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About the Author

About the International Code Council

The International Code Council (ICC), a membership association dedicated to building safety, fire prevention, and energy efficiency, develops the codes and standards used to construct residential and commercial buildings, including homes and schools. The mission of ICC is to provide the highest quality codes, standards, products, and services for all concerned with the safety and performance of the built environment. Most U.S. cities, counties, and states choose the International Codes, building safety codes developed by the ICC. The International Codes also serve as the basis for construction of federal properties around the world, and as a reference for many nations outside the United States. The ICC is also dedicated to innovation and sustainability and Code Council subsidiary, ICC Evaluation Service, issues Evaluation Reports for innovative products and reports of Sustainable Attributes Verification and Evaluation (SAVE).

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Headquarters: 500 New Jersey Avenue, NW, 6th Floor, Washington, DC 20001-2070 District Offices: Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Los Angeles, CA 1-888-422-7233 www.iccsafe.org

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Alan Williams, Ph.D., S.E., F.I.C.E., C. Eng., is a registered structural engineer in California who has had extensive experience in the practice and teaching of structural engineering. In California, he has worked as a Senior Transportation Engineer in the Department of Transportation and as Principal for Structural Safety in the Division of the State Architect. His prior positions include Professor of Structural Analysis at Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria, and consulting structural engineer in South Africa and the United States. Dr. Williams’ practical experience includes the design and construction of bridges, schools, and commercial and industrial structures.   The author obtained his bachelor of science degree and doctorate from Leeds University and has published 13 papers and nine books on structural engineering topics. Dr. Williams is a member of the Structural Engineers Association of Southern California, Fellow and Life Member of the Institution of Civil Engineers, and a Chartered Engineer in the United Kingdom.

