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JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

JOURNAL OF
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Bdescu Gabriel
Academic Title: Assistant Professor
Affiliation: North University of Baia Mare, Romania
Expertise Fields: Geodesy, Photogrammetry, Cartography and Remote Sensing

Bensafi Abd-El-Hamid
Academic Title: Associate Professor
Affiliation: Department of Chemistry and Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Abou Bekr Belkaid
University of Tlemcen, P.O. Box 119, Chetouane, 13000 Tlemcen, Algeria.
Expertise Fields: Chemical Engineering, Materials Science, Chemical Sciences, Physical
Sciences, Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry, Polymer Thermodynamics,
Chemical Thermodynamics, Polymer Physics.

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Academic Title: Professor
Affiliation: University of Benghazi, Faculty of Information Technology, Department of
Computer Science, P. O. Box 1308, Benghazi, Libya
Expertise Fields: Data Mining, Clustering, Data Warehouse

Ghalib Y. Kahwaji
Academic Title: Professor
Affiliation: Mechanical Eng., Colorado State University, USA
Expertise Fields: Heat transfer and fluid dynamics, Refrigeration and A/C Systems design,
Solar systems, Numerical computations, Energy related topics.

Lamyaa Gamal Eldeen Taha
Academic Title: Associate professor
Affiliation: Head (Supervisor) of the Aviation and aerial photography division NARSS-
Egypt
Expertise Fields: Image Fusion -change detection-DEM-Orthoimage-LIDAR-SAR-mapping
from satellite images- feature extraction from remote sensing images





Moinuddin Sarker
Academic Title: Professor
Affiliation: Vice President of Research and Development, Head of Science Team, Natural
State Research (NSR) Inc.,Stamford, USA.
Expertise Fields: Waste Plastics to Fuels Technology, Waste to Energy, Electricity Storage
and backup, Electricity Production, UHV and Surface Sciences, Analytical Chemistry,
Inorganic and Solid State Chemistry, Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), Single and Poly
Crystal, Bio-Diesel and Bio-Fuel, High Temperature Superconducting Oxides, Alternating
Fuels / Low Sulfur Diesel

Waheed Sabri
Academic Title: Professor
Affiliation: Military Technical College (MTC), Cairo, Egypt
Expertise Fields: Electrical Power Engineering (Power System Analysis), and Mathematics
(Statistics)

Zakaria Zubi
Academic Title: Professor
Affiliation: Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Sirte University
Expertise Fields: Data Mining and Web Mining, Clustering Analysis, Classification,
Association Rule Mining.
















REVIEWERS LIST
Vol. 1 (1-2), 2013


We thank the following reviewers for the time and energy they have given to Journal of
Science and Engineering, Vol. 1, 2013:



Achyut Kumar Panda
Ajani Olasunmbo Oyeniyi
Clifford.I.O. Kamalu
Guettaf abdelrazak
Hamza Bentrah
Jean Christian Bernde
Naser Kordani
Nima Vaziri
R.A Ganiyu
Said Benramache
Waheed Sabry







TABLE OF CONTENTS

2013 (Vol. 1, No: 1)
EFFECT OF AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE ON SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION OF
NATURALLY ASPIRATED DIESEL ENGINE
Hindren A. Saber, Ramzi R. Ibraheem Al-Barwari, Ziyad J. Talabany
1-7

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A REMOTE CONTROL BASED AUTOMATIC
CHANGE OVER
Segun O. Olatinwo , O. Shoewu , Oluwabukola Mayowa Ishola
9-15

MODELING AND SIMULATION OF OPEN CYCLE LIQUID PROPELLANT ENGINES
Mahyar Naderi Tabrizi, Seyed Ali Reza Jalali Chime, Hassan Karimi
17-34

EVOLUTION OF STRUCTURAL DAMPING FOR CROSS-PLY LAMINATE BY
MODAL ANALYSIS
D. Bensahal, M. N. Amrane, F. Chabane, O. Belahssen, S. Benramache
35-42

REMOTE SENSING SATELLITE DESIGN USING MODEL BASED SYSTEM
ENGINEERING
Mohammad Sayanjali, Oldouz Nabdel
43-54

INERTIAL NAVIGATION ACCURACY INCREASING USING REDUNDANT
SENSORS
Mahdi Jafari, Jafar Roshanian
55-66

OPTIMAL FREE-DEFECT FUNCTION GENERATION SYNTHESIS OF FOUR-BAR
LINKAGE WITH JOINT CLEARANCE USING PSO ALGORITHM
A. Sardashti, H.M. Daniali, S.M.Varedi
67-78

IMPROVEMENT OF THE INJECTION EFFICIENCY IN ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING
DEVICES BY ADDITIONAL SPRAY DEPOSITED HOLE TRANSPORTING LAYER
M.P. Aleksandrova, G.H. Dobrikov, G. D. Kolev, I. N. Cholakova
79-83
2013 (Vol. 1, No: 2)
EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL ROUGHNESS ON HEAT TRANSFER IN A SOLAR AIR
HEATER
F. Chabane, N. Moummi, S. Benramache, D. Bensahal, O. Belahssen
85-93

THE PREPARATION OF POLYETHYLENE AND MINERAL MATERIAL
COMPOSITES, AND EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL (USING MCNP CODE)
VERIFICATION OF THEIR CHARACTERISTICS FOR NEUTRON BEAM
ATTENUATION
Majid Zarezadeh
95-101

NATURAL FREQUENCY, MODE SHAPE, BUCKLING AND POST-BUCKLING
ANALYSIS OF MEMS WITH VARIOUS CLAMPED POSITION
Milad Faraji, Morteza Dardel, Mohammad Hadi Pashaei
103-120

PHASOR MEASUREMENT UNITS FOR OUT-OF-STEP DETECTION OF A MULTI-
MACHINE SYSTEM USING SYSTEM REDUCTION
A. Y. Abdelaziz, Amr M. Ibrahim, Zeinab G. Hasan
121-132

DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROCONTROLLER BASED ALARM SYSTEM FOR
PIPELINE VANDALS DETECTION
O. Shoewu, L. A Akinyemi, Kola A. Ayanlowo, Segun O. Olatinwo, N. T. Makanjuola
133-142

PILOT STUDY FOR QUANTIFICATION OF EMISSIONS OF GREEN HOUSE GAS FOR
MARINE TRANSPORTATION DECISION SUPPORT
O. S. Oladokun, B. Michel, N. Stark, H. Azman, A.S.A.Kader
143-154

STUDY OF PROPERTIES OF COMPONENTS FOR OFFSHORE AQUACULTURE
TECHNOLOGY FARMING
O. S. Oladokun, W.B. Wan Nik, A.S.A.Kader
155-161

ANALYSIS OF THE ELASTIC ENERGY AND CRACK TIP OPENING
DISPLACEMENT WITH INCREASED YIELD STRESS
Hannachi Mohamed Tahar, Djebaili Hamid
163-172


2013 (Vol. 1, No: 1)



All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means without the written permission of ORIC Publications, www.oricpub.com.

www.oricpub.com

Journal of Science and Engineering
Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 1-7

Online available since 2013/Mar/30 at www.oricpub.com
(2013) Copyright ORIC Publications

http://www.oricpub.com/journal-of-sci-and-eng

EFFECT OF AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE ON SPECIFIC
FUEL CONSUMPTION OF NATURALLY ASPIRATED DIESEL
ENGINE

Hindren A. Saber
1a
, Ramzi R. Ibraheem Al-Barwari
2a
, Ziyad J. Talabany
3a

1
Mechanical Engineer
2
Assistant professor of Mechanical Engineering Department
3
Assistant Lecturer of Mechanical Engineering Department
a
Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering College,
Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq


Abstract
This paper aims it finding the effect of increase of the ambient air temperature before
entering the naturally aspirated diesel engine on specific fuel consumption. The
experimental investigation was carried out on a diesel engine four strokes, water cooled
and indirect injection. The experiments covered all tests. The tests included heating of
the inlet air temperature by designing an electric heater then increasing the air
temperature entering into the diesel engine. The results showed that brake specific fuel
consumption increased with increasing inlet air temperature. Also the results showed
that the brake specific fuel consumption decreased with increasing the brake mean
effective pressure. Experimental data obtained in this work were compared with other
references were found to be in good agreement with experimental results.



1. INTRODUCTION
The internal combustion engine is a heat engine that converts
chemical energy in a fuel into mechanical energy. The power is usually
made available on a rotating output shaft. The chemical energy of the
fuel is first converted to thermal energy by means of combustion or
oxidation with air inside the engine. This thermal energy raises the
temperature and pressure of the gases within the engine and the
high-pressure gas then expands against the mechanical mechanisms of
the engine. This expansion is converted by the mechanical linkages of
the engine to a rotating crankshaft, which is the output of the engine. The
crankshaft, in turn, is connected to a transmission and/or power train to
transmit the rotating mechanical energy to the desired final use [1].
The internal combustion engines which were invented in the last
decades of the 19th century began to influence on human activities and
environment in the beginning of the 20th century. At the end of the
century the air pollution with combustion products and immoderate
consumption of energy resources became unbearable [2]. Lin C. Y. [3]
investigated systematically the effects of humidity and temperature of
intake air on the performance and emission characteristics of diesel
engines in order to improve their design and operations.

Received: 03 Mar 2013
Accepted: 23 Mar 2013

Keywords:
Components
Naturally Aspirated Diesel Engine
Inlet Air Temperature
Brake Specific Fuel Consumption
Electric Heater
Engine Speed

Correspondence:
Ramzi R. Ibraheem
Al-Barwari

Assistant professor
Mechanical Engineering
Department, Engineering
College, Salahaddin
University, Erbil, Iraq

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 1-7 P a g e | 2


Nomenclatures:
A/F Air/fuel ratio N Engine speed [r.p.m]
Bmep Brake mean effect pressure [N/m
2
] T Engine torque [Nm]
Bp Brake power [kW] Ap Piston area [m
2
]
Bsfc Brake specific fuel consumption [kg/kW-h] B Bore diameter [mm]
Cc Cubic capacity L Stroke [mm]
a m


Mass flow rate of air [kg/s] k Number of cylinder
f m


Mass flow rate of fuel [kg/s] n Number of power stroke
P Power [kW]
.
f
Q
Fuel discharge [m
3
/s]
Sfc Specific fuel consumption [kg/kW-h] f Fuel density [kg/m
3
]
p Pressure [N/m
2
]

This study shows that the air consumption rate, brake torque, and nitrogen oxides decrease, while the
brake specific fuel consumption, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide increase with both the temperature
and humidity of the charge air. Talal F. [4] Canned out experimentally a performance and emission testing
for a single cylinder four-stroke diesel engine to determine the optimum operation conditions

for this engine.
The studied operation parameters included brake specific fuel

consumption (BSFC), the results indicated
that the lowest( BSFC) of

the engine was found when the engine ran around 1

kW charging load at a speed
ranging between 1900 rpm and

2700 rpm.
Brian D.Feldman [7] Modeling an engine through software methods to obtained reasonably accurate data
based on reasonably accurate assumptions. Modeling the 2.5LDetroit Diesel engine will help the Future
Truck team to make quick and informed decisions .Assumptions were made in the construction of the model
because all operating parameters were not obtainable. However, it can be seen that the model is sufficiently
similar to the actual engine because major characteristics such as (BSFC) and exhaust gas temperatures are
similar. The most effective strategy for balancing emissions, fuel economy, performance, and cost in a diesel
engine requires a combination of techniques.
The aim of this study is to test the influence of increasing ambient air temperature on brake specific fuel
consumption of naturally aspirated diesel engines.

2. PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS
2.1 ENGINE POWER
Power is the amount of work done per unit time or the rate of doing work. The measure of the engine's
ability to apply power generation is called torque.
Engine torque is normally measured by a dynamometer. The engine is clamped on a test bed and the shaft
is connected to the dynamometer rotor, Brake power refers to the amount of usable power delivered by the
engine to the crankshaft [5].
bp =
1000 60
2

T N
(1)

2.2 SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION (SFC)
The fuel consumption characteristics of an engine are generally expressed in terms of specific fuel
consumption in kilograms of fuel per kilowatt-hour. In engine tests, the fuel consumption is measured as a
flow rate-mass flow per unit time (
.
f
m ). A more useful parameter is the specific fuel consumption (SFC) the
fuel flow rate per unit power output. It measures how efficiently an engine uses the fuel supplied to produce
work [5]:
SFC =
P
m
f


(2)
3 | P a g e Hindren A. Saber1a, Ramzi R. Ibraheem Al-Barwari, Ziyad J. Talabany


f m

= Q
f

f

(3)
Q
f
=
time
fuel of volume
(4)


2.3 BRAKE MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE (BMEP)
For any particular engine, operating at a given speed and power output, there is brake mean effective
pressure (Bmep) derived from the brake power [6].
Bmep =
K n A L
bp
P

1000 60

(5)

3. EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS
The experimental work for this study was carried out in the laboratory of the mechanical engineering
department. Experiments were performed on (Ford XLD 416 indirect injection diesel engine). The test rig
can be shown in Figure (2).

3.1 SCHEMATIC CHART OF EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
The experimental setup of the present work step by step can be shown in Figure ( 1 ). According to
the Figure ( 1 ), all the procedures were taken in into consideration during the investigation along with the
ranges of engine parameters and were then analyzed. The data collected was applied by direct mathematical
equations to find the influence of increase in the ambient of air temperature on performance of the aspirated
diesel engine.

Figure (1) A schematic chart for the experimental setup.

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Experiments were performed to study the effect of inlet air temperature on brake specific fuel
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 1-7 P a g e | 4


consumption, Figure (3) illustrates the effect of inlet air temperature on brake specific fuel consumption at
constant engine speed (1500 r.p.m) and varying torques. It was observed that the brake specific fuel
consumption increased with increasing inlet air temperature while brake specific fuel consumption
decreased with increasing engine torque. Figure (4) illustrates the variation of the brake specific fuel
consumption with inlet air temperature at constant engine torque (50 N.m) and different engine speed. It was
also observed that the brake specific fuel consumption increases with increasing inlet air temperature.
Figure (4) also shows the effect of engine speed on the brake specific fuel consumption, decreased with the
increase in the engine speed due to the shorter time for heat loss during each cycle. At higher engine speeds
(2700 and 3000 r.p.m) fuel consumption again increases because of high friction lose. Figure (5) illustrates
the variation of the brake specific fuel consumption with engine speed and different engine torque. It can
also be observed that the brake specific fuel consumption decreases with increasing engine speed. The figure
also shows that brake specific fuel consumption decreased with increase in the engine torque. Figure (6)
illustrates the variation of the brake specific fuel consumption with brake mean effective pressure. It can
observed that brake specific fuel consumption decreased with increase in the brake mean effective pressure,
because the brake mean effective pressure does not depend on engine speed. Rather, it depends on engine
torque ,as well as on the increasing brake mean effective pressure. This means increasing brake torque
leads to increase in the brake power as a result of decreasing brake specific fuel consumption. It also shows
that the decreasing of brake specific fuel consumption decreased with increasing engine speed. Figure (7)
illustrates the variation of the brake specific fuel consumption with engine speed specified in the present
work and [7]. It can be observed that the brake specific fuel consumption decreased with increasing engine
speed for both works. It also showed that the decreasing of brake specific fuel consumption with engine
speed of the present work is in a good agreement with [7]. The main reason for the existence of a difference
between the present work and researcher [7] is the diesel engine used in present work ( Old laboratory-made
engine) and consumer testers and currently does not exist in our laboratories( new laboratory-made engine)
compared to the engine and Model used by the researcher [7]. Figure (8) illustrates the variation of the brake
specific fuel consumption with brake power of the present work and [7]. It can be observed that the brake
specific fuel consumption decreased with increasing brake power for both works. It also shows that the
decreasing of brake specific fuel consumption with brake power of present work is in a good agreement with
[7].

4. CONCLUSIONS
The results of this investigation show that:
1. Brake specific fuel consumption increases with increasing inlet air temperature in all experimental
results used in the present work and decreases with both engine torque and engine speed. The decreasing of
brake specific fuel consumption with engine speed occurs until reaching (2500 r.p.m) then increases at
(2700 r.p.m) and above. The brake specific fuel consumption decreases with increasing brake mean effective
pressure.
2. At higher engine speeds (above 2500 r.p.m) the brake specific fuel consumption increases because of
high friction lose.
3. Brake thermal efficiency increases with increasing brake mean effective pressure.
4. The heating of air affected combustion, because of enlargement of air size at heating with same amount
of fuel, leads to less air available to burn with fuel led to high fuel consumption.

REFERENCES
[1] Willard W. Pulkrabek, (1997), Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine,
Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, Pages 1- 27.
[2] Algis Butkus, Saugirdas Pukalskas and Zenonas Bogdanoviius, (2007), The Influence Of
Turpentine Additive On The Ecological Parameters Of Diesel Engines, Dept of Automobile Transport,
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, J. Basanaviiaus g. 28, LT-03224 Vilnius, Lithuania, Volume 22,
Page 80.
[3] Lin C. Y. and Jeng Y. L., (1996), Influences of charge air humidity and temperature on the
performance and emission characteristics of diesel engines, Society of Naval Architects and Marine
Engineers, Jersey City, NJ, ETATS-UNIS, Volume 40, pp. 172-177 .
5 | P a g e Hindren A. Saber1a, Ramzi R. Ibraheem Al-Barwari, Ziyad J. Talabany


[4] Talal F. Yusaf, (2009), Diesel Engine Optimization for Electric Hybrid Vehicles, Journal of Energy
Resources Technology, Volume 131, Issue 1, Pages 12203-12207.
[5]. U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C, Department Of Energy Fundamentals Handbook,
mechanical Science, Module 1: Diesel Engine Fundamentals, Volume 1of 2, Pages 2 19, (1993).
[6]. V. Ganesan, (2004), Internal Combustion Engines, Tata, McGraw-Hill, second edition, Pages 25
597,
[7] Brian David Feldman, (2004), Diesel Engine Modeling in wave, The Pennsylvania State University,
Schreyer Honors College, Pages 11-13.


Figure (2) Diesel engine with air heater.


Figure (3) Effect of inlet air temperature on the brake specific fuel consumption, at constant engine speed (1500 r.p.m) and
different engine torques.














Figure (4) Effect of inlet air temperature on the brake specific fuel consumption, at constant engine torque (50 N.m) and different
engine speeds.

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 1-7 P a g e | 6



Figure (5) Brake specific fuel consumption as a function of engine speed for different engine torques.


Figure (6) Effect of brake mean effective pressure on brake specific fuel consumption for different engine speeds.


Figure (7) Comparison between acquired experimental results and experimental results for the [7].


0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
Engine speed (r.p.m)
b
s
f
c

(
k
g
/
k
W
h
)
Torque=15 N.m
Torque=30 N.m
Torque=50 N.m
Torque=75 N.m
Torque=100 N.m
7 | P a g e Hindren A. Saber1a, Ramzi R. Ibraheem Al-Barwari, Ziyad J. Talabany



Figure (8) Comparison between acquired experimental results and experimental results for the [7].










Please cite this article as: Hindren A. Saber1a, Ramzi R. Ibraheem Al-Barwari, Ziyad J. Talabany, (2013), Effect Of Ambient Air Temperature On Specific
Fuel Consumption Of Naturally Aspirated Diesel Engine, Science and Engineering, Vol. 1(1), 1-7.





All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means without the written permission of ORIC Publications,www.oricpub.com

www.oricpub.com

Journal of Science and Engineering
Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 9-15

Online available since 2013/Mar/30 at www.oricpub.com
(2013) Copyright ORIC Publications

http://www.oricpub.com/journal-of-sci-and-eng

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A REMOTE CONTROL
BASED AUTOMATIC CHANGE OVER

Segun O. Olatinwo
1
, O. Shoewu
2
, Oluwabukola Mayowa Ishola
3

1
Department of Computer Engineering, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
2
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Lagos State University, Epe Campus, Nigeria.
3
Department of Computer Science, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos State, Nigeria.


Abstract
In this paper, an attempt is made to design and implement an automatic change over
with remote control. The design and construction of an automatic changeover with
remote control will ease the use of an electrical power generating system. This paper
focuses on the design of an automatic changeover with timer system that will enhance
user control over a power generating set. It is intended for use with a single phase
power generating set operating at 220V AC. This research work is limited to the design
of an automatic changeover with timer system that will enhance user control over a
power generating set. It is intended for use with a single phase power generating set
operating at 220V AC.



1. INTRODUCTION
Electrical power is a very important form of energy that is needed in
homes, laboratories, schools, industries and the society at large. However,
in Nigeria, it is not generated in adequate amounts and thus, making it
one of the principal needs everybody in the society have to fulfill. Most
people use small generating sets for this purpose, some use solar means,
some use wind means while others combine all the different methods of
self power generation to form a special power generating scheme and
thus maintain 24 hours uninterrupted power supply.
In order to make self power generation enhanced, requiring less
human control and more efficient, then modern automation and control
systems needs to be installed on even the smallest power generation
systems. Control and automation systems are electronic, electrical or
electromechanical systems that can take future actions based on present
and past actions or take an action based on input from another system.
Present technological advancements have seen the evolution of special
control systems into domestic equipments. These control systems include
remote control systems, thermostats, temperature controllers and timers.
Most control systems were originally reserved for industrial purposes
due to cost implication of such systems. Control systems add more
control functions to the devices and make them much easy to control.
The control systems often found in consumer equipments function in one
of two ways. Some control systems perform their functions by taking an
action based on change in the immediate physical environment such as
change in temperature, pressure, light intensity, e.tc. Examples of
devices that use this type of control systems include; Iron, solar street
lights, air conditioners and automatic emergency lights.
Received: 14 Mar 2013
Accepted: 26 Mar 2013

Correspondence:
Segun O. Olatinwo

Department of Computer
Engineering, Moshood Abiola
Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Keywords:
Automatic change over
Remote control
Timer
PHCN

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 9-15 P a g e | 10


Other control systems perform their functions by taking an action when they receive data wirelessly or
via wires from another device. Examples of such control systems are seen in remote controlled systems such
as; television sets, DVD players, audio player systems, home theaters, remote controlled cars and micro
wave timing systems. This type of control system is also found in mobile phones where an incoming call or
text message will trigger the ringer system of a phone.
This project report describes the design and construction of an automatic change over with remote control
which is a control system that serves two purposes; allows the user of a generator to be able to switch off the
generator after working for a predefined period of time and also monitors whenever there is supply from
PHCN, switch off the generator if it is running and switch the supply to PHCN automatically without human
intervention.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1 Design concept
The design of the proposed system is made up of the following component parts:
i. The power supply stage
ii. The inverter stage
iii. The infra red receiver stage
iv. The mono stable stage
v. The switching relay and buzzer stage
vi. The power relay and PHCN indicator stage
The block diagram of the proposed system is shown in figure 1.




























Figure 1: Block diagram of the proposed system

2.2 The power supply stage
This stage is made up of two bridge rectifier circuits with voltage regulators to regulate their outputs. One
of the bridge rectifier circuits is used with to rectify input power from the generator and used to power the
inverter stage, the infrared receiver stage, the mono stable stage and the switching relay and buzzer stage.
The other bridge rectifier circuit is used to rectify input power from PHCN and the output is used to power
the power relay stage. The output of this bridge rectifier also serve as an input to the inverter stage and such
MONOSTABL
E STAGE
GEN POWER
SUPPLY
STAGE
POWER RELAY
AND PHCN
INDICATOR
STAGE
SWITCHING
RELAY AND
BUZZER STAGE
PHCN POWER
SUPPLY
STAGE
INVERTER
STAGE
INFRA RED
RECEIVER
STAGE
11 | P a g e Segun O. Olatinwo, O. Shoewu, Oluwabukola Mayowa Ishola


serves as an indicator for the availability of supply form PHCN to the circuit. The circuit diagram of the
power stage is shown in figure 2.

Figure 2: The power supply stage

The output of the bridge rectifier connected to the generator supply is filtered by the 470F capacitor and
fed to the inputs of two voltage regulators, the 7805 and 7812 voltage regulators. The 7805 regulator
regulates the filtered output of the rectifier to 5V necessary to power the inverter circuit which is TTL logic
gate IC and the 7812 regulates the rectifier output to 12V necessary to drive the switching relay and also
power the mono stable circuit. The 0.1F capacitors at the outputs of the regulators are to prevent the
regulators from going into oscillation. The maximum input voltage for 78XX regulators is 24V and the input
voltage must be greater than or equal to the expected output voltage.
For each cycle of conduction, two diodes are in operation. The output voltage of the rectifier can be
calculated as follows:


(1)




Thus, both conditions for using the 78XX regulators are satisfied by the first part of the power circuit.
For the rectifier circuit connected to the supply from PHCN,



This output is fed to the second 7805 voltage regulator which gives a 5V regulated output. The unregulated
output is also used to directly drive the power relays.

2.3 The inverter stage
This stage is used to invert the power supplied by the bridge rectifier connected to the PHCN source and the
output is used to trigger the mono stable stage. It is also used to invert the output of the mono stable stage and
used to drive the switching relay appropriately. The IC used for the inverting is a 7400 NAND gate IC. This IC
is powered by the 5V regulator connected to the bridge rectifier associated with the generator power source.

2.4 The infrared receiver stage
This stage is used to detect the presence of remote control signals from a hand held remote controller. The
circuit diagram of this stage is shown in Figure 3.
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 9-15 P a g e | 12



Figure 3: The infra red receiver stage

The infra red detector is made up of TSOP1836; an infra red detector IC which is powered by the 5V
supply provided by the rectifier and regulator circuit connected to the generator source. The IC has three
pins. Pin 1 is data output, pin 2 is ground and pin 3 is supply pin. The data received from the transmitter is
output directly at pin 1 of the IC. This data is then sent to the mono stable stage where it is interpreted. The
100 and 4.7F capacitor between the main supply, the supply pin of the IC and ground is to reduce power
supply disturbances while the 10K resistor is to pull the output normally high.

2.5 The mono stable stage
This stage serves as a 11s short pulse generator which generates the control signals to switch off the
generator whenever there is a triggering condition and also sounds the buzzer for a short period of time.
When the generator is first switched on, it generates a 11s pulse which sounds the buzzer and waits for the
generator output to stabilize while allowing the infra red receiver stage to initialize properly. The trigger
source of the mono stable stage comes from an OR gate which have inputs from the PHCN power source
and the infra red receiver stage. The output of the mono stable stage is used to drive the buzzer and also fed
to the inverter stage where it is inverted and used to drive the switching relay. The circuit diagram of the
mono stable stage is shown in figure 4.

Figure 4: The mono stable stage
The mono stable is triggered when ever there is low going pulse on pin 2 which is held high by the
100K resistor to prevent spurious triggering. The length of the output pulse that is generated whenever
there is a trigger is determined by the values of capacitor C1 and resistor R1 and is given by the equation;





13 | P a g e Segun O. Olatinwo, O. Shoewu, Oluwabukola Mayowa Ishola



2.6 The switching relay and buzzer stage
This stage is used to switch the generator off whenever there is a trigger at the mono stable stage and also
used to sound a buzzer to indicate the condition. A 3-24V buzzer was used and is driven directly by the
output of the mono stable stage. The switching relay is driven by the inverted output of the mono stable
stage via a transistor. The following analysis describes the switching action that occurs in the switching
stage.

Figure 5: The switching relay
Minimum voltage expected at the base of the transistor whenever there is a high output from the inverter
stage, is assumed to be 3V
Resistance in the base circuit, R
b
= 1k
The corresponding base current that flows in the circuit is given by,
I
b
=

= 3mA


Resistance of the relay in the collector circuit, R
c
= 330
At saturation, current flowing in the collector circuit,
I
c
=

= 35.7mA



Minimum h
fe
for the transistor (BC547) is 110
Therefore, the base current required to cause saturation is,
I
breq
=

= 0.32mA



Since the actual current that is flowing through the base of the transistor is higher than that required to
cause saturation, the relay will be latched on whenever the inverter stage gives a high output on the pin
connected to the base of the transistor.

2.7 The power relay and PHCN indicator stage
This is the stage in which the actual switching of power from GEN to PHCN and vice versa is done. It
consists of two relays that are powered by the part of the power source connected to the PHCN supply. By
default, the output of this stage is connected to the generator supply. When there is supply from PHCN, the
output is switched away from the generator source to the PHCN source. The circuit diagram of this stage is
shown in figure 6.
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 9-15 P a g e | 14



Figure 6: Power relay and PHCN indicator stage

The complete circuit diagram for the design is shown in Figure 7

Figure 7: Complete circuit diagram of the design

3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
3.1 Construction
The construction of this project refers to the techniques by which the circuit in this project is designed
and the way the final project is cased. Thus, construction of the device in this project work is divided into
two; the soldering stage and the packaging stage.

3.2 Packaging
The whole project is packed in a metallic container. The container is a commercially available adaptable
box often used by electrical engineers for complex installation works and this justifies why it was used. The
container was drilled where necessary to allow rooms for indicators, switches, buzzers and other required
devices. The circuit was fitted into the box and held tightly in place with the aid of screws and nuts. The
transformers to be used in the power circuit were also held tightly in place with the aid of screws and nuts.

3.3 Testing
The first set of testing was done after the soldering of each stage. The second testing was done after the
whole circuit has been soldered appropriately. The final testing was done after the whole devices had been
packaged. The final circuit of the proposed system is shown in Figure 8.
15 | P a g e Segun O. Olatinwo, O. Shoewu, Oluwabukola Mayowa Ishola



Figure 8: Circuit of the proposed system

4. CONCLUSION
This paper has presented the development of a remote control based automatic change over. Several
components were integrated to achieve the proposed system. The proposed system eases the use of an
electrical power generating system. The system is applicable to a single phase power generating set
operating at 220V AC.

REFERENCES
[1] Theraja, B.L and Theraja, A.K. (2002), A textbook of electrical technology, 21
st
ed., Rajendra
Ravindra Printers (P) Ltd., S. Chand & Company Ltd., Ram Nagar, New Delhi, India.

[2] Theraja, B.L. and Theraja, A.K. (1995). Electrical Technology, Delhi: Publication of Ram Naogar.
[3] Ragnar, H. (1958). Electric Contacts Handbook, 3
rd
ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.

[4] Terrell, C. and Wilford, S. (1987). American Electricans' Handbook, 11th ed., New York:
McGraw Hill.

[5] Thomas, L.F. (1997). Digital fundamentals: Integrated circuits, 6
th
ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ, USA.























Please cite this article as: Segun O. Olatinwo, O. Shoewu , Oluwabukola Mayowa Ishola, (2013), Design And Implementation Of A Remote Control Based
Automatic Change Over, Vol. 1(1), 9-15.








All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
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www.oricpub.com

Journal of Science and Engineering
Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 17-34

Online available since 2013/Apr/11 at www.oricpub.com
(2013) Copyright ORIC Publications

http://www.oricpub.com/journal-of-sci-and-eng

MODELING AND SIMULATION OF OPEN CYCLE LIQUID
PROPELLANT ENGINES
Mahyar Naderi Tabrizi
1ab
, Seyed Ali Reza Jalali Chime
2ab
, Hassan Karimi
3b


1
M.Sc. Graduate, Aerospace Engineering Department
2
PHD Candidate, Aerospace Engineering Department
3
Associate Professor of Aerospace Engineering Department
a
Power and Propulsion Systems Engineering Research Center,
b
K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Daneshgah Street, Dorahi Rahbar,
Eastern Vafadar Avenue, 4
th
Square of Tehran-pars, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
In this article using physical and mathematical equations for propulsion systems; major
elements of an open cycle LPE
1
(such as pipes, valves, Gas Generator (GG),
Combustion Chamber (CC), turbo pump assembly and solid grain starter) are modeled
and using Fortran 90 programming language, the nonlinear and dynamic governing
differential equations are numerically solved and a general simulator for open cycle
LPE is developed. The developed simulator has the capability to simulate the hydraulic
circuit for any arrangements of open cycle engine elements, received from the user via
a suitable graphical interface.

1. INTRODUCTION
One of the main objectives in modifying space launch vehicles is
increasing the payload or/and orbital capability of space missions.
According to the important role of propulsion systems in providing the
required power to fulfill the aforementioned objective; propulsion
engineers using the available technologies, tend to improve the
performance of the existing engines. Open cycle LPEs are used for lower
stages in a majority of worlds Launch vehicles. Despite the lower
energetic performance of open cycle LPEs (in comparison to closed
cycle LPEs); these engines are less complicated. Thats why designers
tend to enhance the performance of the existing open cycle LPEs. Taking
into account the considerable expenses; prior to any experimental tests or
modifications, propulsion engineers use LPE computer modeling and
simulators to analyze the effects of any modification on propulsion
systems performance. The most important elements that can change a
LPEs performance parameters (such as engines weight, thrust, Specific
Impulse I
sp
) are the engines turbo pump assembly, starter, GG
2
, CC
3

and control valves. If there is any possibility to change the operating
condition of these elements, one can enhance the performance of a
Propulsion system or launch vehicle.

1
Liquid Propellant Engine
2
Gas Generator
3
Combustion Chamber
Received: 14 Mar 2013
Accepted: 06 Apr 2013

Keywords:
Simulation Software
Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis
Propulsion Systems
Aerospace Engineering
Correspondence:
Mahyar Naderi Tabrizi
M.Sc. Graduate, Aerospace
Engineering Department,
Power and Propulsion Systems
Engineering Research Center,
K. N. Toosi University of
Technology, Daneshgah Street,
Dorahi Rahbar,
Eastern Vafadar Avenue, 4
th

Square of Tehran-pars, Tehran,
Iran

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 17-34 P a g e | 18

This would reveal the importance of precise modeling of each element especially the abovementioned
ones. Using the experimental data acquired from cold/hot tests of each element, it is possible to obtain a
correct mathematical model for the unpredicted coefficients of elements. By solving the system of equations
for the LPE, it is possible to analyze the effect of each element on Engine.
Recent studies in simulation, dynamic analysis and parametric study of LPEs are developed by Karimi,
2003, [1]; Karimi and Nassirharand, 2006, [2]; Mohammadi 2007, [3]. This paper complements a set of
limited previous works on the whole LPE systems Ruth et al., 1990, [4]; Binder et al., 1997, [5]; Shahani,
1997, [6]; Lozano, 1998, [7]; Belyaev et al., 1999, [8]; Kun and Yulin, 2000, [9]; Tarafder and Sarangi,
2000, [10]; Holt and Majumdar, 2000, [11]; and also Static models for engine components Tishin and
Gurova, (1989). [12]. Many of papers in this field are written to study the behavior of particular equipment,
e.g. a pump or a controller, or a phenomenon such as combustion instability. For example, general relations
for simulations of the combustion chambers are given by Liang and Mason, (1986), [13]; Habiballah et al.,
(1991), [14]; Jiang and Chiu, (1992), [15]; Wang, (1993), [16]; Khosravi and Mazaheri, (2000), [17]; and
Ivancic and Mayer,(2002), [18]. Analysis of LPRE turbo machinery is covered by McDaniel and
Snellgrove, (1992), [19] and Chen, (1995), [20]. The presentation of engine feed systems are given by
Ovsiyanikov, (1983), [21] and Lin and Baker (1995), [22]. The governing nonlinear equations for the
regulator valve of a specific LPE are presented by Karimi, (1999) [23] and mixture ratio control of LPEs by
Nassirharand and Karimi,(2005), [24]. The primary goal of this paper is to complete the previous researches
in modeling and simulation of liquid propellant engines specifically studies done by Mohamadi in ref. [3].
2. MATERIAL AND METHODS
In this article the pipes, valves, Turbo pump assembly, solid grain starter, GG and CC are dynamically
modeled and using a simulating program written in Fortran 90 programming language the obtained
equations were numerically solved. The mathematical model used for each element and the algorithm of the
simulation also the results for a special study case is introduced further in this article. The nonlinear
dynamic equations are derived for each element and afterwards using the Newton-Raphson trial and error
correction method the system of equations is solved explicitly. This article is based on the previous
researches done in references mentioned in section.1 with the difference that in this article; the combustion
process is simulated in more detail therefore the modeling of combustion chamber, gas generator is
enhanced. In this research, the engines solid propellant starter is fully modeled and coupled to the program.
More over a graphical interface has been developed so that the users can easily simulate their desired engine
in the least time and sophistication.
2.1. MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR LPES
In this section the governing equations for some of the major elements in open cycle LPEs are derived.
These elements include the pipe and valves, turbo pump assembly including the turbine and propellant main
pumps, combustion chamber, gas generator and the solid propellant starter.
2.1.1. PIPES AND VALVES
One of the equations in LPEs mathematical modeling is the equation for pipes and valves. In this article
both of these elements are considered as an orifice with a specific equivalent discharge coefficient. Using
the first law of thermodynamics and Bernoulli equation and also defining the discharge coefficient factor for
incompressible flows, the mathematical model for pipes and valves can be derived, as equation (1).
In which
eq
K is the equivalent discharge factor, as equation (2).
And P A is the pressure drop due to a combination of frictional and geometrical losses and is calculated
via equations (3) to (5).
The moody factor and the local frictional loss factor are obtained from experimental data and graphs in
hydraulic handbooks [25]. It should be mentioned that in valves, the frictional pressure drop is negligible
compared to geometrical pressure drop and in pipes its vice versa. The geometrical pressure drop in valves
is calculated by Darcy equation (6).


