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Plaxis finite element code for soil and rock analyses

Plaxis Bulletin
issue 23 / March 2008

Comparison of computed vs. measured lateral load/deflection response of ACIP piles
Modelling the behaviour of piled raft applying Plaxis 3D Foundation Version 2 Remarks on site response analysis by using Plaxis dynamic module


Editorial New Developments

3 4 6

The Plaxis Bulletin is the combined magazine of Plaxis B.V. and the Plaxis Users Association (NL). The Bulletin focuses on the use of the finite element method in geotechnical engineering practise and includes articles on the practical application of the Plaxis programs, case studies and backgrounds on the models implemented in Plaxis. The Bulletin offers a platform where users of Plaxis can share ideas and experiences with each other. The editors welcome submission of papers for the Plaxis Bulletin that fall in any of these categories. The manuscript should preferably be submitted in an electronic format, formatted as plain text without formatting. It should include the title of the paper, the name(s) of the authors and contact information (preferably email) for the corresponding author(s). The main body of the article should be divided into appropriate sections and, if necessary, subsections. If any references are used, they should be listed at the end of the article. The author should ensure that the article is written clearly for ease of reading. In case figures are used in the text, it should be indicated where they should be placed approximately in the text. The figures themselves have to be supplied separately from the text in a common graphics format (e.g. tif, gif, png, jpg, wmf, cdr or eps formats are all acceptable). If bitmaps or scanned figures are used the author should ensure that they have a resolution of at least 300 dpi at the size they will be printed. The use of colour in figures is encouraged, as the Plaxis Bulletin is printed in full-colour. Any correspondence regarding the Plaxis Bulletin can be sent by email to or by regular mail to:

Comparison of computed vs. measured lateral load/deflection response of ACIP piles Modelling the behaviour of piled raft applying Plaxis 3D Foundation Version 2

Plaxis Practice

Plaxis Practice 10

Remarks on site response analysis by using Plaxis dynamic module

Plaxis Practice 14

Plaxis Bulletin
c/o Erwin Beernink PO Box 572 2600 AN Delft The Netherlands The Plaxis Bulletin has a total circulation of 13.000 copies and is distributed worldwide. Editorial Board: Wout Broere Ronald Brinkgreve Erwin Beernink Arny Lengkeek

Recent Activities 19 Activities 2008 20


They propose a procedure to calibrate the numerical model and conclude that the standard settings in Plaxis do not always give the best results. The second article is again an application of the 3D Foundation program. it is a pleasure to notice that more and more Plaxis users are willing to share their modelling experience with other users. The third article describes the results of a research project on the possibilities and limitations of the Dynamic module with respect to seismic site response analysis. we are working on new features and will release new products. It describes how 3D FEM can be used for piled raft foundations. there is a need for improved modelling facilities. We are very thankful to the authors for these suggestions and will consider them seriously as a part of future Plaxis developments. In addition to the ‘standard’ columns.Editorial Ronald Brinkgreve The year 2008 will be a year of many new issues for Plaxis. like horizontal interface elements. The Editors 3 . The results seem to match the test data reasonably well. The first article shows a comparison between the results of a lateral loading test on cast-in-place piles and a numerical simulation using Plaxis 3D Foundation. We started in a new office in Delft to facilitate a further expansion of activities. but the specific behaviour of the piles requires more research and a better modelling of the pile behaviour. We wish you an interesting reading experience and look forward to receive new articles for future Bulletins. and submit interesting articles for the Plaxis Bulletin. In all of the articles. Asia). This Bulletin contains three articles about the backgrounds and use of Plaxis 2D and 3D products in practical geotechnical applications. The embedded piles in the Foundation program prove to be very efficient in the modelling of such complex foundations. the authors give suggestions on how Plaxis could be improved to model various geotechnical applications in a better way. Some of these issues are described in more details in this Bulletin or will come back in the next Bulletin. The Hardening Soil model with small-strain stiffness was used to model the behaviour of the stiff over-consolidated clay. we appointed new agents (China). we employed new staff (Delft. Nevertheless. The researchers have varied numerical parameters to evaluate their influence on the results. we introduced a new service (Special Projects) and last but not least.

which are calculated with the Plaxis 3D calculation kernel. with arbitrary volume object creation and import facilities. The creation of a geotechnical 3D model starts with the composition of the sub-soil. structures and loads are defined independent from the sub-soil.New Developments New Developments Ronald Brinkgreve The finite element method is well established in the current geotechnical engineering practice. For the general modelling of geotechnical applications. Since the introduction of this version halfway 2007. Plaxis offers 3D models that are relatively easy to create. but with more flexibility in vertical direction. During the modelling phase the user is confronted with a 3D view of the model in which he can directly select the visible objects. including multiple piles or ground anchors. Alternatively. Although most calculations are still 2D. 2. A general CAD-like input program. In both programs the existing Plaxis soil models are available. all objects appear in a tree view. which can also be used to create objects or assign properties. In addition to the sub-soil. After the success of the 3D Tunnel program for simplified 3D situations. For this. Structures and loads may be defined in a similar way as in the Foundation program. either geotechnical-oriented or CAD-like. available from mid 2008 for top users with 3D CAD experience. The difference is in the modelling approach. available from mid 2009 for advanced to expert users. 4 . the recent 3D Foundation program version 2 allows for a realistic modelling of complicated foundation and excavation projects. or by importing 3D objects from CAD packages. Soil layer boundaries may be imported as triangulated surfaces and assigned to the soil layer boundary in the borehole. The latter group can soon be served. A new-generation geotechnical-oriented input program based on familiar concepts from 3D Foundation. the borehole feature of the Foundation program may be used. Plaxis will offer two independent solutions with full geometrical flexibility. The decision to develop this two-leg strategy is based on different work flows in different companies or different projects: in most companies or projects the geotechnical engineer has to create a finite element model him/herself based on 1D or 2D (geotechnical) information whereas in some companies or projects a 3D model is created by CAD experts before a geotechnical finite element analysis is considered. The former group has to wait another year before a dedicated product is available. Both programs enable the creation of arbitrary 3D finite element models composed of 10-node (quadratic) tetrahedron elements. The new Plaxis program includes similar 3D drawing facilities and allows import of such models. depending on the user’s preference: 1. Programs like Google Sketch up have shown that 3D drawing can be almost as easy as 2D drawing. but in the remainder of this article I will already elaborate some of its details. Since the new millennium. Arbitrary excavation volumes or other volumes may be created using the excavation designer. there is a tendency to model complicated situations in more detail using 3D models. more than 500 licences are being used.