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2. . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 5 8 9 12 12 15 15 16 16 16 17 19 21 24 25 25 26 27 31 33 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 36 38 38 42 44 45 45 45 C op yr ig h te d v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dead Load Applied to Columns  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flat Roof Snow Load  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3  Live Loads  . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ground Snow Load  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rain-on-Snow Surcharge Load  .3  Building Codes and Design Criteria  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Windward Snow Drifts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References  . . . . . xv Nomenclature  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems  . . . . . . . . . . . .4  Snow Loads   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leeward Snow Drifts  . . . . . . . . . . .   2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combined Dead and Live Load   .   1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two-Way Slabs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Influence Area  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermal Factor  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M at e ria l 1  Steel Buildings and Design Criteria  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dead Load Applied to Girders  . . . . . . . . . Warm Roof Slope Factor  . . . . .1  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exposure Factor  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slope Factor  . . . . . . . . . Importance Factor  . . . . . Flat Roof  . . . . . Slab Supports  . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Preface  . . . . . . . .   1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii 2 Design Loads  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sloped Roof Snow Load  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2  Dead Loads  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Continuous Beam Systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reduction in Floor Live Load  . . . . . . .   2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2  Types of Steel Buildings  . . . . . Dead Load Applied to Beams  . . . . . . . . . Snow Drifts on Lower Roofs  . . .   2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cold Roof Slope Factor  . . . . . . . . . . . Reduction in Roof Live Load  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4  ASD and LRFD Concepts  . . . . . . . Tributary Area  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . Net-Pressure Coefficient  . . . . . Hydrodynamic Loads  . .   Rigid Buildings  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Rain Loads  . . . Regular Building  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Wind Pressure on Components and Cladding:   IBC Alternate All-Heights Method  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Earth Pressure at Rest  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wind Importance Factor  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unbalanced Snow Load for Hip and Gable Roofs   . . . . . . . . . Basic Wind Speed  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Velocity Pressure Exposure Coefficient  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rain Loads  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wave Loads  . . . . . . . 46 47 48 51 54 55 55 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 57 57 59 59 61 61 61 61 61 62 62 63 64 64 64 65 67 68 71 72 72 72 73 73 73 76   2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Velocity Pressure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Velocity Pressure Exposure Coefficient  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Directionality Factor  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Wind Pressure on MWFRS: IBC Alternate   All-Heights Method  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASCE 7 Chapter 28 Part 1—Envelope Procedure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loads during Flooding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5    2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IBC Alternate All-Heights Method  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Wind Pressure on MWFRS for Low-Rise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Topography Factor  . . . . . . . . . . . Site Topography  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sliding Snow  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8  M   2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact Loads  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gust Effect Factor  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flood Loads  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design of Components and Cladding Using ASCE 7   Sec. . . . . . . . . Exposure Category  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Snow Load on Continuous Beam Systems  .7  at e ria l . . . Low-Rise Building  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rigidity of the Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wind Loads  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple Diaphragm Building  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enclosure Classifications  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wind Stagnation Pressure   . . . . . . Soil Lateral Load  . . . . . . . Unbalanced Snow Load for Gable Roof with   W > 20 ft  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ponding Instability  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6  C op yr ig h te d   2. . 30. . . . . . .vi Contents . . . . . . Unbalanced Snow Load for Gable Roof with   W Ä 20 ft  . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrostatic Loads  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Wind Pressure on Components and Cladding   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rigid Diaphragms  . . . . . . . References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vibration  . . Ground Motion Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seismic Design Category  . . . Allowable Stress Design Special Load Combinations  . . . Lateral Design Force on Parapets  . Drift  . . . . . . op yr ig h te d M at e ria l . . . . . . . 78 80 80 80 81 81 83 83 85 86 89 89 92 93 93 95 96 99 104 109 109 110 114 115 117 119 120 120 121 121 122 122 122 123 129 129 129 129 135 140 144 144 145 151 156 vii C 3 Behavior of Steel Structures under Design Loads  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deflection  . . . . . . . . . Steel Deck Diaphragms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Site Coefficients  . . . . Seismic Response Coefficient  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Redundancy Factor  . . . Strength Design Special Load Combinations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lateral Design Force on Structural Walls  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupancy Category and Importance Factors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Stress Load Combinations  . . . . . . . . . Seismic Base Shear  . . .11  Serviceability Criteria  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frames Subjected to Lateral Forces  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fundamental Period of Vibration  . . . . . . . . . .2  Gravity Load-Resisting Systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vertical Distribution of Seismic Forces  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents   2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partially Restrained (PR) Moment Connections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flexible Diaphragms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10  Load Combinations  . Diaphragm Loads  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seismic Force-Resisting System  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Durability  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3. . . . . . . . . Response Modification Coefficient  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Site Classification Characteristics  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effective Seismic Weight  . . . . .1  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . .9  Seismic Loads  . . . Fully Restrained (FR) Moment Connections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . Simple Connections   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjusted Earthquake Response Accelerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3. . . . . . . . . Design Response Acceleration Parameters  . .3  Lateral Load-Resisting Systems  . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anchorage of Structural Walls to Diaphragms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strength Design Load Combinations  . . . . . . . . . Diaphragms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collectors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . Flange Local Buckling  . . . . .2  Plastic Moment of Resistance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .viii Contents   3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . op yr ig h te d M at e ria l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References  . . . . . . . Overhead Traveling Bridge Crane   . .2  Shear in Beam Webs  . . . . . . . .   4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Design of Steel Beams in Flexure  . . . . . Inelastic Buckling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4  Approximate Methods for Laterally Loaded Frames  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stem Local Buckling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4  Longitudinal Shear in Built-Up Sections  . . . . . . . . . . . Portal Method  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5. . . . . . . . . . . Plastic Mode Extended: Lp < Lb ≤ Lm  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8  Singly Symmetric Sections in Bending  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4. . . . . . .1  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Flexural Strength and Allowable Flexural Strength   . .9  Redistribution of Bending Moments in Continuous Beams  . . . . Noncompact. . 4. . . . Elastic Mode: Lb > Lr  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6  Weak Axis Bending  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noncompact Section   . . Elastic Buckling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cantilever Method  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3  Weak Axis Shear  . . . . . . . . .   4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slender Section  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4  Lateral-Torsional Buckling Modification Factor  . . . . . . . . . . . . .3  Compact. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plastic Mode: Lb < Lp   . . . . . . References  . . . . . . . . . . . . Lateral Bracing of Beams  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4. . . . . . .7  Biaxial Bending  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noncompact Flanges  . . . Flexural Limit States  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4. . . . Compact Section   . . . . . . . .10  Deflection Limits  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4. Built-Up Sections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Web Yielding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lateral-Torsional Buckling  . . . . . . . . . . 160 160 163 167 168 171 171 171 172 173 175 176 177 179 179 181 182 182 185 185 187 188 190 191 191 192 194 195 198 199 199 199 200 201 204 204 204 209 209 211 212 214 216 218 219 C 5 Design of Steel Beams for Shear and Torsion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inelastic Mode: Lp < Lb ≤ Lr  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compact Flanges  . . . . . . . . .   5. . .5  Lateral-Torsional Buckling  . . . . . . . . Problems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plastic Mode  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Slender Sections  . . . . . . . Shape Factor and ASD  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . Bearing on Concrete  . . . .   5. . . . . . .   6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8  Web Sidesway Buckling  . . . . . . . . . . . .   