19 | P a g e Mahyar Naderi Tabrizi, Seyed Ali Reza Jalali Chime, Hassan Karimi

2.1.2. COMBUSTION CHAMBER AND GAS GENERATOR
The combustion process in combustion chamber and gas generator are described by the following the
equation. This equation is derived from combining the first and second law of thermodynamic combined
with the perfect gas law. Using a combustion modeling software (such as CEA
1
, Astra ) or experimental
results, the exhaust gas thermodynamic properties such as
*
, , R T C
can be prepared. After the thermodynamic
properties are obtained, using equation (7) one can compute the pressure change in CC or GG.
2.1.3. TURBO-PUMP ASSEMBLY
The high pressure gas in the exit of the GG and/or starter rotates the turbine and the turbine drives the
propellant pumps. The work, done on the propellants causes the fluid to be pumped and delivered to the
subsystems at a higher pressure. The rotational acceleration of the rotor is obtained from equation (8).
This difference between the generated torque from GG-starter and the consumed torque for driving the
pumps divided by turbines inertial moment
eq
J
; determines the changing rate of the turbines rotational
speed. By integrating the above equation, the rotational speed of the shaft can be calculated in each time
step.
The torque of each pump is calculated from equation (9).
In which H is the pump head and is calculated from equation (10) [26].
Where;

1 1 1
, , A B C
are Ovsianokovs experimental coefficients (dependant on the nominal volumetric flow
rate, nominal rotational speed and the geometrical characteristics of the pumps). The turbines efficiency is
also calculated similarly via equations (11) to (13). In these relations,
0 0 0
, , A B C
Are constant values [26].
The torque of GG or starter is calculated from equation (14).
In equation (14), sp
W
is the turbines specific work and is defined in equation (15).
2.1.4. STARTER
At this research, using basic equations of thermodynamics and also gas dynamics; the internal ballistic
variation of the starter has been simulated and the required data for engines transient phase of simulation,
such as pressure, specific heat coefficient fraction, and mass flow rate are calculated in each time step, using
equation (16) [27,28].
This equation relates the pressure change of the starter to the produced mass and the discharged mass.
Equation (16) demonstrates the starters operation in the nominal phase where there is either mass
production or exit flow from the nozzle. During the starters first transient phase, the nozzle is clogged by a
special sealing diaphragm therefore, there is no exit mass flow from the starter and the burned mass
accumulates in the chamber. In this condition the second term on the right hand side of equation (16) is set
to be zero. During starters shut down phase the first term on the right hand side (mass production term) is
omitted because there is no grain left for burning.
2.2. SIMULATION ALGORITHM OF A PROPULSION SYSTEM
The hydraulic circuit of the selected engine in this research is as shown in Fig.1. The engine is of open
cycle type with a single thrust chamber. The feeding system is of turbo pump type in which a single turbine
drives two pumps on a common shaft. A thrust regulating valve is installed on GGs oxidizer line and in
order to keep a constant mixture ratio, a stabilizer is positioned on the fuel line leading to GG. The main fuel
line of the CC has got a stabilizer too. The controlling elements of this engine have to keep the engines
parameters such as CCs mixture ratio and pressure within the desired range. The controlling elements of
this engine (regulator and stabilizer) are mathematically modeled and simulated so that by changing the
discharge coefficient factors of them, the engines operation would vary. In current simulation, the required
data for combustion product thermodynamic properties such as gas constant, specific heat ratio, temperature
and etc are provided via CEA combustion modeling software which has been linked to the engine simulator.
Therefore in each time step, the required data are calculated online which will prevent the complex process

1
Combustion Equilibrium Application
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 17-34 P a g e | 20

of data generation where the user had to run such programs for a wide range of pressure for each mixture
ratio, so that a data bank would be created to allow interpolation. Indeed in current simulator the user can
select his desired type of propellants and easily use the simulator without any other preparation which will
save time. On the other hand, the starter has also been modeled and simulated so that the user can enter the
physical and chemical properties of the starter and its solid grain. After the required data of this element has
been entered, the simulator would solve the equations so the required data for turbine equations would be
provided [27-29].
Generally in hydraulic systems, in order to solve the propellant flow in pipes and engine elements it is
necessary to know two of three unknown variables for each element, which are
1. Inlet pressure
2. Outlet pressure
3. Mass flow
In hydraulic circuits of liquid propellant engines; as the first element, the pressure of propellant tanks is
known. Initial pressure at the exit of each element is also known to be equal to atmospheric pressure.
Therefore after the main inlet valve is opened, the first element would have a specific inlet pressure (equal
to the pressure at lower part of each tank) and atmospheric pressure at exit. Using the governing equation
between the mass flow and pressure differential and also by knowing the required geometrical and discharge
coefficients, the mass flow can be calculated.
After the mass flow in the first element is calculated the pressure at the exit of this element should be
increased so that the propellant can flow to the next element but the problem is that, only the exit pressure of
the next element is known (atmospheric pressure) so there is still two unknown values, the inlet pressure and
the new mass flow. This trend is the same for the remaining elements of the engine. In order to solve this
problem, the method of trial and error has been used to find one of the remaining unknown variables of
engine.
For simulating the operation of a determined LPE, the simulator needs a set of inputs to be determined by
the user. As the first step, the user will have to introduce the hydraulic circuit of his desired LPE in a special
form so that the simulator can understand the number, type and position of the elements used in the engine.
For this purpose the engine is divided into some smaller sections.
In this research the engines hydraulic circuit is separated in two major sections
A) Fuel line
B) Oxidizer line
In each line there are three blocks
1. Block(I) : Elements from tank to the GG/CC branch
2. Block(II): Elements from branch to GG
3. Block(III) : Elements from branch to CC
The user will determine the elements used in each block by entering the codes attributed to each element.
The type of elements in a LPE is one of the following elements: Tank, pipe, valve (including start and cut
off valves and controlling valves) pump, Turbine, Starter, GG and CC (thrust chamber). In programming,
for each element a data type is allocated in which the required coefficients of that element should be
specified. These include pressure of tanks, frictional coefficients of the pipes, discharge coefficients of
valves and injectors, geometric specifications and nominal parameters of turbo pump assembly and
geometrical specifications of CC and GG. For computing the combustion properties of the gas in GG and
CC, the user will have to specify the type of engines propellant, (fuel and oxidizer). Then using CEA
combustion software which has been decoded and linked to the developed engine simulator, the combustion
properties of the selected propellants (required for equation (7)) are computed for each mixture ratio and
pressure online. The thermodynamic chemical properties required for equation (16) such as
, R
are obtained
from a solid motor combustion simulation program, GDL Prop.
The steps needed for simulation are described below.
1) The simulation is started by calling the starter subroutine in which, in each time step the data
required for equation (8) are obtained by solving equations (9) to (15). By equation (14) the torque of starter
21 | P a g e Mahyar Naderi Tabrizi, Seyed Ali Reza Jalali Chime, Hassan Karimi

is computed and by integrating equation (8) the rotational speed of the turbine shaft is calculated (the torque
of pumps are zero at the first time step).
2) The start command is transferred to start valves and propellants fill the lines of engine by the
algorithm described in 3.
3) The filling process of elements is as following the exit pressure of any element which is not filled is
equal to ambient pressure (in this case 1atm). In each time the pressure in the tanks is known but the exit
pressure of the first pipe (which runs between tank and start valve varies with time. In the first time step the
exit pressure of pipe 1 is equal to ambient pressure (1atm) which gives a known value of p A . Using
equation (1) the mass flow by which the elements are being filled is determined. For the next elements a
similar procedure is used with the difference that we should guess the exit pressure of the first pipe because
1 out
p is not known now. Using the guessed pressure, the subsequent elements are filled. If the exit pressure
of the element that is being filled is 1atm (with some tolerances) then we conclude that the guessed pressure
was correct else if the computed pressure differs from 1atm we have to change the guessed value for
1 out
p . In
order to minimize the required iterations to reach the correct pressure, the error term is computed and using
Newton-Raphson method, a new value for
1 out
p is calculated. With this procedure the rest of engine
elements are filled until the propellants reach the CC or GG. In this time fluid enters GG or CC with a
calculated m but with atmospheric pressure. It should be mentioned that the filling process is rather
complicated because in each time step, a finite value of propellant mass is transferred through pumps, so
special care should be taken into account that only a small volume of the element will be filled by fluid. The
rest of filling process will be completed in next time steps, that is; it may take several time steps for an
element to be filled and in each time step the pumps would have different rotational speeds. At the end of
this step, all of the engine elements are filled.
4) After all elements are filled, pressure of CC and GG are the check points for Newton Raphson loop.
This means; from now on the pressure at the exit of pipe 1 should be guessed so that the calculated pressure
from simulation process for GG and CC, matches the pressure calculated from equation (7). When the shaft
of the turbine rotates, the pumps impeller will also rotate and because of the suction produced, the mass
flow of engine and the head of pumps will be increased as mentioned in equation (10) but because of the
dynamic behavior of the equations, the mass flow is not known and must somehow be determined. In order
to determine the mass flow of engine, in each time step the pressure in the inlet of the start valve (valve
beneath the tanks) is guessed. With the known tank pressure and the guessed pressure in the inlet of the
valve 2, the mass flow rate can be calculated using equation (1). Now with the calculated mass flow we will
solve the flow in elements and check if the pressure in CC and GG match the value which is calculated by
equation (7). If the pressure didnt match we should change the guessed value of
1 out
p
using Newton
Raphson method.
5) The propellants that enter the GG or CC have a known mixture ratio. With the mixture ratio and the
entering pressure, the combustion gas properties required in equation (7) can be calculated. Using equation
(7) the pressure change
dt
dp
; is computed. Using Euler integration method the pressure for the next time step
will be calculated. Now For the next time step
1 out
p
must varied so that the fluid enters the GG and CC with
the calculated pressure for this time step.
6) After a couple of seconds (that is btw 0.5-0.8 sec) the propellants in the GG will be ignited and the
turbo pumps rotational speed will increase till the starter is shut down and GG enters its nominal operating
phase. The simulation is repeated until the simulation time is finished. The simulation flowcharts are as
following.
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 17-34 P a g e | 22

2.3. SIMULATION OF THE CONTROLLING ELEMENTS IN LPE
In a LPE the valves can be classified in two categories.
1) Controllable valves such as stabilizers, pressure or thrust regulators
Non controllable valves such as main inlet valves, cut-off valves, discharge valves.
Because this paper deals with controllable valves, the simulation method for modeling these types of
valves is being discussed.
2.3.1. REGULATOR
As it is visible in Fig.1 the thrust regulator is in the oxidizer line of the gas generator. This valve is
modeled as an orifice with adjustable discharge coefficient. The regulator will control the GGs oxidizer
mass flow so that the combustion pressure is within the nominal range. The pressure is checked with the
reference pressure in each time step and in case of pressure differentiation, the related subroutine is called
and the new discharge coefficient is found via Newton-Raphson method therefore the engine will always
operate in nominal range. The flowchart of this element is shown in Fig.5.
2.3.2. STABILIZER
Two stabilizers are installed on the fuel line of CC and GG. This valve will control the propellant mixture
ratio to always be within the desired range. The propellant mass flow is sensed in each time step in both
lines. The mixture ratio is calculated if there is any deviation from the nominal value, then using Newton-
Raphson method; the coefficient of the stabilizer is varied in order to maintain the allowable ratio. The
flowchart of this element is shown in 0Fig.6.
2.4. LIQUID PROPELLANT ENGINE SIMULATING SOFTWARE
In order to enhance the users interaction with the developed simulator, using the C-Sharp programming
software a graphical user interface has been written for the code. As it is obvious in the following figures,
the interface has four main tabs including: Fuel tab, Oxidizer tab, Subsystems tab and Simulation tab. In
each of the Fuel and Oxidizer tabs, the engines hydraulic line is divided into 3 parts. In each part the type of
elements (tank, pipe, valve, etc) can be selected and afterwards the required characteristic of each element
can be entered. For example according to Fig.1, in the fuel line from tank to first branch, the existing
elements are fuel tank, start valve, pipe, fuel pump and again a pipe. Therefore in the relevant tab the
number of elements is entered 5, and then by choosing the type of elements, the required characteristics are
entered. The other two tabs and also the oxidizer tab are filled with the same method. In the Subsystems tab,
the required data of the pumps, combustion chamber, gas generator and the starter is determined by the user
and finally in the Simulation tab the user can press the simulation button in order to execute the computer
program and view the related plots.
3. RESULTS
After entering the required data for the related LPE of this research, the figures presented at the end of
the paper were obtained for a special open cycle LPE study case. A brief table for the modeled engine
properties is as Table2.
4. DISCUSSION
Fig.11 describes the changes of engines turbo pump assembly shaft rotational speed versus time. As it
can be seen, at the first step (time less than 0.5 sec) the turbine is rotated via starters exhaust hot gases.
After the Gas Generator is activated (at t=0.5 sec), there will be a rise in turbine rotational speed and finally
after starter shutdown at t= 0.9sec, the speed will be reduced to its nominal rotating speed. Such a behavior
will affect the operating condition of the pumps, combustion chamber pressure and mixture ratio, thrust and
I
sp
, that is; these diagrams will have the same trend. It is evident that before time= 0.6s only the starter is
operating. At time between 0.5 and 0.9 GG and starter work together. After t=0.9s the starters operation is
terminated and only the GG operates. Fig.12 describes the pressure change in GG versus time and Fig.13
describes the mixture ratio change in engine due to the changes of Turbines rotational speed.
23 | P a g e Mahyar Naderi Tabrizi, Seyed Ali Reza Jalali Chime, Hassan Karimi

In order to verify the results achieved from the software, the simulator was executed for a special open
cycle liquid propellant engine. The experimental results obtained from reference [2, 30-31] and the
simulation results were both normalized and compared for some of the engines available parameters. The
results are demonstrated in the presented figures. From the achieved results for a special open cycle liquid
propellant engine It can be concluded that the method of modeling and the simulation program produces
reasonable physical results which satisfies the expected trends from an experimentally tested liquid
propellant engine behavior. Furthermore the simulator has the capability of simulating and solving various
open cycle LPEs that users enter. The developed software for simulating the open cycle liquid propellant
engines, prepares the application of the simulator for all type of users.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We like to acknowledge the Power and Propulsion Systems Engineering Research Center (PPSERC) and
Aerospace faculty of K.N Toosi University of Technology for their help and supports.

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[2] Karimi, H. and Nassirharand, A. (2006), Application of a simulation algorithm to a specific liquid propellant engine with
experimental verification, Aircraft Engineering & Aerospace Technology: International Journal, Vol. 78 No. 2, pp. 132-7.
[3] Karimi,H., Mohamadi,R.(2007), Modelling and Simulation of a Two Combustion Chambers LPE, Aircraft
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[8] Belyaev, E.N., Chevanov, V.K. and Chervakov, V.V. (1999),Mathematical Model of Working Process in Liquid Rocket
Engine, MAI, Moscow (in Russian).
[9] Kun, L. and Yulin, Z. (2000), A study on versatile liquid propellant rocket engine systems transients,
AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Proceedings of 36th Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Huntsville, Alabama, USA.
[10] Tarafder, A. and Sarangi, S. (2000), CRESP-LP a dynamic simulator for liquid-propellant rocket engines,
AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Proceedings of 36th Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Huntsville, Alabama, USA.
[11] Holt, K. and Majumdar, A. (2000), Numerical modeling and test data comparison of propulsion test article helium
pressurization system, AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Proceedings of 36th Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Huntsville,
Alabama, USA.
[12] Tishin, A.P. and Gurova, L.P. (1989), Liquid rocket engine modeling, Soviet Aeronautics, Vol. 32 No. 3, pp. 99-101.
[13] Liang, P.K. and Mason, Y. (1986), Comprehensive modeling of a liquid rocket combustion chamber, AIAA Journal of
Propulsion and Power, Vol. 2 No. 2.
[14] Habiballah, M., Lourme, D. and Pit, F. (1991), PHEDRE: numerical model for combustion stability applied to the Ariana
Viking engine, Journal of Propulsion and Power,Vol. 7 No. 3.
[15] Jiang, T.L. and Chiu, H-H. (1992), Bipropellant combustion in a liquid rocket combustion chamber, AIAA Journal of
Propulsion and Power, Vol. 8 No. 5, pp. 995-1003.
[16] Wang, T.S. (1993), Unified Navier-Stokes flow field and performance analysis of liquid rocket engines, AIAA Journal of
Propulsion and Power, Vol. 9 No. 5.
[17] Khosravi, A. and Mazaheri, K. (2000), Transient simulation of liquid rocket engines combustion chamber, Proceedings of
the First Conference of Aerospace Industries Organization on Scientific and Application Aspect, Tehran, pp. 41-5.
[18] Ivancic, B. and Mayer, W. (2002), Time and length scales of combustion in liquid rocket thrust chambers, AIAA Journal of
Propulsion and Power, Vol. 18 No. 2, pp. 247-53.
[19] McDaniel, D.M. and Snellgrove, L.M. (1992), Liquid propulsion turbomachinery model testing, Aerospace Engineering,
Vol. 12 No. 7, pp. 8-12.
[20] Chen, W.C. (1995), CFD as a turbomachinery design tool:code validation, paper presented at Fluid Engineering & Laser
Anemometry Conference, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York.
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 17-34 P a g e | 24

[21] Ovsiyanikov, B.V. (1983), Theory and Calculation of Feeding Systems, Mashinostroenie, Moscow (in Russian).
[22] Lin, T.Y. and Baker, D. (1995), Analysis and testing of propellant feed system, priming process, AIAA Journal of
Propulsion and Power, Vol. 11 No. 3, pp. 505-12
[23] Karimi, H. (1999), Dynamics and control of a liquid engine, PhD dissertation, Moscow Aviation Institute, Moscow.
[24] Nassirharand, A. and Karimi, H. (2005), Mixture ratio control of liquid propellant engines, Aircraft Engineering &
Aerospace Technology: International Journal, Vol. 77 No. 3, pp. 236-42.
[25] Mohinder L. Nayyar.(1999), Piping Handbook 7
th
edition, McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing, NewYork
[26] Kazlov, A.A.(1988), Control and feed systems elements of liquid propellant rocket engines, Mashinostroenie, Moscow.
[27] Jalali Chimeh, A.R.,Modeling and Simulation Of Apparent Velocity Regulation System master thesise in Aerospace
engineering in Khaje Nassire dine Toosi University of Technology (KNTU),Spetember 2010.
[28] M.Naderi Tabrzi,Modeling and Simulation Of Propllant Utilization System in LPEs master thesise in Aerospace
engineering in Khaje Nassir e dine Toosi University of Technology (KNTU),Spetember 2010.
[29] Jalali.S.A.R, Naderi.M, Karimi.H,(2009), Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of LPEs, paper presened at DSTC
Conference, 7th Oct, Malaysia.
[30] Karimi,H., Taheri, E.E.,(2006),"Simulation of the Internal Ballistics of A Liquid Propellant Engine Start System In
Comparison With Experimental Verification ", paper presented at European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics,
5-8th Sep., Netherland.
[31] Karimi,H., Mohamadi,R, and Taheri,E.E (2007), Dynamic Simulation And Parametric Study Of LPEs, IEEE , pp.219-244.



4.1. Tables
Table1. LPE elements
EL1-Oxid Tank EL10-Fuel Valve
EL2-Pipe EL11-Fuel Main CC Pipe
EL3-Oxid Pump EL12-CC Stabilizer Valve
EL4-Oxid Valve EL13-Turbine
EL5-Oxid Main CC Pipe EL14- Starter
EL6-Oxid GG Pipe EL15-Gas Generator
EL7-Fuel Tank EL16-Thrust Regulator
EL8- Pipe EL17-GG Stabilizer Valve
EL9- Fuel Pump EL18-Combustion Chamber

Table2- Major Characteristics of the simulated LPE
1 Number of Combustion Chambers
N2O4+UDMH Propellants
12.5-13.75 ton thrust Thrust (sl-vac)
270-300 s Specific Impulse (sl-vac)
80 bar CC Pressure
11.5 cm CC Throat Diameter
2.6 Propellant Mixture Ratio in CC
14.55 CC Nozzle Area Ratio
70 bar GG Pressure
3 cm GG Throat Diameter
0.18 Propellant Mixture Ratio in GG
14.55 GG Nozzle Area Ratio
10 cm Pumps Impeller Diameter
20 cm Turbines Impeller Diameter
21300 rpm Turbines Nominal Rotational Speed
Cold Gas Propellant Tank Pressurization





25 | P a g e Mahyar Naderi Tabrizi, Seyed Ali Reza Jalali Chime, Hassan Karimi

4.2. Figures


Fig.1 Modelled Engine Schematic

Fig.2 Mass flow Ccalculation in a Hydraulic System




Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 17-34 P a g e | 26


Fig.3 Main Programs Flowchart


Fig.4 Gas Generator Simulation Flow chart

27 | P a g e Mahyar Naderi Tabrizi, Seyed Ali Reza Jalali Chime, Hassan Karimi


Fig.5 Combustion Chamber Simulation Flow Chart



Fig.6 Thrust Regulator simulation Flowchart

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 17-34 P a g e | 28


Fig.7 Satabilizer Simulation Flowchart


Fig.8 LPE Simulator Interface

29 | P a g e Mahyar Naderi Tabrizi, Seyed Ali Reza Jalali Chime, Hassan Karimi


Fig.9 Oxidizer Tab


Fig.10 Main Combustion Chamber Tab


Fig.11 Turbine Rotational speed vs. time










Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 17-34 P a g e | 30



Fig.12 GG Pressure vs. time

\
Fig.13 CC mixture ratio vs. time


Fig.14 CCs normalized pressure comparison diagram









Normalized time
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
C
C
p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
Pcc_Simulation
Pcc_Experimental
31 | P a g e Mahyar Naderi Tabrizi, Seyed Ali Reza Jalali Chime, Hassan Karimi



Fig.15 GGs normalized pressure comparison diagram

Fig.16 Turbines normalized comparison diagram


Fig.17 Starters normalized pressure comparison diagram
Normalized time
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
G
G
p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
Pgg_Simulation
Pgg_Experimental
Normalized time
N
o
r
m
a
i
l
z
e
d
P
u
m
p
s
p
e
e
d
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
Pump speed _ Simulation
Pump speed _ Experimental
Normalized time
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
P
s
t
a
r
t
e
r
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Normalized Pstarter_ Simulation
Normalized Pstarter_Experimental
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 17-34 P a g e | 32



Fig.18 Starters Normalized mass flow comparison diagram


Normalized time
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
M
d
o
t
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Normalized Mdot _ Simulation
Normalized Mdot _ Experimental
33 | P a g e Mahyar Naderi Tabrizi, Seyed Ali Reza Jalali Chime, Hassan Karimi

4.3. Equations


2
eq
m K p = A
(1)
1
1 ( )
D t
eq
t
C A
K
A A
=


(2)
f l
P P P A = A +A
(3)
2
V
d
L
f P
2
f

= A
(4)
2
2
l
V
P k

A =

(5)
2
V
k P
2

= A

(6)
* f ox th
P dP RT
m m A
dt C V
(
= +
(

(7)
( ) ( ) GG St fuel pump oxid pump
eq
Tq Tq Tq Tq
d
dt J
e
+ +
=

(8)
p
gHm
Tq
eq
=

(9)
2
1 1 1 2
Q Q
A B ( ) C ( )
H
e e e
= + +

(10)
2
0 0 0
( ) ( )
turbine
ad ad
U U
A B C
C C
q = + +

(11)
) 60 / (e t
mean
D U =

(12)
sp ad
W C 2 =

(13)
sp
mW
Tq
q
e
=

(14)
( )
1
1
1
sp
W RT PR


(
=
(



(15)
( 1)
( 1)
0
2
( ) ( )
1
n o o
b b o o
o o
V dP
A aP A P
RT dt RT

+
-
=
+

(16)

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 17-34 P a g e | 34

Nomenclature


A
a constant that is experimentally
determined for solid starter
K
eq

equivalent discharge
factor
T
qst

Torque produced by the starter
exhausts acting on the turbine
A
cross section area ( )
2
m

L pipe length u tangential velocity
A
*

starters nozzle throat area( )
2
m

m
mass flow rate in pipe,
valve, or pump Kg / s
v liquid velocity in pipe or valve
A
th

CC throat cross section area( )
2
m

f
m

fuel mass flow rate, kg / s V chamber volume
A
1

Ovsianokovs experimental
coefficient
ox
m

oxidizer mass flow rate,
Kg / s
V
0
gas volume in the starter
B
1

Ovsianokovs experimental
coefficient
n
starter burn rate exponent
that is experimentally
determined,
(dimensionless)
W
sp
turbine specific work
C
1

Ovsianokovs experimental
coefficient
P
pressure in combustion
chamber or gas
generator, Pa
|

blade angle
C
ad
adiabatic speed coefficient P
0
starter total pressure, Pa

Specific heat ratio coefficient
C
*
characteristic speed PR
turbine expansion ratio,
(dimensionless)


liquid density
D pipe diameter Q
volumetric mass flow
rate
b


solid propellant density
D blade diameter R gas constant
q
Pump efficiency
F moody factor t time variable t 3.14
G Acceleration due to gravity T Temperature e
angular velocity of turbo-
pump shaft
H Pump head
T
q-fuel
pump

fuel-pump required
torque
P A
pressure drop due to a
combination of frictional and
geometrical losses
J
eq
equivalent moment of inertia
T
q-
Oxidiser
pump

oxidizer-pump required
torque
f
P A

pressure drop due to frictional
losses
K loss factor due to friction T
qGG

Torque produced by gas-
generator exhausts acting
on the turbine
l
P A

pressure drop due to
geometrical losses






Please cite this article as: M. N. Tabrizi, S. A. J. Chime, H. Karimi, (2013), Modeling And Simulation Of Open Cycle Liquid Propellant Engines, Science
and Engineering, Vol. 1(1), 17-34.




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Journal of Science and Engineering
Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 35-42

Online available since 2013/Apr/11 at www.oricpub.com
(2013) Copyright ORIC Publications

http://www.oricpub.com/journal-of-sci-and-eng

EVOLUTION OF STRUCTURAL DAMPING FOR CROSS-PLY
LAMINATE BY MODAL ANALYSIS

D. Bensahal
1
, M. N. Amrane
1
, F. Chabane
1
, O. Belahssen
2
, S. Benramache
2

1
Mechanics Department, Faculty of Sciences &Technology, University of Biskra, Algeria
2
Material Sciences Laboratory, Faculty of Science, University of Biskra, Algeria


Abstract
The work concerned exactly a structural damage of cross-ply laminate as function of
loading rate. In this paper also involves the effect of loading rate on the damping of the
composite. The calculation of laminate damping is performed by use of a strain energy
method. The modal analysis of the structure for different loading rates is based on the
analytical method used to solve the equation of free vibrations. The difference between
strain energies for both cases damaged and undamaged are calculated by the finite
element method. The structural damping of the beam is evaluated from these energies.
The result deduced from the damping by finite element analysis that the structural
damping increases when the loading rate becomes higher. This study shows clearly the
decrease of the frequencies when the loading rate increases; this should have high utility
as a decisive test for non-destructive damage detection.



1. INTRODUCTION
The increasing need for high-performance structures has stimulated
considerable research in the characterization of damping in advanced
composite materials. Helicopter rotor blades, turbine compressor blades
and space structure truss elements are examples of aerospace applications
of composites where damping properties are important. Damping is a
measure of the energy dissipation in any vibrating structure. The progress
has been achieved in the analysis and measurement of dynamic properties
of composite materials. For example, closed form solutions for dynamic
stiffness and damping properties of laminated plates and laminated beams
have been derived, and finite element methods have been used in both
macro mechanical and micromechanical modeling [1, 3]. Viscoelastic
materials combine the capacity of an elastic type material to store energy
with the capacity to dissipate energy. So, the use of an energy approach for
evaluating the material or structure damping is widely considered. In this
energy approach, the dissipated energy is related to the strain energy
stored by introducing a damping parameter [4]. The initial works on the
damping analysis of fibre composite materials were reviewed extensively
in review paper by Gibson and Plunkett [5] and Gibson and Wilson [6]. A
damping process has been developed initially by Adams and Bacon [7]
who sees that energy dissipation can be described as separable energy
dissipations associated to the individual stress components. This analysis
was refined in later paper of Ni and Adams [8]. The damping of
orthotropic beams is considered as function of material orientation and the
papers also consider cross-ply laminates and angle-ply laminates, as well
as more general types of symmetric laminates.
Received: 30 Mar 2013
Accepted: 09 Apr 2013

Keywords:
Structural Damping
Finite Element Method
Modal Analysis
Frequencies
Cross-Ply Laminate

Correspondence:
D. Bensahal
Mechanics Department,
Faculty of Sciences
&Technology, University
of Biskra, Algeria
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 35-42 P a g e | 36


The damping concept of Adams and Bacon was also applied by Adams and Maheri [9] to the investigation
of angle-ply laminates made of unidirectional glass fibre or carbon layers. The finite element analysis has been
used by Lin et al. [10] and Maheri and Adams [11] to evaluate the damping properties of free-free fibre
reinforced plates. These analyses were extended to a total of five damping parameters, including the two
transverse shear damping parameters. More recently the analysis of Adams and Bacon was applied by Yim
[12] and Yim and Jang [13] to different types of laminates, then extended by Yim and Gillespie [14] including
the transverse shear effect in the case of 0 and 90 unidirectional laminates. For thin laminate structures the
transverse shear effects can be neglected and the structure behavior can be analyzed using the classical
laminate theory.
The natural frequencies and mode shapes of rectangular plates are well described using the Ritz method
introduced by Young [15] in the case of homogeneous plates. The Ritz method was applied by Berthelot and
Safrani [16] to describe the damping properties of unidirectional plates. The analysis was extended to the
damping analysis of laminates [17]. In this study, we considered that there is the simplicity of calculations
while assuming that the structure is subjected of free vibration and undamped. After each fatigue cycle, we
have a new value of Youngs modulus as reported in Figure 1. Our assumption supposed that the material of
each beam studied is homogeneous and it established a relation between the results of Youngs modulus found
experimentally that will be consequently injected into the model which is simple basing on the finite element
method. The idea is to replacing the Youngs modulus found experimentally in the equations of finite element
method. Hence, we keep the same programs developed. This paper presents an evaluation of the structural
damping as function of loading rate using finite element method for cross-ply laminate C1.

2. MATERIAL
The laminate was prepared by hand lay-up process from SR1500 epoxy resin with SD2505 hardener and
unidirectional E-glass fibre fabrics of weight 300 (g/m2). Beam had a nominal width of 20 mm, were cured
at room temperature with a pressure of 30 kPa using vacuum moulding process, and then post-cured for 8h
at 80C in an oven. Beams had a nominal thickness of 2 mm with a volume fraction of fibres equal to 0.40.
The laminated beams with height lengths for each material are analyzed. The mechanical modulus of
elasticity of the material was measured in static tensile. Unidirectional composites have exceptional
properties in the fibre direction and mediocre properties perpendicular to the fibre directions. There are very
few situations where composites are used purely in a unidirectional configuration. In most applications there
will be some form of loading away from the direction of the fibres. In this situation, it is only the resin that
resists this load which has no reinforcement. Hence, composites structures are made by combining
unidirectional laminates in different directions to resists these loads as material C1. Many products in a
variety of industries are fabricated from composites, from fighter aircraft to bath tubs. There are more
examples in different industries including: Automotive and rail, boating, general engineering, aerospace,
sporting goods, civil engineering, domestic and medical. The mechanical characteristics of C1 material are
reported in table 1:

Table 1. Mechanical characteristics of composite material C1
Stacking Sequences [(0/90)s]
2

Youngs modulus (GPa) 14.51
Max load of rupture (KN) 20.020

The experimental Youngs modulus was obtained by using tensile cyclic tests. The applied load ratio is
10 % of maximum load of rupture or failure. The loading rate is the ratio of the load relative to the
maximum load failure. We divided the maximum force of rupture in ten equal parts (10 cycles), for each
cycle the load is increased by 10% of the maximum load failure. After each fatigue cycle, we have a new
value of Youngs modulus as reported in Figure 1. It established a relation between the results of Youngs
modulus found experimentally that will be consequently injected into the model which is simple basing on
the finite element method. The idea is to replacing the Youngs modulus found experimentally in the
equations of finite element method. Hence, we keep the same programs developed. Fig.1 shows the results
obtained for the Youngs modulus reduction as a function of cycle number or load rate.

37 | P a g e D. Bensahal, M. N. Amrane, F. Chabane, O. Belahssen, S. Benramache



Fig. 1. Stiffness reduction of cross-ply laminate C1as function of load rate.

3. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD IN THE DYNAMIC ANALYSIS
The flexural vibrations of beams are analyzed by the finite element method [20], using the stiffness
matrix and mass matrix of beam element with two degrees of freedom per node as shown in Fig.2, where:


Fig. 2. Beam element with four degrees of freedom.

E: the Young modulus.
I: the moment of inertia of the beam.
L: the length of the beam.
S: the section of the beam.
: the density.

(
(
(
(

=
2 2
2 2
3
e
L 4 L 6 L 2 L 6
L 6 12 L 6 12
L 2 L 6 L 4 L 6
L 6 12 L 6 12
L
I E
K


(1)

(
(
(
(

=
2 2
2 2
e
L 4 L 22 L 3 L 13
L 22 156 L 13 54
L 3 L 13 L 4 L 22
L 13 54 L 22 156
420
L S
M



(2)

The global matrix of mass and stiffness are obtained by using assembly method:

B
des
M
T
B M
B
des
K
T
B K
=
=


(3)
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 35-42 P a g e | 38


Where B is the Boolean matrix and K
des
and M
des
are unassembled matrix, they contain only elementary
matrices of mass and stiffness. The number of elements used in this study is 40 elements.

(
(
(

=
N
e
K 0
0
1
e
K
des
K



(4)

(
(
(

=
N
e
M 0
0
1
e
M
des
M



(5)

4. RESOLUTION OF EIGENVALUES PROBLEM
We have two cases where the structure is undamaged or damaged.
The equation of motion (undamped and free vibration)[23]:

( ) ( ) 0 t q k t q m = +
- -

(6)

The equation (6) can be written in matrix form:

| | | | { } 0 q K q M = +
)
`

- -

(7)

With q is the vector of degrees of freedom. For the first case [K] is the global stiffness matrix but for the
second case [K] = [K
D
]. Where [K
D
] is the global stiffness matrix with damage, that takes into account the
decrease in the rigidity of the structure when the loading rates change [20].
The general solution of equation (7) is:

{ } { }
t i
0
e q q
e
= (8)

By substituting the equation (8) in equation (7), we have:

| | { } | | { }
0
2
0
q M q K e = (9)

Then, the determinant must be zero:

| | | | 0 ) M
2
K ( det = e
(10)

There are many methods to calculate the eigenvalues; the most of these methods are to write the equation
(9) as follows:

| | { } { } X X H =
(11)

Where [H] is a positive and symmetric matrix, it is clear that if we write directly the equation (9) as:

| | | | { } { }
0
2
0
1
q
1
q M K
e
=


(12)

Where [K]
-1
is the inverse of the matrix [K], the symmetry property is not always preserved. Therefore, it
is necessary to write the matrix [K] using the Cholesky decomposition:

| | | | | |
T
L L K =
(13)

39 | P a g e D. Bensahal, M. N. Amrane, F. Chabane, O. Belahssen, S. Benramache


[L]
T
is the transpose of the matrix [L] and [L] is a lower triangular matrix. The equation (9) is written:

| | | | | | | | { } | | { }
0
2
0
T 1
q L
1
q L L M L
e
=


(14)

By writing equation (14) as similar form as equation (9):

| | | | | | | |
T 1
L M L H

=
(15)

{ } | | { }
0
q L X = (16)

2
1
e
=
(17)

5. EVALUATION OF STRUCTURAL DAMPING
The calculation of structural damping factors of modal energies for the first three modes of vibration of
the structure is done by evaluating the ratio of the strain energies of beam for damaged and undamaged cases
[20, 21].
The modal strain energy of the beam for the undamaged case is given by:

| | | | | | q K
T
q
2
1
n
U =

(18)

With:
[K]: Stiffness matrix;
[q]: Eigenvector of displacement.
The modal strain energy for damaged case is given by:

| | | | | |
D
q
D
K
T
D
q
2
1
nD
U =

(19)

With:
[K
D
]: Stiffness matrix (damaged case);
[q
D
]: Eigenvector of displacement (damaged case).
The structural damping coefficient [20] for different stages of damage (different loading rates) is given
by:
n
nD n
n
n
n
U
U U
U
U
= =
A
q
(20)

With U
n
and U
nD
are the modal strain energies for undamaged and damaged case.

6. Results
The modal analysis of the structure for different loading rates is based on the analytical method used to
solve the equation of free vibrations. The programming of this resolution method was performed under the
Matlab software. The figures 3, 4 and 5 show the frequencies obtained by the model for different loading rate.
The decrease in frequency since undamaged case (0% loading rate) which not subject to any cyclic loading
until damaged case (90% loading rate), shows the loss of stiffness of the materials C1 studied [16, 19]. The
decrease in frequency can be used also as a means of non-destructive control of composite materials. Simply,
we limit ourselves to the first three modes due to congestion of results. For the compute of the damaged
stiffness matrix is simulated by replacing the Youngs modulus of undamaged structure Eo by another
Youngs modulus derived from Figure 1 for example for the fifth cycle (for loading rate 50%) and ninth cycle
(for loading rate 90%).
For the material C1:
Eo
C1
= 14.51 GPa
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 35-42 P a g e | 40


- Loading rate 50%:
95 . 0 *
1 C
Eo
% 50
E 95 . 0
1 C
Eo
% 50
E
= =
- Loading rate 90%:
93 . 0 *
1 C
Eo
% 90
E 93 . 0
1 C
Eo
% 90
E
= =

Figures 3-5 provide information on the evolution of the first three modes of the structure under the action of
different loading rate and show also the frequencies obtained by the model. The steps to calculate them are:
First, we calculate the natural frequencies of the structure for different loading rate (10%-90%) by using
finite element method,
Comparing the natural frequencies obtained by the model for different loading rate (0%, 10% and 90%),
we observed that has been a decrease in frequency when the loading rate increases [18, 19] confirm the
decrease of the Youngs modulus shown in Figure 1. This is very important for the behavior of composite
materials during their service. This can be used as a control of loss of stiffness of the structure and
subsequently its life time.
The increase of structural damping indicates simply the maximum values it can attain, in the same way the
decrease of structural damping indicates the minimum values it can attain.


Fig. 3. Natural frequencies obtained by the model for the first mode of structure

Fig. 4. Natural frequencies obtained by the model for the second mode of structure
41 | P a g e D. Bensahal, M. N. Amrane, F. Chabane, O. Belahssen, S. Benramache




Fig. 5. Natural frequencies obtained by the model for the third mode of structure


Fig. 6. Evolution of structural damping as function of the load rate

Figure 6 reports the results deduced for the structural damping [22] by finite element analysis shows an
increase in damping between 1 % until 7% when the loading rate increases.

7. CONCLUSION
For the case of dynamic analysis, the finite element technique was used to calculate modal analysis in
composite structure. Of particular interest are the resulting modal parameters such as frequencies and
damping. The strain energy calculation is performed by using a finite element analysis of the vibrations of a
composite structure. Figure 6 give us information about the evolution of structural damping value for each
mode which is not constant and varies in load rate to another. The decrease in frequency of different loading
rates shows the loss of stiffness for the beam studied. The structural damping of the composite material can be
deduced by applying modeling to the flexural vibrations of free-clamped beams. The results deduced from the
damping by finite element analysis for the first mode shows that the evaluation of laminate damping takes
account the variation of the structural damping with load rate for the laminate beam C1. The damping begins
by cracks and leads to a loss of stiffness witch can be appreciable when the loading rate increases; this should
be taken into account in all analysis. The decrease in frequency can be considered as an important tool test for
damage detection.
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 35-42 P a g e | 42



REFERENCES

[1] Gibson, R.F. (1987). Dynamic mechanical properties of advanced composite materials and structures: a
review. Shock Vibration Digest, 19(7), pp.13-22.
[2] Johnson, C.D. & Kienholz, D.A. (1984). Finite element prediction of damping in structures with
constrained viscoelastic layers. AIAA, 20(9), pp.1284-1290.
[3] Hwang, S.J. & Gibson, R.F. (1987). Micromechanical modeling of damping in discontinuous fiber
composites using strain energy/ finite element approach. J. Eng. Mat. Tech., 109, pp.47-52.
[4] Berthelot, J.M. (1999). Composite materials, Mechanical behaviour and structural analysis. Springer,
New York.
[5] Gibson, R.F. & Plunkett, R.A. (1977). Dynamic stiffness and damping of fibre-reinforced composite
materials. Shock Vibration Digest, 9(2), pp.9-17.
[6] Gibson, R.F. & Wilson, D.G. (1979). Dynamic mechanical properties of fibre-reinforced composite
materials. Shock Vibration Digest, 11(10), pp. 3-11.
[7] Adams, R.D. & Bacon, D.G.C. (1973). Effect of fibre orientation and laminate geometry on the
dynamic properties of CFRP. J. Compos. Mater. , 7, pp. 402-408.
[8] Ni, R.G. & Adams, R.D. (1984). The damping and dynamic moduli of symmetric laminated composite
beams. Theoretical and experimental results. Compos. Sci. Technol., 18, pp. 104-121.
[9] Adams, R.D. & Maheri, M.R. (1994). Dynamic flexural properties of anisotropic fibrous composite
beams. Compos. Sci. Technol., 50, pp. 497-514.
[10] Lin, D.X., Ni, R. & Adams, R.D. (1984). Prediction and measurement of the vibrational parameters of
carbon and glass-fibre reinforced plastic plates. J. Compos. Mater. , 18, pp. 132-152.
[11] Maheri, M.R. & Adams, R.D. (1995). Finite element prediction of modal response of damped layered
composite panels. Compos. Sci. Technol., 55, pp. 13-23.
[12] Yim, J.H. (1999). A damping analysis of composite laminates using the closed form expression for the
basic damping of Poissons ratio. Compos. Struct., 46, pp. 405-411.
[13] Yim, J.H. & Jang, B.Z. (1999). An analytical method for prediction of the damping in symmetric
balanced laminates composites. Polymer Compos., 20(2), pp. 192-199.
[14] Yim, J.H. & Gillespie, Jr. J.W. (2000). Damping characteristics of 0 and 90 AS4/3501-6
unidirectional laminates including the transverse shear effect. Compos .struct., 50, pp. 217-225.
[15] Young, D. (1950). Vibration of rectangular plates by the Ritz method. J. Appl. Mech., 17, pp. 448- 453.
[16] Berthelot, J.M. & Sefrani, Y. (2004). Damping analysis of unidirectional glass and Kevlar fibre
composites. Compos. Sci. Technol., 64, pp. 1261-1278.
[17] Berthelot, J.M. (2006). Damping analysis of laminated beams and plates using the Ritz method.
Compos. Struct., 74, pp. 186-201.
[18] Whitworth, H.A. (1998). A stiffness degradation model for composite laminates under fatigue loading.
Compos. Struct., 40(2), pp. 95-101.
[19] Whitworth, H.A. (2000). Evaluation of residual strength degradation in composite laminates under
fatigue loading. Compos. Struct., 48, pp. 261-264.
[20] Amrane, M.N. & Sidoroff, F. (2011). Residual modal energy evaluating of fatigue damaged composite
structure. Mechanika., 17(1), pp. 45-49.
[21] Elmahi, A., Assarar, M., Sefrani, Y. & Berthelot, J.M. (2008). Damping analysis of orthotropic
composite materials and laminates. Composite: part B, 39, pp. 1069-1076.
[22] Hwang, S.J. & Gibson, R.F. (1991). The effect of three-dimensional states of stress on damping of
laminated composites. Compos. Sci. Techno., 41, pp. 379-393.
[23] Bensahal, D., Amrane, M.N. & Alloua, B. (2012). Comparison of the dynamic behavior of a
manipulator with two flexible arms. Ijsei, 1(10), pp. 20-24.



Please cite this article as: D. Bensahal, M. N. Amrane, F. Chabane, O. Belahssen, S. Benramache, (2013), EVOLUTION OF STRUCTURAL DAMPING
FOR CROSS-PLY LAMINATE BY MODAL ANALYSIS, Science and Engineering, Vol. 1(1), 35-42.





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Journal of Science and Engineering
Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 43-54

Online available since 2013/Apr/11 at www.oricpub.com
(2013) Copyright ORIC Publications

http://www.oricpub.com/journal-of-sci-and-eng

REMOTE SENSING SATELLITE DESIGN USING MODEL
BASED SYSTEM ENGINEERING

Mohammad Sayanjali
1
, Oldouz Nabdel
2

1
Dept. of Aerospace
Sharif University of Technology
Tehran, Iran
2
Dept. of Aerospace
Amirkabir University of Technology
Tehran, Iran


Abstract
In this paper, remote sensing (RS) satellite conceptual design phase, by utilizing model
based system engineering method and system modeling language (SysML) is studied.
The RS satellite captures image in two visual and IR spectrum, in low Earth orbit.
Block definition diagrams (BDD) are created to specify physical architectures for
systems and subsystems. By defining parametric diagram (PD) for system sizing and
efficiency measuring, trade-off study is implemented. Two parameters are defined to
compare different architectures; total image, could be captured in satellite lifetime, and
cost per image scene. Design parameters considered in trade-off study are: Image
Resolution, Orbit Altitude, Lifetime, Solar Array and Battery Type, Number of Ground
Stations, AODCS architecture (with or without propulsion), Imaging Time in each orbit
and etc.