We will keep you informed about the progress of development. we can soon provide general modelling facilities to address the reliable Plaxis 3D calculation kernel. 10-node tetrahedron elements have been implemented. as available with 3D Foundation. a 64-bit version of the calculation kernel will be available to enable hundreds of thousands elements.New Developments When proceeding to the definition of calculation phases. Users interested in beta-testing of this program. (sub-)structures and loads can be activated or de-activated. it is not necessary to redefine calculation phases after mesh regeneration. Moreover. has been extended with 10-node tetrahedrons and all existing output facilities have been adapted for this type of element. To allow for unstructured 3D meshes. is considered just before the start of the calculation. Calculations are performed with the existing Plaxis 3D calculation kernel. including global and local refinement. may contact Plaxis bv. all objects are crossed with each other using a CSG (Constructive Solid Geometry) algorithm and divided into sub-volumes and sub-structures. The 3D meshing. This stimulates improved modelling and meshing after promising preliminary results have been obtained. Since all calculation settings are based on geometric objects. 5 . Also the general Output program (post-processor). Even minor geometric changes can be made without the need to redefine the calculation phases. A beta version of the new 3D program is expected by the end of 2008. for those who are interested in CAD-like 3D modelling. Different construction stages may be defined in which (sub-)volumes. Meanwhile.

Soil from the surface was washed down into these cracks during periods of heavy rain. vertical fissures were formed due to shrinkage caused by drying. Vipulanandan. This process was repeated throughout Pleistocene to Modern geologic times. The slickensides are widely variable in size and orientation.. The Beaumont formation is about 8 meters deep at the test site. Subsoil Profile The site is located on a Pleistocene age deltaic deposit known locally as the Beaumont formation. The soft sediments in the cracks were then compressed when the clays swelled leaving locked-in horizontal stress. The clays are spatially inhomogeneous..E. Introduction Five auger cast-in-place piles (ACIP) were installed at the National Geotechnical Experimentation Site located at the University of Houston campus in The laboratory and in situ tests in the database indicate a wide range in the strength/deformation properties of the clays due to the effects of secondary structure. The subsoils in both formations are primarily clay with occasional interbedded seams and layers of sand and silt. measured lateral load/deflection response of ACIP piles K. The water level was at a depth of about 2 m (6. P. The process of desiccation and subsequent rewetting caused cyclic shearing displacements in the clay mass that produced polished failure planes referred to as slickensides. The joints and horizontal locked-in stress affect the strength.Plaxis Practice Comparison of computed vs. Tand & Associates C. deformation. Photo 1: Load Testing a 0. and it is underlain by an older geologic formation known as the Montgomery formation. loading stress path.91 m Diameter ACIP Pile The first major silt/sand stratum occurs at a depth of 14 m (47 ft) which is below the depth of influence of the test piles. and exhibit some anisotropic properties due to their stress history. Fig 1: Generalized Subsoil Profile Fig 2: Pile Load Test Layout 6 . Chairman of the U of H Civil Engineering Dept.0 and greater have been measured in the upper 4 m (13 ft) at this site.E. Kenneth E. and permeability properties of the clays. P. Ph. The purpose of these tests was to evaluate the feasibility for design and construction of ACIP piles to support concrete screen walls subjected to large wind forces along highways in urban areas. and the cracks at the surface were probably more than 5 cm (2 in) wide visually estimated from presently occurring wet/dry cycles. After deposition.D. Tand. 1.. Lateral load tests were performed on four of the piles in January 1997. and possible sample disturbance. and they have been overconsolidated due to desiccation.E. Texas in December 1996.unh. The consistency of the clays is generally stiff to very stiff. A more detailed summary of the database can be found on the web site at www. The soil parameters have been extensively studied at this site and they are summarized in Fig. and KO values of 3. Principal Engineer.5 ft) below grade at the time of the load tests.

fly ash. The N pile was 0. The grout mix was comprised of Portland cement. Lateral deflections at the pile head were measured using an electronic measuring gauge mounted on the back side of the piles with the tip set to a wooden reference beam. The E & W piles (0.1 m (7 ft) in both the E & W piles. The inclinometer tube in the N pile was plugged during grouting. and the ratio of the pumped versus theoretical grout volume ranged from 1 to more than 2 (average of 1. The rebar cages for the 0.91 m (36 in) in diameter and 6.500 psi). and most (if not all) of the grout in excess of the pile volume was lost at the surface when removing the spoils. Immediately after cleaning the top of the pile heads with a screen. However. As shown on Photo 1. the piles were found to be free of defects such as voids or cracks. 2. The compressive strength of the field mix was 38 MPa (5.7 m (35 ft) long. even though the W pile had 4.46 m (18 in) in diameter and 6.91 m (36 in) in diameter and 10. the augers were slowly withdrawn while pumping high strength grout into the pile. and then again cycled 4 times. The piles were installed using a continuous hollow stem flight auger rotated into the ground at a rate of 400 to 1.91 m diameter piles were comprised of eight number 10 vertical rebars with number 4 ties spaced at 23 cm (9 in) centers.0 MPa (280 psi) at 28 days.5 m (15 ft) in the larger diameter S pile. the initial load/deflection response of the W pile was softer than the E pile even though it had 4. The piles were finally loaded in increments until the deflections exceeded 90 mm (3. 3 & 4. Note that non-linear pile deflections started to occur at about 60 kN (14 kips) for the E & W piles. Fig 3: Lateral load-deflection curves for E & W Piles Fig 4: Lateral load-deflection curves for S & N Piles 7 .200 mm/min (16 to 47 in/min).3). The lateral load was applied at about 15 cm (6 in) above the ground level so that only a very small bending moment was induced into the pile head during loading. and each load was held for a period of 15 minutes. The piles were then unloaded back to “0”. sand. a full length rebar cage was inserted into the piles. water and a fluidizer.7 m (35 ft) long. the jack and load cells were housed inside a steel pipe strut. The load was applied using a hydraulic jack. and the load was cycled 4 times to simulate wind loading. They were used for sonic logging to check the integrity of the piles prior to the load tests. However. and each load was held for a period of 15 minutes. Immediately after reaching the design depth. there could have been an undetected defect in this pile. The S pile was 0. and the W pile was 0. The N & S piles (0.46 m diameter piles were comprised of six number 6 vertical rebars with number 3 ties spaced at 15 cm (6 in) centers. and at about 200 kN (45 kips) for the N & S piles. The authors speculate that subsoil variations were present even though these piles were only 4 m (13 ft) apart. and the tensile strength was 2. However.46 m diameter) were loaded in 4 increments to about 55 kN (12 kips). The piles were finally loaded in increments to a deflection of 25 mm (1 in). Grouting was monitored using a pile integrity recorder. Based on results of the sonic tests. After cycling. and the E pile was 0.Plaxis Practice Test Piles and Instrumentation The pile load test arrangement is shown on Fig. and it was measured using an electronic load cell.91 m diameter) were loaded in 4 increments to about 172 kN (39 kips).6 m (15 ft) more embedment. During the initial cycling. and thus data was not available for this pile.1 m (20 ft) long. The piles were cycled as described above. the load/deflection response was so similar for the N&S piles that it is assumed that the hinge occurred at the same depth. The inclinometer readings indicated that a plastic hinge formed at a depth of about 2. Perhaps.5 in).1 m (20 ft) long. As shown on Photo 1. The below grade deformations were measured using an electronic inclinometer. The cages for the 0. The soil was stiff to very stiff clay. The load/deflection relationships are shown graphically in Figs. two ABS tubes were installed in each pile. the slickensides and fissures in the clay were orientated in an unfavorable pattern in front of the W pile. One of the ABS tubes in each pile was later used as a guide to run an inclinometer instrument down the piles during the lateral load tests to measure the rotation during loading. The initial load/deflection response of the N pile was slightly stiffer than the shorter S pile. they were loaded in increments to about 95 kN (21 kips). the deflections were so small that they are not shown on the graphs for clarity.6 m (15 ft) more embedment.46 m (18 in) in diameter and 10. Pile Load Tests The piles were load tested 28 days after installation. and then they were loaded to about 300 kN (68 kips) and cycled 4 times again. The plastic hinge formed at a depth of about 4.