6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Base Plate Thickness  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Members with Slender Elements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Torsional and Flexural-Torsional Buckling of Members   without Slender Elements  . . . . . . Torsion in Closed Sections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2  Effective Length  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Web Compression Buckling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Web Yielding at Girder Interior  . . . . . Rectangular HSS Subject to Torsion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concrete Footing Capacity  . . .7  Column Flanges with Concentrated Forces  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6  Web Local Yielding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3  Alignment Charts   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Block Shear Strength for Welded Connections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stiffness Reduction Factors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alignment Chart for Sway Frame  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specification Provisions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5  Built-Up Sections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flexural Buckling of Members without Slender   Elements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4  Axially Loaded Compression Members  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Block Shear Strength for Bolted Connections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6  Column Base Plates  . . W-Shape Subject to Torsion  .   5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tabulated Factors  . . . . . . . Torsion in Open Sections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Web Panel Zone Shear  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single Angle Compression Members without Slender   Elements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7  Web Crippling  . .   6. . . . . . . . . Effective Bolt Hole Diameter and Net Area  . . . . . Web Yielding at Support  . Compression Limit State  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Block Shear Strength for Coped Beams  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . te d M at e ria l 264 268 271 273 279 282 282 285 287 287 287 290 292 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Round HSS Subject to Torsion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 222 223 225 226 228 229 231 233 234 235 237 237 238 239 240 241 244 249 250 255 255 255 257 257 259 260 261 263 264 ix C op yr ig h 6 Design of Compression Members  . . .5   Block Shear  . . . . . . . . . . . . . References  .9  Design for Torsion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents   5. Flange Local Bending  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alignment Chart for Braced Frame  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6. . . . .   5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3  Stability Analysis  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beam-Columns  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ductility  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plates with Welded Connection  . . . . . . . . . . . Plates with Bolted Connection  . . . .4  Design Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7  Mechanism Method of Design  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Second-Order Effects  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local Buckling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6  Statical Method of Design  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unbraced Length  . Residual Stress and Partial Yielding Effects  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rolled Sections with Bolted Connection  . . . . . General Principles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8. . . . . . . . .   7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linear Elastic-Plastic Response Curve   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Stability of Frames  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References  . . . . . . . . . op yr ig h te d M at e ria l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5  Analysis Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9. . . . . . . . . .   8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3  Effective Net Area  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limiting Axial Load  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8  Static Equilibrium Check  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9  Beam-Column Design  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8. . Problems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transverse Stiffener Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2  Tensile Strength  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geometric Imperfections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3  Plastic Hinge Formation  . . . . . . . . Approximate Second-Order Analysis  . . . . . . . . 8 Design by Inelastic Analysis  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Material Properties and Yield Criteria  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stability Analysis Procedures  . Problems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2  Plastic Moment of Resistance  . . . . . . . . . . . Problems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8. . . . . . . . . . . . Doubler Plate Requirements  . . . . . . . . Rolled Sections with Welded Connection  . . . 296 300 302 302 307 307 307 308 310 312 312 316 329 329 333 333 333 334 334 336 337 337 338 338 339 339 339 340 340 344 347 349 351 356 357 359 359 359 360 361 364 365 368 C 9 Design of Tension Members  . .   7. . . . . .2  Design for Combined Forces  . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . ria 369 372 372 373 375 375 378 379 380 381 387 387 387 387 388 390 390 391 392 397 397 397 400 400 404 406 410 410 413 415 418 418 423 423 423 423 424 424 425 425 425 427 l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1  Introduction  . . .   9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limit States  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instantaneous Center of Rotation Method  . . Connection Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents . . . . . . . Bolt Spacing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2  Snug-Tight Bolts in Shear and Bearing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quality Assurance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9. . . . . . . .7  Bolt Group Eccentrically Loaded Normal to the      Faying Surface  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bolts in Shear Only  . . . .4  Pin-Connected Members  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References  . Bolts in Combined Tension and Shear  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elastic Unit Area Method  . . . . . . . . . . Bolt Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi C op yr ig h te d M at e 10 Design of Bolted Connections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4  Slip-Critical Bolts in Shear and Tension  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3  Snug-Tight Bolts in Shear and Tension  . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5  Prying Action  . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bolt Installation  . . . . . . Shear Strength  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dimensional Requirements  . . 10. . Complete Joint Penetration Groove Welds  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Welding Process  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weld Metal Strength  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Round Hollow Structural Sections with Welded   Connection  . . . . . . . . Welding Applications  . . . . . . . . . . .6  Design for Fatigue  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fillet Welds   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Joint Penetration Groove Welds  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Design of Welded Connections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dimensional Requirements  . References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2  Weld Types  . . . . .   9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6  Bolt Group Eccentrically Loaded in Plane of Faying Surface  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bearing Strength  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Procedure  . . . . .5  Design of Eyebars  . . . . . . Bolts in Tension Only  . . . . . . . Bolts in Combined Shear and Tension  . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . Intermediate Transverse Stiffeners  . Girder Depth  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9  Design of Bearing Stiffeners  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4  Weld Group Eccentrically Loaded in Plane of Faying       Surface  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. .1  Introduction  . . . .7  Design of Transverse Stiffeners  . . . . . . . .6  Design for Shear with Stiffened Web: Tension Field      Action Included  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elastic Vector Analysis   . Linear Weld Group Loaded through the Center of Gravity  . . . .8  Flexural Design of Plate Girders  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tension Flange Yielding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Web Thickness  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii Contents 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compression Flange Local Buckling  . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limitations  . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2  Encased Composite Columns  . . . . . . . . References  . . . Tension Field Action Included  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems  . . . . . . . . 13 Composite Members  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3  Available Strength of Fillet Welds  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compressive Strength  . . . 12. . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References  . Weld Group with Concentric Loading   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flange Width  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instantaneous Center of Rotation Method   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2  Girder Proportions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flange Thickness  . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary  . . . . .4  Design for Shear with Unstiffened Web  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lateral-Torsional Buckling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . at e ria l 457 459 460 460 462 464 464 465 466 467 469 473 473 477 477 479 479 479 483 C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flange Area  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . Compression Flange Yielding  . . . . . . . . . . . . Load Transfer  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5  Design for Shear with Stiffened Web: Tension Field       Action Excluded  . . . . . . Instantaneous Center of Rotation Method   . . . 432 432 432 433 435 435 439 442 442 445 446 447 451 451 452 452 452 453 453 453 453 454 455 op yr ig h te d M 12 Plate Girders  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3  Postbuckling Strength of the Web  . . . . . . . . . .5  Weld Group Eccentrically Loaded Normal to Faying        Surface  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . Tension Field Action Excluded  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elastic Vector Analysis   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . 486 486 487 487 490 493 494 495 495 495 497 500 502 505 506 xiii M at e ria l 508 512 514 514 516 519 519 520 522 523 Index  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529 C op yr ig h te d . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3  Filled Composite Columns  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shored and Unshored Construction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nominal Strength  . . . . . . . Limitations  . . . . . . . . . . Design Tables   .5  Composite Beam with Flat Soffit Concrete Slab  . Problems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steel Headed Stud Anchors in Composite Beam with   Flat Soffit Concrete Slab  . . . . . Steel Headed Stud Anchors in Formed Steel Deck   with Ribs Parallel to Beam  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fully Composite and Partially Composite Beams  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Load Transfer  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Composite Beam Deflection  . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steel Headed Stud Anchors in Composite Section   with Concentrated Loads  . . . . . . Effective Slab Width  . . . . . . .6  Formed Steel Deck with Ribs Perpendicular to Beams  . . . .7  Formed Steel Deck with Ribs Parallel to Beams  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slenderness Limits  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compressive Strength  . . Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steel Headed Stud Anchors in Formed Steel Deck with   Ribs Perpendicular to Beam  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nominal Strength of Fully Composite Beam with PNA in   Concrete Slab  . .4  Encased Composite Beams  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Negative Flexural Strength  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