1. INTRODUCTION
Conceptual design includes definition of physical architecture, interfaces,
functional requirements and allocation of design budgets (mass, power
and data processing). Furthermore in Conceptual phase, designer must
select an architecture among different architectures based on defined
parameters such as Measure of Effectiveness (MOE) or Measure of
Success (MOS). Model based system engineering (MBSE) based on
SysML language is a new method of system engineering against
document based system engineering. MBSE contrasts with
document-based approaches by stating that they aim to develop the
design through model elaboration rather than document elaboration [1].
The problem with most complex system is that of integrating information
across many large teams. As designs grow and change, ripple effects
develop and maintaining documentation a Sisyphean task. On the other
hand, a major drawback of a document based approach is due to inherent
difficulties in maintaining the consistency and validity of the documents,
provided by different design teams, while at MBSE it is possible to
maintain a good synchronization between system requirements and the
evolving design. Plus, variant system design options and the quality of
the evolving design can be checked using the developed system model
[2].
Received: 17 Mar 2013
Accepted: 03 Apr 2013

Keywords:
Model Base System Engineering
Spacecraft Conceptual Design
SysML
Trade-off Study

Correspondence:
Mohammad Sayanjali


Department of Aerospace
Sharif University of
Technology
Tehran, Iran

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 43-54 P a g e | 44


In this method, several defined diagrams model process of conceptual design. Block Definition
Diagram (BDD) defines physical architecture of system [3], Internal Block Diagram (IBD) defines
mechanical or electrical interface between elements or subsystem of system. Requirement Diagram (RD)
defines requirements, tractability and test case that verify each requirement.
Parametric Diagram (PD) defines equation that used for design budget allocation and provides
appropriate tool for trade-off study.
In this paper, remote sensing satellite conceptual design process modeled in MagicDraw 16.6. RS satellite
design parameters include the following: orbit altitude, solar array and battery type, payload data
compression factor and etc. In Microsoft Excel, design scenarios and variables are defined in rows and
columns, sequentially. Using equations defined in parametric diagrams, mass, power and data storage
capability of each subsystem are computed. Using cost estimation relationship (CER) for small satellites [4]
total cost of satellite is computed. By calculating total image captured in satellite lifetime, measure of
effectiveness (cost per image) is computed to compare different designed scenarios.

2. REMOTE SENSING SATELLITE DESIGN PROCESS
2.1. Overall Conceptual Design Process
In this section, the process used for RS satellite design is introduced briefly. Each design has numbers of
input information or input design parameters which based on them, other parameters extracted. Then, the
extracted parameters are input for design of below subsystem. On the other hand, each design, have some
constraints or specification that bound design domain. One of mission constraints is capturing images in two
visual and infrared spectrums in low earth orbit.
Input design variables within various values for trade-off study are: Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) or
Resolution, Orbit Altitude, Global Coverage Time, Revisit Time, Number of Ground Station and Allowed
Altitude Decent, payload data compression factor, solar array, battery type and lifetime.
Two parameters, global coverage time and orbit altitude h , define swath based on (1)

2
GlobalCoverageTimeOrbitRevolutionPerDay
earth
R
Swath
t
=

(1)

Revisit time
m
and orbit altitude define roll angle attitude maneuver (along x axis, directed toward
satellites linear velocity) by (2)

3
2
1 1
4 cos( )
2
earth
E ES
d
d
maneuver
a
R Latitude
FOV
m Altitude
FOV FOV
t
t t
| |

|
\ .
=

u =

(2)

Swath is related to optical payloads field of view,
optic
FOV , which is input parameter for payload design.
Using orbit altitude and diffraction limited diameter relation, diameter of Optical payload,
optic
D , can be
sized. Decision about optical diameter is not only based on diffraction limited, but also considered Aperture
diameter obtained from detector noise limited and Photon noise limited [5]. After computation of optical
diameter, mass and consumed power of payload estimated using relation defined in payload section design
(3).
6.532
3.8598
D
payload
M e =

(3)

Utilizing statistical method that relate total satellite mass and power to payload mass and power
respectively, total mass (4), power, dimension and satellites moment of inertia (MOI) could be calculated.
This information is input parameters for AODCS, Power subsystem and etc. As an example, mass relation
is:

45 | P a g e Mohammad Sayanjali, Oldouz Nabdel


3.15 15.7
satellite payload
M M = +

(4)
In AODCS design two architectures are considered:
A
1
- Propulsion+ Reaction Wheel + Magnetic Torquer
A
2
- Reaction Wheel + Magnetic Torquer
If computed descent altitude (5), is larger than allowed altitude descent, A
1
architecture would be selected.
In this configuration propulsion subsystem used for orbit correction, reaction wheel momentum dumping
and attitude maneuver. In A
2
architecture, reaction wheel is used for both attitude control and maneuver, and
Magnetic torquer is used for reaction wheel momentum dumping.
One of payloads output parameters is data rate (DR). This parameter is input for communication and
C&DH subsystem. Using payload DR, Housekeeping (HK) data rate, communication time
c
T (5) and
number of ground station, mass and power of communication subsystem can be calculated.

( )
3
1
2
sin sin
com c
c c h c
p
r
T
r
R
o

o | | c

=
| |
= |
|
\ .

(5)

In (5),
c
| is nadir angle to effective communication horizon,

h
| is nadir angle to horizon and

c
c is nadir
angle reduction to avoid communication problems.
Similarly using DR_Payload, DR_HK, imaging time in each orbit (design parameter) and number of
ground station, mass and power of data storage and CPU can be estimated. Detailed description is brought in
the following section.
Power that solar array should be generated can be set equal to total satellite power estimated from
statistical relationship or from summation of AODCS, Payload, communication and C&DH power. By
selecting type of solar array, one of design parameters, area of solar array can be computed. If computed
area is larger than surface of satellite then deployable solar panel must be selected rather than body-mounted
solar panel. Structure mass computed using proportional relation between total satellite mass and structure
mass. Thermal Subsystem mass is considered proportional to radiator area which computed using
heat-balance equation.

2.2. SysML Diagram
Block definition diagram (BDD) of satellite systems general structure is shown in Fig. 1. Note that in the
figure physical architecture of Satellite system is shown. In some of the figures, attribute of block is
suppressed. In Fig. 2 one of parametric diagrams used in satellite system is shown.


Fig.1. BDD of Satellite System
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 43-54 P a g e | 46


3. SUBSYSTEM DESIGN EQUATIONS
In this section, conceptual design of satellite subsystem is explained briefly.
1

3.1. Payload
The Earth observation sensor is sized and configured for imaging in the visual (
6 6
: 0.3 10 to 0.75 10 V m


)
and infrared
6 6
: 0.75 10 to 100 10 IR m


spectrum. Physical architecture of payload is shown in Fig. 3. As
shown in Fig. 3 payload system consists of Optical Unit, Data Storage Unit and Cryogenic cooler that used
for imaging in IR spectrum. Calculation of apertures diameter depends on whether the dominating system
noise is internally generated detector- noise or externally generated photon-noise. The two types are often
called detector-noise limited (dnl) and photon- noise limited (pnl) respectively. Diameter obtained from dnl
and pnl computed as follows:

( ) ( )
( )
1/ 2 1/ 2
2
*
4 /
arctan
e
s n d
dnl
d
em
S N f A
D
d
F D
f
o
=
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .

(6)

( )
2
2
4 /
arctan
e p
s
pnl
d
em i
S N c c
D
d
F T
f

=
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .

(7)


Fig.2. Parametric Diagram for "Satellite System" Block

In (6) and (7) parameters define as follows:
d
A , Area of detector,
d
d , diameter or width of detector, f ,
sensor focal length,
*
D , detectivity figure of merit, , payload wavelength and
i
T , integration time.
Integration time has proportional relation with dwell time (8).

( ) /
i d
d
d
pix
T T
h d f
T
VN
=
=

(8)

1
Most of equations of this part are based on reference [5].
47 | P a g e Mohammad Sayanjali, Oldouz Nabdel


is degree of overlap between pixels on the ground. 1 =

indicates that there is no overlap and 0.5 =
indicates there is a 50% overlap between pixels. V is satellite linear velocity in orbit.


Fig.3. BDD of Imaging Payload

Payload data rate is a parameter that should be computed in conceptual design for sizing C&DH and
Communication Subsystem. Instantaneous detector field of view computed by (9)

tan
d
d
h
f
u
| |
A =
|
\ .

(9)

Number of pixels in pushbroom scanning method is equal to

pix
FOV
N
u
=
A

(10)

And finally payload data rate computed as follows:

/
payload pix SF i
DR N sbe T =

(11)

Where
SF
e , sensor frame efficiency or time fraction for data transmission is typically in the range of
0.9-0.95%, b number of bit per sample and
s
is number of sample per pixel which typically has values 1.4
to 1.8.

3.2. AODCS
In this study, AODCS architecture is the common one that utilized in remote sensing missions. In most
RS satellites, three-axis stabilized method with combination of reaction wheels (RWs), magnetic torquers
(MTs) or thrusters are used. In trade-off study, implemented in the software, two architectures are
considered (actuator architecture):
First Configuration: Reaction Wheels + Magnetic Torquers
RWs used for both attitude control and maneuver, and MTs used for momentum dumping.
Second Configuration: Reaction Wheels + Thrusters+ Magnetic Torquers
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 43-54 P a g e | 48


RWs used for attitude control, Thrusters used for attitude maneuver, momentum dumping and orbit
correction, and MTs used for specified modes.
If altitude descent of satellite is larger than allowed descent value then second architecture is used. In the
following, equations used for sizing of actuators in both configurations are explained.
Satellite altitude descent time computed by:

( )
2
/ 2 /
h c D SC
T h T C A M r t
A
= A

(12)

Where
c
h A is allowed descent value. If
h
T
A
is smaller to satellites lifetime then propulsion subsystem
would be included.
In first AODCS configuration, reaction wheel sized for attitude maneuver because the torque required for
attitude maneuver is larger than the one for attitude control (disturbance rejection).
In second AODCS configuration reaction wheel is sized for disturbance rejection, or attitude control, and
thruster sized for reaction wheel momentum dumping and attitude maneuver. Reaction wheel mass is equal

2
2 /
rw AD rw rw
M r t =

(13)

Where
rw

, angular acceleration of the reaction wheel,


AD
t
, aerodynamic torque and
rw
r
is reaction
wheel radius. Common reaction wheel radius range is 0.1-0.25 m. Time between reaction wheel momentum
dumping or time that reaction wheel will be saturated is equal to

max
/
md rw rw
T e
A
=

(14)

max
rw
e is maximum angular velocity, about 6000 rpm
( )
2
6.28 10 rad/sec . Power required to accelerate each
reaction wheel is equal to

2
rw rw rw md
P I T
A
=

(15)

In the following part, propellant mass and thrust force are calculated for both reaction wheel momentum
dumping and attitude maneuver. Thrust force for momentum dumping calculated by

max
/
rw
Th md
b Th
H
F
T l
=

(16)

Where
b
T
, burn time per thruster pulse in sec, is between 0.02 and 0.1 sec and
Th
l
is distance from satellite
principal axes to thruster. Total propellant used for momentum dumping is equal to

max
/
.
lifeTime
rw
p md
sp Th md
T
H
M
gI l T
A
=

(17)

Thrust force level and propellant mass for one attitude maneuver computed by

/ 2
/
/
4
Th Maneuvr
maneuver
Th Maneuver b
p maneuver
sp
F
It
F T
M
I g
u
=
=

(18)
49 | P a g e Mohammad Sayanjali, Oldouz Nabdel


Propellant mass needed for orbit correction depends on allowable altitude descent and mission life time.
Number of orbit correction maneuvers can be written as follows:

missionLife
orbitCorrection
h HC
T
N
T T
A
=
+


(19)


HC
T
is time in the Hohmann reboosting transfer. Propellant mass depends on total V A which is needed for
altitude correction using Hohmann transfer method.
For a typical thruster system, the propellant tank mass is 5-15% of the propellant mass and propellant
management system has 20-30 % of the propellant tank mass.
Fixed architecture for determination part is considered. Star tracker, Gyroscope, Sun sensor and
magnetometer used as attitude sensors. The Star tracker provides a high accuracy. The gyroscope is added to
give the AODCS system a high accuracy attitude reference, in the time gap between star observations.
Frequently, gyroscope is referred as inertial sensor, and Star tracker, Sun sensor and magnetometer are
referred as reference sensors. The mass and power for sensors are given as independent input variables.


Fig.4. BDD of AODCS subsystem

Block definition diagram of AODCS subsystem is shown at Fig. 4. Parametric diagram used for reaction
wheel sizing in architecture 1 is shown in Fig. 5.


Fig.5. Parametric Diagram for reaction wheel sizing

3.3. Power Subsystem
The Power subsystem includes solar panels, a battery unit, a power control unit (PCU), a
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 43-54 P a g e | 50


regulator/converter unit and power wiring. Mass budgets of power subsystems elements computed as
follows.
The power should be generated by solar array computed by (20)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
max max max
/ / /
sa ec ec SBS d ec SS ec
P P T e P T T e T T
(
= +


(20)
Area of solar array is function of spacecraft power,
sa
P
, the power produced by array at spacecraft end of
life
EOL
P and solar cell packing density,
cs
q
.
( ) /
sa sa EOL cs
A P P q =

(21)
EOL
P is a function of the power, can be generated by the solar array per unit area at spacecraft beginning of
life
BOL
P
, and the remaining efficiency of solar cells at spacecraft end of life
EOL
e
which is function of type
of solar cells annual degradation and mission life time. For Silicon (Si) cells employed in LEO orbits, the
worst-case value for annual degradation,
/ s y
e A
, equals to 3.75% and for Gallium-Arsenide (GaAs) cells the
worst case value equals to 2.75%. Finally proportional relation between solar array mass and its area, as a
function of solar cell type is defined.
Required battery capacity
B
C to power all spacecraft system during the eclipse time can be calculated as:
max
/
B
B ec ec l avg BS
C P T DoDEP e =

(22)
Battery depth of discharge (DoD) range is between 40% to 60% for NiH2 batteries, and between 10% to
20% for NiCd batteries. In (22),
B
avg
EP is average discharge level of the batteries which assumed constant for
both battery types. Finally battery mass computed with equation:
B
BAT B avg E
M C EP _ =

(23)
E
_ , inverse specific energy range is 1/25 to 1/40 for NiH2 and 1/45 to 1/60 for NiCd batteries.
Trade-off study for this subsystem includes type of solar cell, Type of battery, DoD and
E
_
for each
type of batteries. Block Definition Diagram (BDD) for power subsystem is shown in Fig. 6.


Fig.6. BDD of Power Subsystem

3.4. Communication Subsystem
The communication subsystem consists of transmitter/receiver units, filters/switches/diplexers, and
51 | P a g e Mohammad Sayanjali, Oldouz Nabdel


uplink and downlink antenna (Fig. 7).


Fig.7. BDD of communication subsystem

The communication system is sized to dump, during available communication time over any ground
station, the payload data and housekeeping data stored on the data storage system. Total data rate for
communication system equals to

( )
payload HK
c ca cb
DS DS
DR
T T T
+
=
+

(24)

payload
DS is computed in payload subsystem design. In the above equation,
ca
T is the time to set up
communication (set 30 sec).
cb
T
is the buffer time at the end of the communication segment (set 30 sec).
Diameters of uplink and downlink antenna are design parameters that included in the scenario defined in
Excel worksheet for trade-off analysis. Antenna gain is computed using (25)

2 2 2
/
a a c
G D t e =

(25)

a
e
is figure of merit between 0 to 1 and
c

is communication wavelength. The power required by


communication subsystem calculated using Link antenna as follows:

0
/
T B
COM b S c l l s a r T
P E c t DR LG L L G N e =

(26)

Where
b
E
, received communication energy per bit and
0
N
, is communication system noise density.
s
L
,
space loss,
l
L , transmitter to antenna line loss and
T
e , is transmitter efficiency.
0
/
b
E N is another design
variable in communication subsystem design which should be between 5 to 10.
Mass of transmitter has proportional relation to transmitter power. Its assumed a proportional relation
between antenna mass and its diameter.

3.5. Data Storage and Processing Subsystem
The data processing and data storage (DP & DS) system is dimensioned to store and process the data
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 43-54 P a g e | 52


flows generated by the payload and the satellite housekeeping system. The DS&DP consists of a data
processing unit (CPU) and a data storage unit (DS).
Computing mass and power of CPU, assumed a proportional relation between mass, power and the total
number of instructions that need to be handled by the onboard CPU per second. Parametric diagram for
calculation of mass and power of CPU is shown in Fig. 8.
On-board processing compression of sensor data is a design variable that included in scenario for
trade-off study. Suggested value for compression factor is 50% to 90%. The data storage system (DS) is
sized to store HK and payload data between the time data is being generated and the time it can be
downloaded to ground station. In the following equation,
GS
T
A
is the time gap between download and
C
T
is
the time of the download.

( )
% payload payload GS T
HK HK C GS
DS DR K T
DS DR T T
u
A
A
=
= +

(27)
Equations for mass and power estimation of data storage part are as follows

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
/
/
SS SS SS SS SS
DS F F inc inc
SS SS SS SS SS
DS F F inc inc
P P DS DS DS P
M M DS DS DS M
= +
= +

(28)

In above equation, DS , total data storage,
SS
DS
P
, solid state data storage power and
SS
DS
M
, solid state
data storage mass are computed and other parameters are constant.


Fig.8. Parametric Diagram for CPU Sizing

3.6. Thermal
A satellite contains many components that will function properly only if they are maintained within
specified temperature range. Thermal subsystem accounts on average for only 6% of a spacecraft's dry mass.
A satellite thermal design is highly dependent on the mission class and attitude stabilization type.
All of thermal subsystem architectures contain radiators. Radiators are sized for the hottest conditions.
The heat-balance equation can be written as follows [6]:

sin( )
A
rad s
T A AI P co q o u = +

(29)

53 | P a g e Mohammad Sayanjali, Oldouz Nabdel


In (29) parameters define as follows:
s
I solar intensity, u solar aspect angle, A area of radiator, o

Stefan-Boltzmann constant, o absorptivity of the radiator and c emissivity of radiator. The area of the
radiator, and consequently its mass, is proportional to the power dissipation

4
sin( )
S
P
A
T I co q o u
=


(30)

To first order it is considered the mass of the radiator to be proportional to
BOL
P


1 rad BOL
M k P =

(31)

It is also assumed that the rest of the thermal subsystem mass scales with the mass of the radiator

2 thermal BOL
M k P =

(32)

For an active thermal control subsystem, values of
2
K , reflect realistic thermal control subsystem mass,
range between 0.02 and 0.035 kg/W.

3.7. Structure
The function of spacecraft structure is to provide mechanical support to all subsystems within the
framework of assumed configuration. Besides, it satisfies the subsystem requirements, such as alignment of
sensors, actuators, antennas, etc. and system requirements for launch vehicle interfaces and integration.
Spacecraft structure is a major contributor to the spacecraft dry mass and accounts for 21% of its dry mass
[6].

4. SATELLITE PARAMETRIC COST MODELING
Parametric cost modeling is a series of mathematical relationships that relates satellite cost to physical,
technical and performance parameters that are known to strongly influence satellite costs. The basis for the
relationships is a database of actual costs and technical parameters for several satellites. Parametric cost
modeling is one of the three typical ways to estimate costs of future systems, the other two are engineering
buildup and analogy [7]. The cost estimation relationships (CER), used in this study are from [4]. In the
reference, cost of each subsystem is computed using parameters related to the subsystem. For example
payload cost is computed using (33).

0.562
( )
356,851
payload Visible Light Sensor
C D =

(33)

Where
D
is optical diameter (meter) and the cost is based on FY00$K.

5. TRADE-OFF STUDY
As mentioned before, purpose of this study is trade-off analysis of remote sensing satellite design. Design
parameters, mentioned in the paper context, mathematical calculation outputs, defined in parametric diagram,
and MOE are written in Microsoft Excel software. MagicDraw reads input design parameters from Excel
worksheet and writes computed parameters in the same excel file. As shown in Fig. 9, each row defines a
unique design scenario and each column contains a design parameter.

6. CONCLUSION
In this paper, Model Based System Engineering (MBSE) implemented for RS satellite design. An
advantage of this method is its capability to survey various architectures and values for design parameters.
The trade-off study is an important task in conceptual design phase according to ECSS. Using MBSE can
perform less effort than document based system engineering. Moreover, by modeling total system in a
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 43-54 P a g e | 54


model, trace of changes and interfaces between subsystems become easier. In future by linking MagicDraw
with STK software, parameters related to orbital dynamics such as communication time, altitude descent and
etc. can be computed more precisely. Noting that creation of block definition diagrams, parametric diagrams
and etc. are time consuming task but after creation of a model in the software, system engineering task
becomes easier and furthermore, it can be explore large domain of design solution.


Fig.9. Excel Worksheet for Trade-off Study

REFERENCES
[1] Cole, B. & Donahue, K. (2010). Piloting Model Based Engineering Techniques for Spacecraft Concepts
in Early Formulation. INCOSE.
[2] Qamar, A., & Wikander, J. (2009). Designing Mechatronic Systems, a Model-based Perspective, an
Attempt to Achieve SysML-Matlab/ Simulink Model Integration. IEEE/ASME International
Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, pp.1306-1311.
[3] Weilkiens, T. (2006). Systems Engineering with SysML/UML, Modeling, Analysis, Design. London:
Elsevier, 2006.
[4] Larson, W. J., & Wertz , J., (2005). Space Mission Analysis and Design. London: Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 2005.
[5] Oxnevad, K. I.,(1996). A Total System Analysis Method For The Conceptual Design of Spacecraft : An
Application to Remote Sensing Imager System. PhD Dissertation: Old Dominion University, 1996.
[6] Saleh, J. (2002). Spacecraft Design Lifetime. Journal of Spacecraft and Rocket, Volume(39), No.2. pp.
244-257.
[7] Lao, N. Y. (1998). Small Satellite Cost Model, Version 98 InTRO. LosAngles: The Aerospace
Corporation, 1999.








Please cite this article as: M. Sayanjali, O. Nabdel, (2013), Remote Sensing Satellite Design Using Model Based System Engineering, Science and
Engineering, Vol. 1(1), 43-54.





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Journal of Science and Engineering
Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 55-66

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INERTIAL NAVIGATION ACCURACY INCREASING
USING REDUNDANT SENSORS

Mahdi Jafari, Jafar Roshanian
Aerospace Department, Khageh Nasir Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


ABSTRACT
The inertial instruments can achieve high accuracy for long periods of time only by
redundancy. Redundant inertial measurement unit is an inertial sensing device
composed by more than three accelerometers and three gyroscopes. This paper analyses
the performance of redundant inertial measurement unit and their various sensors
configurations. By suitable geometric configurations it is possible to extract the
maximum amount of reliability and accuracy from a given number of redundant
single-degree-of-freedom gyroscopes or accelerometers. This paper gives particularly
attractive configurations of four, five and six sensors. These combinations are capable
of functioning with any three sensors, of detecting a malfunction with any four, And of
isolating a malfunction with any five. In contrast, arrangements with redundant sensors
whose input axes are parallel to only three orthogonal axes require five sensors to detect
and nine sensors to isolate a malfunction. The sensors configurations shown not only
minimize system error when all sensors are operable, but when all but three have
malfunctioned as well the reliability and accuracy of these redundant configurations are
compared to a conventional unit of three orthogonal instruments.

INTRODUCTION
Redundant sensors can provide highly accurate sensor data and also
reconfigure sensor network systems if some sensors failed. These create
the fundamentals for the design of fault-tolerant navigation systems and
the achievement of reliability and integrity of inertial navigation systems.
Overall navigation improvement is to be expected as there is more input
information. Through increased redundancy we can obtain noise
reduction in the navigation output parameters. In [1, 2] a comprehensive
analysis of the optimal spatial configuration of sensors for fault detection
applications is provided together. In addition, the performance for
fail-isolation systems in case a sensor is removed due to failure. Using
multiple sensors over a single sensor, We can improve the accuracy of
acquired information about an object have been recognized and
employed by many engineering disciplines ranging from applications
such as a medical decision-making aid system to a combined navigation
system [3]. Weis and Allan presented a high-accuracy clock with a
month error of one second through combining three inexpensive wrist
watches with month errors of 40 seconds in 1992 [4]. Actually this
technology used heterogeneous sensor data fusion to improve the
accuracy. Recently, some researchers have begun to take the similar idea
to improve the accuracy of sensor. Bayard combined four inexpensive
gyroscopes to form a virtual sensor with higher accuracy output, and
called this technology virtual gyroscope [5]. In the virtual gyroscope
the random noise of the gyroscope was estimated by using the Kalman
filtering for the further compensation, thus its accuracy was improved.
Received: 16 Mar 2013
Accepted: 11 Apr 2013

Keywords:
Inertial Navigation
Fault-tolerant
Optimal Configuration
Redundant Sensor
Accuracy Increasing

Correspondence:
Mahdi Jafari
KNTU University of
technology, Tehran, Iran

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 55-66 P a g e | 56


The correlation between the sensors was used to establish the covariance matrix of the system random
noise for filtering computation and better accuracy improvements. Lam proposed a very interesting concept
to enhance the accuracy of sensors via dynamic random noise characterization and calibration [6, 7]. The
first compensation uses external aiding sensors data such as GPS sensors, thus the high noise drift errors
such as bias, scale factor, and misalignment errors inherently existing in MEMS sensors will be eliminated.
The second compensation uses signal isolation and stochastic model propagation to dynamically monitor
changes and identify random noise parameters of MEMS inertial sensors such as angular random walk,
angular white noise and rate random walk, etc. Through analyzing the current various multi-sensor fusion
methods, we find that these approaches could be improved further in several ways for better accuracy
improvements. In the virtual gyroscope, Bayard established the covariance matrices of process noises and
measurement noises separately for the Kalman filtering.
The use of redundant inertial measurement units for navigation purposes is not new. From the very early
days of the inertial technology, the inertial navigation community was aware of the need and benefits of
redundant information. However, the focus of the research and development efforts was fault detection and
isolation (FDI). In the early days, the idea was to make use of the redundancy in order to support fault-safe
systems. A fault-tolerant system is able not only to detect a defective sensor, but also to isolate it. After
isolating a defective sensor, the system may keep working as a fault-tolerant or a fault-safe system
depending on the number of remaining sensors. By means of voting schemes [11], it can be shown that a
minimum of four sensors are needed to devise a fault-safe system and a minimum of five to devise a
fault-isolation one. Sensor configuration for optimal state estimation and optimal FDI was, as well, a topic
of research in the early works.
More recent results on the use of redundant inertial sensors for FDI can be found in [13] and [10]. The
former is mainly concerned with the use of skewed redundant configurations for unmanned air vehicles
while the latter focuses in guidance, navigation and control of underwater vehicles. The two references are
good examples of the wide range of applications for skewed redundant configurations that are currently
under research. The clustered sensor has different configurations. Two approaches to the configuration of a
redundant inertial measurement unit (IMU) system have been suggested in the past.
One is an orthogonal configuration shown in Figure 1(a) where the sensing axes of redundant inertial
sensors are orthogonal or parallel with respect to the body axes. In the orthogonal configuration, the inertial
measurement sensed by one sensor mounted on one axis is independent of other measurements sensed by
other sensors mounted on other axes. Therefore, the orthogonal IMU measurements are decoupled along the
orthogonal axes.
The other uses a non-orthogonal configuration relative to the body axes shown in Figure 1(b),
referred to as skewed redundant IMU (SRIMU) configurations. In a non-orthogonal configuration,
the measurement sensed by one sensor can be decomposed into three components along the
orthogonal axes, red dash arrows shown in Figure 1(b). Therefore, the measured states are coupled
with each other in the SRIMU measurements. This nature allows fewer sensors to be used in an
SRIMU configuration in order to achieve system performance equivalent to the orthogonal IMU
system.
Although the orthogonal IMU system is a conventional configuration, it is not the most efficient way to
exploit the benefits of redundant sensor systems in a fault-tolerant navigation system. The orthogonal
configuration has been used in traditional fault-tolerant navigation systems.


Figure 1. Sensor Installation Orientation
57 | P a g e Mahdi Jafari, Jafar Roshanian


SRIMU systems can most effectively make use of redundant measurements provided by multiple sensors
and have various configuration geometries dependent on the number of sensors. The typical configuration
geometries are based on regular polyhedrons in order to simplify the engineering implementation. Several
geometries commonly used in redundant sensor configurations are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1. Polyhedrons in Redundant Sensor Configurations
Polyhedron Number of Faces
Min Number of Sensors
for Redundancy
Cube 6 4
Cone (Pyramid) 4
Dodecahedron 12 6

OPTIMAL CONFIGURATION OF INERTIAL REDUNDANT SENSOR SYSTEM
Redundancy can be provided by installing a few independent, identical copies of a system and comparing
their outputs. Inertial navigation systems are often used in threes, and a computer correlates their outputs. If
two of the three consistently differ from the third, the third is considered to have failed and its data is
ignored. Deciding between two might be possible if other data from separate sensors are available.
Redundant systems are expensive; the cost of providing backup systems must include the cost of carrying
their-extra weight. Rather than installing three copies of a system, redundancy can be provided at the
component level.
Particular system designs include one in which a fourth single-axis sensor is mounted with its sensitive
axis skewed to the three basic sensor axes. This sensor can then act as a check on the basic three and can
provide information if one should be determined to have failed.

CRITERIA FOR OPTIMAL SRIMU CONFIGURATIONS
In an SRIMU (Sensors Redundant IMU) configuration, the orientation of each sensor axis is defined by
its azimuth and elevation angles with respect to an orthogonal reference frame, such as the body frame.
Let each axis of the instrument frame be presented by a unit vector

along the sensing direction of


sensor i, the unit vector can be defined in the orthogonal reference frame by:

)(

) (

)(

) (

) (1)

Where:
The bold symbols i, j and k are three unit vectors along the corresponding axes of the reference frame
(

.
The superscript i denotes a sensor and its sensing axis.

and

are the elevation and azimuth angles of the instrument axis i with respect to the reference
frame, as shown in Figure 1 (b).

If we suppose that an SRIMU system encloses n sensors, identified by 1, 2, 3 n, the measurement
equations of the SRIMU system can be formulated as follows:

[

(2)

Or in vector form

(3)

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 55-66 P a g e | 58


Where:

and

are three measured physical input quantities, such as accelerations or angular rates in
the body frame.

is the measurement of sensor i .


is the measurement error, which is a Gaussian white noise with a zero-mean value and standard
deviation

.
H is known as the sensor geometry matrix, or design matrix and describes the configuration of an
SRIMU system.
The symbol (.) Presents the operation of dot product of two vectors.

In essence, H matrix defines the geometrical arrangement of the sensors with respect to the orthogonal
body frame. The matrix formulation is same for accelerometer or gyro.

COVARIANCE MATRIX
Applying a weighted least-squares estimator, the estimate of the measured state vector is given by:

(4)

Where is the weight matrix and

is referred as transformation matrix from the inertial


instrument frame to the body frame. Defining the estimate error vector then:


(5)

Therefore, the estimate error is the normal distribution and the covariance matrix of the estimate errors
according to the covariance transfer law is given by:

(6)

Where:

is the noise covariance matrix.


To simplify the analysis of performance of an SRIMU configuration, assume that all of sensor noises are
independent and that the standard deviation of the noise for each sensor measurement is identical

if the weight matrix is taken as the inverse of , then the covariance matrix of the estimate error
becomes

(7)

Or is represented by the following normalized form

(8)

The probability density function of the estimate error can be given by

|
(

)
(9)

Then, the locus of the point is determined by

59 | P a g e Mahdi Jafari, Jafar Roshanian

(10)

This represents an error ellipsoid with a surface of constant likelihood. For any K, the volume of this
ellipsoid is given by

|
(11)

From the analysis above, the smaller the volume of this ellipsoid, the smaller the estimate errors, and the
performance of navigation systems with various SRIMU configurations can be determined by |

|.
Defining a performance index (PI) as:

|


(12)

This equation can be used to determine the azimuth and elevation angles of each sensor to construct an
optimal SRIMU configuration.

THE CRITERION OF MINIMUM GDOP
If the square root of the trace of the normalized covariance matrix is selected as a criterion to optimize an
SRIMU configuration, known as the geometric dilution of precision (GDOP), then


(13)

We use the criterion of minimum GDOP to analyses the optimal installation angles for several cone
configurations. However, this criterion cannot be applied to non-cone SRIMU configurations.

THE OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE OF NON-CONE SRIMU CONFIGURATIONS
To evaluate the optimal performance of non-cone SRIMU configurations, the estimate error variances of
the measured states in the body frame can be formulated as follows.

(14)

Based on the assumption that all measurement noises have an identical variance

a normalized
error variance is given by

(15)

Where

is the corresponding element of

accordingly.
The criterion for determining the optimal SRIMU installation angles is based on the allocation of the
uncertainty of SRIMU measurement to three orthogonal reference axes, usually the body axes. For example,
to precisely sense aircraft motion along a specific body-axis direction, the criterion for minimizing the
corresponding

can be used to determine the SRIMU installation angles. To allocate the uncertainty of
SRIMU measurement equally to three body axes, then the following criteria

(16)

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 55-66 P a g e | 60


can be selected to determine the SRIMU installation angles.

FOUR-SENSORS CUBE CONFIGURATION
The figure 2 shows this configuration:

Figure 2. Four-Sensors Cube configuration

From the above figure we can find the following equations:


(17)

So the relation between the redundant sensors and the body frame can be written as:

[

]
[

] (18)

Therefore, the measurements matrix for the Four-Sensors Cube configuration is:

(19)

The optimal angle for this configuration is:


(20)

For the Four-Sensors Cube configuration the matrix relating the body axes to those of sensors axes is:

61 | P a g e Mahdi Jafari, Jafar Roshanian


(21)

The matrix that relates the output sensors to the body axes when all sensors operating properly is given by

(22)

FOUR-SENSORS CONE WITH ONE AXIS CONE SENSOR CONFIGURATION
The figure 3 shows this configuration. From figure 3 we can find the following equations:


(23)

Figure 3. Four-Sensors Cone with one axis cone sensor configuration

So the relation between the redundant sensors and the body frame can be written as:

[

]
[

] (24)

Therefore, the measurements matrix for the Four-Sensors Cone with one axis cone sensor configuration
is:
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 55-66 P a g e | 62



[

(25)

The optimal angle for this configuration is:


(26)

The matrix relating the body axes to those of sensors axes is:


[

(27)

The matrix that relates the output sensors to the body axes when all sensors operating properly is given by

(28)

FOUR-SENSORS CONE CONFIGURATION WITHOUT ONE AXIS CONE SENSOR
The most symmetric configuration of four sensors input axes is the normal to the faces of a regular
tetrahedron. The figure 4 shows this configuration.


Figure 4. Four-Sensors Cone without one axis cone sensor configuration

From the above figure we can find the following equations:

63 | P a g e Mahdi Jafari, Jafar Roshanian


(29)

So the relation between the redundant sensors and the body frame can be written as:

[

]
[

] (30)

Therefore, the measurements matrix for the Four-Sensors Cone without one axis cone sensor
configuration is:


[

(31)

The optimal angle for this configuration is:


(32)

The matrix relating the body axes to those of sensors axes is:


[

(33)

The matrix that relates the output sensors to the body axes when all sensors operating properly is given by

(34)
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 55-66 P a g e | 64


SEX-SENSORS CONE CONFIGURATION
The figure 5 shows this configuration:

Figure 5. Sex-Sensors Cone configuration

From the above figure we can find the following equations:


(35)

So the relation between the redundant sensors and the body frame can be written as:

[

] (36)

Therefore, the measurements matrix for the Sex-Sensors Cone configuration is:


[

(37)

The optimal angle for this configuration is:


(38)

The matrix relating the body axes to those of sensors axes is:

[

(39)
65 | P a g e Mahdi Jafari, Jafar Roshanian


The matrix that relates the output sensors to the body axes when all sensors operating properly is given by

(40)

ERROR ANALYSIS
Based on the equation (12) and (13), for SRIMU configuration, the effective errors are given in Table 2.
For comparison of the errors for different sensors configurations, we suppose PI error of conventional
three-sensors is unity and normalize PI error of another SRIMU with it.

Table 2. The comparison of the errors for different sensors configurations
Number of sensors Errors
Total Operating GDOP PI
Three- sensors orthogonal 3 1.7321 1
Four-Sensors Cube
4 1.5811 0.7071
3 2.6458 1.7321
Four-Sensors Cone with one axis cone
sensor
4 1.5000 0.6495
3 2.1213 1.2990
Four-Sensors Cone without one axis cone
sensor
4 1.5000 0.6495
3 2.1213 1.2990
Five-Sensors Cone
5 1.3416 0.4648
4 1.6432 0.7348
3 3.0468 1.9767
Sex-Sensors Cone
6 1.2247 0.3536
5 1.4142 0.5000
4 1.7321 0.7906
3 2.0361 1.3143


CONCLUSION
In this paper the performance of redundant inertial measurement units and their various sensors
configurations was analyzed. This paper gives general derivation of the optimum matrix which can be
applied to the outputs of any combination of three or more sensors to obtain three orthogonal vector
components based on their geometric configuration and error characteristics. Comparing the third and fourth
columns of Table 2, if sensor failures occurred, optimal configurations may not obtain better measurement
accuracy in comparison with a non-optimal configuration. Therefore, the selection of an skewed redundant
IMU (SRIMU) configuration is a tradeoff between failure detection performance and measurement accuracy
under conditions of no sensor failures and sensor failures.


Figure 6. Errors comparing for different sensors configuration
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
1 2 3 4 5
GDOP
GDOP-1
PI
PI-1
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 55-66 P a g e | 66



REFERENCES
[1] M. Sturza, (1988), Navigation systems integrity monitoring using redundant measurements",
NAVIGATION, no. 35(4), pp. 6987.
[2] M. Sturza, (1988), "Skewed axis inertial sensor geometry for optimal performance", AIAA/IEEE
Digital Avionics Systems Conference, pp. 128135.
[3] Q. M. Lam, Jr. T. Wilson, R. Contillo, D. Buck, (2004), "Enhancing MEMS sensors accuracy via
random noise characterization and calibration", Proceedings of SPIE, 5403, pp. 427-438.
[4] M. Weis, D. Allan, (1992), "Smart Clock: A New Time", IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation
and Measurement , no. 41, pp. 915-918.
[5] D.S. Bayard, S.R. Ploen, (2003), "High accuracy inertial sensors from inexpensive components",
US Patent.US20030187623A1.
[6] Q. M. Lam, N. Stamatakos, C. Woodruff, S. Ashton, (2003), "Gyro modeling and estimation of its
random noise sources", AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference and Exhibit, Austin, Texas,
no. 5562, pp. 1-11.
[7] Q. M. Lam, T. Hunt, P. Sanneman, S. Underwood, (2003), "Analysis and design of a fifteen state
stellar inertial attitude determination system", AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference
andExhibit, Austin, Texas, no. 5483, pp. 11-14.
[8] D. Gebre-Egziabher, H. Gabriel, (2000), "A gyro-free quaternion-based attitude determination
system suitable for implementation using low cost sensors", IEEE Position Location and Navigation
Symposium, pp. 185-192.
[9] D. Gebre-Egziabher, R. C. ayward, J. D. Powell, (2004), "Design of multi-sensor attitude
determination systems", IEEE Transaction on Aerospace and Electronic System, no. 40, pp. 627-649.
[10] A. Lennartsson, D. Skoogh, (2003), "Sensor Rredundancy for Inertial Navigation", Technical
report, FOI (Swedish Defence Research Agency), SE.
[11] A. Pejsa, (1973), "Optimum skewed redundant inertial navigators", AIAA Journal, no. 12(7), pp.
899902.
[12] P. Savage, (2000), "Strapdown Analytics", Strapdown Associates, Maple Plain, MN, Vol. 1, US.
[13] S. Sukkarieh, P. Gibbens, B. Grocholsky, K. Willis, and H. Durrant Whyte, (2000), "A low-cost,
redundant inertial measurement unit for unmanned air vehicle", The International Journal of Robotics
Research, no. 19(11), pp. 10891103.







Please cite this article as: M. Jafari, J. Roshanian, (2013), Inertial Navigation Accuracy Increasing Using Redundant Sensors, Science and Engineering, Vol.
1(1), 55-66





All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means without the written permission of ORIC Publications, www.oricpub.com.

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Journal of Science and Engineering
Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 67-78

Online available since 2013/Apr/15 at www.oricpub.com
(2013) Copyright ORIC Publications

http://www.oricpub.com/journal-of-sci-and-eng

OPTIMAL FREE-DEFECT FUNCTION GENERATION
SYNTHESIS OF FOUR-BAR LINKAGE WITH JOINT
CLEARANCE USING PSO ALGORITHM

Arash Sardashti
1
, H.M. Daniali
1
, S.M.Varedi
1
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol, P.O. Box 47148-71167,
Iran.