7 (0. - Effective stress parameters for the stiff to very stiff clays were used as input.0 (250) 16.2 m (4 ft).6 (200) 12.9 at 1. Parametric studies were then performed until good agreement was obtained with the field load/deflection response of the piles.3 m (1 ft) thick “dummy soil layer” with a unit weight of 943 kN/m3 (6. The moment of inertia must be adjusted to reflect the correct state of stress in the pile whether conventional methods of analysis such as Brom’s procedure or numerical methods such as finite element or beam-on-elastic foundation procedures are used.6 (200) 14. The laboratory compression tests that had been performed on the grout cylinders were modeled using PLAXIS 2D Version 8. This layer was then turned off for the subsequent calculations. 6.4 (300) 27. However.4) 28. The final soil parameters were in good agreement with the prior parameters. the piles were modeled as circular piles with a steel shell.1 (0. measured lateral load/deflection response of ACIP piles Continuation FE Analysis The numerical model employed in the FE analysis for the S pile (typical for all piles) is shown in Fig.4) 19. because there were variations in the subsoil stratigraphy and the stress path was different for the horizontally loaded piles than the vertically loaded underreamed piers. The FE computed KO was 2.000 psf). A wall element with the equivalent EI of the rebar was input to model the stiffness of the rebar. Fig 7: Comparison of Load/Deflection Curves for S Pile 8 .1 (0.4 (300) 16.6) Eref 50 Eref oed ! (deg) o Eref ur mPa (ksf) mPa (ksf) mPa (ksf) m mPa (ksf) vur 15 15 15 15 15 If 6 6 6 6 6 20 20 30 20 30 1 1 2 1 2 48 (1000) 96 (2000) 144 (3000) 192 (4000) 240 (5000) 9.4 (300) 12. - The initial cycle of loading at small loads was not modeled due to the small elastic deflections that were measured. 2003).8 (350) 7. - The second cycle of loading was modeled to check the hysteresis cycles. However. Thus.5 (720) 69.9 MPa (40 ksf) The following basic procedures were used during the FE analysis: - The initial KO conditions were generated using a 0. the stiffness will be overestimated if tensile strains are large enough to crack the concrete.7 (0. only 2 load/unload cycles were computed due to the fact that the load/deflection curves were almost linearly elastic.6) 28. These values correlate reasonably well with those reported in the U of H database.2 (150) 9. - After the cycling. and this is a continuing process as increasing deflections cause the cracks to propagate. but the analysis was performed using the undrained mode to simulate the rapid rate of loading.000 elements.4 (865) 47.2 MPa (150 ksf) φ 40° - Tension 1.0 (250) 14. The calculations were performed using PLAXIS 3D Foundations V.8 (350) 14. but not exact. - Initially. the pile was loaded to the last measured field load. One objective of this study is to evaluate whether the pile materials can be modeled so that the moment of inertia is numerically adjusted during the FE calculations. A mass concrete pile is most often modeled using linear elastic properties of the pile materials.2 x 105 ksf) Cohesion 7.000 pcf) in the initial phase. 5.6 at 3.7 (0. soil parameters were selected from Tand and O’Neill’s article published in the PLAXIS Bulletin 14 (Sept.9 (1000) 8 8 8 8 8 Fig 6: Optimized Soil Parameters Youngs’ Modulus 2. and 2.2 with about 2. the gravity loading induced a preconsolidation pressure of 216 kPá (6.Plaxis Practice Comparison of computed vs. Gref !' (deg) Fig 5: Typical FE Mesh The authors speculate that the stiffness of the piles affected the load/deflection response as much as the strength and stiffness of the clay subsoils.5 (575) 34.5 x 107 MPa (5. The soil parameters used in the final FE analysis are summarized in Fig. The cracks reduce the moment of inertia.6) 28. To study its’ influence. The small strain hardening soil model was used to model the stiff to very stiff clay.0 (1440) 41.6 m (12 ft). and the following parameters for the Mohr-Columb model were back calculated in our analysis by best fitting the stress-strain data: Subsoil Stiff clay Stiff to very stiff clay Very stiff clayey sand Very stiff clay Very stiff sandy clay c' kPa (ksf) 19.