In the LRFD method. In ASD. C op yr ig h te d M T at e ria l Preface xv . which includes AISC 360-05. In the 2012 IBC. Allowable strength design is similar to allowable stress design in that both utilize the ASD load combinations. structural steel design has been based on allowable stress design (ASD). The design aids in the Manual are independent of the edition of the Specification. allowable stress of a material is compared to calculated working stress resulting from service loads. AISC introduced a specification based entirely on load and resistance factor design (LRFD) for design of structures. This book covers both ASD and LRFD methods and presents design problems and solutions side-by-side in both formats. the specifications are formatted in terms of force in a member rather than stress. the text uses the 13th edition of the AISC Steel Construction Manual. These are Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (AISC 360-10) and Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings (AISC 341-10). AISC introduced a unified specification in which both methods were incorporated. the design strength is given as the nominal strength multiplied by a resistance factor and this must equal or exceed the required strength given by the governing LRFD load combination. The International Building Code is a national building code which has consolidated and replaced the three model codes previously published by Building Officials and Code Administrators International (BOCA). The first Code was published in 2000 and it has now been adopted by most jurisdictions in the United States. also called working stress design. both based on the nominal strength of a member. for strength design. In the ASD method. and this principle is continued in the 2010 Specification. This book is based on the final draft of AISC 360-10. This allows the reader to readily distinguish the similarities and differences between the two methods. Where appropriate. as the 14th edition of the Manual was not available at the time of this publication. Traditionally. and Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). B3. structural steel design may be done by either load and resistance factor design or by allowable strength design. In 1986. International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO). to give allowable stress. The stress design format is readily derived from the strength design format by dividing allowable strength by the appropriate section property. In accordance with AISC 360 Sec. In 2005. the allowable strength is given as the nominal strength divided by a safety factor and this must equal or exceed the required strength given by the governing ASD load combination.he purpose of this book is to introduce engineers to the design of steel structures using the International Code Council’s 2012 International Building Code (IBC). However. such as cross-sectional area or section modulus. two specifications of the American Institute of Steel Construction are adopted by reference.