ABSTRACT
This paper presents the design of planar four-bar linkages free of branch and circuit
defects, for the purpose of function generation; having clearances at one, two, three or
all of its joints. Joint clearance is treated as a mass-less virtual link which its direction is
known by the joint force. A Particle Swarm Optimization based algorithm is given here
to solve this highly nonlinear optimization problem with some constraints, namely; the
Grashofs and free of the foregoing defects conditions. An example is included in
which the optimal problem is solved for all the cases. For all the designs, the generated
functions, the errors and the directions of the virtual links are plotted. Finally, we
compare the optimal designs with reality.


1. INTRODUCTION
In ideal case of kinematic synthesis of linkages, geometrical perfection
is usually assumed and they are treated without clearance at the joints. But
in practice, joint clearance is necessary for a linkage since it provides
allowance for the links to move relative to each other. In the presence of
joint clearances, contact forces generate impulsive effects and deteriorate
the performances of the linkages. Many researchers have investigated the
effects of joint clearance [1-4]. Some considered clearance only in one
joint [5-11], while the others considered the effects of clearance in more
joints of linkages [12-14]. On the other hand, most of the reported works
are related to analysis of linkages with joint clearances [1-14] and the
reported works on the synthesis of linkages are more limited [15-16].
Ting et al. [12] presented an approach to identify maximum errors due
to the joint clearance. They modeled joint clearance as a small virtual
link at the joints. Tsai and Lai [13] analyzed the transmission
performance of linkages with joint clearances. Pramanik and Naskar [16]
designed a four-bar linkage, for the purpose of path generation, having
clearances at two revolute joints connecting the driver and the driven
links to the coupler. Kolhaktar and Yajnik [17] studied the effects of
joint clearances on the output of function generation linkages. Huang and
Zhang [18] presented a method for robust tolerance design of function
generation mechanisms with joint clearances. The objective of the
present work is to design a planar four-bar linkage free of branch and
circuit defects for the purpose of function generation, having clearances
at one, two, three and all of the joints.
Received: 16 Mar 2013
Accepted: 13 Apr 2013

Keywords:
Branch defect
Circuit defect
Joint clearance
Optimal function generation-
-synthesis
Four-bar linkage
PSO
Correspondence:
Arash Sardashti

Department of Mechanical
Engineering, Babol
University of Technology,
Babol, P.O. Box
47148-71167, Iran.

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 67-78 P a g e | 68



Nomenclatures
i
a
Length of ith link
i
K
Position of the center of gravity of ith link
i
r
Length of ith VJCL joint
i
o
Direction of ith VJCL joint
i
u
Angle of ith link
i
G
x
x-coordinate of the mass center of ith link
i
G
y
y-coordinate of the mass center of ith link


i
m
Mass of ith link
3
G
I
Central Moment of inertia of the coupler


0
B
I
Moment of inertia of the follower around the axis passing through B
0


xij
F
The x-coordinate of the Joint force acting from ith link to jth link
yij
F
The y-coordinate of the Joint force acting from ith link to jth link
in
T
Input torque

If the sign of transmission angle changes in target points, branch defect will happen [19], i.e. the solutions
related to the different target points are from different assembly modes and thus are not feasible.
Furthermore, if the mechanism path through all the target points without reassembling any of its joints, then
its motion will be in a circuit [20]. When a potential solution linkage cannot move between all target points
without changing the assembly, the circuit defect arises. Although synthesis of linkages with joint clearance
is not new, but designing them free of these defects have not reported in the literature.
Function generation synthesis, free of the foregoing defects and in the presence of clearance is highly
nonlinear and should be solved numerically. Recently Evolutionary Algorithms are becoming increasingly
popular for solving nonlinear problems in various fields [21-22]. Here we present an algorithm based on
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to solve this highly nonlinear optimization problem with some
constraints, namely; the Grashofs conditions and free from the foregoing defects. The joints clearances were
modeled by some virtual links, the directions of which are determined by the Newton second law. The
problem is solved for the clearances in one, two, three, all the joints and without clearance, as well.
Comparison is done between all the foregoing designs and the linkage in its ideal cases, namely without joint
clearance.
This paper is organized as follows; Section 2 describes the equivalent model of the virtual joint clearance.
In Section 3, analysis of four-bar linkage in the presence of joint clearance is presented. Section 4 devoted to
the synthesis of four-bar function generation. An algorithm based on PSO is outlined in section 5. A case
study is presented in section 6 and finally, conclusion is outlined in Section 7.

2. THE MODELING OF THE CLEARANCES
In this study, a planar four-bar linkage with joint clearances is considered. A planar revolute joint includes
a pin attached to the ith link with radius r
i
that turns in a hole attached to the (i+1)th link with radius r
i+1
, as
shown in Fig. 1. Under this condition, the connecting position of two coupled links depends on the joint force.
It is convenient to assume that the center points of two coupled links are connected by a virtual joint clearance
link (VJCL), r in the direction of the joint force [15]. On the other hand, each joint clearance gives an extra
degree of freedom to the linkage which is controlled by the direction of the joint force. Moreover, r is given as
[5,12]:

1
-
i i
r r r
+
=

(1)
69 | P a g e A. Sardashti, H.M. Daniali, S.M.Varedi


( 1)
th
i link +
th
i link
r
1 i
r
+
i
r
( ) a ( ) b
Force
Direction

Fig. 1. (a) Equivalent model of VJCL. (b) joint clearance.

3. ANALYSIS
In this section we include the kinetostatic analysis of planar four-bar linkage. It is assumed that the input
link rotates with a constant angular velocity
2
( ) e . Thus, the free-body diagrams of the links under the effect
of inertia forces and moments are depicted in Fig. 2. Therefore, One can write the following equations for
the input link:

2 12 32 2
G
x x
F F m x
--
+ =
(2)
2
12 32 2 2 y y G
F F m y m g
--
= +
(3)
32 2 2 32 2 2 2 2 2 2
sin( ) cos( ) cos( ) 0
x y in
F a F a T m gK a u u u + =
(4)
Similarly, one can write the followings for the coupler and the output link:
3 23 43 3
G
x x
F F m x
--
+ =
(5)
3
23 43 3 3 y y G
F F m y m g
--
= +
(6)
3
23 3 3 3 23 3 3 3 43 3 3 3 43 3 3 3 3
sin( ) cos( ) (1 )sin( ) (1 ) cos( )
x y x y G
F k a F k a F k a F k a I u u u u u
--
=
(7)
4 34 14 4
G
x x
F F m x
--
+ =
(8)
34 14 4 4 4 y y G
F F m y m g
--
= +
(9)
0
34 4 4 34 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
sin( ) cos( ) (1 ) cos( )
x y B
F a F a m g k a I u u u u
--
+ =
(10)

Where
( 1) ( 1) i i x i ix
F F
+ +
= ,
( 1) ( 1) i i y i iy
F F
+ +
=
Eqs. (5) (10) can be solved for
43 x
F ,
43 y
F as:

1 2
43
3 4
1
det( )
x
B B
F
B B
| |
=
|
A
\ .
(11)
5 1
43
6 3
1
det( )
y
B B
F
B B
| |
=
|
A
\ .
(12)
In which:
3 3 3 3
4 4 4 4
sin( ) cos( )
det( )
sin( ) cos( )
a a
a a
u u
u u
| |
A =
|
\ .
(13)
3
3
1 3 3 3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3
sin( )
( ) cos( )
G
G
G
B I m x k a
m y m g k a
u u
u
-- --
--
=
+ +

2 3 3
cos( ) B a u =
(14)
3 4 4 4 4 4
(1 ) cos( )
B
B I m g k a u u
--
= +

4 4 4
cos( ) B a u =
5 3 3
sin( ) B a u =

6 4 4
sin( ) B a u =
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 67-78 P a g e | 70


Then, one can solve Eqs. (5) and (6) for
23 x
F and
23 y
F . Similarly, substituting the values of
23 x
F

and
23 y
F
into Eqs. (2) and (3) leads to
12 x
F ,
12 y
F . Finally, substituting the values of
34 x
F

and
34 y
F into Eqs. (8)
and (9) yields to
14 x
F ,
14 y
F .
2
G
4
G
3
G
21 x
F
21 y
F
12 y
F
12 x
F
2
m g
2 2
m y
--

2
2
m x
--

32 x
F
32 y
F
23 y
F
23 x
F
43 x
F
43 y
F
34 y
F
34 x
F
4 4 G
I u
--

4 4
m g
4 4
m y
--

3 3
m y
--

3
m g
3 3
m x
--

3 3 G
I u
--

14 x
F
14 y
F
41 y
F
4
u
3
u
2
u
in
T
4
4
m x
--

41 x
F

Fig. 2. The free body diagrams of the links of four-bar linkage.

It is noteworthy that the direction of VJCL is the same as the directions of the foregoing forces. Therefore,
the direction of VJCL at joint A is given as:
2 23 23
arctan( / )
y x
F F o =
(15)
Similarly, the directions of VJCLs at joints A
0
, B and B
0
are given as:
1 12 12
arctan( / )
y x
F F o =
(16)
3 43 43
arctan( / )
y x
F F o =
(17)
4 14 14
arctan( / )
y x
F F o =

(18)
3.1 Four-bar linkage with clearances in four joints
In this subsection we analyze planar four-bar linkage in reality, i.e. with four joints clearance as depicted
in Fig. 3, while its kinematic model is depicted in Fig. 4. Without losing of generality, a reference frame is
attached to point A
0
. Therefore, the mass centers of the links are given as:
y
x 2
u
0
B
0
A
3
o
3
r
2
G
4
G
3
G
A
'
A
2
o 2
r
B
B'
4
o
1
o
4
r 1
r
0
B'
4
u
3
u
3
a
4
a
2
a
1
a

Fig. 3. Four-bar function generation linkage with four joints clearance.
71 | P a g e A. Sardashti, H.M. Daniali, S.M.Varedi


2
u
0
B
0
A
3
o
3
r
A
'
A
2
o
2
r
B
B'
4
o
1
o
4
r
1
r
0
B'
0
A'
4
u
3
u
3
a
4
a
2
a
1
a

Fig. 4. A kinematic model of the four-bar linkage with four joints clearance.

2
2
0 1 2
1 2 2
0 1 2
cos( ) cos( )
sin( ) sin( )
G
G
x
x
r K a
y
y
o u
o u
| |
| | | | | |
= + + |
| | |
|
\ . \ . \ .
\ .
(19)
3
3
0 1 2 2 3
1 2 2 3 3
0 1 2 2 3
cos( ) cos( ) cos( ) cos( )
sin( ) sin( ) sin( ) sin( )
G
G
x
x
r a r K a
y
y
o u o u
o u o u
| |
| | | | | | | | | |
= + + + + |
| | | | |
|
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ .
\ .
(20)
4
4
0 1 4 4
1 4 4 4
0 1 4 4
cos( ) cos( ) cos( )
sin( ) sin( ) sin( )
G
G
x
x
a r K a
y
y
u o u
u o u
| |
| | | | | | | |
= + + + |
| | | |
|
\ . \ . \ . \ .
\ .
(21)

The loop closure equation can be written as:

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
A A A A AA AB A B B B B B BB ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' + + + = + + + (22)

The same equation can be written in component- wise as:

4 4 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3
4 4 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3
3 3 1 1 4 4
3 3 1 1 4 4
cos( ) cos( ) cos( ) cos( ) cos( )
sin( ) sin( ) sin( ) sin( ) sin( )
cos( ) cos( ) cos( )
sin( ) sin( ) sin( )
a r a r a
a r a r a
r a r
r a r
u o u o u
u o u o u
o u o
o u o
| | | | | | | | | |
= + + +
| | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ .
| | | | | |

| | |
\ . \ . \ .

(23)
The above equation can be solved for
3
u , namely;
1 2 2 2 2 0.5 2 2
3 2 3 1 1 2 3 2 3
2 2 2 0.5 2
1 1 2 3
cos ((( ) ( (( ) ( ) ( ) ) ) ) / (( )
( (( ) ( ) ( ) ) ) ))
A A A A A A A A
A A A A
u

= + +
+
(24)

Where A
1
, A
2
and A
3
are given as:

1 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 1 1 4 4
2 ( sin( ) sin( ) sin( ) sin( ) sin( ) sin( )) A a r a r r a r o u o o u o = + + (25)
2 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 1 1 4 4
2 ( cos( ) cos( ) cos( ) cos( ) cos( ) cos( )) A a r a r r a r o u o o u o = + + (26)
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1
1 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 1 2 2 2 2
3 2 2 3 1 2 2 1 4 2 2 4 2 4 4 2
3 1
2 cos( ) 2 cos( )
2 cos( ) 2 cos( ) 2 cos( ) 2 cos( )
2 cos( ) 2 cos( ) 2 cos( ) 2 cos( )
2
A a r a r a r a r r a r r
r r r a r r r a
r a a a r a r r
r a
u o o o
o o u o o o u o
u o u u u o o o
= + + + + + + + +
+

+
1 3 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 4
cos( ) 2 cos( ) 2 cos( ) r r r a u o o o u o + +
(27)
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 67-78 P a g e | 72


Substituting the value of
3
u

from Eq. (24) into Eq. (23), upon simplifications, yields to:

1
4 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 1 1
4 4 4
cos (( cos( ) cos( ) cos( ) cos( ) cos( ) cos( )
cos( )) / )
r a r a r a
r a
u o u o u o u
o

= + + +

(28)

The angular velocities of the coupler and the follower can be written as:
4
2
1
2
, for 3, 4
i i
i j
j
j
i
u u
u e o
u o
- -
=
c c
= + =
c c


(29)

Moreover, the linear velocities of the mass centers of the input, the coupler and the follower are given as:

4
2
2
1
2
, for 2, 3, 4
i
i
i
i i
i
G
G
G
j
j
j
G G
G
j
x
x
x
i
y y
y
o
u
e o
u o
-
-
-
=
| | c | | c
| | | |
c
c
| |
|
= + =
| |
|
c c
| |
|
\ .
|
|
c c
\ .
\ .


(30)

Finally, time derivatives of Eqs. (29) and (30) yields to:
2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4
2
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1
2 2
2 ,
3, 4,
i i i i i
i j j j j k
j j j j k
j j j j k
for i k j
u u u u u
u e e o o o o o
u u o o o o o
-- - -- - - -
= = = = =
c c c c c
= + + + +
c c c c c c c
= =

(31)
2 2
2
2
2
4 4 4
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
1 1 1
2 2
2 2
4 4
1 1
2
i i i
i
i
i i i i
i
G G G
G
G
j j j
j j j
j j j
G G G G
G
j j j
j k
j k
x x x
x
x
y y x y
y
u o o o
u
e e o o o
u u o o o
o o
--
- -- -
--
= = =
- -
= =
| | | | | | c c c | | c
| | | | | |
c c c c
c
| | | |
|
= + + +
| | | |
|
c c c c
| | | |
|
\ .
|
| | |
c c c c c
\ .
\ . \ . \ .
c
+

2
2
for 2, 3, 4, ,
i
i
G
j k
G
j k
x
i k j
x
o o
o o
| |
|
c c
|
= =
|
c
|
|
c c
\ .


(32)
3.2. Special cases of Four-bar linkages
Substituting
1
0 r = ,
2
0 r = ,
3
0 r = ,
4
0 r = ,
1
0 o = ,
2
0 o = ,
3
0 o = and
4
0 o = into Eqs. (19)-(32),
leads to the relations for four-bar linkages without joint clearance. Moreover, substituting
1
0 r = ,
3
0 r = ,
4
0 r = ,
1
0 o = ,
3
0 o = and
4
0 o = into Eqs. (19)-(32), leads to the relations for four-bar linkage with
clearance at joint A. Furthermore, substituting
1
0 r = ,
4
0 r = ,
1
0 o = , and
4
0 o = into Eqs. (19)-(32),
leads to the relations for four-bar linkage with clearances at joints A and B. Finally, substituting
1
0 r =
and
1
0 o = into Eqs. (19)-(32), leads to the relations for four-bar linkage with clearances at joints A, B
and B
0
.

4. SYNTHESIS FOUR-BAR LINKAGES FOR FUNCTION GENERATION PROBLEM
Here we design planar four-bar linkages for function generation problem in five different cases, namely;
without joint clearance, with clearance at joint A , with clearances at joints A and B, with clearances at
joints A, B and B
0
and with joint clearances in all the joints.
73 | P a g e A. Sardashti, H.M. Daniali, S.M.Varedi


Design parameters: There are three design parameters for function generation problem, namely;
2
a ,
3
a ,
4
a , all are summarized in a vector form as | |
2 3 4
, , .
T
a a a = x It is noteworthy that
1
a acts as the scale factor
here.

The Design Objective: The objective function in this study has two parts, namely; the position error and
the constraints which are applied here by some penalty functions. In the optimization problem here, the
former is defined as the mean-square distances between the generated and the desired functions, while the
latter are defined as some inequality constraints. Here, we have three types of constraints, namely; the
Grashofs conditions, branch defects and circuit defects.
The Grashofs conditions of a crank-rocker are given as [23]:

} {
1 2 3 4
max , , , l a a a a =
(33)
} {
1 2 3 4
min , , , s a a a a =
(34)
1
2 2
1 1 2
( ) (( ) ( ))
( )
( ) : ( ) ( ( ) 0&& ( ) 0)
g X s l p q
g X s a
a g X g X g X
' = + +
' =
' ' = < =
(35)

The constraints of branch and circuit defects are given, respectively as [23]:

2 4 3
( ) : ( ) 0, for 1, 2,...,
i i
b g x i N u u = > = (36)
3 2 3
( ) : ( ) 0, for 1, 2,...,
i i
c g x i N u u = > = (37)

Therefore, an objective function for function generation linkage with the foregoing constraints can be
defined as:
Minimize
2
4 4 1 1 2 2 3 3
1
( ) (1/ ) ( [( ( )) ( ) ( ) ( ))
n
i i
d
i
F X N X M g X M g X M g X u u
=
= + + +

(38)

Where
4
i
d
u

and
4
i
u

are the desired precision points and the generated points, respectively. Moreover,
1
M ,

2
M and
3
M

are constants that penalize the objective function when the constraints fail.

5. PSO ALGORITHM
In this section, we illustrate a PSO based algorithm for the synthesis of planar four-bar linkages for the
purpose of function generation with some constraints as explained in section 4. The idea of PSO is based on
the social behavior and dynamic movement of bees, ant, termites, fish and birds. The path of a particle in
swarm is a function of its own knowledge and information and also the knowledge and information of
swarm which might be modified in each iteration. The best position of jth particle is called P
best,j
and the
best position of swarm in each iteration is being called G
best
.
The position and velocity of jth particle in ith iteration are calculated, as follows:

( ) ( 1) ( ), for 1, 2,...,
j j j
X i X i V i j N = + =
(39)
1 1 , 2 2
( ) ( 1) ( 1) ( 1) , for 1, 2,...,
j j best j j best j
V i V i c u P X i c u G X i j N ( ( = + + =

(40)

The constants of c
1
and c
2
are called social parameters and their values are usually scantling 2; u
1

and
u
2

are random number between 0 and 1 and ( ) i

is called weighting factor that change linearly in the
iteration, i.e.
max max min max
( ) (( ) / ) i i i = (41)
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 67-78 P a g e | 74


The values of
max
and
min
are usually 0.9 and 0.4, respectively; i is the number of iteration number and
i
max

is the maximum of iteration number.
In the algorithm presented here, the Grashofs conditions and the probable defects of the feasible design
such as branch and circuit defects is considered, as well. However, finding probability of initial random
population which satisfies the foregoing constraints is very slim. Moreover, the complexity of function
generation synthesis problem increases with the number of the desired target points. These might lead to a
time consuming solutions. To alleviate this drawback, a subroutine is included here to find new boundaries
for each independent variable instead of the initial ones. The goal is obtained by ascending probability of
constraints satisfaction and pre optimization of the main objective function. Therefore, the optimization
problem tends to converge in fewer iterations. The algorithm is depicted in Fig. 5.

6. CASE STUDY
As a case study, we design Grashof planar four-bar linkage, free of branch and circuit defects for function
generation problem with 20 ordered precision points as:

o o o o o o o o
o o o o o o o o
o o
[( )] =[(35.0192 , 35.2254 ), (44.7365 , 36.8756 ), (60.8367 , 41.6082 ), (74.5819 , 46.6502 ),
(89.5533 , 52.6548 ), (101.2130 , 57.5192 ), (113.8811 , 62.8936 ), (124.6470 , 67.4772 ),
(137.8365 , 73.0693 ), (1
i i
2 4d
,
o o o o o o
o o o o o o o o
o o o o
49.9946 , 78.1686 ), (168.7533 , 85.8520 ), (183.1173 , 91.5357 ),
(201.3546 , 98.4170 ), (228.6388 ,107.7734 ), (249.2997 ,113.7894 ), (275.7245 ,119.2612 ),
(297.8349 ,120.3154 ), (317.1207 ,115.7547 ), (336.532
o o o o
5 , 99.7405 ), (353.6410 , 69.8779 )]

It is noteworthy that the algorithm presented here, at the first step will check the Grashofs condition and
excludes those solutions with branch and circuit defects from the feasible ones. Therefore, the problem leads
to minimizing Eq. (38) with the following limits for the design variables:
[400, 2000]
2 3 4
a ,a ,a e

We solve the foregoing optimal function generation problem without clearance at joints (design 1); in the
presence of clearances at joint A (design 2), in the presence of clearances at joints A and B (design 3), in the
presence of clearances at joints A, B and B
0
(design 4) and finally in the presence of clearances at joints A, B, B
0

and A
0
(design 5).
The synthesized geometric parameters, the number of iteration, the corresponding values of the objective
function and the error are given in Table 1. Moreover, the desired target points and the generated points for
all the designs are shown in Fig. 6; while the errors of the designs are illustrated in Fig. 7.
Furthermore, the directions of VJCLs of the joints A
0
, A, B

and B
0
are shown in Figs. 8-11, respectively.
Finally, Fig. 12 shows a typical plot of the convergence speeds of the algorithm for the designs which is very
fast. Now, we evaluate the designs in reality, i.e. in the presence of joint clearances at all joints. The desired
target points and the generated points for the designs are shown in Fig. 13; while the errors of the designs are
illustrated in Fig. 14. These figures clearly reveal that designing four-bar linkages for function generation
problem in the presence of joint clearances lead to more accurate results.

Table 1. The optimal designs.
Design 5 Design 4 Design 3 Design 2 Design 1 Design
variables
648.0476 646.8454 645.9018 644.6358 643.3739
2
( ) a mm
6517.4230 6593.5524 6553.5330 6639.6374 6674.8889
3
( ) a mm
6318.842 6395.6189 6354.833 6441.3258 6476.7397
4
( ) a mm
98 94 86 80 74 No. of
iterations
0.0182 0.0154 0.0141 0.0109 0.0098 Error (deg)
75 | P a g e A. Sardashti, H.M. Daniali, S.M.Varedi














Yes Yes Yes

1
0 g =
No
2
0 g =
No No
3
0 g =

1
1 g =

2
1 g =

3
1 g =



No


Yes



Fig. 5. Flowchart of the PSO algorithm for the synthesis of planar four-bar linkages.


Start
Start to initialize population
Refinement the initial boundaries with respect to the Grashofs condition

Refinement the initial boundaries with respect to the branch defect constraint

Refinement the initial boundaries with respect to the circuit defect constraint

Initialize Objective Function value from Eq. (38)
Is constraint
(a)
satisfied?
Is constraint
(b)
satisfied?
Is constraint
(c)
satisfied?
Evaluate Objective function from Eq. (38)
Choose the best design vector (G
best
)
Is
convergen
ce criteria
satisfied?
Output results
Stop
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 67-78 P a g e | 76


Finally,
4 3
i i
u u and
2 3
i i
u u

are plotted verses the target points for all the designs in Figs. 15 and 16,
respectively. These continuous curves clearly show that the designs are free from branch and circuit defects,
respectively.


Fig. 6. The angles of input and output links: Desired Target
points (o); Generated points, Design 1 (-*), Generated points,
Design 2 (-), Generated points, Design 3 (--), Generated points,
Design 4 (-.), Generated points, Design 5 ().

Fig. 7. The errors of the angle of output link: Design 1(-*),
Design 2 (-), Design 3 (--), Design 4 (-.), Design 5 ().



Fig. 8. The Direction of VJCL in the joint A
0
: Design 5 ().

Fig. 9. The Direction of VJCL in the joint A: Design 2 (-),
Design 3 (--), Design 4 (-.), Design 5 ().

Fig. 10. The Direction of VJCL in the joint B: Design 3, (--),
Design 4 (-.), Design 5 ().

Fig. 11. The Direction of VJCL in the joint B
0
: Design 4 (-.),
Design 5 ().
77 | P a g e A. Sardashti, H.M. Daniali, S.M.Varedi



Fig. 12. The convergence of PSO algorithm for design 1.

Fig. 13. The angles of input and output links in reality and in
the presence of the joint presence of clearance: Desired Target
points (o); Generated points Design 1 (-*), Generated points
Design 2 (-), Generated points Design 3 (--), Generated points
Design 4 (-.), Generated points Design 5 ().


Fig. 14. The errors of the angle of output link in reality and in
the presence of the joint clearances: Design 1 (-*), Design 2 (-),
Design 3 (--), Design 4 (-.), Design 5 ().

Fig. 15. The satisfaction of branch constraint: Design 1 (-*),
Design 2 (-), Design 3 (--), Design 4 (-.), Design 5 ().

Fig. 16. The satisfaction of circuit constraint: Design 1
(-*), Design 2 (-), Design 3 (--), Design 4 (-.), Design 5 ().


7. CONCLUSIONS
Here the optimal function generation of planar four-bar linkages free of branch and circuit defects; having
clearances at one, two, three or all of the joints have been designed. Joint clearance has been treated as a
mass-less virtual link. A PSO based algorithm has been given here to solve this highly nonlinear constrained
optimization problem. Optimal designs of four-bar linkage having clearances at one, two, three, all of the
joints and without clearance have been included. We compared the functions generated in these designs with
reality. The comparison results clearly revealed that designing four-bar linkages for function generation
problem in the presence of joint clearances leads to more accurate results.
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 67-78 P a g e | 78



REFERENCES
[1] Lee, S. J., & Gilmore, B. J. (1991). The determination of the probabilistic properties of velocities and
accelerations in kinematic chains with uncertainty. J. of Mech. Des., 113, pp. 84-90.
[2] Lee, S. J., & Gilmore, B. J., & Otto, M. M. (1993). Dimensional tolerance allocation of stochastic
dynamic mechanical systems through performance and sensitivity analysis. ASME J. Mech. Des., 115,
pp. 392-402.
[3] Zhu, J., & Ting, K. L. (2000). Uncertainty analysis of planar and spatial robots with joint clearances.
Mech. Mach. Theory, 35, pp. 1239-1256.
[4] Dhande, S. G., & Chakraborty, J. (1973). Analysis and synthesis of mechanical error in linkages---a
stochastic approach. ASME J. Eng. Ind. Trans., 95(3), pp. 672-676.
[5] Bengisu, M., & Hidayetoglu, T., & Akay, A. (1986). A theorical and experimental investigation of
contact loss in the clearances of a four-bar mechanism. ASME J.Mech. Trans. Auto. Des., 108(2), pp.
237-244.
[6] Li, Z., & Bai, S. (1991). Amendments to a criterion of contact loss between pairing elements in planar
linkages with clearances. Mech. Mach. Theory, 26(7), pp. 669-676.
[7] Farahanchi, F., & Shaw, S. W. (1994). Chaotic and periodic dynamics of a slider-crank mechanism
with slider clearance. J. Sound Vib., 177(3), pp. 307-324.
[8] Seneviratne, L. D., & Earles, S. W. E. (1992). Chaotic behavior exhibited during contact loss in a
clearance joint of a four-bar mechanism. Mech. Mach. Theory, 27(3), pp. 307-321.
[9] Li, Z., & Li, L. & Bai, S. (1992). A new method of predicting the occurrence of contact loss between
pairing elements in planar linkages with clearances. Mech. Mach. Theory, 27(3), pp. 295-301.
[10] Grant, S. J., & Fawcett, J. N. (1979). Effects of clearance at the coupler-rocker bearing of a 4-bar
linkage. Mech. Mach. Theory, 14(2), pp. 99-110.
[11] Bai, Z. F., & Zhao, Y. (2012). Dynamic behaviour analysis of planar mechanical systems with
clearance in revolute joints using a new hybrid contact force model. I. J. mech. Sci., 54(2), pp. 190-205.
[12] Ting, K. L., & Zhu, J., & Watkins, D. (2000). The effects of joint clearance on position and orientation
deviation of linkages and manipulators. , Mech. Mach. Theory, 35, pp. 391-401.
[13] Tsai, M. J., & Lai, T. H. (2004). kinematic sensitivity analysis of linkage with joint clearance based on
transmission quality. , Mech. Mach. Theory, 39, pp. 1189-1206.
[14] kolhatkar, S. A., & Yajnik, K. S. (1970). The effects of play in the joints of a function-generating
mechanism. , J. Mech.,5(4), pp. 521-532.
[15] Erkaya, S., & Uzmay, I. (2009). Determining link parameters using genetic algorithm in mechanisms
with joint clearance, Mech. Mach. Theory,44(2009), pp. 222-234.
[16] Pramanik, N., & Naskar, T. K. (2009). Synthesis of Kinematics Chains with and without Clearance
using GA. 14
th
National Conference on Machines and Mechanisms, pp. 7-14.
[17] Huang, X., & Zhang, Y. (2010). Robust tolerance design for function generation mechanisms with joint
clearances, Mech. Mach. Theory,45(2010), pp. 1286-1297.
[18] Bawab, S., & Li, H. (2010). A new circuit identification method in 4-bar linkages, ASME J. Mech.
Des.,119(1997), pp. 417-419.
[19] Chase, T. R., & Mirth, J. A. (1993). Circuit and branches of single degree-of-freedom planar linkages,
ASME J. Mech. Des. Trans.,115(1993), pp. 223-230.
[20] Toffolo, A., & Benini, E. (2003). Genetic diversity as an objective in multi-objective evolutionary
algorithms, Evolutionary Computation,11(2), pp. 151-167.
[21] Saker, S., & Liang, K. H. & Newton, C. (2002). A new continuous optimization multi objective
evolutionary algorithm, European Journal of Operational Research,140, pp. 12-23.
[22] Balli, S., & Chand, S. (2002). Defects in link mechanisms and solution rectification, Mech. Mach.
Theory,37, pp. 851-876.


Please cite this article as: A. Sardashti, H.M. Daniali, S.M.Varedi, (2013), Optimal Free-Defect Function Generation Synthesis Of Four-Bar Linkage With
Joint Clearance Using Pso Algorithm, Science and Engineering, Vol. 1(1), 67-78





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Journal of Science and Engineering
Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 79-83

Online available since 2013/Apr/16 at www.oricpub.com
(2013) Copyright ORIC Publications

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IMPROVEMENT OF THE INJECTION EFFICIENCY IN
ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DEVICES BY ADDITIONAL
SPRAY DEPOSITED HOLE TRANSPORTING LAYER

M.P. Aleksandrova
1
, G.H. Dobrikov
1
, G. D. Kolev
1
, I. N. Cholakova
1

1
Technical University of Sofia, Department of Microelectronics, Kliment Ohridski blvd, 8, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria


Abstract
Novel approach for deposition of thin films from low molecular weight compounds by
pulverization is presented. The method was supplied for preparation of flexible organic
light emitting device with tris(8-quinolinolato)-aluminum (Alq3) emissive layer.
Additional film of N-N-diphenyl-N-N-bis (1-naphthyl)-1,1-biphenyl-4,4-diamine
(NPB) was also spray deposited as a hole transporting layer (HTL) to increase the
injection efficiency of the organic electroluminescent structure. Suitable substrate
temperature was set to avoid dissolving and damage of both layers, caused by solvent
penetration from NPB in Alq3. After optimization of the deposition conditions and
because of the energy level alignment with introduction of NPB, it was measured
reduction of the turn-on voltage with approximately 2 V. Current-voltage characteristics
show 6 mA higher current at given voltage for the structure with HTL and the
brightness-voltage characteristics show that the emission intensity is 300 cd/m2 higher.
In this way the injection efficiency was improved 3 times.


1. INTRODUCTION
Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) have been attracted attention
as possible application in the displays due to their easy deposition in form
of thin films with simple and cheap equipment, leading to low cost
manufacturing [1]. In comparison with the liquid crystal displays (LCD)
which are currently in trend, OLEDs generate own light emission,
allowing both wider viewing angles and lower consumed energy saved
from the lack of back lightening.
Efficiency improvement is still open problem for OLED technology in
comparison with the other portable displays (for example liquid crystal
LCD). One of the most often applied approaches is insertion of buffer
injecting layers for energy level alignment between the electrodes and the
emissive layer. In this way the interface energy barrier is reduced and the
charge balance is bettered. Because more of the emissive materials are
also electron transporting layers (ETL), then hole transporting layers
(HTL) are crucial points. In the literature are reported many results
concerned HTL from different materials inorganic, organic low
molecular weight substances, conjugated polymers, organic-inorganic
blends, different nano-particles and self assembling particles, etc. [2-6].
The most spread combination is NPB/Alq3 and PEDOT/Alq3 [7,8].
Typical values of the injection efficiency in these cases are 4-6 cd/A.
However, in the above cited papers emissive layers are usually vacuum
thermal evaporated, and the HTLs are spin coated or thermal evaporated
too.
Received: 19 Mar 2013
Accepted: 13 Apr 2013

Keywords:
Organic light emitting devices
Hole transporting layer
Injection efficiency
Spray deposition
Organic thin films
Correspondence:
M.P. Aleksandrova
Technical University of
Sofia, Department of
Microelectronics, Kliment
Ohridski blvd, 8, 1000
Sofia, Bulgaria

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 79-83 P a g e | 80



In the flexible OLEDs high temperature processes like thermal evaporation are more recommended,
because of the weaker bond in the material after heating during evaporation. As well, it has been found that the
temperatures higher than 100
o
C (most often revealed during thermal evaporation) can cause anisotropic
shrinkage in the PET substrates [9]. This leads to mechanical stress induced in the soft organic layers, which in
combination together with the multiple cycles of bending cause degradation of the device. In addition fast
luminescent decay is supposed to occurs due to the growth of crystallites on the electrode surfaces from the
annealing and/or non-uniformity of the electrical field [10]. The above mentioned results imply alternative
technology at lower deposition temperature to be developed and smoother organic films to be produced. Spray
deposition can be appropriate tool to achieve the necessary effects and can be performed even at room
temperature for precise nanofilms deposition with well controllable thickness and uniformity. By setting of
suitable deposition conditions like aerosol size and pressure, substrate temperature, distance between the
nozzle and the substrate, it is possible to produce high quality defect free layers at temperatures low enough to
avoid flexible substrates deformation. Until now several reports exist in the literature, concerning spray
deposition of polymers for application in solar cells and piezoelectrical MEMS sensors [11, 12]. By the
authors knowledge there is no investigation of multilayer, spray deposited low molecular weight organic
compounds.
In this paper we present results from preparation and testing of bilayer ITO/NPB/Alq3/Al organic light
emitting devices by using of spray coatings on polyethylenetherephtalate (PET) flexible substrates. We made
comparison with OLED structures, building by thermal evaporated organic layers.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
On PET substrate, indium-tin oxide (ITO) film was deposited by low-temperature RF sputtering at
oxygen partial pressure 2.10
-4
Torr, total gas pressure 2.5.10
-2
Torr, sputtering power varies between 75 W
and 105 W with rate 0.5 W/s during deposition of the initial ITO monolayer. Sheet resistance reaches 19.2
/sq after 10 minutes of ITO treatment with UV light (UV 365 nm, source power 250 W). The basic
structure of the OLED devices is double layer type, consisting of
N-N-diphenyl-N-N-bis(1-naphthyl)-1,1-biphenyl-4,4-diamine NPB as a HTL and
tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminium Alq3 as light emitting layer, commercially available (Sigma Aldrich)
and used without further purification. They were situated between transparent ITO anode and aluminum
cathode. The structure is presented schematically on Fig. 1.




Fig. 1. Prepared flexible OLED structure
with two organic layers.
Fig. 2. Spray coater for organic solutions pulverization.

The organic dusts were dissolved in solvent mixture from chloroform and methylethylketon heated to
40
o
C. Solution was stirred for several hours until fully dissolving. For spraying, atomizer with nozzle having
regulating orifice up to 200 m was used. The established optimal deposition conditions regarding layers
uniformity were as follows: substrate temperature 70

; distance nozzle to substrate 15 cm; atomizing


pressure 4 bars; solution concentration 5 mg/ml for Alq3 and 7 mg/ml for NPB. Fig. 2 shows the principle of
pulverization of the solved low-molecular weight compounds. Detailed information about the specifity of
spraying of organic solutions can be found in [13]. Alternative structure with single layer of Alq3 was
prepared for comparison of the current-voltage (I-V) and brightness voltage (B-V) characteristics. The
thickness of the emissive layer in both types of OLEDs structures was the same 140 nm and the thickness
of the HTL was 40 nm, measured by profilometer. The current was measured by a Keithley 6485
PET
ITO
NPB
Alq3
Al
Ag
PET
ITO
NPB
Alq3
Al
Ag

81 | P a g e M.P. Aleksandrova, G.H. Dobrikov, G. D. Kolev, I. N. Cholakova


picoammeter and the brightness was measured by luminancemeter with collor correction factor Konica
Minolta LS-110.

3. RESULTS
Fig. 3 shows the current-voltage characteristics of the both structures single layer and bilayer OLED. As
can be seen after introduction of the HTL the conductivity tend to increases with 6 mA and the turn-on voltage
is 2 V lower (for stable turn on voltage can be taken the value of 4V for single layer device). This is evidence
that the interface between both organic layers is not destroyed during spray deposition of the Alq3 solution
onto the NPB underlying film. Such behavior can demonstrate only structures that consist of layers with
abrupt boundaries with each other. According to reported values [14] the energy diagram clearly shows that
the anode injection barrier ITO/Alq3 can be divided on two smaller hole energy barriers 0.4 eV at the
ITO/NPB interface and 0.6 eV at the NPB/Alq3 interface, which can be overcame at lower power supply (Fig.
4). This is the reason for the earlier turning on of the device. Presented results are achieved after series of
experiments at different substrate temperatures of spraying, varying around the temperature of evaporation of
the used solvent. Also structures with different thicknesses of NPB between 30 and 70 nm were produced (not
shown) to establish the optimal 40 nm for the hole transport. If the spraying conditions were not set
appropriately, the layers will penetrate in each other and the I-V curves would be even worsened. We believe
that the current in the part of the I-V characteristic with deviations from the main points in not leakage,
because they are in the range of several hundreds of microamperes, not several miliamperes and could not
excite molecules for generation of stable and measurable electroluminescence. Because of this, the deviation
of I-V curve around 3.5V for the single layer device may be ascribed to implemented impurities, but this is
object of further more extensive investigations.
The bilayer device shows not only higher current density, but higher luminescent output too. The
corresponding BV curves present a similar behavior (Fig. 5) the stable emission at same operation voltage
is 300 cd/m
2
higher when the charge carriers are balanced with HTL. If the physical contact between the layers
in the stack is irregular, then even the appropriate energy level alignment between HTL and emissive layer
would not assist the charge carriers to overcome the electrical resistance at the organic/organic interface,
caused by the lower mutual contact area. If the layers were partially blended, the contact resistance in this
region would destroy the charge balance, the voltage drop and emission losses would increase. As well, if
defects in the hole organic layer exist, hole traps would be formed and the charge carriers could not reach the
recombination zone [15]. Based on these observations and because of the lack of losses in the light emission,
we conclude that the spray technique is the reason for additional improvement of the characteristics, not only
due to the favorable energy level positions of NPB and Alq3, but due to uniform physical contact between the
layers.





Fig. 3. I-V characteristics of single layer and bilayer
OLED structures.
Fig. 4. Energy levels alignment in the
proposed bilayer OLED structure.


Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 79-83 P a g e | 82




Fig. 5. B-V characteristics of single layer
and bilayer OLED structures.
Fig. 6. Current efficiency of single layer and
bilayer OLED structures.

The current efficiency is one the most important parameters for the OLEDs operation. It was found that the
current efficiency (Fig. 6) increases due to the charge balance caused by the efficient hole injection in the
sample. The best achieved stable value is 6 cd/A for 5.5V versus 2.3 cd/A for the same voltage for the single
layer OLED. The values are close to the reported in the literature [16], where the NPB and Alq3 layers are
consequently thermally evaporated. In previous experiments [13] it was found that spray coatings are
smoother than spin coated or vacuum deposited. This give us reason to believe that not only favorable energy
level alignment, but the lower contact resistance at the interfaces with the smoother sprayed layers may cause
such improvement of the efficiency.


Fig. 7. Photo of the prepared sample in light emissive mode.

4. CONCLUSION
In this study solved buffer layer was used to find a stable anode hole injecting system for low molecular
weight electroluminescent devices. OLED shows an enhanced electroluminescent performance after inserting
spray deposited NPB film as a hole transporting layer. The shape and the tendency in the I-V and B-V curves
after insertion of HTL are proof for the quality of the spray deposited stack of organic layers and lack of the
change in the composition near the interface NPB/Alq3. Continuity and smoothness of the NPB layer leads to
improvement of the flexible OLEDs electro-optical efficiency.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The work is financial supported by grant DMU 03/5 2011 of Fund Scientific Research, Bulgarian
Ministry of Education, Youth and Science.