2000. 72-101. Also. - L. Mahar and M. 7. or there was an undetected defect in the pile. The N pile was omitted for clarity because both the curves for the field loading and FE simulation plotted on top of each other.M. The tension stress of the grout had been input so that the grout would crack and reduce the moment of inertia of the pile during the FE loading phases.W. These observations highlight the advantages of using a proper constitutive model for the grout so that the effective moment of inertia is automatically reduced during FE loading. The small strain hardening soil model in PLAXIS 3D Foundations can be used in predicting the lateral load/ deflection response of piles.Plaxis Practice Results A graph of the field and FE computed load/deflection relationships for the S pile is shown in Fig. Geotechnical Characterization of Desiccated Clay. the fact that the steel shell modeled in the FE analysis is located at the perimeter of the piles probably restricted the tension cracks that would be expected form between the rebar and outer edge of the field piles. exceeded the tension cut off stress. The authors speculate that the piles as modeled in the FE analysis are stiffer than the field piles. FE under predicts the deflections at the high loads. O’Neill. However. 1998. 56-71. not simply selecting the correct input data for the initial computation. FHA report UH 3921-1. It is possible that there might be other combinations of soil and pile properties that could result in correlations as well as those determined in this study. As previously discussed. The good correlations are due to parameter studies. and the fact that more deflections occur during loading increasing the tensile strains. 9. 1983. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. pp. National Geotechnical Experimentation Site – University of Houston. References: Fig 8: Comparison of Load/Deflection Curves for E Pile A graph of the field measured and FE computed horizontal displacements with depth for the S & E piles is shown in Fig. 93. The FE computed load/deflection response of the ACIP piles assuming linear elastic properties for the grout was considerably stiffer than for the field piles. Vipulanandan. However. Also. and the uncertainty of selecting appropriate strength/deformation properties of the soil when there is considerable data scatter.W. O’Neill.J. pp. 8. - M. This occurs because of the reduced moment of inertia resulting from neglecting the rebar. PLAXIS has published a notice that the interface elements for round piles have corners in the FE geometry that makes the interface behavior stiffer than would occur under field conditions (see Plaxis website). FE cannot be expected to model the load/deflection response within ±25 percent on a common basis because the stress/strain behavior of soil is very complex. ASCE. January. This occurs because the effective moment of inertia was not being reduced when the mobilized tensile stresses - K.W. M. A graph of the field and FE computed load/deflection curve for the E pile is shown in Fig. the strength/deformation properties of the pile materials must be properly accessed. There were either subsoil variations in front of this pile. the W pile appeared to be an anomaly and is not shown. Fig 9: Delecftions with Depth 9 . Specifications and Design Criteria for the Construction of Continuous Flight Auger Piles in the Houston Area. O’Neill. Geotechnical Special Publication No. However. Conclusions The FE computed load/deflection response of the ACIP piles bearing in stiff to very stiff clay correlated well with results of the full scale lateral load tests. Also. The initial FE computed load/deflection response of the piles using the optimized parameters is in excellent agreement with the loading tests. and C. the load/deflection response computed assuming linear-elastic parameters for the grout are shown. additional research needs to be performed to better model ACIP piles with internal reinforcing steel if deflections are large enough to cause tension cracks in the grout. Hassan. The FE computed load/deflection response of the pile without the shell is shown for comparison purposes. Note that FE predicts that a plastic hinge formed at about the same depth as measured in the field loading tests. The FE computed load/deflection response of the ACIP piles without the steel shell was somewhat softer than for the field piles.

The piled raft foundation is extensively applied as suitable foundation technique of high-rise buildings in Frankfurt. Ain Shams University. Cairo. A case history in Frankfurt will be resolved applying this program. For these reasons improved numerical models based on three dimensional finite element method are applied taking into account all above mentioned effects (El-Mossallamy 1996). A traditional 3D finite element technique with the appropriate soil constitutive laws presents a powerful tool to model this complex soil-structure interaction problem. has been developed and used extensively in order to reduce the maximum as well as the differential settlements and the associated tilting of the buildings. Extensive measurements of the load transfer mechanism of piled raft foundations during and after the construction were performed to verify the design concept and to prove the serviceability requirements. Germany to achieve economic solutions that fulfill the stability as well as the serviceability requirements. Figure 1: Principles of piled raft The piled raft is a composite geotechnical foundation system consisting of piles. This foundation system was successfully applied in stiff as well as soft subsoil. The measured settlements of different case histories of piled rafts in comparison with traditional raft as well piled foundation are shown in Figure 2.el-mossallamy@arcadis. under the name Plaxis 3D Foundation version 2. Since the 80's. a new foundation technique. pile/pile and pile/raft) that govern its behavior. a new technique combined the so called embedded pile model with the 3D finite element model was developed by Plaxis B. Germany y. Nevertheless. the so-called piled rafts. Enhanced numerical analyses play a decisive role for the analyses of such complex foundation system. To cover this problem. The following sections present an example demonstrating the ability of this program to deal with a complex piled rafts. where the structural loads are carried partly by the piles and partly by the raft contact stresses. The analysis of piled raft is a very interesting example of the soil-structure interaction that requires the co-operation between the geotechnical and structural engineers to reach the most economic foundation system. by Butterfield and Banerjee 1971.. raft and soil. The piled raft foundation has shown its validity as a very economic geotechnical foundation type. Germany Calculation procedures to model the behavior of such complex three-dimensional problems have been developed since the 1970s (e.g. the nonlinear behavior of the pile support and the slip developing along the pile shafts even under working loads were not sufficiently considered in these analyses. The factor αL is a load factor representing the load taken by the piles relative to the total structural load.g.64295 Darmstadt. 10 . Poulos and Davis 1980 and Randolph 1993). the main disadvantage applying the 3D FE analyses is the need of a huge number of volume elements which can exceed the available computer capacities.. Associate Introduction The quick growth of cities in the last two decades all over the world led to a rapid increase in the number and height of high rise buildings even in unfavourable subground conditions. Egypt c/o ARCADIS GmbH.V. D . Figure 1 demonstrates the principles of piled raft foundation and the different interactions (e. But some important requirements concerning the raft stiffness. Figure 2: Settlement behavior of high-rise buildings in Frankfurt. An innovative application of the piled raft is its special adjustment to cases of foundations with large load eccentricities or very different loaded parts of buildings to avoid the need of complex settlement joints especially below ground water table.Plaxis Practice Modelling the behaviour of piled raft applying Plaxis 3D Foundation Version 2 Yasser El-Mossallamy. Berliner Allee 6.

In the town center. which developed 2 to 10 million years ago as a result of the sedimentation in the Tertiary sea in the Mainz basin.1. Applying the concept of piled raft foundation it was possible to construct the foundation without settlement joints between the tower and the adjacent 4-storey underground garage. Example of a high-Rise Building on Frankfurt subsoil The 120 m building with a 4-storey underground basement has an L shape (Fig.0 m at the edges. the clay layer measures up to 100 meters and includes limestone banks. The raft base lies at a depth of 15.0 Slenderness ratio 3. Figure 4: Foundation dimensions and pile arrangement 11 .0 m.5 .75 .3 General information Height (m) Foundation area (m2) Raft thickness (m) Foundation depth (m) Groundwater Slenderness ratio No of piles Pile length (m) Pile diameter (m) 114 1930 3.5 No of piles 25 Pile length (m) 22 Pile diameter (m) 1. The total working loads reach about 900 MN.75 Groundwater . lignite coal lenses and layers of calcareous sand. The piles where designed with a diameter of 1.6.5 meters thick in the middle and 1.5 25 22 1.Plaxis Practice Foundation and subsoil conditions General information Height (m) 114 Foundation area (m!) 1930 Raft thickness (m) 3. The rafts are 3.6. Only 25 large diameter bored piles were constructed beneath the raft as a piled raft foundation. Geometry The foundation of the building has a total area of about 1930 m². 3) with a load eccentricity of about 7.1. The piles were placed eccentrically below the tower to balance the load eccentricity. The pile arrangements are shown in Figure 4.0 -15. already eroded sediments and volcanic rock.3 Figure 3: General layout Frankfurt subground and methodology to develop the piled raft Most of the high-rise buildings in Frankfurt are founded on the so-called Frankfurter clay. The clay is geologically overconsolidated through older.5 . The groundwater level is mostly just above the clay surface and circulates in the fissured limestone banks and sand lenses resulting in different confined aquifer pressures.3 m and a length of 22 m.0 3.0 Foundation depth (m) -15.75 meters below the soil surface.