I would like to express my appreciation and gratitude to John R. 2012 edition.. for his helpful suggestions and comments. International Code Council. d M at e ria C op yr ig h te l Alan Williams . dead. The code requirements are illustrated with 170 design examples with concise step-by-step solutions. It is also intended for those engineers and students who are familiar with either the ASD or LRFD method and wish to become proficient in the other design procedure.xvi Preface The 2012 IBC also adopts by reference the American Society of Civil Engineers’ Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-10). Henry. professional engineering examination candidates. The book provides detailed interpretations of the AISC Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. The examples in this text are based on ASCE 7-10. and graduate students. Principal Staff Engineer. Grateful acknowledgment is also due to Manisha Singh and the editorial staff of Glyph International for their dedicated editing and production of this publication. 2010 edition. In this book the theoretical background and fundamental basis of steel design are introduced and the detailed design of members and their connections is covered. This publication is suitable for a wide audience including practicing engineers. This Standard provides live. seismic. undergraduate. and snow design loads and their load combinations. 2010 edition. Each example focuses on a specific issue and provides a clear and concise solution to the problem. the ASCE Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. PE. Inc. wind. and the ICC International Building Code.

Steel with a yield point in excess of 65 ksi does not exhibit plastic yielding and may not be used in structures designed by plastic design methods. The slope of the stress-strain curve.000 ksi M 1. and corrosion resistance. Figure 1. ductility. The patina consists of an oxide film that forms a protective barrier on the surface. These are known as weathering steels and they form a tightly adhering patina on exposure to the weather. The principle requirements are strength. Until recently. The yield point is followed by plastic yielding with a large increase in strain occurring at a constant stress. ASTM A242 and A588 are corrosion resistant low-alloy steels. and ease and speed of construction. up to this point. Elongation produced after the yield point is permanent and nonrecoverable. At the end of the plastic zone. until the yield point is reached at a stress of 36 ksi.1  Introduction at e 1 ria Steel Buildings and Design Criteria 1 l . stress again increases with strain because of strain hardening.CHAPTER Steel is widely used as a building material. mild steel was the most common material for hot-rolled shapes but has now been superceded by higher strength steels for a number of shapes. weldability. painting the steelwork is not required. Hence. availability in a variety of useful and practical shapes.1 shows the stress-strain curves for ASTM A36 mild steel and a typical highstrength steel. This is because of a number of factors including its mechanical properties. thus preventing further corrosion. The increase in strain during plastic yielding may be as much as 2 percent. is termed the modulus of elasticity and is given by C op yr Loading and unloading a mild steel specimen within the elastic range produces no permanent deformation and the specimen returns to its original length after unloading. with stress proportional to strain. Steel can be produced with a variety of properties to suit different requirements. economy. resulting in a reduction in maintenance costs. ig h te d E = stress/strain = 29. The maximum stress attained is termed the tensile strength of the steel and subsequent strain is accompanied by a decrease in stress. The stress-strain curve for mild steel indicates an initial elastic range. The plastic method of analysis is based on the formation of plastic hinges in a structure during the plastic range of deformation. design simplicity.

7 in.7 in and a flange width of 14.1 in and a weight of 84 lb/ft. . 1. Steel Construction Manual (AISC Manual)1 Part 1. This is the most commonly used shape for beams and columns and is designated by nominal depth and weight per foot. For example.2 Chapter One Tensile strength High-strength steel Yield point Yield point Stress Fy = 36 Tensile strength Mild steel Strain hardening range Plastic range 0.2  Standard rolled shapes. Dimensions.1  Stress-strain curves for steel. and properties of these sections are given by American Institute of Steel Construction.2 and listed in Table 1. The radii of gyration about C W-Shapes op yr ig h M-Shapes te d S-Shapes M Figure 1. After the elastic limit is reached. the increase in stress gradually decreases until the tensile strength is reached. a W12 × 132 has a depth of 14. W12 and W14 sections are fabricated with the flange width approximately equal to the depth so as to achieve this.2 percent.1. weights. at e HP-Shapes ria L-Shapes WT-Shapes ST-Shapes HSS-Shapes l Not to scale C-Shapes Pipe Figure 1. Rolled steel sections are fabricated in a number of shapes. The W-shape is an I-section with wide flanges having parallel surfaces.2% offset Strain The stress-strain curve for high-strength steel does not exhibit a pronounced yield point. For these steels a nominal yield stress is defined as the stress that produces a permanent strain of 0. Thus a W24 × 84 has a depth of 24. as shown in Fig. Columns are loaded primarily in compression and it is preferable to have as large a radius of gyration about the minor axis as possible to prevent buckling.

The HP-shape is designated by nominal depth and weight per foot.465 in.28 in and 3. and S-shapes in half and they have half the depth and weight of the original section. The HP-shape is also an I-section and is used for bearing piles. respectively. An HSS14. S-shapes are available up to a depth of 24 in and have thicker webs than comparable W-shapes making them less economical. square. T-sections are made by cutting W-. The MC-shape is a miscellaneous channel with a nonstandard slope on the inner flange surfaces. C op yr ig h te Table 1.1  Rolled Steel Sections d at e HSS HSS HSS Pipe ria l . Thus a C12 × 30 has a depth of 12 in and a weight of 30 lb/ft.8 in and a weight of 45 lb/ft and is split from a W30 × 90.Steel Buildings and Design Criteria Shape Wide flanged beams Miscellaneous beams Standard beams Bearing piles Standard channels Miscellaneous channels Angles Tees cut from W-shapes Tees cut from M-shapes Tees cut from S-shapes Rectangular hollow structural sections Square hollow structural sections Round hollow structural sections Pipe Designation W M S HP C MC L WT MT ST 3 M the major and minor axes are 6. Angles have legs of equal thickness and either equal or unequal length. The C-shape is a standard channel with a slope of 2 on 12 to the inner flange surfaces. Both S-shapes and M-shapes are I-sections with tapered flanges that are narrower than comparable W-shapes and provide less resistance to lateral torsional buckling.250 is a round hollow structural section with an outside dimension of 14 in and a design wall thickness 0.2 in and a weight of 117 lb/ft. M-shapes are available in small sizes up to a depth of 12. an L8 × 6 × 1 is an angle with one 8-in leg. Hollow structural sections are particularly suited for members that require high torsional resistance. To withstand piling stresses. Thus an HSS12 × 12 × ½ is a square hollow structural section with overall outside dimensions of 12 in by 12 in and a design wall thickness of 0. Thus a WT15 × 45 has a depth of 14.5 in. Hollow structural sections are designated by out side dimensions and nominal wall thickness.233 in. They are designated by leg size and thickness with the long leg specified first and the thickness last. they are of robust dimensions with webs and flanges of equal thickness and with depth and flange width nominally equal. M-. Thus. There are three types of hollow structural sections: rectangular. Thus an HP14 × 117 has a depth of 14. and round. one 6-in leg and with each leg 1 in thickness.76 in. Channels are designated by exact depth and weight per foot.000 × 0.