REFERENCES
[1] Hori, K., Takamura, M., Yoshida, T., Suzuki, J. J., Tanaka, J. & Tsumoto, Y. (2012). Development and
Mass-Production of an OLED Lighting Panel - Most-Promising Next-Generation Lighting. Mitsubishi
Heavy Industries Technical Review, 49, pp. 47-53.
[2] Junfeng, W., Yadong, J., Yajie, Y., Junsheng, Y. & Jianhua, X. (2011). Self-Assembled of Conducting
Polymeric Nanoparticles and its Application for OLED Hole Injection Layer. Energy Procedia, 12, pp.
609-614.
[3] Li, L., Guan, M., Cao, G., Li, Y. & Zeng, Y. (2012). Low operating-voltage and high power-efficiency
OLED employing MoO
3
-doped CuPc as hole injection layer. Displays, 33, pp.17-20.

83 | P a g e M.P. Aleksandrova, G.H. Dobrikov, G. D. Kolev, I. N. Cholakova


[4] Aleksandrova, M., Rassovska, M. & Dobrikov, G. (2011). Efficiency improvement of polymer
light-emitting devices using titanium and titanium dioxide as electron injecting layers. Solid State
Electronics, 62, pp. 14-18.
[5] Zhang, X., Wu, Z., Wang, D., Wang, D. & Hou, X. (2009). Improving the stability of organic
light-emitting devices using a solution-processed hole-injecting layer. Applied Surface Science, 255, pp.
7970-7973.
[6] Li, M., Li, W., Su, W., Zang, F., Chu, B., Xin, Q., Bi, D., Li, B. & Yu, T. (2008). High efficiency and
color saturated blue electroluminescence by using 4,4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]biphenyl as
the thinner host and hole-transporter. Solid-State Electronics, 52, pp. 121-125.
[7] Feng, Z. Z., Bo, D. Z., Jun, L. C., Xin, Z. M. & Hui, X. D. (2003). Organic light-emitting diodes with a
nanostructured TiO
2
layer at the interface between ITO and NPB layers. Displays, 24, pp. 231234.
[8] Tsai, Y.S., Juang, F.S., Yang, T.H., Yokoyama, M.C., Ji, L.W. & Su, Y.K. (2008). Effects of different
buffer layers in flexible organic light-emitting diodes. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 69,
pp. 764768.
[9] Darran, R. C., David, C. P., Gregory, P. C. & Stephen, N. K. (2001). The Effect of Thermal Shrinkage on
Indium Tin Oxide Coated Polyethylene Terephthalate for Flexible Display Applications. SID Digest, pp.
654-657.
[10] Burrows, P. E., Bulovic, V., Forrest, S. R., Sapochak, L. S., McCarty, D. M. & Thompson, M. E. (1994).
Reliability and degradation of organic light emitting devices. Appl. Phys. Lett., 65, pp.2922-2924.
[11] Susanna, G., Salamandra, L., Brown, T. M., DiCarlo, A., Brunetti, F. & Reale, A. (2011). Airbrush
spray-coating of polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 95,
pp.17751778.
[12] Rietveld, I. B., Kobayashi, K., Yamada, H. & Matsushige, K. (2006). Morphology control of
poly(vinylidene fluoride) thin film made with electrospray. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science,
298, pp. 639651.
[13] Aleksandrova, M. (2012). Improvement of the Electrical Characteristics of Polymer Electroluminescent
Structures by Using Spray-Coating Technology. Journal of Coatings Technology and Research, 9, pp.
157161.
[14] Vacca, P., Petrosino, M., Miscioscia, R., Nenna, G., Minarini, C., Sala, D. D. & Rubino, A. (2008).
Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) ratio: Structural, physical and hole
injection properties in organic light emitting diodes. Thin Solid Films, 516, pp. 42324237.
[15] Nowy, S., Ren, W., Wagner, J., Weber, J. A., & Brutting, W. (2009). Impedance spectroscopy of organic
hetero-layer OLEDs as a probe for charge carrier injection and device degradation. Organic Light
Emitting Materials and Devices XIII SPIE, edited by Franky So, Proc. of SPIE, 7415, pp. 74150G 1-12.
[16] Hou, L., Liu, P., Li, Y. & Wu, C. (2009). Enhanced performance in organic light-emitting diodes by
sputtering TiO
2
ultra-thin film as the hole buffer layer. Thin Solid Films, 517, pp. 49264929.









Please cite this article as: M.P. Aleksandrova, G.H. Dobrikov, G. D. Kolev, I. N. Cholakova, (2013), Improvement Of The Injection Efficiency In Organic
Light Emitting Devices By Additional Spray Deposited Hole Transporting Layer, Science and Engineering, Vol. 1(1), 79-83


2013 (Vol. 1, No: 2)




All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
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Journal of Science and Engineering
Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 85-93

Online available since 2013/Apr/17 at www.oricpub.com
(2013) Copyright ORIC Publications

http://www.oricpub.com/journal-of-sci-and-eng

EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL ROUGHNESS ON HEAT TRANSFER
IN A SOLAR AIR HEATER

F. Chabane
1,2
, N. Moummi
1,2
, S. Benramache
3
, D. Bensahal
1
, O. Belahssen
3
1
Mechanics Department, Faculty of Sciences &Technology, University of Biskra, Algeria.
2
Mechanical Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences &Technology, University of Biskra, Algeria
3
Materials Science Department, Faculty of Science, University of Biskra, Algeria.


Abstract
The heat transfer of a solar air heater duct can be increased by providing artificial
roughness on the heated wall (i.e. the absorber plate).The thermal performance of a single
pass solar air heater with five fins attached was investigated experimentally.
Longitudinal fins were used inferior the absorber plate to increase the heat exchange and
render the flow fluid in the channel uniform. The effect of mass flow rate of air on the
outlet temperature, the heat transfer in the thickness of the solar collector was studied.
The effect of parameters on the heat transfer is compared with the result of smooth duct
under similar flow conditions. Experiments were performed for air mass flow rate m =
0.016 kg/s. Moreover, the maximum efficiency values obtained for the 0.016 with and
without using fins were 51.50 % and 43.94% respectively.

1. INTRODUCTION
Comparison of results reveals that the thermal efficiency of a single
pass solar air collector a function of mass flow rate it is higher with an
increasing the flow rate. Increasing the absorber area or fluid flow
heat-transfer area will increase the heat transfer to the flowing air, on the
other hand, will increase the pressure drop in the collector, thereby
increasing the required power consumption to pump the air flow crossing
the collector [1, 2]. On the other hand, several configurations of absorber
plates have been designed to improve the heat transfer coefficient.
Artificial roughness obstacles and baffles in various shapes and
arrangements were employed to increase the area of the absorber plate. As
a result, the heat transfer coefficient between the absorber plate and the air
pass is improved [3]. Reporting an on experimental investigation of the
thermal performance of a single and double pass solar air heater with fins
attached and a steel wire mesh as absorber plate [4]. The bed heights were
7 cm and 3 cm for the lower and upper channels respectively. The result of
a single or double solar air heater, when compared with conventional solar
air heater shows much more substantial enhancement in the thermal
efficiency. It studied numerical of the performance and entropy generation
of the double-pass flat plate solar air heater with longitudinal fins [5]. The
predictions are done at air mass flow rate ranging between 0.02 and 0.1
kg/s. Reporting used the fins serve as heat transfer augmentation features
in solar air heaters, however, they increase pressure drop in flow channels.
Results show that high efficiency of the optimized fin improves the heat
absorption and dissipation potential of a solar air heater [6]. It designed
double flow solar air heater with fins attached over and under the
absorbing plate.
Received: 08 Apr 2013
Accepted: 13 Apr 2013

Keywords:
Solar Irradiation
Thermal Efficiency
Heat Transfer Coefficient
Nusselt Number

Correspondence:
F. Chabane

Mechanics Department &
Mechanical Laboratory,
Faculty of Sciences
&Technology, University
of Biskra, Algeria.

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 85-93 P a g e | 86


This resulted in considerable improvement in collector efficiency of double flow solar air heaters with fins
compare to single flowing, operating at the same flow rate [7]. An experimental investigation carried out on
the thermal performance of the offset rectangular plate fin absorber plates with various glazing [8], in this
work, the offset rectangular plate fins, which are used in heat exchangers, are experimentally studied. As the
offset rectangular plate fins, mounted in staggered pattern and oriented parallel to the fluid flow, high thermal
performances are obtained with low-pressure losses. [9] Conducted experiments to study the performance of
three types of solar air heater, namely flat plate, finned and V-corrugated solar air heaters. The V-corrugated
collector was found to be most efficient while, the flat plate collector was the least efficient. Another work
used the cross-corrugated absorbing plate and bottom plate to enhance the turbulence and the heat transfer rate
inside the air flow channel and tested its thermal performance [10, 11]. The work titled of the studied of a
novel solar air collector of pin-fin integrated absorber was designed to increase the thermal efficiency [12]; in
the performance analysis of varying flow rate on PZ7-11.25 pin-fin arrays collector, the correlation equation
for the heat transfer coefficient is obtained and the efficiency variation vs. air flow rate is determined in this
work. Another work reported of results is compared with those obtained with a solar air collector without fins,
using two types of absorbers selective (in copper sun) or not selective (black-painted aluminum) [13]. The
report presents a solar water heater designed with a local vegetable material as insulating material, The study
focuses on the comparative thermal performance of this collector and another collector, identical in design,
fabrication, and operating under the same conditions, using glass wool as heat insulation [14]. Work reported
the effect the mass flow rate in range 0.0078 to 0.0166 kg/s on the solar collector with longitudinal fins
[15,16].The flat-plate solar air heater [1721] is considered to be a simple device consisting of one
(transparent) covers situated above an absorbing plate with the air flowing under absorber plate [20, 21] Fig. 2.
The conventional flat-plate solar air heater has been investigated for heat-transfer efficiency improvement by
introducing forced convection [22, 23] extended heat-transfer area [24, 25] and increase of air turbulence [26,
27].

2. EXPERIMENTAL
2.1. Thermal analysis and uncertainty
a. Heat transfer coefficients
The convective heat transfer coefficient h
w
for air flowing over the outside surface of the glass cover
depends primarily on the wind velocity V
wind
. McAdams [28] obtained the experimental result as:

wind w
V . . h 8 3 7 5 + =
(1)

where the units of h
w
and V
wind
are W/mK and m/s, respectively. An empirical equation for the loss
coefficient from the top of the solar collector to the ambient was developed by Klein [29].The heat transfers
coefficient between the absorber plate and the airstream is always low, resulting in low thermal efficiency of
the solar air heater. Increasing the area of the absorber plate shape will increase the heat transferred to the
following air.
b. Collector Thermal Efficiency
The efficiency of a solar collector is the ratio of the amount of useful heat collected to the total amount
of solar radiation striking the collector surface during any period of time. [3032]:

C
u
A I
Q
Surface Collector Striking Solar Total
Collected Energy Solar

= =
0
q
(2)

The equation for mass flow rate (m) is
Q m =

where is the density of air, which depends on the air temperature and Q are the volume flow rate which
depends on the pressure difference at the orifice which is measured from the inclined tube manometer and
temperature.
Useful heat collected for an air-type solar collector can be expressed as:
87 | P a g e F. Chabane, N. Moummi, S. Benramache, D. Bensahal, O. Belahssen


( )
in out p
.
u
T T C m Q = (3)


where C
p
is the specific heat of the air, A
c
is the area of the collector. The fractional uncertainty about the
efficiency from Eq. (3) is a function of T, m, and I
0
, considering C
p
and A
c
as constants.

S . V m With
f
.
=


So, collector thermal efficiency becomes,

( )
C
in out
p
.
A I
T T
C m

= q (4)

2.2. Thermal performance of conventional solar air heaters
Fig. 1 illustrates the thermal network of conventional smooth plate solar air heater. The thermal
performance of flat plate solar air heater could be observed by considering the energy balance between solar
energy absorbed by absorber plate and useful thermal energy output of the system accompanied by some
losses. The energy balance equation could be written as follows
Where Q
a
is the energy absorbed by the absorber plate, A
c
is the area of the absorber plate, I is the intensity
of insolation, R is the conversion factor to convert radiation on horizontal surface to that on the absorber
plane, ()
e
is the effective transmittance absorptance product of the glass cover-absorber plate combination,
Q
u
is the useful energy gain and Q
l
is energy loss from the collector show in Fig.1.
The useful energy gain can be expressed in terms of inlet air temperature T
in
and other system and operating
parameters as:

( ) ( ) | |
air in l e R p t
T T U IR F A Q = to (6)
(
(

|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
p
.
p l
'
l p
p
.
R
C m
A U F
exp
U A
C m
F 1
(7)

Where F
R
is the collector heat removal factor which indicates the thermal resistance meet by the absorbed
solar energy in reaching to the flowing air. U
l
is the overall loss coefficient and T
in
and T
air
are the inlet air
and ambient temperatures respectively. F is termed as collector efficiency factor which provides the relative
measurement of thermal resistance between absorber plate and ambient air to that of thermal resistance
between the air flowing through collector and the ambient air.
Collector efficiency factor (F) is expressed as:

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
e
l
'
h
U
F
1
1
(8)

( ) | |
l u c a
Q Q IR A Q + = = to
(9)

Where h
e
is the effective heat transfer coefficient between the absorber plate, and flowing air. The thermal
efficiency of the collector is the ratio of useful heat gain to the incident solar energy falling on the collector.
Therefore
( )
( )
(


= =
I
T T U
IA
Q
air in l
e
p
u
to q (10)

According to the above equation, the thermal efficiency of the solar collector could be improved by
increasing the value of F
R
which depends on collector efficiency factor F. By enhancing the heat transfer
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 85-93 P a g e | 88


coefficient between absorber plate and air, higher values of F could be achieved. Roughening of absorber
surface has been found to be the convenient and effective technique to enhance the convective heat transfer
rates from the absorber surface to air.
The thermo-physical properties of the air have been taken at the corresponding mean temperature T
f
from
the following relations of thermo-physical properties, obtained by correlating data from NBS (U.S.) [33]:

0155 . 0
293
1006
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
f
p
T
C
86 . 0
293
0257 . 0
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
f
T
k
735 . 0
5
293
10 81 . 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
f
T

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
f
T
293
204 . 1
(11)

Equations used for calculation
The following equations were used for calculating the mass flow rate of air, m (Saini and Saini, 1997), heat
energy transfer, Q
u
, heat transfer coefficient, h (Saini and Saini, 1997)[34].

( )
( )
5 0
4
0
1
2
.
p
Cd m
(

=
|
o
(11)
( )
f p p
u
T T A
Q
h

=
(12)

where T
p
and T
f
are average values of absorber plate temperature and air temperature, respectively. The
average temperature of the plate was determined from the temperature recorded at three different locations
along the test section of the absorber plate. It was found that the temperature of the absorber plate varies
predominantly in the flow direction only and is linear. The air temperature was determined as an average of
the temperatures measured at three central locations over the test length of the duct along the flow direction.
The Nusselt number was calculated by using the following equation:

k
hD
Nu
h
= (13)

The Prandtl Number is a dimensionless number approximating the ratio of momentum diffusivity (kinematic
viscosity) and thermal diffusivity and can be expressed:

k
C
p

= Pr
(14)

2.3. Description of solar air heater considered in this work
A schematic view of the constructed single flow under an absorber plate and in hollow of semi cylindrical
fins which located under an absorber plate system of collector is shown in Fig. 1, the photographs of two
different absorber plates of the collectors and the view of the absorber plate in the collector box are shown in
Fig. 2, respectively. The absorbers were made of galvanized iron sheet with black chrome selective coating.
The plate thickness of a collector was 0.5 mm. The cover window type the Plexiglas of 3 mm thickness was
used as glazing. Single transparent cover was used of a collector. Thermal losses through the collector backs
are mainly; due to the conduction across the insulation (thickness 4 cm), those caused by the wind and the
thermal radiation of the insulation are assumed negligible. After installation, the collector was left operating
several days under normal weather conditions for weathering processes.
Thermocouples were positioned evenly, on the top surface of the absorber plates, at identical positions along
the direction of flow, for both collectors. Inlet and outlet air temperature were measured by two well
insulated thermocouples. The output from the thermocouples was recorded in degrees Celsius by using a
digital thermocouple thermometer DM6802B: measurement range 50 to 1300 C (58 to 1999 F),
resolution: 1C or 1F, accuracy: 2.2 C or 0.75 % of reading and Non-Contact digital infrared
thermometer temperature laser gun model number: TM330: accuracy 1.5 C/1.5 %, measurement range
50 to 330 C (58 to 626 F) resolution 0.1 C or 0.1 F, emissivity 0.95. A digital thermometer measured
the ambient temperature with sensor in display LCD CCTV-PM0143 placed in a special container behind
89 | P a g e F. Chabane, N. Moummi, S. Benramache, D. Bensahal, O. Belahssen


the collectors body. The total solar radiation incident on the surface of the collector was measured with a
Kipp and Zonen CMP 3 Pyran-ometer. This meter was placed adjacent to the glazing cover, at the same
plane, facing due south. The measured variables were recorded at intervals of 15 min and include: insolation,
inlet and outlet temperatures of the working fluid circulating through the collectors, ambient temperature,
absorber plate temperatures at several selected locations and air flow rates (Lutron AM-4206M digital
anemometer). All tests began at 9 AM and ended at 4 PM.
The layout of the solar air collector studied is shown in Figs. 2, 3. The collector A served as the baseline
one, with the parameters as:
- The solar collecting area was 2 m (length) 1 m (width);
- The installation angle of the collector was 45 from horizontal;
- Height of the stagnant air layer was 0.02 m;
- Thermal insulation board EPS (expanded polystyrene board), with thermal conductivity 0.037 W/(m
K), was put on the exterior surfaces of the back, and side plates, with a thickness of 40 mm.
- The absorber was of a plate absorption coefficient = 0.95, the transparent cover transmittance = 0.9
and absorption of the glass covers,
g
= 0.05;
- 16 positions of thermocouples connected to plates and two thermocouples to outlet and inlet flow.
- Five fins under the absorber plate with a semi cylindrical longitudinal form was 1.84 m (length) 0.03
m (Radian); the distance between two adjacent fins and fins are 120 and mm respectively and 5 mm
thickness Fig. 3.

Fig. 1. Thermal network of flat plate solar air heater.



Fig. 2. Schematic view of the solar air collector
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 85-93 P a g e | 90



Fig. 3. Composition of a solar box with and without fins.
3. RESULTS

Fig. 4 Average temperature in the thickness of a solar collector versus the whole area of the solar collector plates for a single pass
solar air heater, with flow rates of 0.016 kg/s, for the solar collectors with & without using fins.
Figs. 4a & 4b show the average temperature distribution in the thickness of a solar collector, indicated
the variation of the average temperature correspondent the transparent cover, absorber plate, bottom plate
and exterior plate. We can be seen the difference in Figs. 4a, 4b; at the mass flow rates 0.016 kg.s
-1
the
change curves its remarkable; and the role of the fins that allows cooled absorber and ensures a better heat
exchange, we can be seen in the figures, when to increase the mass flow rates are effect on the temperature
of the bottom plate and the temperature of an absorber plate by rates between 4 and 6 C, for the solar
collector without using fins and with fins; the temperature of the bottom plate and the absorber plate
correspondent 0.016 kg.s
-1
were (T
bp
= 78.75 C), (T
ab
= 93.03 C) and (T
bp
= 74.50 C), (T
ab
= 94.02 C)
respectively. The collectors are mounted on a metal frame galvanized. In field the solar energy passing
through the cover glass is absorbed by the absorber plate. The heat generated is then transferred to the
collector fluid [32].

Fig. 5. Hourly variation of solar irradiation, for months of February & May (2012).
b
a
91 | P a g e F. Chabane, N. Moummi, S. Benramache, D. Bensahal, O. Belahssen


Fig.5 shows the hourly variations of the measured solar radiation of different conditions of the days with
about flat-plate and with using fins back the absorber plate, correspondent of months such as January,
February and May when m = 0.016 kg/s, respectively Fig. 5 that the maximum values of solar radiation I are
895 W/m, about flat-plate corresponding the day 19/02/2012 and the solar intensity in the day 15/05/2012
are 757 W/m, when m = 0.016 kg/s, correspondent solar collector with fins; while, their daily average
values are obtained as 803.5 W/m for flat-plate, about solar collector with fins as 673.5 and 691 W/m. The
temperatures of the various elements its increase with time as the solar radiation increases to show their
maximum values at 13:00, Comparisons between the measured solar intensity of the following time of the
day, are shown in (Fig. 3), on 19 February 2012 and 15 May 2012 of the flat-plate and with using fins, when
mass flow rate m = 0.016 kg/s [3539]; the difference solar irradiation same 138 W/m. Remark that the low
solar intensity in May cause the tilt angle kept for all the months, the effect tilt angle onto the thermal
characteristics or performance of solar air heaters [16, 17].

Fig. 6. Average temperature along the length of solar collectors versus thickness of panel of between 0 and 0.1 m for single pass
solar air heater, at flow rates of 0.016 kg/s, corresponding with & without using fins.

Figs. 6a & 6b shows the average temperature of a solar collector as a function to length from 0.388 to
1.552 m, correspondent the mode without using fins at mass flow rate were 0.012 kg/s. We can be seen the
curves of the bottom plate in a length of x
2
= 0.776 m at m = 0.016 kg.s
-1
is (T
bp
= 84.50 C) and the average
temperature of an absorber plate (T
ab
= 89.50 C), the average temperature of the bottom plate take the more
heat from an absorber plate; means the fluid which is between the bottom plate and an absorber plate take to
the heat from the absorber plate. The temperature of an absorber plate at the point x
2
decreased; cause the air
flow in channel and become stable for all points.
We can be seen in Fig. 6, that the difference average temperature both x
1
and x
2
; means T
ab
(x
2
) <
(T
ab
(x
3
), T
ab
(x
4
)) < T
ab
(x
1
) this make clear the fluid take a few heat energies for each location a length of a
solar collector exceptional in a point x
2
. We can be said when increase the mass flow rate are effected on the
average temperature of an absorber plate and decreases slightly, exceptional in x
2
, about this location x
2
; we
can be seen the average temperature of the bottom plate approaching to the average temperature of an
absorber plate does not prospective; its could be the fluid take more the heat energy from the absorber plate
and in the same time that the bottom plate take this energy too, this is a result not to air distribution well.


4. CONCLUSION
The present studied that aim to review of designed and analyzed a heat transfer of solar air heater.
Experimental study comparison of a solar collector without using fins and with using fins attached back the
absorber plate. The efficiency of the solar air collectors depends significantly on the solar radiation; mass
flow rate and surface geometry of the collectors and with using fins back the absorber plate. The temperature
of the solar collector improve with increasing solar intensity at mass flow rate 0.016 kg/s, due to enhanced
b
a
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 85-93 P a g e | 92


heat transfer to the air flow. The efficiency of the solar air collector is proven to be higher. The highest
collector efficiency and air temperature rise were achieved by the finned collector with a tilt angle of 45,
whereas the lowest values were obtained from the collector without using fins.

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Please cite this article as: F. Chabane, N. Moummi, S. Benramache, D. Bensahal, O. Belahssen, (2013), Effect Of Artificial Roughness On Heat Transfer In A
Solar Air Heater, Science and Engineering, Vol. 1(2), 85-93






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Journal of Science and Engineering
Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 95-101

Online available since 2013/Apr/17 at www.oricpub.com
(2013) Copyright ORIC Publications

http://www.oricpub.com/journal-of-sci-and-eng

THE PREPARATION OF POLYETHYLENE AND MINERAL MATERIAL
COMPOSITES, AND EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL (USING MCNP
CODE) VERIFICATION OF THEIR CHARACTERISTICS FOR NEUTRON BEAM
ATTENUATION

Majid Zarezadeh

Standard Organization of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran


Abstract
In this research, attenuation of neutron flux from Cf
252
source and neutron generator
in collision with polyethylene shields containing different wt% of Boric acid has been
studied experimentally and theorically using MCNP Code. The results show that with
changing the energy of neutron for obtaining optimum attenuation, the wt% of Boric
acid should be changed. The experimental results were matched with simulation data.
It has been shown that the polyethylene shields containing 15%wt boric acid the proper
shield for attenuation Cf
252
neutron flux. For 14MeV neutron generator flux the
polyethylene with 7%wt Boric acid are reasonable.


1. INTRODUCTION
Regard to increase in using nuclear energy in countries and industrial
scientific centers, the importance protect of employee of this place is
clear for scientist. Nuclear equipment and instrumentation make a large
use of neutron shield materials. among nuclear particles neutron has a
especial place for research works because it has no any charge and
power of influence. Employees that work in reactor and neutron
generator accelerator may damage from neutron. Mix of Polyethylene
and mineral element like Cadmium, Lithium, Boron are good absorbent
for neutron[2,3,4]. These materials have been always used in
complexes like B
4
C and LiF that are expensive materials and high cost
prevents their generalized use. Regarding the big cross section of boron
for neutron complexes of boron is employed more than other complexes.
Boric acid B(OH)
3
is cheaper than other boron materials and we can mix
this complex with polyethylene and make a good shield for neutron. In
this paper we have presented a method to make and test a new neutron
shield. The percentage of mixture is an important point to make
neutron shield so at first some mixture has been simulated with MCNP4c
code for mix7%,15%,25%,35% boric acid and tested with Cf
252
,neutron
generator with code then through experiment[2].

2. HOW TO MAKE NEUTRON SHIELD MATERIALS
For making polymeric shield complex of Boric acid and polyethylene
has been used. After wt% chemical calculation in different %wt and
simulation with computer the sample with 7,15,25,35 wt% boric acid and
polyethylene have been made.
Received: 01 Apr 2013
Accepted: 15 Apr 2013


Correspondence:
Majid Zarezadeh

Standard Organization of
Hormozgan
Bandar Abbas, Iran
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 95-101 P a g e | 96


For making polymeric shield we must attend to some point. First because of the low density of boric
acid as compared with polyethylene and more melt temperature of boric acid with regard to polyethylene,
the boric acid powder has been deposited. Second point regard to toxic hot boric acid at the moment of
warming up, the user should be cautious.
Making polymeric layer shield has three phases is that the:

Melting PE and mixing with boric acid
Cooling mix sample and rolling pin
Re melting and pressing mix sample then shaping shield

Phases and the needed time are shown in table1.

Table 1.phase of work and time
Stage of phases Needed time(in minute)
Melting and mixing the samples 20
Cooling and to dough samples 60
Re melt and pressing samples 15

In the first stage in regard to chemical calculation mix sample material was hold in plant. This machine is
adjustable in temperature and time, capacity of this plant was 200 cm
3
in any use. Melting temperature of PE
is 180
o
in centigrade degree and the machine should be fixed in this temperature. At first PE must be strew
in the machine and heated for 5 min then boric acid must to strewed in it, mixed and melted with PE for 15
min simultaneously. In any use of machine total time was 20 minutes. After this stage let them get cold
for 60 min. At last stage the mix must be re melt and pressed. This stage has five sub stages that we can
see in table2.

Table2.re melt and to press sub stage
stage Temperature(in
centigrade)
Time(in second) Press(bar)
1 120 50 10
2 180 65 20
3 180 100 25
4 180 140 15
5 0 120 0

The three dimensions of mix sample shield was 10cm width*15cm length*2mm of thickness. It must be
noted in sub stage temperature 180
0
centigrade was the melt temperature of PE and is needed to shape the
mix sample lactic and in this way the distribution of boron in PE became homogeneous.

Table3.density of sample
Shield model Density of sample gr/cm
3
PE mix with 7% boric acid 0.85
PE mix with 15% boric acid 0.86
PE mix with 25% boric acid 0.88
PE mix with 35% boric acid 0.92

3. ATTENUATION OF NEUTRON BEAM THROUGH SHIELDS
In order to experiment the attenuation of neutron beams in polymeric shield two methods was committed.
once through using Cf
252
with middle energy 2Mev and second through using neutron generator with
14Mev energy. the simulation of this experiment has been done through MCNP4c code.

3.1 Attenuation of neutron beams of Cf
252
source through polymeric shield
The activity of Cf
252
source was 100Ci. In this experiment to detect neutron, a gaseous BF
3
detector
has been used[1]. Cf
252
source has a gamma spectrum and reaction of neutron with polymeric shield
materials has (n,) reaction. Regard to this point in experiments separating of gamma from neutron is
97 | P a g e M. Zarezadeh


important. BF
3
detector detect and count both gamma and neutron particles. Simulation with MCNP4c
Code has shown that neutron collision with material shield causes gamma ray with 2.2Mev for hydrogen,
4.9Mev for carbon, 0.47Mev for boron. other gammas of material shield have been imperceptible on
gamma spectrum in simulation. Regard to this gamma spectrum in MCNP4c Code, BF
3
detector has been
placed in a gamma shield in order to reduce the gamma detect and count through BF
3
detector. This shield
was a layer of lead that was simulated whit code. The use of collimator helps to collimate the neutron
beams. This collimator was made of Iron, paraffin, cadmium. Backscattering neutrons can damage count
and detect so a neutron shield includes 5cm lead,1mm cadmium , 5 cm polyethylene that have been placed
around detector. The set up has been shown in figure1. Important point in this experiment was the
separation of neutron and gamma ray. Gamma separation has been done through proper electronic or place
lead between sample and detector. The electronic has been shown in figure 2.

















Fig1. Set up of neutron attenuation experiment with Cf
252



















Fig2. Electronic of experiment with Cf
252


3.2 Attenuation of neutron beams of Neutron generator14Mev through polymeric shield
The yield of neutron generator was 10
9
-10
10
neutron per second in each use. In the second experiment
neutron generator with 14Mev energy has been used. Neutron generator output has mono energy beams.
Regard to the high energy of neutron in this experiment the probability of production (n,2n) reaction
increases. In simulation with MCNP4c code fast neutron reaction with iron and cadmium in neutron
spectrum (n,2n) has been seen. There was two peaks in neutron (n,2n) reaction spectrum in 8 Mev for
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 95-101 P a g e | 98


cadmium and 5 Mev for iron. The set up of this experiment was like the set up with Cf
252
source. Gamma
spectrum simulation has shown that gamma peaks were more than gamma peaks of Cf
252
source reaction.
In this spectrum added gamma peaks in (n,) of Cf
252
were because of fast neutron, gammas of oxygen and
metals of collimator has been traced in simulation so in this experiment gamma ray was more than the first
experiment with Cf
252
source. For detect and count neutrons in this experiment two NE102 scintillator
detectors have been used [4]. One of these detectors was counter and the other was used to normalize each
count. In each use neutron generator yield changed so one detector has been used for normalize was
necessary. Gamma and neutron backscattering was more than Cf
252
source experiment so the shield round
detector should be more thick than in the first experiment. Electronic of this experiment has been shown in
figure3.




Fig3. Electronic of experiment with Neutron generator



4 .EXPRIMENT RESULTS
After doing the experiment and radiation of polymeric shields analysis the result was analyzed. To
reduce error and increase accuracy, each experiment repeated for 3 times. Half Value Layer (HVL) of each
polymeric shield has been shown in table4 , 5. Neutron attenuation on polymeric shields is shown in
figure4,5.

Table4.HVL in experiment with Cf
252
source
Shield class
Mix 7%wt
boric acid
Mix 15%wt
boric acid
Mix 25%wt
boric acid
Mix 35%wt
boric acid
Polyethylene
HVL(mm) 18 12 14 14 18

Table5.HVL in experiment with neutron generator
Shield class
Mix 7%wt
boric acid
Mix 15%wt
boric acid
Mix 25%wt
boric acid
Mix 35%wt
boric acid
Polyethylene
HVL(cm) 7 8 8 8 8
99 | P a g e M. Zarezadeh




















fig4. Neutron attenuation of Cf
252
source on polymeric shields



fig5. Neutron attenuation of neutron generator on polymeric shields

The results show that for 14Mev neutron mix 15%wt boric acid with polyethylene had the best
attenuation and for Cf
252
source with a middle 2Mev energy mix 7%wt boric acid with polyethylene had
the best attenuation. Results show that increase of boron in mix composite isnt a good method, being
hydrogen and moderator property of these elements are important causes of decreasing neutron energy.
Neutron collisions with hydrogen atom in shield have reduced the neutron energy to thermal, then boron
atom with a big cross section absorbs neutron particles so much increase in boron composite may be
damaging and decrease the attenuation property of shields.

14Mev neutron attenuation on polymeric shields
0.00E+00
5.00E+06
1.00E+07
1.50E+07
2.00E+07
2.50E+07
0 2 4 6 8
Thickness of polymeric shields[cm]
p
a
r
t
i
c
l
e

f
l
u
x
/
[
c
m
-
2
.
s
-
1
]
Polyethylene(PE)
Mix 15 wt% boric acid
with PE
Mix 7 wt% boric acid
with PE
Mix 35 wt% boric acid
with PE
Mix 25 wt% boric acid
with PE
Neutron Attenuation on polymeric shields
0.00E+00
5.00E+03
1.00E+04
1.50E+04
2.00E+04
2.50E+04
3.00E+04
0 5 10 15 20
Thickness of polymeric shields[mm]
P
a
r
t
i
c
l
e
s

f
l
u
x
/
c
m
-
2
.
s
-
1
Mix 35 wt% boric acid wit
PE
Mix 25 wt% boric acid
with PE
Mix 15 wt% boric acid
with PE
Mix 7 wt% boric acid with
PE
Polyethylene(PE)
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 95-101 P a g e | 100



















Fig6. Gamma spectrum of Cf
252
with polymeric shields


Fig7. Gamma spectrum of neutron generator(14Mev) with polymeric shields

Figures 6,7show the gamma spectrum of (n,) reaction of Cf
252
and neutron generator with polymeric
shields. in both spectrums 6.13Mev for oxygen and 4.7Mev for carbon. A 0.47Mev for boron atom can be
seen.

5. CONCLUSIONS
Percentage of materials in making polymeric shield is an important point. Regard to this point increase or
decrease of each material can change the attenuation or HVL of each shield. Increase of some materials like
hydrogen can make prompt gamma so this is one of the short comings of shields. Because simulation with
MCNP4c Code had a good mach well with experiment, mix of PE and boric acid between 7-15 wt% can
have an optimum attenuation for shields.

REFERENCES
[1]S.C.Gupta, G.L.Baheti, B.P.Gupta(2000) . Applcation of hydrogel system for neutron attenuation.
Radiation Physics and Chemistry , vol 59, pp103-107
[2]Y.Sakurai,A.Sasaki,T.Kobayashi(2004) . Development of neutron shielding material using
metathesis-polymer matrix , Nuclear Instrument and Method in Physics Research A,vol 522 , pp 455-461
Gamma spectrum of neutron generator(14Mev)
with sample
1.00E+00
1.00E+01
1.00E+02
1.00E+03
1.00E+04
0 2 4 6 8 10
Energy[Mev]
P
a
r
t
i
c
l
e

f
l
u
x
[
c
m
-
2
.
s
-
1
]
Mix 35% wt boric acid
with PE
Mix 7% wt oric acid
with PE
Mix 15% boric acid
with PE
Mix 25% wt boric acid
with PE
Gamma spectrum of 252Cf source with sample
1.00E-02
1.00E-01
1.00E+00
1.00E+01
1.00E+02
1.00E+03
1.00E+04
0 3 6 9 12
Energy[Mev]
P
a
r
t
i
c
l
e

f
l
u
x
[
c
m
-
2
.
s
-
1
]
Mix 25% wt boroc
acid with PE
Mix 7% wt boric acid
with PE
Mix 15% wt boric
acid with PE
Mix 35% wt boric
acid with PE
Polyethylene(PE)
101 | P a g e M. Zarezadeh


(2004)
[3]V.E.Aleinikov, L.G.Beskrovnaja, B.V.Florko(2002) .Characteristics of polyethylene-moderatored
Cf
252
neutron source , Nuclear Instrument and Methods in Physics Research A , vol476 , pp378380
[4]El-Khatib, A.M., Fawzy, M.A., Abou Taleb, W.M.(1996) .Attenuation of D-T puls neutron in borated
low density polyethylene , Material Letters , vol 26(1/2),pp59-63



















Please cite this article as: M. Zarezadeh, (2013), The Preparation Of Polyethylene And Mineral Material Composites, And Experimental And Theoretical
(Using Mcnp Code) Verification Of Their Characteristics For Neutron Beam Attenuation, Science and Engineering, Vol. 1(2), 95-101






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Journal of Science and Engineering
Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 103-120

Online available since 2013/Apr/17 at www.oricpub.com
(2013) Copyright ORIC Publications

http://www.oricpub.com/journal-of-sci-and-eng

NATURAL FREQUENCY, MODE SHAPE, BUCKLING AND
POST-BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF MEMS WITH VARIOUS CLAMPED
POSITION

Milad Faraji
1
, Morteza Dardel
1
, Mohammad Hadi Pashaei
1
1
Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Mazandaran, Iran


Abstract
In this paper the buckling and post-buckling analysis of parallel beams with various
clamped position between them for different ends supports were investigated
analytically. Moreover, the natural frequencies of this mechanism were obtained. In this
way, the equations of motions and boundary conditions derived based on Euler-
Bernoulli theory and Hamilton principle. Also, by solving linear part of equations of
motion statically, the buckled critical loads and corresponded mode shapes were
acquired. Considering buckled configuration as multiplication of linear mode shape
with unknown amplitude then solving nonlinear equations of motions statically, gives
buckled configuration amplitude. In addition, by solving dynamic equation of motions,
the natural frequencies of system have been obtained in each given axial loads. The
effects of numbers and location of clamped positions, between parallel beams and end
supports on buckled and post-buckled mode shapes, as well as the natural frequencies
has been investigated.

1- INTRODUCTION
Micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) have large usage in
various fields such as surgerys instruments, bio-mechanic, valves and
generally in precision engineering. In addition, since the range of motion
of MEMS is limited so, additional movement is not suitable and reduced
the performance. Consequently, mechanisms with specified stable
positions such as bi-stable and multi-stable mechanisms appropriated. So
there are several articles which have been these issues such as: Jin Qiu
[1] presented a monolithic mechanically bi-stable mechanism that
doesnt rely on residual stress for its bi-stability and investigated force-
displacement curve of parallel center clamped beams with clamped end
supports. Nima Tolou [2] obtained the effect of change of parameters
such as initial angle, pre-loading and thickness on the behavior of force-
displacement curve. J.Prasad [3] presented a formulation for the
automatic synthesis of two-dimensional bi-stable, compliant periodic
structures. Daniel. L. Wilcox [4] developed and introduced a new class
of micro bi-stable mechanisms, the fully compliant tensural bi-stable
mechanism class, by describing the basic phenomena. Enikov et al [5]
designed a v-shaped thermal micro actuator with buckling beams.
Nevertheless, the precise computation model for the buckled and post-
buckled beam based on the large deflection theory has not been built yet.
Seide [6] discussed the accuracy of some numerical methods for column
buckling. Mau [7] studied the stability of the post-buckling paths of
columns with discrete spring supports.

Received: 31 Mar 2013
Accepted: 14 Apr 2013

Keywords:
MEMS
Center Clamp Beam
Buckling
Post-Buckling
Axial Load
Correspondence:
Morteza Dardel
Babol Noshirvani
University of Technology,
Mazandaran, Iran

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 103-120 P a g e | 104


Fang and Wickert [8] studied the static deformation of micro machined beams under in-plane
compressive stress. Wang [9] presented the complete post-buckled and deformation of an elastic rod, one
end fixed and one end pinned. Coffin and Bloom [10] analyzed the post-buckled response of an elastic and
hygrothermal beam fully restrained against axial expansion.
Li and Zhou [11] studied the post-buckled behavior of a hinge-fixed beam under evenly distributed follower
forces. Zhao and Jia [12] have studied the governed differential equations of post-buckled clamped-clamped
inclined beams. They also, investigated the effects of central force on beams behavior. But, the influences
of changing different parameters specially clamped position between parallel beams on buckled and post-
buckled mode shapes and natural frequencies havent been investigated, so, in this article this issue was
investigated. Generally, stable mechanisms can be divided into three main categories: mono-stable, bi-stable
and multi-stable. A mechanism with two stable equilibrium positions within its range of motion is called bi-
stable. Also, a mechanism with more than two stable positions is called multi-stable. One of the unique
advantages of these mechanisms is their ability to hold system stable in the presence of small external
disturbance without applying external force. These mechanisms have an important force-displacement
curve, which explain important advantages of bi-stable and multi-stable mechanisms such as negative
stiffness [13], input and output energy, input and output force and so on. With these especial advantages, bi-
stable and multi-stable mechanisms have widely usage in MEMS such as relays [14, 15], valves [16-18] and
in particular in precision engineering like laparoscopic graspers with two or more stable positions [19].


Figure 1. Curve-shaped center clamped beam with clamped end supports and axial and center force loads.