The aim of the calculation is to determine the average settlement of the rafts under working load (serviceability limit state). For the concrete piles and raft. The main model geometries are given in figure 6. Inspect output The initial conditions should be generated using the K0-procedure.64295 Darmstadt. The main advantage of this constitutive law is its ability to consider the stress path and its effect on the soil stiffness and its behavior. Associate Prof.el-mossallamy@arcadis. Figure 8 shows the load distribution among the individual piles within the pile group. The ultimate pile base resistance was taken equal to 2. Ain Shams University. The effect of the outer walls can be investigated by applying a new model in which the outer walls are not modelled. Figure 5 shows the applied three dimensional finite element mesh. Cairo. 12 . Settlement of about 4 cm is calculated at the raft center. a linear elastic material set was applied using the concrete weight and its stiffness. It can be recognized that the contribution of the edge piles by carrying the loads is very small. 3D Finite element model Work-planes are defined.Plaxis Practice Modelling the behaviour of piled raft applying Plaxis 3D Foundation Version 2 Yasser El-Mossallamy. which is modelled as fully connected with the foundation raft.0 MPa. D . The ultimate skin friction of the pile is assumed to start with 60 kPa at the pile head and increased with depth to reach 120 kPa at the pile tip. Egypt c/o ARCADIS GmbH.. The Work-planes are needed at each level where a discontinuity in the geometry or the loading occurs in the initial situation or in the construction process. Figure 7 demonstrates the raft settlements under working loads. Germany y.8 is applied to consider the effect of overconsolidation. This is due to the presence of the outer wall that works also as shoring system. Berliner Allee 6. This value agrees well with the measured value and approves the ability of the three dimensional analyses to predict the settlement of the piled raft as a main part of the foundation Figure 5: 3D FE-Model Figure 6: Applied loads Figure 7: Foundation settlement under working loads Numerical model Soil Parameters The soil stress-strain relationship was modelled applying the Hardening soil model. A value of K0 = 0.

p. and Wittmann. Bautechnik.. Broms. (31 May . The piled raft foundation can be modelled using the embedded piles that are available in Plaxis 3D foundation. - DIN 1054-100 (2005) Baugrund: Sicherheitsnachweis im Erd. Figure 8: Results of normal force distribution along all piles 13 . -  Poulos. and Essawy. Seminar.V. Plaxis 3D Foundation. 2000. 2nd Int. (1996) Ein Berechnungsmodell zum Tragverhalten der kombinierten Pfahl-Plattengründung. and Clancy. There is still need of horizontal interface elements to investigate the raft contact stresses in a direct manner. Version 2 - Franke.. (DGGT)." Géotechnique. und Reininger-Behrenroth. Th. 2002.. P.546 -  Butterfield. and Banerjee. Ernst & Sohn. Vol. (2006) Innovative application and design of piled raft foundation. Katzenbach. Some related references -  Burland. Y (2007) Piled raft foundation in Frankfurt clay. Y.F.. and de Mello. V. Middle piles - Randolph. p. 10th International Conference on Piling and Deep Foundations. Published by Thomas Telford Ltd.. Kombinierte Pfahl-Plattengründung. In Zusammenarbeit mit dem Arbeitskreis „Pfähle“ der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geotechnik e. (1977) Behaviour of foundations and structures.Plaxis Practice Conclusion and Outlook The illustrated examples show that understanding of the effects of the interaction between construction and subsoil based on the appropriate theoretical knowledge and on experienced application of measurement techniques and numerical modelling are the necessary qualification for a safe and economic design for such complex foundations. 2. Proc.283-322 -  Hanisch. Y. 190-192 - El-Mossallamy. El-Mossallamy. and Davis. The embedded piles help to reduce the required number of elements needed to model the complex three dimensional feature of piled rafts. Amsterdam.B. Fachbereich Bauingenieur-wesen der Technischen Hochschule Darmstadt - El-Mossallamy. R. (1993) Efficient design of piled rafts. New report. Wiley. Design applications of raft foundation and ground slabs. Ghent.. Validation manual.. (1971) "The problem of pile group-pile cap interaction. G. 10th Arab Structural Engineering Conference. M. The experience with this model type should be gathered with time and shared among the Plaxis users. Dissertation. B. (2006) Innovative Use of Piled Raft Foundation to Optimize the Design of High-Rise Buildings. El-Nahhas. 495 . 135-142. A. P. R. 13-15 November 2006.. Edited by Hemsley. Proc.und Grundbau - Dürrwang. Deep foundation. 2. E. London. vol.B. E..K. No. M. B.. Vol.(2007) Neue Erkenntnisse zum Verformungsverhalten des Frankfurter Tones. F.(2000) Calculation methods for raft foundations in Germany. and Richter.H. The effect of the shoring system on the behavior of piled raft needs further investigation.G. Y. J. Lutz.... State-of-the. Y. 21.3. 9th ICSMFE Tokyo. und König. Netherlands - El-Mossalamy. P. pp. El-Mossallamy. Kuwait Outer piles - El-Mossallamy. H.2 June 2006). R. 119-130. The results should be further compared with cases where the piles are modelled using volume elements. J. (1980) Pile Foundation Analysis and Design. Y.

H) are known. Seismic input: a) accelerations time-history. the amplification function is uniquely defined. γ. material damping.visone@unina. they require at least a proper soil constitutive model. ρ or total unit weight of soil. University of Molise. Italy. student. The latter is defined as the modulus of the transfer function that is the ratio of the Fourier spectrum of the free surface motion to the corresponding component of the bedrock motion.8. However. Therefore. Campobasso. this function is multiplied by the amplification function and after that the motion is given by the inverse Fourier transform of the previous product. For a soil layer on rigid bedrock with the following parameters: H =16 m. This article discusses how to calibrate a finite element model in order to obtain a realistic response of the given system subjected to seismic loading. shear wave velocity. Material properties of the Linear Elastic layer Reference theoretical solution Vertical one-dimensional propagation of shear waves in a visco-elastic homogeneous layer that lies on rigid bedrock can be described in the frequency domain by its amplification function. This scheme was chosen because a theoretical solution of the problem is available in literature and some comparisons can be easily done. Figure 1. Plaxis 2D v. ciro. mesh dimensions.889x105 3 " STIFFNESS PARAMETERS G [kN/m2] 1. University of Naples Federico II. input signal filtering and damping parameters was Introduction Dynamic FE analyses can be considered the most complete available instrument for the prediction of the seismic response of a geotechnical system. Naples. The information obtained in this preliminary calibration process can be used thereafter for the analysis of any geotechnical system subjected to seismic loadings. bilotta@unina. Italy. filippo.5 m/s. Lecturer. Department of Geotechnical Engineering.Plaxis Practice Remarks on site response analysis by using Plaxis dynamic module Ciro VISONE. an adequate soil characterization by means of in situ and laboratory Filippo SANTUCCI de MAGISTRIS. 2002) that includes the dynamic module was used in this research. VS = 361. – Engineering & Environment Division. If the properties of the medium (density. Amplification function of an elastic layer over rigid bedrock PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ! [kN/m3] 141 RAYLEIGH DAMPING ! " E [kN/m2] 4. VS. First.A. D = 2 % the amplification function (Roesset. A series of dynamic analyses of vertical propagation of S-waves in a homogeneous elastic layer was carried out.santucci@unimol. ρ = 1.V. Italy. b) Fourier spectrum 14 . Department S.D.581x105 VS [m/s] 3615 VP [m/s] 6763 Table 1. Naples. University of Naples Federico II. the Fourier spectrum of the input signal is computed.A. Department of Geotechnical Engineering. D) and its geometry (layer thickness. 1970) is: A(f)= 1 H HD cos 2π f + 2π f Vs Vs 2 2 Figure 2. Research Assistant.1 kN/m3.2 (Brinkgreve. since they can give detailed indication of both the soil stress distribution and deformation.44 kg/m3. for a given visco-elastic stratum and a given seismic motion acting at the rigid bedrock the motion at the free surface can be easily Emilio BILOTTA. Ph. a proper definition of the seismic input. The influences on the response of boundaries conditions. Then. γ = 14.88x105 Eoed [kN/m2] 6.