322 in. They are designated by specifying the depth and weight of the channel used. B A500 Gr. extra strong. a pipe 8 Std. round Pipe Note: Fy = specified minimum yield stress. Thus. These are two angles that are interconnected through their back-to-back legs along the length of the member. ksi 65 58–80 58–80 65 58–80 58–80 58–80 65 58–80 58–80 58 58 58 60 Wide flanged beams Standard beams Miscellaneous beams C Bearing piles Standard channels Miscellaneous channels Angles Ts cut from W-shapes Ts cut from M-shapes Ts cut from S-shapes Hollow structural sections.63 in and a wall thickness of 0. Dimensions and properties of double channels are also provided in the AISC Manual Part 1. A 2L8 × 6 × 1 SLBB has two 8 × 6 × 1 angles with the 6 in (short) legs back-to-back. either in contact for the full length or separated by spacers at the points of interconnection.2  Type of Steel Used op yr Shape d M at e ria l . Fu = specified minimum tensile strength Table 1. B A500 Gr. and double-extra strong. Pipes are designated by nominal out side dimensions.2. Double angles are frequently used in the fabrication of open web joists. A pipe 8 xxStrong is a pipe with an outside diameter of 8.63 in and a wall thickness of 0.4 Chapter One There are three classifications of pipes: standard. Dimensions and properties of double angles are also provided in the AISC Manual Part 1. 50 A36 A36 A36 A992 A36 A36 A500 Gr. They are designated by specifying the size of angle used and their orientation. square Hollow structural sections. a 2L8 × 6 × 1 LLBB has two 8 × 6 × 1 angles with the 8 in (long) legs back-to-back. rectangular Hollow structural sections. ig h te Steel Type ASTM Designation A992 A36 A36 A572 Gr. ksi 50–65 36 36 50 36 36 36 50–65 36 36 46 46 42 35 Fu.875 in. Thus. B Fy. a 2C12 × 30 consists of two C12 × 30 channels each with a depth of 12 in and a weight of 30 lb/ft. Thus. The types of steel commonly available for each structural shape are listed by Anderson and Carter2 and are summarized in Table 1. either in contact for the full length or separated by spacers at the points of interconnection. Double channels are frequently used in the fabrication of open web joists. B A53 Gr. These are two channels that are interconnected through their back-to-back webs along the length of the member. is a pipe with an outside diameter of 8.

5.3  Steel roof construction. as shown in Fig. The building may be one or several stories in height. beams.Steel Buildings and Design Criteria 5 1. and columns as shown in Fig.4  Single bay rigid frame. 1. 1. An alternative construction technique is the single bay rigid frame structure shown in Fig.4. One of the simplest type of structure is constructed with a steel roof truss or open web steel joist supported by steel columns or masonry walls. girders. Framed structures consist of floor and roof diaphragms. at e ria Open web joist Masonry wall l .2  Types of Steel Buildings Steel buildings are generally framed structures and range from simple one-story buildings to multistory structures. Steel column M te Floor diaphragm Roof truss Figure 1.3.5  Framed building. 1. Figure 1. C op yr N ig h d Beams Girders Columns Figure 1.

6  Beam detail. . 1. 1.8. Column Beam Girder Concrete slab not shown Figure 1. 1.6 Chapter One Terrazzo Concrete fill Steel deck Steel beam Figure 1. The beams span north-south and are supported on girders.6. The floor diaphragm spans east-west over the supporting beams and consists of concrete fill over formed steel deck as shown in Fig. As well as supporting gravity loads. The girders frame into columns as shown in Fig. Figure 1.7  Girder detail.7. as shown in Fig.8  Column detail.5 illustrates the framing arrangements at the second floor of a multistory building. Several techniques are used to provide lateral Terrazzo Concrete fill Steel deck Steel beam Steel girder Figure 1. framed structures must also be designed to resist lateral loads caused by wind or earthquake.

special detailing is required for finishes and curtain walls to accommodate.10  Braced frames. 1. Concentrically braced frames. .5 are illustrated in Fig.4 and eccentrically braced frames. Moment-resisting frames resist lateral loads by means of special flexural connections between the columns and beams. described by Becker and Ishler. and shear walls. Moment-resisting frames have the advantage of providing bays free from obstructions. braced frames.9  Moment-resisting frame. Prequalified Connections for Special and Intermediate Steel Moment Frames for Seismic Applications (AISC 358-10). However. The flexural connections provide the necessary ductility at the joints to dissipate the energy demand with large inelastic deformations. A number of different methods are used to provide the connections and these are specified in American Institute of Steel Construction.10.Steel Buildings and Design Criteria 7 Reduced beam section Figure 1.9 with a reduced beam section connection detailed.3 A typical moment-resisting frame building is shown in Fig. resistance including special moment-resisting frames. described by Cochran and Honeck. the large drifts anticipated. 1. These systems Brace Brace Brace Concentrically braced Link Link Link Eccentrically braced Figure 1. without damage.