Bi-stable and multi-stable mechanisms in their simplified model can be assumed as a parallel beams with
different shape such as v-shape or curve-shaped.
In this article buckling and post-buckling mode shapes and natural frequencies of parallel beams with
various clamped positions and different end support were investigated analytically. In this way, linear and
non-linear equations of motions of beams were derived based on Euler-Bernoulli theory and Hamilton
principle. By solving the linear equation of motion of beams the critical buckled axial loads for different
mode shapes and buckled mode shapes with unknown amplitudes obtained. Then, by solving the nonlinear
equation of motion with initial values which were obtained by solving the linear equation of motion, the
post-buckled mode shapes were obtained. In addition, by solving the dynamic equation of motion with the
time terms the natural frequencies for different mode shapes were acquired.

2- NONLINEAR EQUATION OF MOTION OF PARALLEL BEAMS WITH CLAMPED
BETWEEN THEM
In this part shown how the buckled and post-buckled mode shapes obtained. In this way firstly non-linear
equation of motion of beam according to Euler-Bernoulli theory investigated. Then, the buckled mode
obtained from solving the linear equation of motion of beam which extracted from non-linear equations.
Afterward, by solving linear equation of motion buckled modes, critical axial loads and initial values for
post-buckled modes investigated. Hence, by solving the non-linear equations of motions with initial values
which were extracted from solving the linear part, the post buckled mode shapes investigated. In addition,
this post-buckled mode generated by axial load which is deforms beams shape into curve shape.
According to Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, displacement component of any point of a beam are given by
[20]:

0
0 0
,
i
i i i i i
w
u u z w w
x
c
=
c
= (1)
105 | P a g e M. Faraji, M. Dardel, M. H. Pashaei


Where the axial displacement was denoted by
i
u and the transverse displacement was denoted by
i
w of a
point with height of
i
z . In addition,
0 i
u and
0 i
w denotes these quantities for mid-plane of the beam. The
subscript i refer to ith segment of the beam as shown in Fig. 1.
The components of strain and stress were given by [20]:

2
2
0 0 0
2
1
2
i i i
xx i
u w w
z
x x x
c
c c c | |
+
|
c c c
\ .
= (2)
0
zz zx
c c = = (3)
2
2
0 0 0
2
1
2
i i i
xx i i i i
u w w
E E z E
x x x
o
c c c | |
+
|
c c c
\ .
=
(4)
0
zz zx
o o = = (5)

Where , and are the beams young modulus, axial strain and shear strain, respectively for each
segment of the beam. Accordingly,
xx
o ,
zz
o , and
zx
o are related stresses For Euler-Bernoulli beam
theory. The strain energy ( ) and kinetic energy ( T ) and work of the beam is given by [20]:

2
2 4 2 2
2 2 2
2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 2 2
1 1
2
2 4
i i i i i i i i i
i i i i
i
V
u w w u w u w w w
E z z z dV
x x x x x x x x x

| | c c c c c c c c c | | | | | | | |
= +
| | | | |
c c c c c c c c c
\ . \ . \ . \ .
(
+ +
( \ .

}}

(6)
2
2 2
2 2
2 0 0 0 0 0
1
2
2
i i i i i
i
i
V
i i
u w u w
T d
w
z z
t t x t t x
V
t


(
= +
(

| | c c c c c | | | |
+
| | |
c c c c c c c
\ . \ .
\ . (

}}}

(7)
( )
2
1
2
0 0
1
,
2
i
i
L
i i
P
i
L
u w
W P x t dx
x x
(
c c | |
+
(
|
c c
\ .
(

=

}
(8)

Where:
( ) ( ) , , P x t p x t A =

By using extended Hamiltons principle, two coupled nonlinear equations of motions are as follows:

( )
( )
2
4 2 2 2 4 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 2 2 2 2 4 2
2
0 0
2
3
2
,
, 0
i i i i i
i
i i i i
i i i i i i i i i i
i i
w w u w u w w w w
I A E A E I E A
x t t x x x x x x x
P x t
w w
P x t
x x x

| | c c c c c c c c c | |
+ + +
| |
c c c c c c c c c c
\ .
\ .
c ( c c
=
(
c c

(9)
( )
2 2 2
0 0 0 0
2 2 2
,
0
i
i i i i
i i i i i i
P x t
u w w u
A E A E A
t x x x x

( c
c c c c
+ + =
(
c c c c c

(10)

And boundary conditions are as follows:

( )
2
1
3
3 3
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 2 3
1
,
2
0
i
i
L
i i i i i i
i i i i i i i i i
L
w u w w w w
I E A E A E I P x t w
x t x x x x x
o
c c c c c c | | (
+
|
(
c c c c c c c
\ .

+ =

(11)
( )
2
1
2
0 0
0
1
2
0 ,
i
i
L
i i
i i i i i
L
w u
E A E A P x t u
x x
o

c c | |
( +

|
c c
\ .

= (12)
i
E
xx
c
zx
c
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 103-120 P a g e | 106


2
1
2
0 0
2
0
i
i
L
i i
i i
L
w w
E I
x x
o
c c (
=
(
| |

c
\

|
c
.
(13)

Following dimensionless quantities were introduced as:

2
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
, , , , , , ,
i i i i i
i i i i
i i
I E I E A x w u L PL
W U r s
L L L A r E I E A E I
| o o = = = = = = = = (14)

So, equations of motions and boundary conditions in final dimensionless forms will be:

2
2 2 4 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 2 4 2 2 2
3
0
2
i i i i i i i i
i i i i
i
U W U W W W W W
s s
o
| |
|
| | | | c c c c c c c c
+ + =
| |
c c c c c c c c
\ . \ .
(15)
2 2
0 0 0
2 2

0
i i i
W W U

c c c
+ =
c c c
(16)
2
1
3
3 2
2 2 0 0 0 0 0
0 2 3
1

2
0
i
i
L
i i i i i
i i i
L
i
W U W W W
s s W
o
o
|
|
| | | c c c c c
| +
|
|
c c c c c
. \
.
=
\

(17)
1
2
0 0
2
0

0
i
L
i i
W W
o

| | c c
|
c c
\
=
.
(18)
2
1
2
2
0 0
0 2 2

2
0
1
i
i
L
i i
i
i i
L
U W
U
s
o
o
|
| | c c

|
c c
\
| |
| =
|
\ .
.
(19)

3- Analytical Solution for buckled mode
For investigating buckled and post-buckled mode of beam with different clamped position, the time
dependent terms were ignored and P was assumed to be constant. In buckling analysis critical values of
( )
c c
P o at which a change in beam shape deformation due to axial load occurs, was determined. Buckling
load can be determined from linear theory. Meanwhile, buckling loads show bifurcation values for changing
beam deformation due to axial loads.
For investigating the buckled mode of the beam, the linear part of Eq. (15) and Eq. (17) should be
derived. So the buckling equation of motion was obtained as:

4 2 2
0 0
4 2 2

0
i i
i
W W o
|
c c
+ =
c c
(20)

A solution in the form of
0
sx
i i
W Ce = was assumed for Eq. (20). By solving the related characteristic
equation, following form of the solution will be obtained:

( )
0 1 2 3 4
cos sin( )
i i i i i
W C C C C = + + +
(21)

Where
i
i
o

|
= . In addition, the constants and value of buckling load P in can be
determined by applying boundary conditions to Eq.(21).
For example, solution of
0 i
W for center clamped with clamped-clamped end supports were obtained in
follows. Boundary conditions at the end supports are:
1 2 3 4
, , ,
i i i i
C C C C
107 | P a g e M. Faraji, M. Dardel, M. H. Pashaei


( )
( )
( )
( )
10
10
20
20
0
0 0, 0
1
1 0, 0
W
W
W
W

c
= =
c
c
= =
c
(22)

And boundary conditions at the clamp point between parallel beams which was defined with
1
L are:

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
10 1 20 1
10 1 20 1
W L W L
dW L dW L
d d
=
=
(23)
3 3
20 10
2 2 1 1 3 3
2 2
20 10
2 2 1 1 2 2
0
0
w w
E I E I
x x
w w
E I E I
x x
c c
=
c c
c c
+ =
c c

(24)

Now, by substituting
10
W and
20
W in boundary condition of Eq.(22-24), following equations resulted:

11 13
0 C C + = (25)
12 14
0 C C + = (26)
( ) ( )
21 22 23 24
cos sin 0 C C C C + + + = (27)
( ) ( )
22 23 24
sin cos 0 C C C + = (28)
( ) ( ) ( )
11 12 1 13 1 14 1 21 22 1 23 1 24 1
cos sin cos sin( ) 0 C C L C L C L C C L C L C L + + + = (29)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
12 13 1 14 1 22 23 1 24 1
sin cos sin cos 0 C C L C L C C L C L + + = (30)
( ) ( )
3 3 3 3
23 2 2 24 2 2 13 1 1 14 1 1
sin cos( ) sin cos( ) 0 C E I C E I C E I C E I + = (31)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
23 2 2 24 2 2 13 1 1 14 1 1
cos sin cos sin 0 C E I C E I C E I C E I + = (32)

Which by writing Eqs. (25-32) in matrix form, and solving the related eigenvalue problem, the buckled
mode shapes and critical buckling loads of
c
P were determined.

4- Analytical Solution for post-buckled mode
For investigating post-buckled mode the nonlinear form of Eq. (15) without considering time dependent
terms should be solved. The buckling load as described in section 3, give the critical values for which a
change in which the beam mode shape due to axial load will occur. Before the first buckling load, the beam
deflection is zero. Greater than this critical value, a deflection occur in the beam. But the deflection of beam
for values of axial load greater than critical buckling load cannot be determined from linear theory. Linear
theory only gives the limiting values for changing the shape of the deflection of the beam. The defection of
the beam after deflection must be obtained through the including the nonlinear terms.
For post-buckling analysis, ( ) P o is assigned to the valued obtained from linear buckling analysis of
( )
c c
P o . Hence in post-buckling analysis P is known.
For solving this nonlinear equation, firstly axial deflection ( ) should be solved in Eq. (16) and
substituted in Eq. (15) as:

2
2
0 0
2
1
2
i i
U W

| | c c c
=
|
c c c
\ .

(33)
0 i
U
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 103-120 P a g e | 108


2
0 0
1
1
2
i i
i
U W
C

| | c c
= +
|
c c
\ .

(34)
( )
2
0
0 1 2
0
1
2
i
i i i
W
U d C C

| | c
= + +
|
c
\ .
}

(35)

Then, by applying boundary conditions for in-plane displacement at each ends of beams,
0 i
U can be
expressed in terms of
0 i
W . Hence
0 i
U can be removed from equations, and nonlinear equation of motion can
be described in terms of
0 i
W . The procedure in applied to center clamped beams with clamped-clamped end
supports as follows.
For this beam boundary conditions of
0 i
U at each ends and clamped point are:

( ) ( )
10 20
0 0, 1 0 U U = = (36)
( ) ( )
10 1 20 1
U L U L = (37)
2 2
2 2 10 20 20 10
2 2
1 1
0
2 2
U U W W
o o

| | | | c c c c
=
| |
c c c c
\ . \ .

(38)

By applying boundary conditions of Eq.(36), ( )
0 i
U can be obtained as follows:

( )
2
10
10 11
0
1
2
W
U C d

| | c
=
|
c
\ .
}
(39)
( ) ( )
2
1
20
20 21
1
1
2
W
U C d

| | c
= +
|
c
\ .
}
(40)

Then, by substituting
0 i
U into Eq. (15), the following equation will be obtained.

4 2 2
2 10 10
1 11 4 2 2
1

0
W W
s C
o
|
c c
+ =
c c
| |
|
\ .
(41)
4 2 2
2 20 20
2 21 4 2 2
2

0
W W
s C
o
|
c c
+ =
c c
| |
|
\ .
(42)

Where
11
C and
21
C are
10
U and
20
U s constant values. Afterward, by assuming the solution in the form of
0
x
i
W e
u
= and substituting into Eqs. (41) and (42), the post-buckling mode shape will be:

10 10 11 12 1 13 1
cos sin W D D D D u u = + + + (43)
20 20 21 22 2 23 2
cos sin W D D D D u u = + + + (44)

Where the s values were given by:

2 2
2 2
1 1 11 2 2 21 2 2
1 2
, s C s C
o o
u u
| |
= = (45)

By substituting Eqs.(43) and (44) in Eq. (39) and applying boundary conditions of Eq.(37) and (38) on these
equations, constant of
11
C and
21
C could be rewritten in forms of
ij
D as follows:
u
109 | P a g e M. Faraji, M. Dardel, M. H. Pashaei


2
2 2
11 2 2
1 1 2 2
E A
C
E A s
o
|
= (46)
2 2
2 2 3 2 3 4 2 5 2 2
22 11 1 11 12 1 11 13 1 12 1 12 13 1 13 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
2 2 1 1 2 2
1 2 3 9

2 3 2 10
E A
C D L D D L D D L D L D D L D L L L
s E A s
o o
| |
|
= + + + + +
|
.
+

\
|


(47)

Also, constants of
ij
D could be obtained by applying following boundary conditions:

( )
( )
10
10
0
0 0, 0
W
W

c
= =
c
(48)
( )
( )
20
20
1
1 0, 0
W
W

c
= =
c
(49)
( ) ( )
10 1 20 1
10 1 20 1
( ) ( )
W L W L
dW L dW L
d d
=
=
(50)
3 3
2 2 2 20 10 20 10
11 1 1 3 3
2
2

0
W W W W
C s o |

|

c c c c
+ =
c c c c
(51)
2 2
20 10
2
2
2 2
0
W W

c c
+ =
c c
(52)

Consequently, Eqs. (39-42) and (48-52), present complete equations for determining post-buckling mode
shapes. In these equations
ij
D ,
11
C , ,
1
u and should be obtained by numerical method. In addition, for
obtaining them, initial estimates which can be obtained from buckling analysis of section 3 are necessary.

5- ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR NATURAL FREQUENCIES AND MODE SHAPES
For investigating natural frequencies and mode shapes of beams with different clamped position,
nonlinear terms and axial load of P are ignored. Hence linear part of equations with considering time
dependent terms were retained. So, linear equations of motion for obtaining these characteristics are:

4 2 4
0 10 10
2 2 2 4
0
i
i i i i i i
w w w
I A E I
t x t x

c c c
=
c c c c

(53)

Also, this equation can be written in dimensionless form as follow:

4 2
2 4 4 0 0
0 4 2
0
i i
i ni ni i
d W d W
W
d d
o | |

+ = (54)

Where:

2 2
4 2
0 0 2
, ,
n
t i i n i
ni i i i
i i i
A L I
w W e
E I AL
e
e
| o = = = (55)

By solving Eq. (54), the roots of the characteristics equation were obtained as:
21
C
2
u
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 103-120 P a g e | 110


2 2 4 4
1
4 4 2 2
2
1
2 4
1
4 2
i ni i ni
i ni
i ni i ni
i ni
o | o |
|
o | o |
|
= + +
= +
(56)

In accordingly to these characteristics values the mode shapes are:

10 11 11 21 11 31 21 41 21
cos sin cosh sinh W C C C C = + + +

(57)
20 12 12 22 12 32 22 42 22
cos sin cosh sinh W C C C C = + + +

(58)

In addition, natural frequencies of
n
e and the ratios of the constants of
11 ij
C C
can be obtained from
applying boundary conditions at each supports and clamped position. The boundary conditions for each ends
are similar to the buckling case, but boundary conditions at each middle clamped point were defined as
follows:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 3
20 1 20 1 10 1 10 1 2 2 2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1 2 3 2 3
0
n n
d W dW d W dW L
E I E I
I I
L d d L d d
L L L
e e

| |
+ + + =
|
|
\ .
(59)
( ) ( )
2 2
20 1 10 1
2 2 1 1
2 2 2 2
0
d W d W
E I E I
L d L d


= (60)

Now by substituting the Eqs. (57, 58) in boundary conditions which were shown at Eqs.(59,60) and Eqs (22-
24), the natural frequencies were obtained.

6- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In this part the buckled, post-buckled mode shapes and natural frequencies of parallel beams with one or
more clamped between them which were obtained from previous parts investigated.

6-1. Investigating buckled and post-buckled mode of various clamped beams with different end
supports
The buckled mode shapes and critical axial loads which caused deformation in parallel beams were
obtained by solving the linear equations of motions. In addition, the post-buckled mode shapes which shown
the amplitude of deformation were obtained by solving the nonlinear equations of motions. In this part,
results of buckled mode shapes with values of critical axial loads for each mode shapes investigated.
Furthermore, the post-buckled mode shapes for parallel beams with one or more clamped between them and
different end supports investigated.
111 | P a g e M. Faraji, M. Dardel, M. H. Pashaei



Figure 2. Buckled mode shapes with critical axial loads for different mode shapes for parallel beams
with a clamped at the center of them with clamped end supports

In Fig. 2 the buckled mode shapes and critical axial loads of parallel beams with a clamped at the center
of them which were supported by clamped end supports investigated. As shown in this figure, the second
and forth mode shapes have one and three nodes respectively. On the other hand, the third mode doesnt
have any nodes which were occur because of the clamped at the center of beams.


Figure 3. Buckled mode shapes with critical axial loads for different mode shapes for parallel beams with
two clamped at 0.25 and 0.75 of the length of the beams with clamped end supports

Fig. 3 shows the buckled mode shapes for first two mode shapes. As shown in this figure the second
mode shape at the clamped positions flatted which were occur because the clamped positions have bigger
stiffness than other parts. In addition, increasing the clamped numbers caused the critical axial load in
second mode increased.
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 103-120 P a g e | 112



Figure 4. Buckled mode shapes with critical axial loads for different mode shapes for parallel beams with three
clamped at 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 of the length of the beams with clamped end supports.

In Fig. 4, by increasing clamped numbers to three, at the 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 of the length of the beam the
buckled mode shape of second mode same as previous type at the clamped positions flatted. In addition, the
critical axial loads in first and second modes in compared with basic type which was shown in Fig. 2,
increased.


Figure 5. Buckled mode shapes with critical axial loads for different mode shapes for parallel beams with a
clamped at the center of them with simply end supports

113 | P a g e M. Faraji, M. Dardel, M. H. Pashaei



Figure 6. Buckled mode shapes with critical axial loads for different mode shapes for parallel beams
with a clamped at the center of them with clamped-simply end supports

In Figs. 5 and 6, the influence of changing end supports on buckled mode shapes and critical axial loads
were investigated. As shown in these figures, by changing the end supports to simply-simply and clamped-
simply the critical axial loads in compared with clamped end supports decreased. These reductions occur,
because by changing the end supports from clamped-clamped to other ones the stiffness of mechanisms
decreased. In addition, as shown in these figures, changing end supports caused the numbers of nodes in
different mode shapes rebounded to normal values. Hence, the second mode has a node and third and forth
modes have two and three nodes respectively.


Figure 7. Influence of increasing the axial load on first mode of post buckled graph of parallel
beams with a clamped at the center of them which were supported by clamped end supports.

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 103-120 P a g e | 114



Figure 8. Influence of increasing the axial load on second mode of post buckled graph of parallel
beams with a clamped at the center of them which were supported by clamped end supports.

In Figs. 7 and 8, the influence of increasing the axial load on the post buckled mode shapes of parallel
beams with a clamped at the center of them with clamped end supports investigated. As shown in Fig. 7, by
increasing the axial load from 7.5 to 20 which these values were dimensionless, the post buckled graph goes
up. In addition, as shown in this figure the pick of plot flatted because of a clamped which placed at the
center of parallel beams. Furthermore, in Fig. 8 influence of increasing this force from 10 to 20 on second
mode of post-buckled mode were investigated. As illustrated in this figure, by increasing this force, the
picks of the post buckled mode shifted up. In addition, the initial value of axial load for changing the mode
shape to second mode in compare with first mode increased, because bigger axial load needed to change the
mode shapes.


Figure 9. Influence of increasing the axial load on first mode of post buckled graph of parallel beams with
two clamps at the 0.25 and 0.75 of the length of the beams which were supported by clamped end
supports.

115 | P a g e M. Faraji, M. Dardel, M. H. Pashaei



Figure 10. Influence of increasing the axial load on second mode of post buckled graph of parallel beams with
two clamps at the 0.25 and 0.75 of the length of the beams which were supported by clamped end supports.

Effect of increasing the axial load on different post-buckled mode shapes of parallel beams with two
clamped between them with clamped end supports in Figs. 9 and 10 was investigated. As shown in Fig. 9,
by increasing the axial load from 7.5 to 20 the pick of post-buckled mode shapes increased. In addition, as
shown in this figure the pick of graph in maximum level smaller than the maximum pick of Fig. 7. So, by
increasing the clamped numbers the stiffness of mechanism increased. Furthermore, the pick of graph in this
figure is not flatted because the center of beams dont have clamp. In Fig. 10, influence of increasing the
axial load from 10 to 20 on second mode of post-buckled mode shape was investigated. As shown in this
figure by increasing the axial load in addition of increasing the picks of graph in both sides, the picks of
graph at the clamped position flatted.


Figure 11. Influence of increasing the axial load on first mode of post buckled graph of parallel beams with three
clamps at the 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 of the length of the beams which were supported by clamped end supports.

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 103-120 P a g e | 116



Figure 12. Influence of increasing the axial load on second mode of post buckled graph of parallel beams with three
clamps at the 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 of the length of the beams which were supported by clamped end supports.

As illustrated in Figs. 11 and 12, picks of graphs at the clamped positions flatted which show the clamped
positions in each places are stiffer than other positions of beams. In addition, the dimensionless values of
increasing the picks of graphs in Fig. 11 for increasing the axial load from 7.5 to 20 and in Fig. 12 for
increasing the load from 10 to 20 were obtained. In addition, results show that by increasing the clamped
numbers the stiffness of mechanism totally increased.


Figure 13. Influence of increasing the axial load on first mode of post buckled graph of parallel beams with a
clamped at the center of them which were supported by simply end supports.

117 | P a g e M. Faraji, M. Dardel, M. H. Pashaei



Figure 14. Influence of increasing the axial load on second mode of post buckled graph of parallel beams with a
clamped at the center of them which were supported by simply end supports.

In Fig. 13 and 14, the influence of changing the end supports on post-buckled mode shapes in different
mode shapes was investigated. As shown in Fig. 13, by increasing the axial load from 7.5 to 20 the pick of
post-buckled mode shapes increased but this rise smaller than similar mechanism with simply end supports.
This reduction occurs, because of decreasing the end supports stiffness by changing them to the simply-
simply. In addition, as illustrated in Fig. 14, the symmetry of the picks of the graph destroyed. So, by
changing the end supports the post-buckled mode shapes in different modes changed which values and
shapes of changes in Figs. 13 and 14 illustrated.


Figure 15. Influence of increasing the axial load on first mode of post buckled graph of parallel beams with a clamped
at the center of them which were supported by clamped-simply end supports.

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 103-120 P a g e | 118



Figure 16. Influence of increasing the axial load on second mode of post buckled graph of parallel beams with a
clamped at the center of them which were supported by clamped-simply end supports.

Also, in Figs. 15 and 16, influence of changing the end supports to clamped- simply on post-buckled
mode shapes in different modes were investigated. As shown in these figures values and shapes of changing
in compare with Figs. 7 and 8 were shown.

6-2- Natural frequency of the parallel beams with one or more clamped between them and different
end supports
In this part influence of changing parameters on natural frequencies of the first two modes shapes of
parallel beams with one or more clamped between them and different end supports were investigated. As
obtained in [20], the natural frequencies for simple beams with clamped end supports in first two mode
shapes are 4.7300407448627 and 7.853204624096065 respectively. In addition these values for simply end
supports are 3.1416 and 6.2832 and first two modes shapes of natural frequencies as obtained in [20] are
3.9266 and 7.0686.

Table 1. Dimensionless values of natural frequencies for various clamped position due to their end supports
Type Natural frequency
First mode Second mode
Clamped end supports with a clamped at the center of beam 4.644869 7.852394
Clamped end supports with two clamped at 0.25L and 0.5L 4.635212 7.683577
Clamped end supports with three clamped at 0.25L, 0.5L and 0.75L 4.562812 7.683108
Simply end supports with a clamped at the center of beam 3.119798 6.282856
Clamped-simply end supports with a clamped at the center of beam 3.871434 7.060027

As obtained in table 1, by changing the structure of simple beam to Fig. 1, the natural frequencies of them
in compare with simple beams decreased. This reduction occur, because of increasing the stiffness of the
beams by adding a clamped between parallel beams. Furthermore, as obtained in this table, by increasing the
clamped numbers the natural frequencies in these modes decreased which this reduction occur because of
amplification of the stiffness of the mechanism.
Also, by changing the end supports to simply-simply and clamped-simply the natural frequencies in
compare with clamped end supports decreased.

7- CONCLUSION
In this article, the general equation of motion for parallel beams with a clamped at the center of them and
clamped end supports by Euler-Bernoulli theory and Hamilton principle was obtained. Then, by solving the
linear and non-linear equations of motions the buckled and post-buckled modes shapes were obtained. In
addition, by solving the non-linear equation of motion with response to time terms the natural frequencies of
this mechanism were obtained. Also, influence of changing parameters on buckled and post-buckled mode
shapes and natural frequencies were investigated.
119 | P a g e M. Faraji, M. Dardel, M. H. Pashaei


As concluded from results, by increasing the clamped numbers the stiffness of mechanism totally
increased. So, this amplification in stiffness caused the critical axial loads in different modes increased. On
the other hand, increasing the stiffness caused the amplitude of the post-buckled mode shapes and natural
frequencies in different modes decreased. Also, results showed by changing the end supports to simply-
simply and clamped-simply the end supports stiffness in compare with clamped end supports decreased. As
well, this reduction causes the amplitude of post-buckled mode shapes and critical axial loads in different
modes shapes decreased.

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Please cite this article as: M. Faraji, M. Dardel, M. H. Pashaei, (2013), Natural Frequency, Mode Shape, Buckling And Post-Buckling Analysis Of Mems With
Various Clamped Position, Science and Engineering, Vol. 1(2), 103-120





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Journal of Science and Engineering
Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 121-132

Online available since 2013/Apr/17 at www.oricpub.com
(2013) Copyright ORIC Publications

http://www.oricpub.com/journal-of-sci-and-eng

PHASOR MEASUREMENT UNITS FOR OUT-OF-STEP
DETECTION OF A MULTI-MACHINE SYSTEM USING
SYSTEM REDUCTION

Almoataz Y. Abdelaziz
1
, Amr M. Ibrahim
1
, Zeinab G. Hasan
2

1
Electrical Power and Machines Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EGYPT
2
Electrical Power Department, Higher Institute of Engineering and Technology, Fifth Settlement, Cairo,
EGYPT



Abstract
This paper presents an approach to design power system transient stability assessment
using direct methods for a multi-machine system that uses measured values of the
currents and voltages of the three phases of two buses (equivalent to Phasor
Measurement Unit data). The multi-machine system is reduced to a single machine
infinite bus system using system reduction. The measured data is transformed from time
domain into phasor domain using Discrete Fourier Transform to predict whether the
swing is a stable or an unstable one. The performance of the method has been tested on
a simulated multi-machine system using PSCAD and MATLAB software. The
proposed scheme can be used for the detection of out-of-step condition using an
extension of the equal-area criterion.


1. INTRODUCTION
The first requirement of reliable service is to keep the synchronous
generators running in parallel and with adequate capacity to meet the
load demand. Out-of-step conditions on a power system are caused by an
attempt to transfer a given amount of power through excessive
impedance or by deficient voltage levels as a result of fault conditions,
automatic or manual circuit switching or loss of machine excitation.
Many techniques are introduced for out-of-step protection.
Conventional out-of-step distance-type relaying schemes have been used
in most utilities [1]. Another concept augmenting the measured apparent
resistance (R) with its rate of change (R) has been introduced [2].
Another out-of-step relaying concept has been presented in [3], where
the relay scheme utilizes the direct method of Lyapunov to determine
when a disturbed system phase plane trajectory leaves the post-disturbed
system region of stability.
The Time Domain Simulation (TDS) technique is the most accurate
method for assessing the power system transient stability [4, 5]. The TDS
approach can be applied to any level of detail of power system models
and gives visual information about state variables. One of the main
disadvantages of the TDS approach, except for being time-consuming, is
that it does not provide information about the stability margin of the
system [6].

Received: 25 Mar 2013
Accepted: 15 Apr 2013
Keywords:
Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU)
Global positioning system (GPS)
Power system transient stability
Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)
Equal-area criterion (EAC)
Out-of- step detection
Multi-machine
Time Domain Simulation (TDS)
Correspondence:
A. Y. Abdelaziz

Professor, Electrical Power
and Machines Department,
Faculty of Engineering,
Ain Shams University,
Cairo, EGYPT


Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 121-132 P a g e | 122


The transient energy function method [7, 8] and extended equal-area criterion [9, 10] have also been
applied in power system transient stability assessment. However, these methods have some modeling
limitations and they still need a lot of computations to determine an index for transient stability [11].
Artificial intelligence has been also introduced in the out-of-step field. The K-means clustering pattern
recognition technique gives good results in detecting out-of-step conditions [12]. Another out-of-step
prediction approach based on neural networks has been also presented in [13].
Nowadays Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) are capable of tracking the dynamics of an electric power
system in real time, and with modern telecommunication technologies, utilities are becoming able to
respond intelligently to an event in progress [14, 15]. By synchronized sampling of microprocessor-based
systems, phasor calculations can be placed on a common reference [16-18] to achieve Synchronized Phasor
Measurement Units (SPMUs). A new approach considering synchronized measurement data from both ends
of a transmission line to protect transmission line is presented in [19].
Synchro-phasor measurements of synchronized voltage and current are used by utilities to control and
stabilize the power network. The dependence of the machine on the position of the rotor makes it difficult
for the application of phasor measurements for stability control methods. Under transient conditions, it is not
easy to find solutions to obtain machine voltages, currents and flux linkages when expressed in phase
quantities. The time varying coefficients need to be stabilized to obtain stationary mechanical coefficients
[20, 21]. Phasor measurement units equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and a
time-stamp device are placed at power plants to obtain power plant variables. The gathered data is then
transmitted to a central location where the data can be compared, analyzed and processed. With some local
processing power they can be used to determine the generator angles, speeds, accelerations and powers from
terminal voltages and currents [20, 22]. Prior knowledge of the system is necessary since the network
topology changes would influence proper machine identification. Lack of direct measurement of the plant
auxiliaries may result in phasor measurements not providing a real picture of rotor angles. Previously two
multi-layered feed-forward artificial neural networks have been used to estimate rotor angles and speed from
phasor measurements. This solution did not consider the lack of direct measurements as a source of
uncertainties. Selection of input variables was also not considered [23, 24]. The generator measurable
outputs with its electrical parameters have been used to estimate the state variables. The results did not use
the availability of the field voltage E
fd
, which provides additional insight into the internal machine flux
linkages [21].
This paper presents a modification on an existing algorithm in [18], which presents a study for power
oscillations with a laboratory model comprising a strong network, a transmission line and a generator, an
algorithm tested for a three phase short circuit fault for a single machine infinite bus system . An approach to
design power system transient stability assessment using direct methods for a multi-machine system that
uses measured values of the currents and voltages of the three phases of two buses (equivalent to PMU data)
is presented. The multi-machine system was reduced to a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system using
system reduction. The measured data is transformed from time domain into phasor domain using Discrete
Fourier Transform (DFT) to predict whether the swing is a stable or an unstable one. The performance of the
method has been tested on a simulated multi-machine system using PSCAD and MATLAB software. The
proposed scheme can be used for the detection of out of step condition using an extension of the equal-area
criterion. A three phase fault was simulated at test system comprises 4-machine network for validating the
proposed algorithm.
2. PHASOR MEASUREMENT UNIT
Instead of using relays to detect Out-Of-Step events, new measurement systems are available where it is
possible to measure phase angles in the whole power system with the same time and angle reference. The
main device in such a system is called a phasor measurement unit, PMU. The value of data provided by
PMUs has been recognized, and installation of PMUs on power transmission networks of most major power
systems has become an important current activity.
The modern PMUs use one pulse per second signals provided by the Global positioning system (GPS)
satellite receivers. GPS system consists of 24 satellites in six orbits at an approximate altitude of 10,000
miles above the surface of the earth. The accuracy of the GPS timing pulse is better than 1s, which for a 50
Hz system corresponds to about 0.018 degrees, this accuracy is more than enough to ensure that the
123 | P a g e A. Y. Abdelaziz, Amr M. Ibrahim, Zeinab G. Hasan


measurements obtained by such clocks will be simultaneous for the purpose of estimation and analysis of the
power system state [25]. PMUs are nowadays increasingly used to measure and monitor the state of the
power systems [26]. Successful commercialization of this technology now makes it possible to build wide
area measurements systems, which enable on-line control of power systems and implementation of new
protection schemes [27].The main advantage of PMU is that measured values have same time reference.
PMU uses GPS signals to time synchronizing and after calculating voltage and current phasors, using DFT,
PMU adds a time tag to sampled data and synchronize them with GPS signals [28].With the advancement in
technology, the micro-processor based instrumentation such as protection Relays and Disturbance Fault
Recorders (DFRs) incorporate the PMU module along with other existing functionalities as an extended
feature [29].
3. APPLICATIONS OF PMUS IN POWER SYSTEM
The synchronized phasor measurement technology is relatively new, and consequently several research
groups around the world are actively developing applications of this technology. It seems clear that many of
these applications can be conveniently grouped as follows:
3.1. Advanced network protection
This category of applications of synchronized phasor measurements is that of enhancing the effectiveness
of power system protection. This involves equipment and system protection, as well as remedial action
schemes [30].

3.2. Detection of Instability
In a power system consisting of two synchronous machines and a connecting network over which
synchronizing power can flow, the problem of instability detection can be solved in real-time. The
equal-area criterion is applicable in this case, and if the machine rotor angles and speeds can be measured in
real-time a prediction algorithm can be developed for the detection of instability [31].
4. PROBLEM FORMULATION
4.1. System
In stability assessment of multi-machine systems, the following simplifying assumptions are often made:
1. Each synchronous machine is represented by a constant internal voltage behind the transient
reactance.
2. The governor's actions may be neglected. It means that input mechanical power of turbine
generator remains constant during and after the disturbance.
3. During the transients, loads are modeled as constant admittances to ground.
By these assumptions discussed in [32] the system can be modeled using system reduction, and then the
proposed out-of-step detection algorithm can be applied. A multi-machine system was chosen for this study.
The assumption was made that voltages and current can be measured by synchronized phasor measurement
devices at the terminal of the generator. Additionally, the generator parameters were known. According to
[12], if the external bus voltage has a magnitude of V and phase ,

and

, which are the components of


the bus voltage after they have been converted by Parks transformation;

, can be calculated by:



(

(1)

The rotor angle can then be computed by:

(2)

And be used in the swing equations to calculate the acceleration power of machines [33].

4.2. Equal Area Criterion
When there is a loss of synchronism in an interconnected system, the areas must be separated at
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 121-132 P a g e | 124


predetermined locations to maintain load generation balance, avoid equipment damage and power blackouts.
The Out-of-Step Trip function differentiates between stable and unstable power swings and initiate system
area separation at the predetermined network locations to maintain power system stability [34]. The
equal-area criterion can be used to calculate the maximum fault clearing time before the generator loses
synchronism. The equal-area criterion integrates the energy gained when the turbine-generator is
accelerating, during the fault (area A
1
, in Figure 1) and compares that area with the decelerating area, (area
A
2
, in Figure1) when the generator exports the energy stored during the fault.


Fig. 1. Equal-area criterion with an acceleration area 1 A and a decelerating area 2 A

Area 1 A represents the total kinetic energy gained during the acceleration period. As soon as the fault is
cleared at angle
c
the angle will continue to increase and the kinetic energy gained during the fault period
will expand into the power system, when area 2 A is equal to area 1 A angle has reached its maximum
value [18, 35].
The area under the power-angle curve can be calculated by:

d P P A
D
c
o
) sin ( 1
max
0




(3)

d P P A
P
P
c
) sin ( 2
0
max




(4)

where
D= during fault
P= post fault
When area 1 A < 2 A the system will be stable and if 1 A > 2 A the system will be unstable.
For multi-machine system, we will reduce it to two machines system and then converted into an equivalent
single machine system. We will be able to use out-of-step detection algorithm in [36].

4.2.1. Combining Machines
It is easier to study the stability of a network with fewer synchronous machines than the one with many.
The number of machines may be reduced in a network by combining several machines which swing together
or almost together to form a single equivalent machine [37]. The inertia constant of the equivalent machine
can be calculated by summing the inertia of the individual machines. The machine which swing together
were combined together to form one group and the other machines another group. The network was reduced
to a two machine system. The two machine network was further reduced to a single finite machine and an
infinite bus. The equivalent inertia constant, delta and electric power were computed.

4.2.2. Single Machine Equivalent
The system having two finite machines is replaced by an equivalent system having one finite machine
and an infinite bus, so that the swing equations and swing curves of angular displacement between the two
machines are the same for both systems. The equivalent inertia constant is a function of the inertia constant
of the two actual machines. The equivalent input and output are functions of the inertia constants, inputs and
outputs of the two actual machines.
125 | P a g e A. Y. Abdelaziz, Amr M. Ibrahim, Zeinab G. Hasan


The area under the power-delta curve, assuming that the pre-fault and post-fault network conditions are
similar, can be calculated from the swing equation, with a three phase fault as follows:

(5)

where B is one group of machines that swing together and C represents another group.

(6)

where

is the electrical power.



(7)
2
2
dt
d
M P
a

(8)
e a
P P P
0

(9)
where P
a
is the accelerating power and P
0
is the mechanical power.

4.2.3. Assessing Stability
The ability of power system to survive the transition following a large disturbance and reach an
acceptable operating condition is called transient stability [38]. The physical phenomenon following a large
disturbance can be described as follows. Any disturbance in the system will cause the imbalance between
the mechanical power input to the generator and electrical power output of the generator to be affected. As a
result, some of the generators will tend to speed up and some will tend to slow down. If, for a particular
generator, this tendency is too great, it will no longer remain in synchronism with the rest of the system and
will be automatically disconnected from the system. This phenomenon is referred to as a generator going out
of step [38].Transient stability studies are needed to ensure that the system can withstand the transient
condition following a major disturbance [39]. A single small machine connected to a very large power
system behaves as if it is connected to an infinite bus. The infinite bus is regarded as a zero impedance and
infinite inertia not affected by the amount of current drawn from it and is a source of constant voltage (both
in phase and magnitude) and frequency [40]. It has a voltage and an angle that is constant under all
conditions and it can absorb infinite power.

4.2.4. Out of Step Detection Algorithm
Figure 2 shows a flow chart for the proposed out-of-step detection algorithm. First the algorithm takes
data from the EMTDC/PSCAD program at different time steps which is the same as the sample interval for
the PMU, 0.02 seconds. This data will be converted by a DFT to complex phasors of voltages and currents.
The algorithm takes complex current and voltage. From these vectors it calculates new vectors with
impedance, phase angle and power for all time steps. After that the program determines the areas
1 A
,
2 A

and finally checks if there is out-of-step condition or not, this may be considered as an extension for
out-of-step detection algorithm used [36].

Explanation of the steps of the algorithm is as follows:
1- The multi-machine system will be converted to its equivalent and then simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC
program.
2- The data taken from PSCAD/EMTDC (equivalent to PMU data) will be saved in a MATLAB program.
These data will be transformed from time domain to phasor domain by DFT.
3- At t=0, first line of data, it is assumed to have a stable values (stable angle and mechanical input power
are calculated).
4- Angle and power are calculated at each time step t = 0.02 sec.
5- IF statement for change in angle.
A difference larger than the threshold value will operate the power swing algorithm, the threshold value is
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 121-132 P a g e | 126


taken from studying the graphs of the change of phase angle.
6- IF statement for change in angle and value of electric power output.
If the angle has changed too much and the electric power output has decreased to a level below the
mechanical power input, the system will experience a power swing, and the algorithm will calculate area A
and area B. If these changes in angle and electric power output dont occur, the algorithm tells that there will
be a disruption but the system will stay synchronized.
7- Warning message that the system has had a failure but will not lose synchronism.
8- Calculation of areas A and B.
9- IF statement to compare between areas A and B.
As long as area A is smaller than area B, the algorithm will continue, and if area A is larger than area B, the
algorithm will stop and sends out a warning Out of Step condition.
10- A warning message, the system will lose synchronism (Out of Step condition).








































Fig. 2. Flowchart of Algorithm
Convert the multi-machine system
to its equivalent after applying
system reduction
No
No
Yes
Yes
Data from EMTDC program is read
into MATLAB program
If |angle (n)-angle (n+1)|
Threshold value (0.1)
At t=0, initial angle and mechanical
input power are calculated
Angle and power are calculated at
each time-step
If angle (n) >
initial angle
&P
m
(n) Pe
Print: system has a
failure but will stay
synchronized

Calculate area A and B
If area A1 > area A2
Print: OUT-OF-STEP
Yes
No
127 | P a g e A. Y. Abdelaziz, Amr M. Ibrahim, Zeinab G. Hasan


5. MODELIG AND SIMULATION
The proposed algorithm will be tested on 4-machine network used in [33]; system configuration is shown in
Figure 3. The four machine system was reduced to form a two machine system by combining the machines that
swing together, that is, G1+G2 and G3+G4 based on the swing curves in Figure 4. The two machine network
was further reduced into SMIB. The inertia constant, delta and the electrical power were calculated according
to equations (6), (7) and (8) respectively. The resulting SMIB is used in PSCAD program. The voltages and
currents measurements at the generator and at the infinite bus are the two required readings to operate the
algorithm. The system is simulated under several fault duration for three phase short circuit fault.