due to finite element formulation. it is possible to assign to the triangles a maximum size.. In the meshes used in the present analyses. In terms of frequency.39 s and the peak acceleration is 0. The damping matrix C is assumed to be proportional to mass matrix M and stiffness matrix K by means two coefficients. Every time a numerical analysis is performed. By subdividing the homogeneous layer in sub-layers with a fixed thickness and by using the local element size. Italy. Accelerations time-history and Fourier Spectrum of the signal are reported in Figure 2. An average dimension that is representative for refinement degree of the mesh is the “Average Element Size” (AES) that represents an average length of the side of the elements employed. The sampling frequency is 200 Hz. Kuhlmeyer & Lysmer (1973) suggested to assume a size of element not larger than λ/8. Free Horizontal Displacements (FHD) condition on lateral boundaries of FE Model Different criteria exist to evaluate the Rayleigh coefficients (see for instance Lanzo et al. The initial stress generation was obtained by the k0-procedure in which the value of the earth pressure at rest. In the analyses of the present work an AES=1. being VS= 361. (2007) have shown a case of site response analysis in which they have extended the width of the mesh eight times its height. due to viscous properties. the amplification function of all points placed on the free surface of the model is the same. Here.58 m was used. the input signal chosen for numerical analyses is the accelerometer registration of Tolmezzo Station (Friuli Earthquake. Amorosi et al. The dimensions of any triangle can be controlled by local element size. 3. In Plaxis (and in most dynamic FE codes). The use of such boundary conditions instead of adopting lateral dampers as suggested by Kuhlmeyer & Lysmer (1973) permits to calibrate the damping parameters of the system with more accuracy. This should help minimizing the influence of the boundaries on the obtained results. It is constituted by a rectangular domain 80 m wide and 16 m high and two additional similar lateral domains. Results of dynamic analyses Christian et al. In numerical calculations two types of damping exist: numerical damping. In the numerical implementation of dynamic problems. the basic type of element is the 15-node triangular element. αR and βR according to: 80m 16m 80m 80m Figure 3. the earthquake loading was often imposed as an acceleration time-history at the base of the model.81 m. where λ is the wavelength corresponding to the maximum frequency f of interest.2 Finite element model The finite element model is plotted in Figure 3. In Plaxis. 1976). and in the following similar figures. the nth natural frequencies fn of the layer are: Numerical modeling 3. Here. Recently. May 6th. the duration is 36. Horizontal displacements must be allowed. the material damping is simulated with the well-known Rayleigh formulation.. Finite element model utilized in the dynamic analyses Figure 4. the formulation of the time integration constitutes an important factor for stability and accuracy of the calculation process. 2004. Explicit and implicit integration are two commonly used time integration schemes.1 Input signal In numerical computation. the Newmark type implicit time integration scheme is implemented.5 m/s and f = 25 Hz. In the previous indicated hypotheses. In this manner. Park & Hashash. In order to equilibrate the horizontal litho static stresses acting on lateral boundaries. even though no clear indications exist in literature on this aspect. in order to place far enough the lateral boundaries (total width 240 m). Figure 4 plots the graphical lateral boundaries condition utilized in Plaxis. the mesh influence must be tested. in order to obtain acceptable results. the dynamic response of a system is affected by the choice of these parameters to a large extent. (1977) have shown that the right lateral boundaries conditions for Swaves polarized in horizontal plane and propagating vertically are the vertical fixities. With this method.Plaxis Practice Figure 1 shows its graphical representation in the amplification ratio-frequency plane. two vertical red lines indicate the first and the second natural frequency of the system. 2004. and material damping. The medium is schematized as a Linear Elastic layer that is implemented in the Plaxis code. it is suitable to introduce load distributions at the left-hand and right-hand vertical boundaries. 2007). friction and development of plasticity. Amorosi et al. the displacement and the velocity at the point in time t+Δt are expressed respectively as: 15 .315 g. Its parameters are indicated in Table 1. In this case λ/8 = VS/8 f = 1. k0 was chosen by means of the well-known formula for the elastic medium: The mesh generation in Plaxis is fully automatic and based on a robust triangulation procedure. which results in an “unstructured” mesh.

The original Newmark scheme becomes the α-method or Newmark HHT modification. 1/3]. b) Fourier Spectrum 1 1 αN ≥ + ßN 4 2 2 Neither the linear acceleration approximation or the Fox-Goodwin method does meet such requirement. Moreover. For determining these parameters.Plaxis Practice Remarks on site response analysis by using Plaxis dynamic module Continuation 1 1 2 2 The coefficients αN and βN. c)  αN =1/12 and βN =1/2. The α-method leads to an unconditionally stable integration time scheme and the new Newmark parameters are expressed as a function of the parameter γ. introducing a new parameter γ (α in the notation of the author). By assuming γ=0 the modified Newmark methods coincides with the original Newmark method with constant average acceleration. (LUSAS. Typical values are (Barrios et al. according to: where the value of γ belongs to the interval [0. a modification of the initial Newmark scheme was proposed by Hilber et al. In order to keep a second order accurate scheme and to introduce numerical dissipation. different suggestions are proposed. which is a numerical dissipation parameter. which is fourth order accurate (conditionally stable scheme). Figure 6. in order to obtain a stable solution. the Fox-Goodwin method. determine the accuracy of numerical time integration. which lead to a constant average acceleration (unconditionally  stable scheme). Signal at surface of undamped analysis: a) accelerations time-history. material and/or numerical. too. 2005): a)  αN =1/6 and βN =1/2. which lead to a linear acceleration approximation (conditionally stable scheme). is introduced in a dynamic analysis. The numerical results are very close to the expected theoretical values. 2000). the following condition must apply in the Plaxis code: Figure 5. the model reaches the resonant conditions at the natural frequencies of the system with a corresponding theoretically infinite amplification ratio. Influence of Newmark numerical damping coefficients on amplification function of the model 16 . Figure 5 shows the response at a control point on the free-surface obtained for an undamped analysis (αN = βN = αR = βR = 0) in terms of the acceleration time-history and the Fourier spectrum as a result of the input signal shown in figure 2.. which should not be confused with Rayleigh coefficients. If no damping. b) αN =1/4 and βN =1/2.