1. The Specification and the Provisions provide complete information for the design of buildings. 1. The code provides requirements to safeguard public health. The IBC establishes minimum regulations for building systems using prescriptive and performance-related provisions. Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (AISC 360)8 and Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings (AISC 341). A building with a steel plate shear wall lateral force-resisting system is shown in Fig. fabrication. have the advantage over moment-resisting frames of less drift and simpler connections. or C .3  Building Codes and Design Criteria The building code adopted by most jurisdictions throughout the United States is the International Code Council. Their disadvantages are restrictions on maximum building height and architectural limitations.9 The Specification for Structural Steel Buildings is included in AISC Manual Part 16. fire. These are. light.6 This system provides good drift control but lacks redundancy. the code is updated every 3 years. The requirements for structural steelwork are covered in IBC Chap. and welfare through provisions for structural strength. and erection of structural steel buildings and structures similar to buildings. two specifications of the American Institute of Steel Construction are adopted by reference. The Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings is included in AISC Seismic Design Manual (AISCSDM)10 Part 6. AISC 360 provides criteria for the design.11  Steel plate shear wall building.11 and is described by Sabelli. It is specifically intended for low-seismic applications where design is based on a seismic response modification coefficient R of 3 or less. and other hazards. The code development process is an open consensus process in which any interested party may participate. braced frames are generally less expensive than moment-resisting frames. 2205. When adopted by a local jurisdiction it becomes a legally enforceable document.7 Some states and some cities publish their own code and this is usually a modification of the IBC to conform to local customs and preferences. ventilation. International Building Code (IBC). In addition.8 Chapter One Steel plate shear wall Figure 1. Both include a Commentary that provides background information on the derivation and application of the specifications and provisions. 22. safety. To maintain its relevance to changing circumstances and technical developments. sanitation. This is permissible in buildings assigned to seismic design category A. In IBC Sec. B.

as determined by elastic theory The advantages of the allowable stress method were its simplicity and familiarity. or F. also referred to as nominal or service loads. are the dead loads and live loads applied to a structure.2 and these are used in the strength design load combinations. Dead load includes the self-weight of the structure and permanent fittings and equipment. These provisions provide the design requirements for structural steel seismic force-resisting systems to sustain the large inelastic deformations necessary to dissipate the seismic induced demand. In situations where wind effects exceed seismic effects. The allowable stress design method specified that stresses produced in a structure by the working loads must not exceed a specified allowable stress. American Institute of Steel Construction introduced the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) method. The load factors are given by ASCE 7 Sec. subjected to working loads. The allowable stress. 9 1. also known as working stress. Hence: F = Fy/W ≥ f where F = allowable stress Fy = yield stress W = factor of safety f = actual stress in a member. AISC 341. E. Working loads. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-10)11 Table 4-1. the design. When design is based on a seismic response modification coefficient R greater than 3.4  ASD and LRFD Concepts The traditional method of designing steel structures has been by the allowable stress design method. fabrication.3. In this method.Steel Buildings and Design Criteria and ensures a nominally elastic response to the applied loads. 2. the working loads are factored before being applied to the structure. was determined by dividing the yield stress of the material by an appropriate factor of safety. the building elements must still be detailed in accordance with AISC 341 provisions. The load factors are determined by probabilistic theory and account for • Variability of anticipated loads • Errors in design methods and computations • Lack of understanding of material behavior . The objective of this method was to ensure that a structure was capable of supporting the applied working loads safely. In 1986. The method was based on elastic theory to calculate the stresses produced by the working loads. Live load includes the weight of the structure’s occupants and contents and is specified in American Society of Civil Engineers. and erection of structural steel buildings and structures similar to buildings must comply with the requirements of the Seismic Provisions. The Seismic Manual provides guidance on the application of the provisions to the design of structural steel seismic force-resisting systems. This is mandatory in buildings assigned to seismic design category D.

The nominal strength of the member is determined according to AISC 360 or AISC 341 provisions.5/ϕ Example 1. American Institute of Steel Construction issued the unified specification. in accordance with AISC 360 Eq. derive the relationship between safety factor and resistance factor.1. or plastic analysis methods and this is the required strength of the member. in accordance with AISC 360 Eq. In accordance with AISC 360 Sec. 2. The nominal strength of the member. also known as the ultimate capacity. does not exceed the designated allowable strength of the member. is determined according to AISC 360 or AISC 341 provisions. AISC 360. caused by the factored load combination. The nominal strength is identical for both the LRFD and ASD methods. is determined by multiplying the nominal strength of the member by an appropriate resistance factor. The ASD load combinations are given by ASCE 7 Sec. B3. inelastic. structural steel design must be done by either load and resistance factor design (LRFD) or by allowable strength design (ASD). may be determined by elastic. The design strength. (B3-1) where Ru ≤ ϕRn Ru =required strength of a member subjected to strength design load combinations (LRFD) ϕ = resistance factor nominal strength of the member as determined by the specifications Rn =  or provisions ϕRn = design strength In 2005. Hence.10 Chapter One The force in a member. as determined by the appropriate ASD load combination. The allowable strength is determined as the nominal strength of the member divided by a safety factor.1  Relationship between Safety Factor and Resistance Factor Assuming a live load to dead load ratio of L/D = 3. the members in a structure are proportioned so that the required strength. (B3-2): Ra ≤ Rn/W where Ra =  required strength of a member subjected to allowable stress design load combinations (ASD) W = safety factor nominal strength of the member as determined by the specifications or Rn =  provisions Rn/W = allowable strength The relationship between safety factor and resistance factor is W = 1. The resistance factors are determined by probabilistic theory and account for • Variability of material strength • Poor workmanship • Errors in construction Hence. In the ASD method. .4.