Fig. 3. Four machine system

Fig. 4. Rotor angle movement for the 4 generators
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 121-132 P a g e | 128


5.1. Case 1: 3-phase short circuit using frequency-dependent model
Time of fault: 0.1 sec.
Duration of fault: 0.4sec.
Transmission line: frequency-dependent model.
Figures 5, 6, 7 and 8 show voltage and current waveforms at both sides (generator bus and infinite bus)
obtained from the simulation using the PSCAD/EMTDC program.


Fig. 5. Voltage of infinite bus

Fig. 6. Voltage of generator

0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65
-1500
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
1500
Voltage versus time
time [sec]
I
n
f
i
n
i
t
e

b
u
s

v
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
k
v
]
0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65
-400
-300
-200
-100
0
100
200
300
400
Voltage versus time
time [sec]
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
o
r

v
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
k
v
]
129 | P a g e A. Y. Abdelaziz, Amr M. Ibrahim, Zeinab G. Hasan



Fig. 7. Current of infinite bus

Fig. 8. Current of generator
The proposed scheme is tested by calculating areas A1 and A2 for this fault and determines that the
generator will be out of step (unstable condition), this fault is tested by TDS and determines instability of the
system as shown in Figure 9.

Fig. 9. Rotor angle against time for an unstable case
0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
x 10
-13
Current versus time
time [sec]
I
n
f
i
n
i
t
e

b
u
s

c
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
A
]
0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Current versus time
time [sec]
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
o
r

c
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
A
]
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
Time versus angle
time [s]
a
n
g
l
e

[
d
e
g
r
e
e
s
]
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 121-132 P a g e | 130


5.2. Scheme Responses to Different Faults
The proposed algorithm is tested for detecting the system stability. The program output to number of
faults at different time durations is shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Test results of the proposed algorithm to number of faults at different time durations
Fault type Time of applying fault
(t
f
)
Duration of
fault (D
f
)
Proposed
Algorithm Output
Time Domain
Simulation
Result in Ref.
[33]
ABCG 0.1 0.1 Stable Stable Stable
ABCG 0.1 0.15 Stable Stable Stable
ABCG 0.1 0.2 Stable Stable Stable
ABCG 0.1 0.25 Stable Stable Stable
ABCG 0.1 0.3 Unstable Unstable Unstable
ABCG 0.1 0.4 Unstable Unstable Unstable
ABCG 0.1 0.5 Unstable Unstable Unstable

It is concluded from Table 1 that duration of fault is directly related to the angle difference between the
generator and infinite bus () which will affect the accelerating and decelerating area affecting the stability
of the system. When D
f
increases for the same t
f
the system will tend to be unstable. All cases are compared
by TDS and give identical results. This is the same for single machine infinite bus system discussed in [36].

6. CONCLUSIONS
This paper presents an approach to design power system transient stability assessment using direct methods
for a multi-machine system which uses measured values of the currents and voltages of the three phases of
two buses (equivalent to PMU data) to detect the out-of-step condition accurately. The multi-machine
system was reduced to a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system using system reduction. The Discrete
Fourier Transform is used to transform the sampled data in phasor domain which is equivalent to PMU
readings. The EAC is used and proved that it is an efficient method for determining the transient stability of
a power system and detecting the out of step condition for multi-machine system as one machine against
infinite bus or two machine systems. Test results show that the proposed algorithm is able to detect transient
stability on a multi-machine system with a temporary fault, through PMU measurements and generator
parameters for different durations. It would be interesting to make simulations on larger networks that
include more generators and machines and to find possible nodes to implement PMUs.
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Please cite this article as: A. Y. Abdelaziz, Amr M. Ibrahim, Zeinab G. Hasan, (2013), Phasor Measurement Units For Out-Of-Step Detection of A
Multi-Machine System Using System Reduction, Science and Engineering, Vol. 1(2), 121-132



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DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROCONTROLLER BASED ALARM
SYSTEM FOR PIPELINE VANDALS DETECTION

O. Shoewu
1
, L. A Akinyemi
1
, Kola A. Ayanlowo
2
, Segun O. Olatinwo
2,3
, N. T. Makanjuola
1
1
Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Lagos State University, Epe Campus, Nigeria.
2
Department of Computer Science, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
3
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.


Abstract
This paper focuses on the design of a microcontroller based alarm system for pipeline
vandals detection. In this paper, a robust advance and fast mechanism of pipeline detection
was adopted for the system design. The design was in modular forms i.e. communication
system (transceiver), microcontroller, power system, simulation of system and all modules
were tested individually and the whole system was tested to perform the required task of
detecting any leakage when the rubber on the pipes is removed which quickly triggers the
microcontroller and thereby alerts the personnel for necessary actions to be taken.

1. INTRODUCTION
Acts of pipeline vandalism in onshore operations of major
multinational oil prospecting and producing companies, like SPDC and
Chevron have been a major challenge in recent times. The companies
affected took several steps in the past to address this problem; however,
these efforts were not very successful. Hence, the need to design, develop
and install a system that will adequately monitor and report acts of
vandalism and their location for ease of remediation has become necessary;
this is the focus of this work. The existing practice is that all crude and gas
transporting lines are either laid on land surface, buried at a depth of 1.3m
on land or 3m across creek waters. This however, has failed to stop the
vandals from carrying out their nefarious activities, by digging through the
right-of-ways (ROW) of pipelines and damaging them. Scada monitors that
report condition of lines were strategically installed; but the vandals
discovered a way of demobilizing them prior to carrying out their
operations. They simply destroyed these monitors or removed the power
packs because they were installed externally. Fencing of strategic valves
and lines across creeks to limit accessibility of pipeline vandals also failed
as they simply used oxyacetylene flames to cut through the fence and gain
access to the assets. This became more pronounced because there is no
continuous manning or surveillance of the lines. The companies also
introduced the Pipelines and flow lines surveillance program; this approach
was based on the understanding that utilizing community constructive
engagement approach and partnership will stem the acts of vandalism.

Received: 02 Apr 2013
Accepted: 11 Apr 2013

Keywords:
Transceiver
Pipelines
Vandals
Microcontroller
Alarm System and Sensors
Correspondence:
Segun O. Olatinwo

Department of Computer
Engineering, Moshood Abiola
Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Department of Computer Science
and Engineering, Ladoke Akintola
University of Technology,
Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 133-142 P a g e | 134

Eight youths were hired from each host community to watch over the company assets within their
locality. Incentives were introduced as rewards at end of year. This system also failed as some of the bad
eggs within the groups diverted logistics resources provided to enhance their operation to other uses and
even aided and abetted the acts of vandalism that were being perpetrated.The Federal Government
introduced the Joint task force (JTF) operations, in a bid to curtail the illegal activities of vandals. The
presence of this military outfit worsened the security situation, oil workers, expatriates and their family
became targets of kidnapping for a ransom fee. In an attempt to dislodge these vandals, their activities
gradually snowballed into more criminal acts and several oil workers lost their lives and properties worth
millions of dollars have been lost to their nefarious activities. The new invention, having weighed all
previous options, aims at developing a simple mechatronics system that is capable of performing a spying
function around pipelines at strategic locations where acts of vandalism have been prevalent. The new
system would be capable of collecting and transmitting information to a processing unit via wireless signals.
It would also have the capacity to decode the exact location(s) where vandalism is taking place. This
approach has become an attractive option to pursue, due to the concealed and secret nature of its installation
and operation. What this means is that access to it will be highly limited. Additionally, the device is capable
of sensing light, pressure drops and mechanical breaks in the line as long as there is power supply to the
component units of the system. The device can also be adapted to perform other desired functions as needed
including sounding an audible alarm and shutting down fluid flows automatically. In addition, the device is
compact and concealed in such a way that the vandals cannot easily destroy it. This work is based on the
onshore operations in the oil and gas industry.

1.1 Theory of the System
Several regulations both local and international have been put in place to govern the smooth operation
of the oil and gas industry; in Nigeria for instance, some of these are listed as Oil Pipelines Act, 1965;
Mineral oil (safety) regulations, 1997;Petroleum regulations, 1967; Petroleum Drilling and Production
regulations, 1969; Oil in navigable water Act, 1968; Oil Terminal Dues Act, 1969; Petroleum refining
Regulations, 1974; Federal Environmental Regulations, 1974; Federal Environmental Protection Agency
Act, 1990; National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency Act, 2006. Ministry of Niger Delta.Acts of
pipeline vandalism attribute to the frequent pipeline fires, accompanying loss of lives and lost profit
opportunities (LPO). According to Johnson (2004) pipeline explosions have killed hundreds of looters,
bystanders and innocent residents. The most recent of these explosions happened at Ilado, Lagos on May,
2006; more than 200 people were incinerated in the pipeline fire that enveloped the area (Balogun et al
2006). Several deaths recorded from pipeline fires in recent times are a few of the horrendous effects of
crude oil theft from oil transport lines, which are a leading cause of oil spills, environmental degradation and
ecological destruction in Nigeria today. Oil spills through pipeline vandalism by idle youths in Nigeria
reached alarming peaks in the last few decades. Poor implementation of memoranda of understanding
(M.O.U) between oil companies and host communities, lack of employment and dilapidating environmental
conditions have all been blamed for this rising trend. (Uwhejevwe-Togbolo 2005). Ojediran and Ndibe
(2005) reported that an average of 35,000 barrels of crude oil is stolen per day in circumstances that threaten
lives, the environment and the ecosystem in general. Apart from the loss of lives and property through
pipeline fires, the long time ecological effects on impacted sites usually degrade the quality of fresh water
sources which serve the domestic water supply needs of most the host communities. Marine creatures are
not spared and increases in water borne diseases are visibly noticeable. The enormous numbers of oil
installations in the Niger Delta region explain their vulnerability to vandalism. Presently, the Niger Delta
region plays host to over 600 oil fields of which 360 fields are onshore while 240 are offshore with over
3000 kilometres of pipelines crisscrossing the region and linking some 275 flow stations to various tank
farms which concurrently serve as export terminals. It is pertinent therefore to note that oil spills resulting
from pipeline vandalism constitute a major challenge to emergency management efforts, despite the
contingency arrangements in place by industry operators. Table1 below shows that for the period 1995-
2005, Shell Petroleum Development Company recorded a total of 2944 oil spill incidents. The data reveals a
noticeable increase from 235 oil spill incidents in 1995 to 330 in 2000. The least number of 224 oil spill
incidents was observed in 2005.


135 | P a g e O. Shoewu

, L. A Akinyemi , Kola A. Ayanlowo , Segun O. Olatinwo , N. T. Makanjuola

Table 1. Oil spill data: SPDC1995 -2005
Source: SNAR, 2005.

Below are some pictures showing deliberate acts of vandalism.


Fig. 1 Burning AGGE Manifold North Bank March 2006 Fig. 2 Fire incident at Fusokiri December2000


Fig. 3 Illegal bunkering at Eteo

It is near impossibility to deploy a workforce that will monitor these assets physically on a 24/7 hour
basis considering the fact that we have over 3000km length of pipe network criss-crossing this region. A
better approach will be to use an automated system capable of monitoring activities and alerting a control
station of any act of vandalism.
According to Ajiboye O.E et al (May 2009), in their paper titled poverty, Niger Delta and the youth
response, the general impoverishment of the host communities can be linked to the years of perennial
neglect and abuse of the environment. Major operators do not have recognisable reclamation or remediation
programme in place after major oil spills occur. The situation is worsened by a visible show of apathy to the
fate of the environment by successive governments. While the drive is towards increasing the petro-dollars
the country gets from oil, sadly enough, there is no corresponding passion directed towards ensuring
ecological sustainability. This is evident in the way successive administrations have been shifting the
dateline on gas flaring stoppage in oil field operations in Nigeria. The absence of a strong political will and
YEAR NUMBER OF SPILLS VOLUME IN BARRELS (bbl)
1995 235 31,000
1996 326 39,000
1997 240 80,000
1998 248 50,000
1999 320 20,000
2000 330 30,000
2001 302 76,960
2002 262 19,980
2003 221 9,916
2004 236 8,317
2005 224 11,921
TOTAL 2944 377,194
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 133-142 P a g e | 136

alignment by the legislature and executive has worsened the hope for entrenching an environmentally
friendly legal system that would protect the ecosystem.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1 Component Design Communication
The design of this device is governed by the principle of radio frequency modulation and de-
modulation. Through this means communication is established. Messages are sent from one point to another
within the range of the radio frequency coverage. A radio wave travels through the atmosphere or space at
the speed of light (3x10
8
meters/second). If a radio wave strikes another antenna, a high-frequency current
will be induced that is a replica of the current flowing in the transmitting antenna. Thus, it is possible to
transfer high-frequency electrical energy from one point to another without using cables. The energy in the
receiving antenna is typically only a fraction of the energy delivered to the transmitting antenna. The
transceiver is capable of transmitting and receiving signals across a space in this form. The transceiver unit
has a transmitter with a receiver incorporated in it.
Modulation is the process through which a radio wave transmits information to different points. A radio
frequency can be modulated in various forms. For example, it can be amplitude modulated (AM) or
frequency modulated (FM).

2.1.1 The amplitude modulator
In amplitude modulation, the intelligence or information controls the amplitude of the radio frequency
(RF) signal. It also transmits voice, music, data, or even multimedia information (video). In amplitude
modulation, the RF signal amplitude varies in accordance with the audio frequency (AF) signal. The RF
signal could just as well be amplitude-modulated by a video signal or digital (on-off) data. The figure below
shows a typical circuit for an amplitude modulator.
INFORMATION OUT
ANTENNA
C1
T1
C2
RL
(CARRIER+SIDEBANDS)
RE RB2
RB1
C3
C4
Vcc
AM SIGNAL INPUT
+V
+
+
PNP
+
+

Fig. 4 The amplitude modulator circuit

2.1.2 The frequency modulator
Frequency modulation (FM) is an alternative to amplitude modulation (AM). Frequency modulation has
some advantages that make it attractive for some commercial broadcasting and two way radio traffic. One
problem with AM is its sensitivity to noise. Lightning, automotive ignition, and sparking electric circuits all
produce radio interference. This interference is spread over a wide frequency range. It is not easy to prevent
such interference from reaching the detector in an AM receiver. An FM receiver can be made to be
insensitive to noise interference. This noise free performance is highly desirable. The principle of frequency
modulation can be explained using the figure below.
R1
R2
C1
D1
R3
C3
C5
C4
R4
C6
RFC1
L1
RFC2
Q1
C7
C2
SIGNAL
INPUT
FM OUTPUT
Vcc
+V
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Fig. 5 The Frequency modulation circuit

137 | P a g e O. Shoewu

, L. A Akinyemi , Kola A. Ayanlowo , Segun O. Olatinwo , N. T. Makanjuola

Transistor Q1 and its associate parts make up a series tuned oscillator. Capacitor C3 and coil L1 have
the greatest effect in determining the frequency of oscillation. Diode D1 is a varicap diode. It is connected in
parallel with C3. This means that as the capacitance of D1 changes, so will the resonant frequency of the
tank circuit. Resistors R1 and R2 form a voltage divider to bias the varicap diode. Some positive voltage is
applied to the cathode of D1. Thus, D1 is in reverse bias. A varicap diode uses its depletion region as the
dielectric. More reverse bias means a wider depletion region and less capacitance. Therefore, as a signal
goes positive, D1 will reduce in capacitance. This will shift the frequency of the oscillator up. A negative-
going signal will reduce the reverse bias across the diode. This will increase the capacitance and shift the
oscillator to some lower frequency. The signal is modulating the frequency of the oscillator. The amplitude
of the modulated frequency is constant. Demodulation is the means by which modulated signals are
recovered. Demodulators are called radio receivers. An AM radio receiver must recover the information
from the modulated signal. This process reverses what happened in the modulator section of the transmitter.
This process is also called detection. A diode and a transistor can be used for AM detection.
The circuit below shall be used to explain the principle of AM detection.

INFORMATION OUT
ANTENNA
C1
T1
C2
RL
(CARRIER+SIDEBANDS)
RE RB2
RB1
C3
C4
Vcc
AM SIGNAL INPUT
+V
+
+
PNP
+
+

Fig. 6 The amplitude detection circuit

The circuit shown is a common emitter amplifier. Transistor T1 and capacitor C1 form a resonant
circuit to pass the modulated signal (carrier plus sidebands). Capacitor C4 is added to give a low pass filter
action, since the high-frequency carrier and the sidebands are no longer needed after detection. Bi-polar
Junction transistor (BJT) can demodulate signals because they are also nonlinear devices. The base-emitter
junction is a diode. The transistor detector has the advantage of producing gain. This means that the circuit
will produce more information amplitude than the simple diode detector. Detection of FM signal is more
complicated than for AM. Since FM contains several sidebands above and below the carrier, a simple
nonlinear detector will not demodulate the signal. A double- tuned discriminator circuit is required. The
discriminator works by having two resonant points. One is above the carrier frequency, and one is below the
carrier frequency. There are many other FM detector circuits. Some of the more popular ones are the
quadrature detector, the phase-locked-loop detector, and phase-width detector. These circuits are used with
integrated circuits.In the design of this device, the transceiver operates at a frequency of 900MHz. This is
the operating frequency of a GSM phone. The transceiver is a modified GSM phone. Through it a wireless
information exchange can be achieved. The mode of communication here is similar to that of FM but it is
not a broadcast.GSM (Global System for Mobil communication) is a standard wireless communication
system. Its commercial service began in 1991, at the beginning of 1994; there were about 1.3 million
subscribers in the world. GSM is the dominant communication standard in the world today, communication-
base stations are not needed to be set up. The most fundamental service supported by GSM was wireless
phone. Since 2001 this service has been available to us in Nigeria. The potential of the GSM service is
beyond what is known in the country. The system can be adopted to serve designs such as the pipeline
vandalism alert. A GSM system has wide coverage area; the extent of coverage is determined by the
availability of repeating stations to boost the strength of the signal. Wherever there is a GSM signal, a GSM
device like a mobile phone can be reached from any place in the world. In the same vain it can reach any
where, too. This means of communication requires no cable. Space satellites are used to relay signals from
one continent to another or from one very remote place to another. The transceiver which is a GSM device is
a modified Nokia 1100 phone. It is hosted on a network through a SIM module. Every SIM module has an
identification number. Through this identification number it can send and receive data on the local and
global GSM network.

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 133-142 P a g e | 138

2.2 Component Design Sensors.
The device operates through the use of sensors, which sense a variation in stable operating conditions of
pressure, break or light.


2.2.1 The pressure sensor

Fig. 7 The pressure sensor

The Operation of the Pressure Sensor
The pressure sensor is designed with a normally closed push switch connected in series with a resistor
R1. The output voltage (Vo) at the junction of these two components depends on the state of the switch.
When the switch is not depressed, the contacts are closed. Hence, Vo is 0V. This is the state of the sensor
when the joint of two pipes is opened. When this joint is closed, the switch is in the open contact state, and
the value of Vo is 5V.
The resistor R1 is a pull-up resistor. Its value is determined with respect to the maximum current
sinkable by the microcontroller. The microcontroller can sink a maximum current of 25mA. To reduce the
current drain on the power supply port Ao of the microcontroller is made to sink 0.5mA. Therefore, the
value of R1 is obtained by this equation:
V= IR, R=V/I, R=5/0.5X10
-3
, R1=10K

2.2.2 The light sensor


OPTICAL FIBER
50K
TO MICROCONTROLLER
PHOTO
RESISTOR
R2
Q1
R3
+V
5V
100mA
NPN
10k

Fig 8. The light sensor Fig. 9 The light sensor circuit

The Operation of the Light Sensor
This senses light around the pipe line whenever there is an opening along the pipe. This sensor is a
network of optical fibres and a photo resistor. The optical fibres are to receive and transmit light from source
to the photo resistor. The light sensor is covered with a black rubber to cut out light from the optical fibres.
The optical fibres are laid along the pipe so as to provide proper coverage in a zigzag form. When the rubber
insulation is removed during vandalism, the optical fibres pick up light rays which are transmitted to the
surface of the photo resistor. The photo resistor converts light signals into electrical signals which are sent to
the microcontroller for processing. The optical fibres are channels for transferring light from source to a
point of use. It is used in this project to pick up light and focus it on the surface of a photo resistor. The
photo resistor and the variable resistor R2 convert the light energy to electrical signal. The electrical signal is
then converted to digital signal by the transistor before it gets to the microcontroller. The essence of this
sensor is to detect the presence of light. This will happen when the black rubber sheet covering the pipe is
removed during vandalism. During installation of this sensor, the optical fibres are laid concurrently as
shown below. This pattern of distribution of fibre optics is to enable coverage of the surface of the pipe. The
photo resistor and the 50K variable resistor convert the light energy on the surface of the photo resistor to
electrical energy. The sensitivity of this sensor is determined by the resistance of the variable resistor (R2).
The higher its value the more the sensitivity and light sensor, and vice versa. The output of this connection is
139 | P a g e O. Shoewu

, L. A Akinyemi , Kola A. Ayanlowo , Segun O. Olatinwo , N. T. Makanjuola

digitalized by the transistor Q1. The transistor is used as a switch in this mode; and the resistor R3 is to limit
the current to the microcontroller to 0.5mA.
2.2.3 The break sensor

R4-R11
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B0
10K
PIPE
OPTICAL FIBER
TO MICROCONTROLLER
+V
5V

Fig. 10 The break sensor Fig. 11 The break sensor circuit

The Operation of The Break Sensor
This is a network of thin coils connected to the ports of the microcontroller and to the body of the pipe
at the other end. These coils are wrapped around the pipe in a thread like fashion to provide surface cover of
the pipe. When any of these tiny coils is broken, a signal is sent to the microcontroller for interpretation.
These coils are concealed using black rubber insulation over the pipe. This rubber wrapping also protects the
sensors from adverse environmental conditions.
2.3 Component Design Microcontroller
This is the brain of the system. It is the component responsible for interpretation of signals received
from the various sensors. It is also responsible for information transmission between the system and the base
station unit. This means that it directly controls the functions of the transceiver. The microcontroller in this
system performs the same functions a processor does to a computer system; it governs its operations. The
microcontroller selected for this function is the PIC16F 628A, a product of Microchips. The Functions of the
microcontroller-16F628A include: To turn on the system automatically when power is connected, To
interpret signals, To send an alert signal to the base station, To clear the transceivers screen and To relay
audio signals around the pipe to the base station.
2.3.1 The transceiver
This module is capable of sending and receiving signals via wireless communication. The transceiver is
a very important part of the system, and its mode of operation is better explained by the operation of radio
signal transmitter and receiver. The transceiver module transmits and receives signals at a certain frequency.
2.4 Component Design Power System
6V
220/12
VAC
TO THE DEVICE
CHARGER
POWER SUPPLY 6v,3A
BACK-UP BATTERY
C1
F1
S1
T1
C2
REGULATOR
Q2
D1
D2
D4
D3
5.4V
R12
R13
UTILITY
SUPPLY
+
6V
NPN
MMSZ7V5T1
IN
COM
OUT
78L06
+
BRIDGE
10TO1
50.0Hz
-220/220V

Fig.12 The power supply
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 133-142 P a g e | 140


Fig.13 The power circuit







Light sensor Break sensor
Pressure sensor

Fig.14 The block diagram of the design of a microcontroller based alarm system for pipeline vandals detection

This is the part that supplies the energy that keeps the device active and running. It has a main power
supply which is sourced from utility supply (PHCN), and a back-up power supply which is sourced from a
battery. Its power consumption is low, 3Watts maximum. The reason for dual power supply is to keep the
device active even when main power supply fails due to erratic power.

Algorithm of the design

1. stand by the alarm system
2. Monitor the pipeline
3. If there is break
4. Send the break signal or light signal to microcontroller
5. Microcontroller
6. If yes, alert the personnel
7. If No, go to step (2)
JOINT SENSOR
LIGHT
SENSOR
BREAK SENSOR(WEB)
CLR DIAL ON
C181 5
C181 5 C181 5 C181 5
ON/OFF
TRANSCEIVER
MICRCONTROLLER
BATTERY
PIC 16F628
NPN
+
8V
y4
y3
y2
y1
x4 x1x2x3
C D E F
8 9 A B
4 5 6 7
0 1 2 3
NPN
+
470uF
IN
COM
OUT
78L05
22uF 22uF
4.000MHZ
NPN NPN NPN
10k
10k
10k
47
10k 10k
390 390 390
Microcontr-
oller
Power
supply
Transceiver
Base
station
141 | P a g e O. Shoewu

, L. A Akinyemi , Kola A. Ayanlowo , Segun O. Olatinwo , N. T. Makanjuola




Fig. 15 Flow Chart of the design of a Microcontroller based alarm system for Pipeline Vandals Detection


3. SYSTEM SIMULATION
3.1 Computer Simulation of the Alarm System
Under normal operating conditions (when there is no pressure drop, break or exposure of optical fibres
to light rays), the digital signal to the microcontroller is 00000000. The zeros are eight because the sensor is
an eight bit system. Whenever the microcontroller senses a different digital input, it reads it as a break in one
of the coils which also means a break in the pipe. The 10K resistors are to limit the maximum current into
the microcontroller to 0.5mA.All the signals from the sensors are received and processed by the
microcontroller. The processing of the signals is controlled by a written program that is downloaded into the
controller. These operations of these sensors can best be explained using the control program.

3.2 Simulation of the Pressure Sensors
This can be done by pulling two pipe connections apart. The pressure switch loses contact and sends a
signal for the transceiver to alert the receiving phone. This receiving phone stores the number of each SIM,
on a module, with the pipe number. With this the exact location of the alerting module can be known. The
phone is programmed to alert thrice to compensate for bad network scenarios.

3.3 Simulation of Light Sensors
The light sensors at normal operating condition should be kept in the dark. This condition will not cause
any alert signal to be sent. When the light sensors are exposed to light by removing the protective cladding
over the pipe, an alert signal is sent to the control station. The call rings three times. This means that while
the vandals are trying to get to the pipe by removing the covering over it, the control station gets alerted of
their activity.

3.4 Simulation of the Break Sensors
These sensors can be tested by drilling a hole into the pipe using a hand drilling machine. The drill bit
cuts break sensors, and as a result the alert signal rings three times. This means that when the vandals are
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 133-142 P a g e | 142

trying to bore a hole into the oil pipe, one or more break sensors will be broken by their activity and the
control station would be alerted.
The Audio Spying Function: In order to listen to the conversation of the vandals or their activities, the
transceiver can be called from the control station by dialling its SIM card number .When this is done, voices
around the sensor station can be heard. The spy operation does not reduce the credit balance of the module
transceiver. It is the caller that is charged. This operation could be repeated several times and the same
results will be obtained. This confirms the consistency and proper functionality of the device.

4. TESTING AND RESULTS
The various tests were carried out on the different modules and striking results were obtained for
different circuit diagrams.

5. CONCLUSION
The various ways of designing of security gadgets from analog to digital circuit was used in this paper.
However, various components were designed and tested to ensure it did meet the specification of the users
by warding off or alerting the personnel when things go wrong in the pipelines.

REFERENCES
[1] Abubakar, S. (2006). Pipeline vandalism caused fuel shortages at northern depots. Weekly Trust
(Abuja), 713 October
[2] Abdulkadir, B. M (2009). NSCDC Urges Security Networking Against Vandalism [online]. Available at
www.guardian.co.uk [accessed 6 August 2009]
[3] Adeniyi, O. (2007). Playing with fire (1). Thisday (Lagos), 18 January.
[4] Ahmed, O. S. (2007). Nigeria, oil terrorism and pipeline safety [online]. Available at guardian.co.uk
[accessed 23 October 2006].
[5] Akintola, T. (2006). Pipeline vandalism and oil scooping in the Niger Delta and Others [online].
Available at vanguardngr.com [accessed 21 October 2006].
[6] Ali, A. (2006). Pipeline sabotage in Nigeria and oil pollution damage out of context [online]. Available
at ipec.utulsa.edu/conf/2008//Eyo_Essien [accessed 21 October 2006].
[7] Alimeka, C. (2001). Poverty, social exclusion and social dislocation in Nigeria. Paper presented at the
National Conference on Law and Poverty in Nigeria, Kaduna.
[8] Amanze-Nwachukwu, C. and Ogbu, A. (2007). Kupolokun cries over pipeline vandalism. Thisday
(Lagos), 15 January.
[9] Brume, F. (2006). Oil pipeline vandalism in the Niger Delta: the way out [online]. Available at
guardian.uk.co [accessed 21 October 2006].
[10]Helen, Y. (2007). Sharpening the strategic focus of livelihoods programming in the Darfur region. A
report at the Darfur Peace conference.
[11]Lex de Waal, (2007). War in Darfur and the search for peace. Cambridge press.
[12]Manze-Nwachukwu, C. (2007). Boxing Day tragedy: it is time for solution. Thisday (Lagos), 2 January.
[13]Nelles, W. (2003). Comparative education, terrorism and human security: from critical pedagogy to
peace building. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
[14]Nelson-Smith (1973). Oil pollution and marine ecology. Cambridge press.
[15]United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 1994. Human Development Report. New York:
Oxford University Press.
[16]Victor, A. Y. (2009). NNPC, Police Connive With Pipeline Vandals Nupeng. Available at
www.guardian.co.uk
[17]Wall Street Journal (2008). Pipeline vandalism, Hillsborough, U.S.
[18]White, J. (1998). Who is responsible for the oil explosion in Nigeria [online]. Available at
www.guardian.co.uk [accessed 21 October 2006].

Please cite this article as: O. Shoewu , L. A Akinyemi , Kola A. Ayanlowo , Segun O. Olatinwo , N. T. Makanjuola, (2013), Development Of A
Microcontroller Based Alarm System For Pipeline Vandals Detection, Journal of Science and Engineering, Vol. 1(2), 133-142.



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(2013) Copyright ORIC Publications


Journal of Science and Engineering
Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 143-154

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means without the written permission of ORIC Publications, www.oricpub.com.

PILOT STUDY FOR QUANTIFICATION OF EMISSIONS OF
GREEN HOUSE GAS FOR MARINE TRANSPORTATION
DECISION SUPPORT

O. S. Oladokun
1
, B. Michel
2
, N. Stark
2
, H. Azman
3
, A.S.A.Kader
4
1
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia
2
Universiti Technology Malaysia, 21030, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3
Jeppesse, GmBH
4
H. Azman, Lloyd Register

Abstract
The shipping industry is responsible for the carriage of 90% of world trade. Thus, it remains
the most energy efficient mode of transport. Shipping is expected to have greater impact on
global warming considering size of vessel plying the world ocean. The Green House Gas
(GHG) emissions are the main air pollutants in maritime transportation. In 2007, CO
emission from the shipping amounted to 847 million tones or about 2.7% of global CO
emission and it is expected to reach 18% in 2050. In July 2009, Marine Environment
Protection Committee (MEPC) approved to circulate interim guidelines on the method of
calculation of Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) to create stronger incentives for
further improvements in ships fuel consumption, resulting CO emissions on a capacity
basis. This paper present outcome of GHG emission data collection and quantification from
ship, the study hope to contribute to regulation for reduction of GHG emission in shipping
industry and subsequent mitigation of climate change. Equipment used to measure the
concentration of gas and total suspended particulate in the atmosphere are MiniVol Portable
Air Sampler, Graywolf Direct Sense Monitoring Kit, TSI IAQ-Calc and Gas Detector
IQ-1000. The equipments are used to determine the gas concentration, nitrogen dioxide
(NO), sulphur dioxide (SO) and carbon dioxide (CO) concentration respectively. Carbon
dioxide (CO) is the most important anthropogenic GHG. The experimental data analysis is
used to validate recommended EEDI calculation.


1. INTRODUCTION

Air pollution is the on demand case as it has been debated all over the world.
The sources of air pollution vary, starting from the individual pollutants to the
huge industry activities. Maritime industry is responsible for part of Green
House Gas Emission pollution, since there are many types of maritime
transports sailing and maneuvering at the sea. The Green House Gas (GHG)
emissions from maritime transport must be reduced because it is expected to
increase if no mitigations are taken. This paper discusses the result of exhaust
emission quantification for University Malaysia of Terengganu (UMT) vessel
(Discovery II).
The experiment analysis two types of gas, Carbon Dioxide (CO) and
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO).The is a pilot study in preparation for data collection
Received: 17 Mar 2013
Accepted: 17 Apr 2013

Keywords:
Emissions
International Maritime-
-Organization (IMO)
Green House Gas (GHG)
Vessel
Bidong Island
GHG
Emission, Ship
IMO
EEDI
Climate Change

Correspondence:
O. S. Oladokun

Universiti Malaysia Terengganu,
21030 Kuala Terengganu,
Malaysia


Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 143-154 P a g e | 144

on larger ships. The pilot study involves sailing from Pengkalan Arang Jetty to Bidong Island and it is divided
into two modes, maneuvering mode and hoteling mode.
The international shipping is considered the most carbon efficient mode of commercial transport and
generally considered as an environmentally friendly means of transportation. This help shipping economy of
large scale, as a result of this, maritime and shipping industry experience rapid development and the number of
vessels sailing in the ocean continues to increase. However, the significant improvements that have taken
place in these industries lead to the increasing of Green House Gas (GHG) considering the large involve of
vessel that sail the world ocean. The use of hydrocarbons and their derivatives as fuel contributes to air
pollution. The amount of emissions depends on the design, operating conditions and the characteristics of the
fuel. Complete combustion of fuel leads to the exhaust that contains only Carbon Dioxide (CO) and water
vapor. Carbon Dioxide (CO) emission depends on fuel consumption and carbon content in the fuel.
Some factors that influencing emission are cold starts, speed, maintenance, engine design and fuel
used [1]. The most troublesome GHG emission from diesel engine is NOx and soot (particulates). The black
smoke observed from certain ships or boats are due to high carbon particles content and it is obvious during
rapid load increase and when older engine at high load. As a response towards the GHG emissions problem,
another dimension has been added to the ships design and operational practices. The improvement in design
includes the propeller, hull, superstructure and use of retrofitting system for machineries (exhaust gas after
filter, humidification, exhaust gas recirculation, electronics injection and lubrication. For the operational
practices, the maintenance of the ships are to ensure that ship follow the schedule and guidelines and also by
slowing the speed of the ship during at sea as well as cold ironing. Other option being adopted is alternative
energy and hybrid concept.
This study focuses on the emissions concentration of Carbon Dioxide (CO) and Nitrogen Dioxide
(NO) that are released from the exhaust of Discovery II. The emissions concentrations are measured by using
the Gas Detector IQ-1000. The RV Discover II started sailing to Bidong Island at initial speed 6 knots and
continue at speed 12 knots during at sea. The distance of Bidong Island from Kuala Terengganu is 40km.
Table 1 show the principal particulars of the Discovery II that has been operated in 12 years.

Table 1: The principal particulars of Discovery II
Length overall 16m
Breadth 4.05m
Depth 2.15m
Fuel 4000L
Fresh water 1000L
Main engine 300HP/1800RPM
Speed (design) 12 knots
Cruise speed 10knots
Gross tonnage 43T
Net tonnage 16.82T

The experiment is divided into two which are maneuvering mode and hoteling mode. The hoteling mode data
is recorded near Bidong Island so that the data is not influence by the land activities.

2. BACKGROUND

The quests for an efficient fuel friendly to the environment have been recognized in maritime industry for a
long time. Need for improvements of gasoline and diesel by chemical reformulation that can lead to decrease
in GHG release and ozone forming pollutants and carbon monoxide emissions have become issues of the time.
Beside this, machineries that cannot use such conditional and additional inconvenience posed by these
reformulation chemicals are subject to performance problems like cold start ability, smooth operation and
avoidance of vapor lock.
Emission from combustion impacts generation of fossil fuel scarcity, photochemical smog, and oil
dependent world. Aggressive quest for alternative energy, international and local regulation build-up as well
as reassessment and revolution work on plan to reduce emission of existing and new engine are faced with new
145 | P a g e O. S. Oladokun, B. Michel, N. Stark, H. Azman, A.S.A.Kader
challenge of matching energy efficiency at minimum emission. Pollution control of emission is linked to
traditional factors of reliability, fuel economy per shaft power, capital cost and maintenance. Maximizing
overall energy efficiency that includes performance of temperature, electrical, thermodynamic and
mechanical as well insulated boiler system to achieve combustion efficiency close to 100% and thermal
efficiency of the order of 90% has a ways been the drive of the time for new low pollution and high efficiency
technology. Technology try to recuperate or prevent heat loss by high temperature exhaust gas and in coolant
systems reduces the thermal efficiency[6].
For marine electrical energy, technology is after 70 percent of the primary energy that is lost in the
power generation & transmission stage, while thermal efficiency improvement sough insulation, recycling of
gaseous effluents, rate of heat transfer in combustion chamber and liquid coolants. Designer of combustion
chamber aim to achieve high combustion efficiency as unburnt fuel is considered to be pollutants, this create
new directions for new engine and retrofit system for existing engines. The issue of emission compliance is a
disguise blessing of doubles incentive opportunity for humanity to develop complete combustion efficiency
and reduces emission. A good combustion require high temperature, a resident time sufficient long, present of
oxidizer heat transfer from flame to solid surface that compose of conduction, convection and radiation
luminosity and present of solid particles that can lead to significance change in ratio of radioactive to
convective heat transfer.
Problem associated with achieving maximum efficiency are linked to pollution control, complete
oxidation and burning of fuel, combustion efficiency and pollution prevention. However, oxide of nitrogen
presents major problems due to contradictory requirement of pollutant formation and combustion efficiency,
because, formation of oxides of nitrogen has affinity to high temperature. Compare to formation sulfur,
control require removal of sulphur before burning or extraction from effluent before send it for combustion
task.


3. GLOBAL WARMING AND ITS IMPACT

Global warming is the unusually rapid increase in Earths average surface temperature over the past century
primarily, due to the greenhouse gases released of exhaust waste from burning fossil fuels. The current
climatic warming is occurring much more rapidly than past warming events. In Earths history before the
Industrial Revolution, Earths climate changed due to natural cause unrelated to human activity. These natural
causes are still in play today, but their influence is too small or they occur too slowly to explain the rapid
warming seen in recent decades. Models predict that as the world consumes more fossil fuel, greenhouse gas
concentrations will continue to rise and Earths average surface temperature will rise with them. Based on
plausible emission scenarios, average surface temperatures could raise between 2C and 6C by the end of the
21st century. Some of this warming will occur even if the future of greenhouse gas emissions are reduced,
because the Earth system has not yet fully adjusted to environmental changes that is currently being
experienced.
The "greenhouse effect" is the warming that happens when certain gases in Earth's atmosphere trap
heat. These gases let in light but keep heat from escaping, like the glass walls of a greenhouse. The sunlight
shines onto the Earth's surface, where it is absorbed and then radiates back into the atmosphere as heat. In the
atmosphere, greenhouse gases trap some of this heat, and the rest escapes into space. The more greenhouse
gases are in the atmosphere, the more heat gets trapped. Levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs) have gone up and
down over the Earth's history, but they have been fairly constant for the past few thousand years. Global
average temperatures have stayed fairly constant over that time as well, until recently. Through the burning of
fossil fuels and other GHG emissions, humans are enhancing the greenhouse effect and warming Earth.
Some impacts from increasing temperatures that already happened are ice is melting worldwide,
especially at the Earths poles. Besides, the number of penguins on Antarctica has fallen from 32,000 breeding
pairs to 11,000 in 30 years. Sea level also rises faster over the last century. Some butterflies, foxes, and alpine
plants have moved farther north or to higher, cooler areas. Precipitation (rain and snowfall) has increased
across the globe, on average. Spruce bark beetles have boomed in Alaska thanks to 20 years of warm
summers. The insects have chewed up 4 million acres of spruce trees.
The ozone layer is a belt of naturally occurring ozone gas that sits 9.3 to 18.6 miles (15 to 30
kilometers) above Earth and serves as a shield from the harmful ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun. Ozone
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 143-154 P a g e | 146

is a highly reactive molecule that contains three oxygen atoms. It is constantly being formed and broken down
in the high atmosphere, 6.2 to 31 miles (10 to 50 kilometers) above Earth, in the region called the
stratosphere[7].
The carbon trading came about in response to the Kyoto Protocol. Signed in Kyoto, Japan, by some
180 countries in December 1997, the Kyoto Protocol calls for 38 industrialized countries to reduce their
greenhouse gas emissions between the years 2008 to 2012 to levels that are 5.2% lower than those of 1990. A
carbon trading system allows the development of a market through which carbon (carbon dioxide) or carbon
equivalents can be traded between participants, whether countries or companies. Each carbon credit is equal to
one hundred metric tons of carbon dioxide, which can be traded or exchanged in market. There are two kinds
of carbon trading which are emission trading and trading in Project-based credits. The two categories are put
together as hybrid trading system. Carbon trading is also called pollution trading [8].
The exhaust fumes contain a large number of different chemicals or emissions. Once released into the
air, exhaust Emissions are breathed in and transported in the bloodstream to all the body's major organs. Diesel
seems potentially to be more of a problem than petrol. Potentially dangerous vehicle emissions include carbon
monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and particulate matter. Although research has clearly linked
exhaust emissions to a range of health problems in the population, the exact risk to any individual is difficult to
define. The most obvious health impact is on the respiratory system. It's estimated that air pollution of which
emissions are the major contributor is responsible for 24,000 premature deaths in the UK every year. A Dutch
study confirm that,of 632 children aged seven to 11 years found that respiratory disorders worsened as air
pollution increased and a longer term study of older Dutch residents, published in 2009 found that illness due
to lung disorders increased in areas of high nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter associated with exhaust
emissions. Some of the impacts to health due to the emissions are cancer, central nervous system may grow
older and blood implication.