6. This is due to the finite element formulation with lumped masses instead of consistent mass matrices (Roesset.55 Hz) smaller than the theoretical one (A=10.055) Figure 9. A comparison of the system response to a complete signal and a 25 Hz filtered signal is represented in Figure 7. horizontal fixities on the left and on the right hand of the model must to be applied.25. viscous adsorbent boundaries can be introduced.1) Figure 8. Rayleigh coefficients were put equal to zero. 2004). the peaks amplification at the natural frequencies of the layer decrease. by using default values for c1 and c2. accelerograms with a reduced number of registration points) are often used for the input motion. If a 2-D configuration of the problem should be examined. The accuracy of the results decreases with the number of vibration modes. that correspond to γ = 0. Figure 6 explains the results of numerical analyses for three different values of γ. However. Numerical damping has a great influence on the dynamic response of a geotechnical system and this issue should be particularly considered when an earthquake signal needs to be preliminarily processed. The coefficient βR is given equal to zero for avoiding excessive damping of the motion at high frequencies. It seems to suggest that better results are obtained by using FHD rather than SEB. A comparison of the results with Standard Earthquake Boundaries SEB (Fig. Different methods exist to apply a silent boundary (Ross. Note also that the value of second natural frequency of the stratum is underestimated by the time domain analyses. respectively. In Plaxis. are always smaller than the true frequencies. 4) on lateral boundaries is presented in Figure 10. users should be aware that the analysis needs an adequate calibration of Newmark coefficients.95 Hz. Comparison between numerical and theoretical solution for D=2% 17 . which are based on the method described by Lysmer & Kuhlmeyer (1969). In this case.3025 and βN = 0. 3) and Free Horizontal Displacements FHD (Fig. which is implemented in Plaxis. The solution with free horizontal displacements (FHD) on lateral boundaries is only reasonable for non-plastic material and when local site response is the objective of the study. to reduce the calculation time. Figure 7. the shape of amplification function is not essentially modified. filtered signals at the frequency of interest (i. Consistent mass matrices overestimate them.0 and 0. This value has been worked out to obtain a good agreement between numerical and theoretical values of the amplification ratio that correspond to the second natural frequency of the layer as shown in Fig. Influence of Rayleigh material damping coefficients on amplification function of the model (γ = 0.1. The results are referred to a numerical damping of γ = 0. in such a manner to avoid the loss of important frequency contents of the signal. 1977). When γ increases. 10.97 at f=16.. the effects due to the reflection of waves on boundaries can be neglected. Influence of input signal filtering on amplification function of the model (γ = 0.055. see Figure 1) in correspondence to the second natural frequency of the layer.Plaxis Practice The standard setting of Plaxis is the damped Newmark scheme with αN = 0. Figure 8 shows the different amplification functions for three values of Rayleigh damping coefficient αR. In fact. relaxation coefficients c1 and c2 are set to 1. In these conditions.54 at f =16. The numerical damping coefficients chosen by default in Plaxis (black curve in Figure 6) conduct to an amplification ratio (A=7. By placing the lateral boundaries sufficiently far from the central zone. The natural frequencies with a lumped masses formulation.e. silent boundaries are often used to simulate infinite media. By default.

(2004).8 n. pp. Two. Modelling lateral boundaries and filtering input signal need to be carefully considered when performing such calibration. Genova 25-29 Gennaio 2004 (in Italian) LUSAS (2000)..M. Santucci de Magistris F. Plaxis 2D version8. Finite Dynamic Model for Infinite Media. 639-682. pp. -  Barrios D.. In the present article. Larreteguy. This leads to some difficulty to control the actual damping of the numerical model. numerical and material damping.T. Finite Element Method Accuracy for Wave Propagation Problems.Elia G. United Kingdom - Lysmer J. Proc. pp. Acknowledgments This work is a part of a Research Project funded by ReLUIS (Italian University Network of Seismic Engineering Laboratories) Consortium. Chapter 19.J.. (2007). 859-877 -  Park D. Christian J. Lisse.B.. of IARG 2007 Salerno. in order to model the material damping with reasonable approximation in the desired range of frequencies. ed.. vol. in: Seismic Design for. pp. Material damping is often modelled by Rayleigh formulation. VIII Congreso Argentino de Mecànica Computacional. reproducing the amplification of the seismic signal over the first and second natural frequency of the system. Special Session XIV ECSMGE. Italy (in Italian). Ed. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division. Finite Element Shot Peening Simulation.M. XI Congresso Nazionale “L’Ingegneria Sismica in Italia”. -  Roesset J. ASCE. 2007). Fundamentals of Soil Amplification. Cambridge. Hansen. Desai C. for instance. Nuclear Power Plants (R.. Methods for the seismic analysis of transverse section of circular tunnels in soft ground. (2007). Some parameters (equivalent stiffness.B. (2002) . Hashash Y. 2007) and the transverse section of a circular tunnel in soft ground (Bilotta et al. vol. Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering. Modelling Methods for Silent Boundaries in Infinite Media. Analysis and comparison with experimental results. L’influenza della modellazione di Rayleigh dello smorzamento viscoso nelle analisi di risposta sismica locale. (1977). .A. Soil Damping Formulation in Nonlinear Time Domain Site Response Analysis. numerical damping is also needed in order to attain a stable calculation. Lysmer J.J. 183-244. A. Workshop of ERTC12 ...T. Russo G. Journal of Engineering and Mechanical Division. Boldini D. Journal of Earthquake Engineering. Conclusions The use of dynamic analyses to calculate the seismic response of a geotechnical system is dependent on advanced site characterization and numerical knowledge.or Three-Dimensional Dynamic Analyses. Silvestri F... The best-fit criterion can be. Comparison between SEB and FHD on lateral boundaries solutions -  Brinkgreve R. Madrid. Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering.5. Desai C. (1969). Santucci de Magistris F. (1970). J.. Argentina. vol. 683-718.. University of Colorado at Boulder -  Visone C.S. Angelo E. Stefano Aversa. Lollino P. Lanzano G. Gonçalves E.) can be chosen by comparing the dynamic response of model under vertical shear waves propagation to the theoretical solutions..L..2.. The Authors wish to thank the coordinator. ASEN 5519-006: Fluid-Structure Interaction. Sull’analisi della risposta sismica locale mediante codici di calcolo numerici. then fit the theoretical solution...).Evaluation Committee for the Application of EC8. Chapter 20... The proposed approach was preliminarily used for the analysis of some geotechnical earthquake problems as the seismic response of flexible earth retaining structures (Visone & Santucci de Magistris. Noviembre 2005 -  Bilotta E. for his continuous support and the fruitful discussions. XXIV.S.Evaluation Committee for the Application of EC8. Desai C. ANIDIS. It is necessary a good calibration of the numerical model before conducting a dynamic analysis for any type of 2-D problem.McGraw-Hill - Ross M. 2007. Buenos Aires. Soil Amplification of Earthquakes. The MIT Press.McGraw-Hill - Kuhlmeyer R. Some aspects of seismic design methods for flexible earth retaining structures. D’Elia B. 421-427 - Lanzo G.Recent Activities Remarks on site response analysis by using Plaxis dynamic module Continuation References -  Amorosi A. This can be achieved by assuming Rayleigh β=0 and changing Rayleigh α only. Workshop of ERTC12 . an example of procedure to calibrate the finite element model parameters has been presented in order to control the system damping. Pagliaroli A. prof. (2005). A possible choice in order to limit such uncertainty is to set the minimum value for Newmark γ which allows stability. Roesset J. 2002. Kuhlmeyer R. etc.A. Christian J.. Ed. FEA Ltd.. . Balkema Publisher. A.T. 2007. Sasso M. MA. Christian J.S. (1977). Madrid.. pp. MECOM 2005. Theory Manual...M. Special Session XIV ECSMGE. Ed.M.L. Figure 10. (2007). (2004).249-274 - Roesset. (1973).99 n. (2004).. 18 . pp. Moreover.