derive the allowable tensile stress from the allowable strength design procedure.Steel Buildings and Design Criteria Consider a simply supported beam of length  supporting a uniformly distributed dead load of D and a uniformly distributed live load of L.6L wu = 6D Mu = wu2/8 = 3D2/4 ASD Load combination from ASCE 7 Sec 2.2  Relationship between Allowable Strength Design and Allowable Stress Design For the limit state of tensile yielding. (D2-1) as Pn = FyAg where Ag = gross area of member The safety factor for tension is given by AISC 360 Sec. The required nominal flexural strength determined using both the LRFD and ASD methods is as follows: LRFD Load combination from ASCE 7 Sec 2. For tensile yielding in the gross section. such as cross-sectional area or section modulus.6Fy . D2 as Pc = Pn/Wt = FyAg/1.67 The allowable tensile strength is given by AISC 360 Sec.4.1 is wa = D + L wa = 4D Ma = wa2/8 = D2/2 11 Substituting L = 3D gives Substituting L = 3D gives The required flexural strength is The required flexural strength is The required nominal flexural strength is Mn = Mu/ϕ = 3D2/4ϕ The required nominal flexural strength is Mn = MaW = D2W/2 Equating the nominal strength for both design methods Hence: 3D2/4ϕ = D2W/2 W = 1. for strength design.2 is wu = 1. The stress design format is readily derived from the strength design format by dividing allowable strength by the appropriate section property.2D + 1.67 = 0. However.3. the nominal tensile strength is given by AISC 360 Eq. the specifications are formatted in terms of force in a member rather than stress. to give allowable stress.6FyAg The allowable tensile stress for the limit state of tensile yielding is Ft = Pc/Ag = 0.5/ϕ Allowable strength design is similar to allowable stress design in that both utilize the ASD load combinations. Example 1. D2 as Wt = 1.

M. International Building Code. Anderson. IL.  2MC13 × 50 d. “Are You Properly Specifying Materials?. 2012. 10. Steel Construction Manual.” Modern Steel Construction.1  Given: American Institute of Steel Construction.   5. 2006 edition.  HSS8. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). 2006.  Pipe 6 xx-Strong g. Design Guide No.625 × 0. IL. 2010. CA. 13th edition. Chicago. Seismic Design Practice for Eccentrically Braced Frames. Chicago.  HSS6 × 4 × ½ 1. VA. Steel Construction Manual Find: Using the manual a.   3. (ASCE 7-10). Steel Plate Shear Walls. 2010.  W16 × 100 b. 11.  The differences between W-. C. and HP-shapes b. IL. ASCE. Reston. Cochran. IL. and Carter.625 e.  How the unified code developed . Structural Steel Educational Council. Design of Special Concentric Braced Frames. ICC.   2. M-. S-.  2L4 × 3 × ½ LLBB f. 2010. Moraga. Chicago. Falls Church.  The uses of each of these shapes 1.12 Chapter One References   1. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE).   9. C. AISC. 2005. Sabelli. Chicago. Chicago. M. Becker. VA.   4. 2010. AISC. Moraga.  The meaning of “Unified Code” b. AISC Seismic Design Manual. AISC. J.   7. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. M. 2009. R. 2004.  WT8 × 50 c. IL. AISC. 2012 edition.   8. International Code Council (ICC). IL. Steel Construction Manual Find: Using the manual a. and Honeck. 20. Steel Construction Manual Find: Using the manual the meaning of a. Chicago. Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings (AISC 341-10).   6. 1996. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). CA. Prequalified Connections for Special and Intermediate Steel Moment Frames for Seismic Applications (AISC 358-10) AISC. Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (AISC 360-10). AISC. Structural Steel Educational Council. Problems 1. 2006. and Ishler. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC).3  Given: American Institute of Steel Construction. W. R.2  Given: American Institute of Steel Construction. January 2009.

Steel Buildings and Design Criteria 1.6  Given:  A building to be designed to resist seismic loads and three different lateral forceresisting methods are to be evaluated. .4  Given: American Institute of Steel Construction.  Three possible methods that may be used b.  Safety factor and resistance factor b.  Four different types of steel that may be used for rectangular HSS-shapes b.  The disadvantages of each method 1.  The preferred type of steel for rectangular HSS-shapes 1.  The advantages of each method c.5  Given: American Institute of Steel Construction.  Nominal strength and required strength c. Steel Construction Manual Find: Using the manual the distinction between a. Find: a.7  Given:  American Institute of Steel Construction. Steel Construction Manual Find: Using the manual a. Steel Construction Manual and International Code Council.  Design strength and allowable strength 13 1. International Building Code Find: Describe the purpose of each document and their interrelationship.

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