwann) "Sprieve" (Wiltshire) – Dry after a bath. "Get in thic bed!" "Thic/Thac/They Thiccy/Thaccy/They" (Devon) – This. "Put'n in thic yer bo .g.said knowingly. i.Dialect words "Acker" (North Somerset) – friend "Anywhen" – At any time "Appen" (Devon) – Perhaps. crib "Cuzzel" (Cornwall) – soft "Gockey" (Cornwall) – idiot "Somewhen" – At some time (still very commonly used)(compare German. to be make dialect deliberately stronger.e.g. shower or swim by evaporation.
The accent is a result of extensive migration to the region during the Industrial revolution. People do tend to substitute a reply of "arr" for "yes".West Midlands The accent has experienced ridicule within the UK for its unusual sound. Birmingham and its surrounding suburbs received people not only from England and Ireland. Generally. most commonly being "I haven't" to "I ay" (which can be argued as an even shorter form of "I ain't"). most words are shortened. . but also in smaller numbers from Wales and Scotland. There are some local phrases that are renowned.
some of the vocabulary is: are > am am.West Midlands This is the dialect of Ozzie Osbourne! While pronunciation is not that different from RP.a reference to the use of "Yow am" ( or yow'm) instead of "You are" Brummie (spoken in Birmingham) Potteries (North Staffordshire) Herefordshire Warwickshire Worcestershire Salopian (Shropshire) . are (with a continuous sense) > bin is not > ay are not > bay Varieties of West Midlands English: Black Country (Yam Yam) .
/th/ and /dh/ > /t/ and /d/ respectively. that the Beatles made famous. Other features: /œ/ > /u/. the tongue is drawn back. as in luck (/luk/). has the southern habit of dropping r's. a version of the Lancashire dialect. as in hole (/hoil/) Scouse is the very distinctive Liverpool accent. /ou/ > /oi/.Lancashire This dialect. final k sounds like the Arabic q. spoken north and east of Liverpool. . for is pronounced to rhyme with fur.
talk > /ta:k/ work > /work/ book > /bu:k/ my > me me > us our > wor you plural > youse Northern . the dialect of the Newcastle area. The most outstanding version is Geordie. so father > /fædhæ/. and not only keeps its r's.The Northern dialect closely resembles the southern-most Scottish dialects. -er > /æ/. so that boat sounds like each letter is pronounced. but often rolls them. /ou/ > /o:'/. It retains many old Scandinavian words. such as bairn for child.
and retains its r's. as in luck (/luk/). aught and naught (pronounced /aut/ or /out/ and /naut/ or /nout/) are used for anything and nothing.Yorkshire The Yorkshire dialect is known for its sing-song quality. a little like Swedish. still use thou (pronounced /tha/) and thee. the is reduced to t'. /œ/ > /u/. initial h is dropped. . was > were.
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