whom they see the potential needs on FEM application for their work. we notice the application usage are mainly in the higher educational institutions and research sectors. We also take the opportunities to understand their projects and problem faced during the various stages of their work. New Head Quarter Plaxis bv Photographer Peter de Ruig Photographer Peter de Ruig 19 . Eddy Tan to have the lead in the business development of all local sales and marketing activities for the company’s Plaxis products and services. Please visit our agenda on the back cover of this bulletin or on the website to get a full overview of the upcoming Plaxis Events. Detailed contact information on Plaxis bv and Plaxis Asia can be found at our contact page of our website. A recent marketing trip to China in Jan 2008 has elevated us beyond this horizon. William Cheang was already involved in pre and after sales activities in Asian countries. provincial governmentowned Electrical Power design consultants and railway design institutes. one of her major focus will be the china market among other emerging countries in Asia. Plaxis Events Last year our worldwide expansion of Plaxis courses included also 2 fully booked courses in Latin America (Brazil and Colombia). Although marketing effort has been started since 5 years ago in China. From 2008 Plaxis bv appointed Mr. The aim is to establish a strong local presence in order to provide optimum support for all Plaxis users and prospects in the Asian market. We have met and presented our software to big private corporations such as the Water Resource commission. We are confident that Plaxis will soon be widely used by most private design firms in China just like any other geotechnical design consultants around the world”. Since 2006 Dr. Plaxis Asia activities in 2008 are. We hope to meet you soon in our new offices or at one of the above mentioned events. To assist HQ in managing sales and technical support in Asia - To provide a better service & support to agents in Asia - To provide assistance to agents in sales & marketing - To provide necessary technical support to agents - To have direct contact with the local education institutions - To assist local agents to organise seminars and courses With the establishment of Plaxis Asia. Plaxis regards the Asian market as strategically important because it exhibits a strong and constantly growing demand in Plaxis products and service solutions. Furthermore William assist our agents upon request to promote Plaxis products and services via conferences. In 2008 we have an extended Course Program to facilitate our knowledge transfer of the background and usage of Plaxis products. courses and seminars.Recent Activities Recent activities Plaxis Asia Plaxis Expands “Plaxis Asia” Office. Plaxis on the move To be able to continue the increase of staff Plaxis bv moved to a new building.

2008 International Course for Experienced Plaxis users Antwerp. USA March 10 – 13. Belgium April 2008 Seminars in Chongqin. 2008 4th Conference on Advances and Applications of GiD Ibiza. 2008 Funderingsdag Ede. 2008 ITA – AITES World Tunnel Congress Website: www. Shanghai. United Kingdom September 15 – 18. Scotland. USA June 2008 Seminars in Vietnam Vietnam June 17 – 19. 2008 SAT 2008 Sao Paolo. Beijing and Guangzhou China April 10 – 12. 2008 GI-GEESD IV Sacramento. USA August 2008 Course on Computational Geotechnics Taiwan September 3 – 5. India October 8. Spain May 14 – 16. China April 2008 Seminars in New Dehli & Mumbai India April 29. 2008 GI-GeoCongress 2008 New Orleans. 2008 Seminars London/ Glasgow United Kingdom May 4 – 7. 2008 EuroGeo4 Edinburgh. 2008 AMGISS. 2nd International Workshop on Geotechnics of Soft Soils Glasgow. 2008 13th Australian Tunneling Conference 2008 Grand Hyatt. Melbourne. China November 2008 Course on Computational Geotechnics Paris. 2008 E-Unsat 2008 Durham. 2008 Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering Manchester. United Kingdom September 7 – 10. 2008 Course on Computational Geotechnics Pisa. 2008 NUCGE 2008 Skikda. 2008 TC28 Shanghai Shanghai. United Kingdom June 10. Italy May 18 – 22. Petersburg. Russia July 2 – 4. Brasil June 2008 Russian Users Conference St. Scotland. South Korea June 23 – 25. France Plaxis BV PO Box 572 2600 AN Delft The Netherlands Tel: +31 (0)15 251 77 20 Fax: +31 (0)15 257 31 07 E-Mail: info@plaxis. Germany November 2008 Course on Computational Geotechnics Shanghai. Algeria October 2008 Course on Computational Geotechnics Japan November 5 – 7.plaxis. 2008 12th IACMAG Goa. India September 22 – 27. United Kingdom July 2008 Course on Computational Geotechnics Guadalajara. 2008 15th European Plaxis User Meeting Karlsruhe. CA.Plaxis finite element code for soil and rock analyses Activities 2008 March 9 – 12. 2008 11th Baltic Sea Geotechnical Conference Gdansk. India October 1 – 6. Mexico July 8006758 . The Netherlands October 13 – 15. 2008 Course for Experienced Plaxis Users Seoul. 2008 Seminars Philippines Philippines August 2008 Course on Computational Geotechnics Houston. Australia May 8 – 9. Poland September 2008 Course on Computational Geotechnics New Dehli.