3.1 Green House Gas (GHG) Emission from Shipping

If global shipping were a country, it would be the sixth largest producer of greenhouse gas emissions. Only the
United States, China, Russia, India and Japan emit more carbon dioxide than the worlds shipping fleet.
Nevertheless, carbon dioxide emissions from ocean-going vessels are currently unregulated. These measures
can have an almost immediate effect on emission reductions, and a reduction of 33 percent below the
business-as-usual baseline could be attained at no cost. Previous attempts by the industry to calculate levels of
carbon emissions were largely based on the quantity of low grade fuel bought by shipowners. The latest UN
figures are considered more accurate because they are based on the known engine size of the world's ships, as
well as the time they spend at sea and the amount of low grade fuel sold to shipowners. The UN report also
reveals that other pollutants from shipping are rising even faster than CO
2
emissions. A spokesman for the
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs said the government would support the development of
a global emissions trading scheme through the IMO, and was also "investigating the feasibility of including
maritime emissions" in the EU's trading scheme. He said the shipping industry must take its "share of
responsibility" for tackling climate change.


3.2 IMO and GHG Emission

According to the Second IMO GHG Study 2009, the level of GHG emitted by international shipping was
estimated to have 870 million tones or about 2.7% of the global man made emission of COx in 2007. Exhaust
gases are the main source of GHG emissions from ships and COx is the most important GHG that contribute to
global warming. The COx emission is expected to increase to 6% in 2020. If no mitigation measures are taken,
it can increase to 250% in 2050. Figure 1 showed the exhaust emissions from shipping industry between 1997
and 2007.

147 | P a g e O. S. Oladokun, B. Michel, N. Stark, H. Azman, A.S.A.Kader

Figure 1: CO2 exhaust emissions from shipping industry between 1997 and 2007

Figure 2 revealed one of the reason, regulatory institution for stepping up the On July 2011,
International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted a new chapter to MARPOL annex VI which is to reduce
GHG emission from international shipping by improving the energy efficiency for ships. The hull design,
propulsion techniques and operational practices are expected technology that can be improved in order to
increase the energy efficiency for ships. The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) approved
the interim guidelines on the method of calculation of Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) towards
determining minimum energy efficiency level for new ships. It is apply to all merchant ships of 400 gross
tonnages and above regardless of the national flag the fly or the nationality of the owner [5].
Emission is inherent consequence of powered shipping, fuel oil burning as main source of continuous
combustion machineries like boilers, gas turbines and incinerators. GHG emission is closely linked to
machineries combustion. For a long time environmental issues in shipping has focused more on release to
water, only lately release to air and soil has become serious issue of concern because of pressure from climate
change impacts. Shipping is still considered far less emission pollutant compare to other mode transportation,
but a thorough analysis on the volume ship and risk impose to the ocean media that support all activities on
earth pose a big question on the actual quantity of emission. However, since environment differs, so are the
impact and the presence of pollutants, thus they are dependent on the volume of shipping traffic. Yet the
science of transportation of atmospheric gas dictates more about need for the whole world to work together.
Recent IMO resolution on these mandated nations to collect data on emission so that reliable compliance
measures can be incorporated into annex of MARPOL in order to meet the requirement for Energy Efficiency
Design Index (EEDI), Ship Energy Efficient Management Plan (SEEMP) and Ship Energy Efficiency
Operational indicator (SEEOI). Study of emission from ship has not been fully initiated or studied in
Malaysia.
The purpose of this multidiscipline research project is therefore to record and analyse the different
Green House Gas Emison from boat, ships, near or within the vicinity of port, inlandwater port areas,
shipping lanes in order to determine the characteristics and source of emison at different locations for require
rule making and decisuon support for choice of environmental prevention and contriol technology. Table 2
shows Inland waterways environmental performance in European waters concluded the following.

Table 2: Emission reduction potential
NOx PM FC Cox Sox
% % % % %
After treatment
SCR (Selected catalytic reduction) -81 -35 -7.5 -7.5 -7.5
PMF (Particulate matter filter) None -85 2 2 2
Drive management systems
ATM (Advising temporal) -10 -10 -10 -10 -10
Diesel fuel quality / substitutes
(BD) Bio Diesel -10 -30 15 65 ~-100
BDB (Biodiesel blend , 20%BD) 2 -6 3 -13 ~-20
LSF (Low sulfur fuel) None -1.7 none None ~-100
New engine technology
NGE (Natural Gas Engine) -98.5 -97.5 4.5 -10 -100
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 143-154 P a g e | 148

4. METHODOLOGY

4.1 Study Location

Thus, there are recent GHG gas emission quantification in other part of the world, but the data are hard to to be
applied to pother region, because, reliability of environmental research require localization. RV Discovery II
is sailed from Pengkalan Arang Jetty to Bidong Island. The data is collected during its saling, maneuvering
and hoteling mode, the data is recorded near to the Bidong Island that is far from the land. Therefore, the
concentration of gases recorded by the equipment is mainly coming from the vessel engine. Data information
related the following are used:
Emission factors for each components air emission factors for air is established by regulatory bodies
Fleet information on board data based ship performance information
Ship operational data (power consumption, speed time at sea)
Shipping movement information from different source within fleet that call Malaysia and European
ports
Analysis will be made for contribution by vessel and operations


4.2 Equipment

The equipment used for collecting the concentration of gases is the Gas Detector IQ-1000. It can detect over
100 toxic and combustible gases using a single sensor. The calibration is automated with no manual
adjustments necessary. The power is provided by 6 D size alkaline or nickel cadmium batteries. The data that
is successfully recorded is displayed on the unit and stored in data acquisition system and then transferred to
through the RS 232 computer port or send to printer for further analysis. This equipment is placed on the safe
and balance area near the exhaust of Discovery II. The sensor is then pointed 20 cm away from the exhaust
hole. The setting of the equipment is changed by selecting three types of gases, Carbon Dioxide (CO),
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO) and Sulphur Dioxide (SO) as parameters that are going to be measured. The
procedure of using the Gas Detector IQ-1000 is as followed (Figure 2):

i. AC power supply is connected to the unit.
ii. Sensor is connected to the unit.
iii. Gas detector IST IQ-1000 is turned on by pressing the POWER button and waits until the reading
appeared at every sensor.
iv. The pump is turned on by pressing the PUMP button.
v. The LOG DATA button is pressed to record the data.
vi. The LOG DATA and PUMP are turned off after the sampling is finished.
Figure 3 shows the experimental setup of the pilot study conducted on Discovery II.



Figure 2: Experimental setup
149 | P a g e O. S. Oladokun, B. Michel, N. Stark, H. Azman, A.S.A.Kader
EEOI represent performance index that provides the CO2 level per unit of cargo/passenger moved by unit of
distance.
EEOI estimation takes into consideration:
cargo mass term (mcargo) which is expressed as tonnes, TEU, passengers, etc.
actual fuel consumption (FC).
carbon factor (CF) selected based on fuel type
actual distance (D) over ground.
acceptable damping factor voyage fluctuations and rolling



(1)

EEDI represent combined impact of commercial, operation and technical aspects. Its estimation face
challenges related voyage definition, data collection, data quality, bunker consumption uncertainty, sea state
conditions, weather, etc. Figure 4 shows the flow chart EEDI calculation for new ships. EEDI values that can
be used to calculate overall EEDI for anticipated operations like loaded voyage at a range of operating speeds,
ballast voyage at a range of operating speeds, loading alongside and discharge alongside. At design stage
EEDI could be used to support decisions for suitability of ships for different trades. Comparison of EEOI and
EEDI define improvement in auxiliary power to more closely represent actual operation. Calm water EEOI
values could be compared with EEDI values to assess degradation in performance. Such comparison could
also be used to compare different transport modes (Figure 3).



EEDI
(new ships)
CO emission
Transport
work
Lloyds data or
manufacturer
Ships data
Main
engine
Auxiliary
engine
fj Cf Power SFC Power Cf SFC
CO efficiency

Figure 3: Research methodology flowchart

EEDI is the abbreviation of Energy Efficiency Design Index. Marine Environment Protection
Committee (MEPC) has developed the EEDI formula for new ships in order to require the minimum energy
efficiency level for new ships and to stimulate continued technical development of all the components
influencing the fuel efficiency of a ship. It also separate the technical and design based measures from the
operational and commercial measures as well as enable the comparison of the energy efficiency of individual
ships to similar ships of the same size which could have undertaken the same transport work. The EEDI
formula provides a specific figure for an individual ship design, expressed in grams of CO per ships capacity
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 143-154 P a g e | 150

mile (a smaller EEDI value means a more energy efficient ship design) and calculated by a given formula
based on the technical design parameters of a given design:


(2)

Where: ME and AE represent main engine(s) and auxiliary engine(s); P, the power of engine (kW); CF
a conversion factor between fuel consumption and CO2 based on carbon content; SFC, the certified specific
fuel consumption on the engines (g/kWh); Capacity, the deadweight (tonnes); Vref is the ship speed (knot);
and fj is a correction factor to account for ship specific design elements fw is a non-dimensional coefficient
indicating the decrease of speed in representative sea conditions of wave height, wave frequency and wind
speed. fi is the capacity factor for any technical/regulatory limitation on capacity, and can be assumed one
(1.0) if no necessity of the factor is granted. The EEDI formula can be simplified to:

EEDI = CO emission / transport work

The CO emission represents total CO emission from combustion of fuel at design stage, including
propulsion and auxiliary engines, taking into account the carbon content of the fuels in question. If shaft
generators or innovative mechanical or electrical energy efficient technologies are incorporated on board a
ship, these effects are deducted from the total CO emission. If wind or solar energy is used to board a ship, the
energy save by such measures will also be deducted from the total CO emissions, based on actual efficiency
of the system. The transport work is calculated by multiplying the ships capacity as designed (deadweight for
cargo ships and gross tonnage for passenger ships) with the ships design speed measured at the maximum
design load condition and at 75% of the rated installed shaft power. Speed is the most essential factor in the
formula and may be reduced to achieve the required index. Table 3 shows necessary input data and
assumption.
The nitrogen emission per year can be estimated from;

(5.34lb/Hr).(8760hr/year).(ton/200lb)

Where 5.34lb is assumed emission factor

Table 3: Input data
Activities Category Source
Ship
Movements
Data Records for each vessel: vessel type,
Previous and current ports, date of
movement, etc
Navigation data
Main engine
power
Correlations for vessel type and DWT

Navigation data, Marine Department, or Environmental
departments
Aux engine
power Estimate
using aux/main engine power ratio From Within Malaysia and European ports
Load factors by mode Factors Malaysian ports environmental department best practices
methods. Emission factors Entec, 2002, Swedish Methodology
for Environmental Data, 2004, Starcrest, 2004, MAN B&W,
2004. Vessel speed Navigation data or default values.
Time underway Port-to-port distances were estimated
individually for 80% of movements.
Simplified distance estimates for balance.
Equal to distance/vessel underway speed.

Time
manoeuvring
For each vessel type. Includes intraport
distances in large ports
Equal to manoeuvring distance/vessel speed
Time hoteling By vessel type, based on vessel arrival &
departure., fuel statistics and emission
factors OR trading pattern vessels
Navigation data

151 | P a g e O. S. Oladokun, B. Michel, N. Stark, H. Azman, A.S.A.Kader
IMO SEEMP guidelines are a mechanism for a shipping company to improve energy efficiency of a
ships operation. SEEMP provides guidance for the development of model plan for characteristics and needs
of individual companies and ships.

5. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

From three types of gases that have been selected, only two types are successfully detected by the Gas
Detector IQ-1000 which is Carbon Dioxide (CO) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO). The data of exhaust
emissions are analyzed by using Microsoft Excel and Minitab 15. Table 4 shows the summary of the test when
Discovery II starts maneuvering at 6 knots.

Table 4: The concentration of Carbon Dioxide (CO) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO)
Time (am) Carbon Dioxide (ppm) Nitrogen Dioxide (ppm)
9:21:59 0 0
9:22:07 0 0.7
9:22:08 70 4.2
9:22:09 290 8.7
9:22:10 820 13.4
9:22:11 1650 17.5
9:22:12 2000 20
9:22:59 2000 20

Based on the data collected, the graph time versus amount of gas concentration (ppm) is plotted. Figure
3 and Figure 5shows the graph of the concentration of the Carbon Dioxide (CO) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO)
respectively.



Figure 4: The concentration of Carbon Dioxide (CO) versus
time Nitrogen Dioxide
Figure 5: The concentration of (NO) versus time

According to the graph for both gases concentration, the reading recorded increasing drastically until
they reached the maximum value. This is because; the engine of the boat needs high energy to maneuver at the
initial. The maximum reading for Carbon Dioxide (CO) is 2000 ppm while for the Nitrogen Dioxide (NO)
the maximum reading is 20ppm. The Figure 6 and Figure 7 below show the data analyzed by using Minitab 15.
The histogram shows acute skew to the left and agreement to the rise in the release of the gas during the
experiment.

09:22:59 09:22:12 09:22:11 09:22:10 09:22:09 09:22:08 09:22:07 09:21:59
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Time (am)
C
a
r
b
o
n

D
io
x
id
e

(
p
p
m
)
Chart of Carbon Dioxide (ppm)

09:22:59 09:22:12 09:22:11 09:22:10 09:22:09 09:22:08 09:22:07 09:21:59
20
15
10
5
0
Time (am)
N
it
r
o
g
e
n

D
io
x
id
e

(
p
p
m
)
Chart of Nitrogen Dioxide (ppm)

Figure 6: The concentration of Carbon Dioxide Figure 7: The concentration of Nitrogen Dioxide
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 143-154 P a g e | 152

Table 5 shows the summary of the test during Discovery II maneuvering at sea.

Table 5: The concentration of Carbon Dioxide (CO) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO)
Time (am) Carbon Dioxide (ppm) Nitrogen (ppm)
9:57:47 2000 0.9
9:57:50 2000 0.9
9:57:51 2000 1.6
9:57:54 2000 2.1
9:57:55 2000 3.6
9:57:56 2000 6.2
9:57:57 2000 8.8
9:57:58 2000 11.1
9:57:59 2000 13.1
9:58:00 2000 14.9
9:58:01 2000 16.4
9:58:02 2000 17.7
9:58:03 2000 18.7
9:58:04 2000 19.5
9:58:17 2000 20

Based on the data collected, the graph time versus amount of gas concentration (ppm) is plotted.
Figure 8 and Figure 9 show the graph of the concentration of the Carbon Dioxide (CO) and Nitrogen Dioxide
(NO) respectively.



Figure 8: The concentration of Carbon Dioxide (CO) versus
time
Figure 9: The concentration of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO) versus
time

According to the graph, The concentration of Carbon Dioxide become constant at maximum value of
2000 ppm. For the concentration of Nitrogen Dioxide, the graph plotted is smoother than the previous graph,
because the vessel starts to sail then. It is increasing slowly at the beginning and continue without drastic until
it reach the maximum value. The Figure 10 below shows the data analyzed by using Minitab 15 for Nitrogen
Dioxide only. The histogram shows similar trend with previous Nitrogen reading.

09:58:15 09:58:10 09:58:05 09:58:00 09:57:55 09:57:50 09:57:45
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Time (am)
N
i
t
r
o
g
e
n

D
i
o
x
i
d
e
(
p
p
m
)
S 3.67642
R-Sq 76.7%
R-Sq(adj) 74.9%
Fitted Line Plot
Nitrogen Dioxide(ppm) = - 32270 + 77735 Time (am)


Figure 10: The concentration of Nitrogen Dioxide

153 | P a g e O. S. Oladokun, B. Michel, N. Stark, H. Azman, A.S.A.Kader
Table 6 shows the summary of the test during Discovery II is in hoteling mode.

Table 6: The concentratio of Carbon Dioxide (CO) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO)
Time (pm) Carbon Dioxide (ppm) Nitrogen (ppm)
12:21:52 2000 0.4
12:21:52 2000 0.4
12:21:55 2000 0.9
12:21:56 2000 1.8
12:21:57 2000 2
12:21:59 2000 3.8
12:22:00 2000 6.8
12:22:01 2000 10.1
12:22:02 2000 12.9
12:22:03 2000 15.2
12:22:04 2000 17.1
12:22:05 2000 18.7
12:22:06 2000 20
12:23:10 2000 20

Based on the data collected, the graph time versus amount of gas concentration (ppm) is plotted.
Figure 11 and Figure 12 show the graph of the concentration of the Carbon Dioxide (CO) and Nitrogen
Dioxide (NO) respectively.


Figure 11: The concentration of Carbon Dioxide (CO) versus
time
Figure 12: The concentration of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO) versus
time

According to the graph, the concentration of Carbon Dioxide (CO) still not change and keep consatnt.
For the concentration of Nitrogen Dioxide, it is increasing slowly and sometimes constant at the beginning
then it continue to increase until it reach maximum value. The Figure 13 below shows the data analyzed by
using Minitab 15 for Nitrogen Dioxide only. Similar histogram trend is obtained.


1
2
:
2
3
:
1
0
1
2
:
2
2
:
0
6
1
2
:
2
2
:
0
5
1
2
:
2
2
:
0
4
1
2
:
2
2
:
0
3
1
2
:
2
2
:
0
2
1
2
:
2
2
:
0
1
1
2
:
2
2
:
0
0
1
2
:
2
1
:
5
9
1
2
:
2
1
:
5
7
1
2
:
2
1
:
5
6
1
2
:
2
1
:
5
5
1
2
:
2
1
:
5
2
20
15
10
5
0
Time (pm)
N
i
t
r
o
g
e
n

D
i
o
x
i
d
e
(
p
p
m
)
Chart of Nitrogen Dioxide(ppm)


Figure 13: The concentration of Nitrogen Dioxide




Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 143-154 P a g e | 154

7. CONCLUSION

The maximum reading of Carbon dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide that can be detected by the Gas Detector IST
IQ-1000 are 2000ppm and 20ppm respectively. At the initial stage of the experiment, the amount of Carbon
Dioxide increased dramatically and it remains constant until the experiment is finished. For the Nitrogen
Dioxide, it also increased dramatically at the initial of the experiment and its amount keeps changing and not
constant until the experiment is finished. The overall data showed that the Nitrogen Dioxide measured keep
changing and not uniform. For the first reading, the data collected finished in 5 seconds while the second
reading, third reading and fourth reading finished in 33 seconds, 18 seconds and 8 seconds respectively. For
the hoteling mode which is fifth reading and sixth reading, the data collected finished in 25 seconds and 14
seconds respectively. The amount of Nitrogen Dioxide in each data collected is increasing, decreasing and
sometimes constant. The data collected in this pilot study is based on the unsophisticated device. The
experimental set up is the first experiment we have done in measuring the gas emission. The pilot study is
preparation for similar experiment on ocean going vessel, and inadequacy experience in the pilot study will be
mitigated for better accuracy.

Acknowledgement

Author thanks Nurul Akmar for direct contribution to the research.


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[7] N Slocombe,D. S (1993). Environmental planning, ecosystem science, and ecosystem approaches for
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[8] Ghai, Dharam and Jessica M. Vivian, .Introduction. in Dharam Ghai and Jessica M. Vivian (eds.). (1992)
Grassroots Environmental Action: People.s Participation in Sustainable Development, Routledge, London
[9] Jeremy Colls (2002). Air Pollution Second Edition, Shipping emissions, page 150, Spon Press 29 West
35
th
Street, New York, USA and Canada


Please cite this article as: O. S. Oladokun, B. Michel, N. Stark, H. Azman, A.S.A.Kader, (2013), Pilot Study for Quantification of Emissions of Green
House Gas for Marine Transportation Decision Support, Journal of Science and Engineering, Vol. 1(2), 143-154.



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STUDY OF PROPERTIES OF COMPONENTS FOR OFFSHORE
AQUACULTURE TECHNOLOGY FARMING

O. S. Oladokun
1
, W.B. Wan Nik
1
, A.S.A.Kader
2

1
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia
2
University Technology Malaysia, Skudai, Johor



Abstract
This study outlines analysis about selection of suitable material for offshore technology
farming, especially in seaweed farming. Floating structures has proved to have economical
and dependable, operational advantages and it emerging to be more acceptable from an
environmental point of view. Generally, floating structure is used for the construction of
various facilities and accommodations. Study of properties of components for offshore
aquaculture technology farming involved the properties of material selection that is suitable
for floating offshore structure, and is conducted based on the case study area which is in
Setiu, Terengganu. The materials are two types of rope; manila and polyester, and SHE-20
type of buoy. The result from the tensile test showed that manila rope has better usage for
larger force and polyester rope can be use within smaller scale of force. The result from
water absorption test showed that the buoy absorbed water with lower percentage, which
means it can be used for longer period. This study also involved other tasks; for example data
gathering, experimental test, field works, and prototype modelling. The result of the study
hopes to contribute to ocean farming, especially seaweed farming in the future.



1. INTRODUCTION

Floating structure in general have been used for the construction of
floating houses, storage for liquid and dry bulk materials, bridges, airports,
golf courses, and miscellaneous industrial facilities (Gregory, 1995). In
maritime industry, there are many activities that can be done and give back
benefit for community, especially in Shipyard industry, Marine leisure, and
Support services. Nowadays, the world seems to look forward to the present
fast-developing seaweed farming (NMIF, 2010) and use of floating structure.
Seaweed farming was first devoted in Japan at least 1500 years ago, based on
the early written records. It started in Japan in early 1670 in Tokyo Bay. In
autumn of each year, farmers would throw bamboo branches into shallow,
muddy water, where the spores of the seaweed would gather. A few weeks
later these branches would be changed place to a river estuary.

Correspondence:
O. S. Oladokun

Universiti Malaysia Terengganu,
21030 Kuala Terengganu,
Malaysia


Received: 17 Mar 2013
Accepted: 22 Apr 2013
Keywords:
Offshore aquaculture
Material
Structure
Seaweed
Ocean

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 155-162 P a g e | 156

NOMENCLATURE
DNV Det Norske Veritas NMIF National Marine Industries Forum
JTM Jabatan Teknologi Maritim UTS Ultimate Tensile Strength
ISOS International Ship and Offshore Structures VLFS Very Large Floating Structure

The nutrients from the river would assist the growth of seaweed. In the 1940s, the Japanese enhanced this
technique by placing nets of synthetic material tied to bamboo poles. This efficiently doubled the production.
A lower cost alternative of this technique is known the hibi technique; simple ropes stretched between bamboo
poles. In the early 1970s demand for seaweed and seaweed products, outstripping supply and cultivation was
seen as the best way to increase productions (Borgese et al, 1980).

On the other hand, the production itself is giving some useful information. It is almost entirely derived
from culture in floating cages, which is essentially an open system. The open nature of this culture system
allows the outputs to participate in exterior biological, chemical and ecological systems, where they may cause
unwanted effects. These effects are often complex, varying by orders of scale on temporal and spatial scales
(Black et al, 2008). Commercial seaweed farming in Malaysia started in Sabah coastal area in the 1970s.
Sabah is tranquilly the main manufacturer of seaweed in Malaysia on a commercial scale, and this is primarily
in Semporna, Lahad Datu, Kudat, and Kunak. Besides, the recent implementation of the National Aquaculture
Centre, and the latest declaration of the 2010 Budget on October 23, 2009, has seaweed being mentioned
specifically as one of the most important food farming production for the country. Although the sector has
developed extremely over the past few years (about 111,298 tonnes wet weight in 2008), seaweed production
national target by 2010 of 250,000 tonnes in wet weight is however yet to be achieved. There are some major
issues and challenges to this, for example the unavailability of good quality seedlings, pollution in cultivation
areas, diseases, shortage of raw materials, lack of capital to venture into the industry, lack of research and
development agenda listed by the government itself. This research involved the study of properties of
components for offshore aquaculture technology farming. System and structure will go through the sources
from seaweed farming, the regulation of offshore aquaculture with respect to the components within
technology seaweed farming, together with some of models that have been developed, the relationships with
other coastal users and finally consideration for site selection and some commercial aspects.
Based on the general view, the study about properties of components for offshore aquaculture technology
farming has wide range of area. The study focused on areas which are fieldwork, experimental set up and
validation with standard based on the classification society recommendation. The fieldwork is within Kuala
Terengganu and Setiu area to provide environmental data suitability components used for offshore
aquaculture technology farming, especially seaweed farming. The components that are used are ropes and
buoy. One of the most important parts is the experimental set up. This is required to provide data to achieve the
aim and the objectives of the research. The experiment is done at marine technology laboratory using Gotech
Universal Testing Machine, and also Kampung Pak Tuyu area; which are to test the properties of components.
The tests that have been done are Tensile Test and Water Absorption Test.

2. OFFSHORE AQUACULTURE

Open ocean aquaculture or offshore aquaculture is an up-and-coming approach to mariculture or marine
farming where fish farms operations some distance offshore. The offshore aquaculture involves farms that are
located in deeper and less sheltered waters, where ocean currents are stronger than they are inshore. One of the
concerns with inshore aquaculture especially fish farming is that unnecessary nutrients and feces can resolve
beneath the farm on the seafloor and harm the benthic ecosystem (Lisac, 1996). Proponents of the wastes from
aquaculture that has been moved offshore tend to be swept away from the site and diluted with it. However,
moving aquaculture offshore also provides more gaps where aquaculture production can enlarge to meet the
increasing demands for fish. Moving aquaculture offshore avoids numerous of the conflicts that arise with
other marine resource users in more crowded inshore waters, there can still be consumer conflicts offshore.
Beside this, there is criticism regarding issues such as the ongoing consequences of using antibiotics and other
drugs and the potential of cultured fish evasion and distribution of disease among feral fish. Furthermore
aquaculture is the most swiftly growing food industry in the world, resulting from the declining of wild
157 | P a g e O. O. Sulaiman, W.B. Wan Nik, A.S.A.Kader
fisheries stocks and profitable business. In 2008, aquaculture provided 45.7% of the fish produced worldwide
for human consumption; increasing at a mean rate of 6.6% a year since 1970 (Harold et al, 2010). Nonetheless,
using some of the offshore Very Large Floating Structures (VLFS) technology system as well as suitable
material can improve productivity. VLFS are artificially man-made floating land parcels on the sea. The
system appears like giant plates resting on the sea surface. VLFS may be broadly categorized into the
semisubmersible-type and the pontoon-type. The semisubmersible-type VLFS has a raised platform above sea
level by using column tubes and is suitable for deployment in high seas with large waves. On the contrary, the
pontoon-type VLFS platform rests on the water surface and is intended for deployment in calm waters such as
in a cove, a lagoon or a harbor (Wang et al, 2011).

3. SEAWEED FARMING
Seaweed farming is defined as the perform act of cultivating and harvesting seaweed. In its most simple
outline, it involves the management of naturally found batches. In its most sophisticated form, it involves fully
controlling the life cycle of the plant. The main seaweed species grown by aquaculture in Japan, China and
Korea include Gelidium, Pterocladia, Porphyra, and Laminaria. The Long Line system allows for culture of
shellfish (in mussel collectors) as well as seaweed growing on ropes suspended from the surface line (Buck et
al, 2005). Figure 1 shows the Long Line System that is used for the seaweed farming.

Fig. 1: Long Line System
Seaweed farming has commonly been developed as an alternative to improve economic conditions and to
decrease fishing pressure and over exploited fisheries. In addition, seaweeds have been harvested throughout
the world as a food source as well as an export product for manufacture of agar and carrageenan products.
(Moan, 2004). The offshore ring system consists of a submerged ring with culture lines descending from it,
surface flotation and anchoring system. The rigging is adjusted to maintain the growing lines below the
surface at the optimum light depth for growth. This system continues to undergo tests and improvements and
should be watched as a potential large-scale seaweed cultivation platform (Reith, 2005). The ring system can
be completed rigged on-shore then towed to the location and anchored, decreasing the need for costly
construction at sea (Buck & Buchholz, 2004). Figure 2 shows the Offshore Ring system.

Fig. 2: Offshore Ring System


4. OFFSHORE SYSTEM DESIGN
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 155-162 P a g e | 158

For specific reasons, the analysis and design of floating structures need to account for some special
characteristics (Clauss et al, 1992) when compared to land-based structures; namely:
i. Horizontal forces due to waves are in general several times greater than the (nonseismic)
horizontal loads on land-based structures and the effect of such loads depends upon how the
structure is connected to the seafloor.
ii. It is distinguished between a rigid and compliant connection; a rigid connection virtually
prevents the horizontal motion while a compliant mooring will allow maximum horizontal
motions of a floating structure in the order of the wave amplitude.
iii. Structures which are piled to the seafloor, the horizontal wave forces produce extreme bending
and overturning moments as the wave forces act near the water surface.
iv. The structure and the pile system need to carry virtually all the vertical loads due to selfweight
and payload as well as the wave, wind and current loads.
iv. If a floating structure has got a compliant mooring system, consisting for instance of catenary
chain mooring lines, the horizontal wave forces are balanced by inertia forces.
v. If the horizontal size of the structure is larger than the wave length, the resultant horizontal
forces will be reduced due to the fact that wave forces on different structural parts will have
different phase (direction and size).
vi. A particular type of structural system, denoted tension-leg system, is achieved if a highly
pretensioned mooring system is applied; additional buoyancy is then required to ensure the
pretension.
vii. Sizing of the floating structure and its mooring system depends on its function and also on the
environmental conditions in terms of waves, current and wind. The design may be dominated
either by peak loading due to permanent and variable loads or by fatigue strength due to cyclic
wave loading.
ix. It is important to consider possible accidental events such as ship impacts and ensure that the
overall safety is not threatened by a possible progressive failure induced by such damage.
x. Due to the corrosive of sea environment, floating structures have to be provided with a good
corrosion protection system.
xi. Possible degradation due to corrosion or crack growth (fatigue) requires a proper system for
inspection, monitoring, maintenance and repair during use.
In spite of these, the allowable strength limit state is intended to confirm that a structure has strength for
safe use throughout a service period with appropriate reserve. Buckling and yielding strengths of principal
structural members are evaluated on their elastic responses. The first class environmental load that
corresponds to a return period of at least double the number of service years is considered a characteristic
value. DNV's recommendations of good engineering practice for general use by the offshore industry, the
offshore standards also provide the technical basis for DNV classification, certification and verification
services. Buoys designed, built, installed, tested and intended to be followed up in-service under supervision
of the Society in compliance with the requirements of this standard will be entitled to the Class Notation:
Offshore Loading Buoy. Due to the particular nature of offshore loading buoys' operations and ownership, the
precise scope of classification is decided on a case-by case basis after agreement with the client (DNV, 2008).
Functionality and safety criteria are key issues that dominate the structural design. The excessive
structural response could lead to the sinking of the floating structure due to progressive flooding and drifting
of the floating structure due to the failure of system. However, the motions of a floating structure become large
when the length of mooring line is rather long. Moreover, the tension leg system is adopted to which the
pretension is applied to the mooring line in order to restrain heaving motion especially in deep seas. In such a
159 | P a g e O. O. Sulaiman, W.B. Wan Nik, A.S.A.Kader
station keeping system, it is difficult to restrain the horizontal motion and usually the mooring lines experience
significant tension forces (I.A. Hinojosa, 2009).


5. RESULT

Figure 3 shows the graph for tensile stress-strain test of manila rope. When the load was applied, stress of
the rope was higher and at point of 5.3117 kN/mm2 stress, the value was constant. Until it reached its highest
load which is 1.0023 of strain, it was sharply decreased. The rope was broken that it cannot withstand higher
load any more. At that point, it was its ultimate strength.


Fig. 3: Graph for Manila Ropes Tensile Stress-Strain

When the load was applied, stress of the rope was higher and at point of 5.3117 kN/mm2 stress, the value
was constant. Until it reached its highest load which is 1.0023 of strain, it sharply decreased. That means the
rope was broken that it cannot withstand higher load any more. Figure 4 shows the graph of modulus of
elasticity and break elongation for Manila rope.


Fig. 4: Graph of Modulus of Elasticity and Break Elongation for Manila Rope

The highest point of which the rope was broken when time is 37.112 s and load applied on the rope is
3906.213 kN. The result was that the stress is 4.4311 kN/mm2 and the strain is 0.0621 %. Figure 5 shows the
graph for tensile stress-strain test of polyester rope.


Fig. 5: Graph for Polyesters Tensile Stress-Strain

Stress of the rope was higher and at point of 4.4355 kN/mm2 of stress, the value is constant. Until it
reached its highest load which is 1.0023 of strain, it was sharply decreased. The rope was broken that it cannot
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 155-162 P a g e | 160

bear the higher load applied onto it any more. It recorded that it was the ultimate strength. Figure 6 shows the
graph of modulus of elasticity and break elongation for Polyester rope.


Fig. 6: Graph of Modulus of Elasticity and Break Elongation for Polyester Rope

Figure 7 and figure 8 below show the graph for differences between manila with polyesters modulus of
elasticity and break elongation.


Fig. 7: Graph for Difference between Manila and Polyesters Modulus of Elasticity


Fig. 8: Graph for Difference between Manila and Polyesters Break Elongation

Each of the figures indicates the difference in capability of two types of rope that could be use in two different
situation and usage. The figures show that Manila rope has higher modulus of elasticity and break elongation
than Polyester rope.

6. CONCLUSION

This study is about the study of floating material for offshore aquaculture technology farming. The study
is aimed to provide a recommendation for development of seaweed farming in local coastal area. Some parts
of this study have the ability to develop better system. In this study the validation with the standard of
classification society to meet its expectation is important. The study uses the classification society as bench
mark for criteria. The properties of the material were investigated and determined by the calculation of each
part of the test theory. Observed error or other circumstances is given and recommendation is provided for
future research. Laboratory test provides the required data to validate the result, and the theoretical analysis
can be useful generally for seaweed farming.

161 | P a g e O. O. Sulaiman, W.B. Wan Nik, A.S.A.Kader
As future baseline, the rule and regulation development was about to avoid any error that could bring any
bad incident to take place. For example, risk assessment approaches are now available tools to use for
developing rules and regulations for better workplace. Based on this study, it is recommended to continue for
further research that focuses on the following issues:
i. Environmental impact study and carbon footage
ii. Cost of the material.
iii. Other properties that can be determined such as corrosion resistivity and fatigue analysis.
iv. Other material that involved in the seaweed farming such as anchor, shackle and chain.

Aknowledgement

Author thank Azri Akif for direct contribution to the research.

REFERENCES

[1] Black, K.D., Hansen, P.K. and Holmer, M. (2008). Salmon Aquaculture Dialogue: Working Group
Report on Benthic Impacts and Farm Siting. 54 pages.
[2] Buck, B. H. And Buchholz, C. M. (2004). The offshore-ring: A new system design for the open ocean
aquaculture of macroalgae. Journal of Applied Phycology, 16, 355-368.
[3] Buck, B. H. And Buchholz, C. M. (2005), Response of offshore cultivated Laminaria saccharina to
hydrodynamic forcing in the North Sea. Aquaculture, 250, 674-691.
[4] Borgese, Elisabeth Mann (1980). Seafarm: The Story of Aquaculture. Accepted on 25th of October 2011.
[5] Clauss, G., Lehmann, E. and Ostergaard, C. (1992). Vol 1 Conceptual Design and Hydromechanics.
Offshore Structures.
[6] Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E403 (2008).
[7] Fujikubo M. (2005). Structural Analysis for the Design of VLFS: Marine Structures 18. Page 201226.
[8] Gregory P. Tsinker (1995), Port Engineering. WILEY John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Publisher. Page 422
577.
[9] Harold F. Upton and Eugene H. Buck (2010). Open Ocean Aquaculture. CRS Publisher.
[10] Hinojosa I. A. and Thiel M. (2009). Marine Pollution Bulletin. Page 58.
[11] International Ship and Offshore Structures (ISOS) Congress (2006) the 16th. Accepted on 24th of
October 2011.
[12] Lisac D. (1996). A Tension Leg Cage System for Offshore Aquaculture in the Mediterranean, CIHEAM
Publisher. Page 109 113.
[13] Moan, T. (2004). Safety of Floating Offshore Structures.
[14] Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Mooring Design Physical and Empirical Data, Design Manual
26.6 (1986).
[15] Reith, J. H., E.P. Deurwaarder, K. Hemmes, A.P.W.M. Curvers, P. Kamermans, W. Brandenburg, G.
Zeeman (2005). Grootschalige teelt can zeewieren in combinatie met offshore windparken in de Nordzee.
Energy Commission of the Netherlands.
[16] Wang C. M. and Tay Z. Y. (2011). Very Large Floating Structures: Applications, Research and
Development: Procedia Engineering 14. Page 6272.
[17] Buoy. http://shfloats21.en.ec21.com/Purse_Seine_Gill_Net_Floats--1043047_1043435.html [7th of
January 2012]
[18] First National Marine Industries Forum (NMIF), 2010. http://www.mima.gov.my [8th of October 2011]
[19] Tensile Property Testing of Plastics. http://www.matweb.com/reference/tensilestrength.aspx [19th
January 2012]
[20] Universal Testing Machine. http://www.servo-utm.com/products.htm [1st of October 2011]


Please cite this article as: O. O. Sulaiman, W.B. Wan Nik, A.S.A.Kader, (2013), Study of Properties of Components for Offshore Aquaculture Technology
Farming, Journal of Science and Engineering, Vol. 1(2), 155-161.




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(2013) Copyright ORIC Publications


Journal of Science and Engineering
Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 163-172

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Science and Engineering
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means without the written permission of ORIC Publications, www.oricpub.com.

ANALYSIS OF THE ELASTIC ENERGY AND CRACK
TIP OPENING DISPLACEMENT WITH INCREASED YIELD
STRESS

Hannachi Mohamed Tahar
1
, Djebaili Hamid
2
1
Depatment of mechanic, University sheik Larbi Tbessi, Tbessa 12000, Algeria
2
Depatment of mechanic, University Abbas Lagrour, Khenchela 40000, Algeria


Abstract
This study is a calculus and computational of Aluminum alloys sent Tension specimen was
considered. We tempted to determine some parameters (Crack tip opening displacement
(CTOD), size of plastic zone and elastic energy) for three values of yield stress. The
distribution of stresses, under both plane stress and plane strain conditions, can be
obtained for region near the crack tip by simulation by finite elements (FE) by
Castem2001.


1. INTRODUCTION

The concept of CTOD () came into existence by the independent
works of Wells, Cottrell and Barenblatt. It is proposed that when a
significant amount of plasticity occurs at the crack tip, the fracture
process is essentially controlled by the attainment of a critical strain
adjacent to the crack tip which can be measured be the CTOD. Dugdale
postulated a strip yield model that gives a plastic zone size in plan
stress for an ideal plastic non-strain hardening material. Alloys of Al-cu
have been widely used for aircraft issue for the aerospace industry [1-17].
The latest and upcoming generation of Al-Cu alloy has received much
attention for military, space and commercial application because they offer
low density, improved specific strength, damage tolerance and high
stiffness to weight ratio as compared to the conventional commercial 2xxx
and 7xxx series aluminium alloys [18-23]. Although these alloys have the
desired lower density, higher modulus and improved fatigue resistance, they
also exhibit lower ductility and fracture toughness in the short-transverse
[24]. Facing the competition of composite materials in the aeronautic
industry, recent alloy developments have produced a new generation of Al-
Cu. Among these alloys, 2198 Al-Cu-Mg alloy, shows a good combination
of static tensile properties, damage tolerance and formability. For this
reason, they have been considered for the application of fuselage of new
generation commercial airplanes.
Received: 06 Apr 2013
Accepted: 23 Apr 2013
Keywords:
Crack
Simulation
Tenacity
Point of the Crack
Plastic Zone

Correspondence:
Hannachi Mohamed Tahar

Department of mechanic,
University sheik Larbi Tbessi,
Tbessa 12000, Algeria
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 163-172 P a g e | 164

A new generation of Al-Cu alloys which contain less than 2 % Li and have a higher Cu/Li ratio than the
second generation alloys (2090, 2091 and 8090). This work is part of a project aiming at investigating
damage tolerance of the current Al-Cu alloys for aeronautic application, better understand the relationship
between microstructure evolution and damage tolerance properties. This project is divided into three main
research subjects. The second one started at the same time as present work; it deals with the fatigue
behaviour of Al-Cu alloys. In this study, four different Al-Cu-Mg thin sheet materials are investigated
analytic and numerically. Finally cohesive zone model is used to model ductile tearing behaviour of tested
materials, transferability from small sized. We consider a crack of a side plate aluminium alloy 2024, to
calculate and determine the CTOD in simple tension, the comparison of these two methods gives us a clear
idea about what is the effect of the crack opening space, and we end up with a Toy finite element (FE) code
by CASTEM2001 to see plastic zone of crack.

2. MATERIAL AND PROCEDURE

The material used to better reflect the formability of materials, since they reflect two important plastic
properties of metals (see table 1) . The numerical designation has been adopted in the NF A 02-104 (1980)
and is identical to the designation of EN 485-2. EN AW-2024 [AlCu4Mg1] 4% copper, 1% magnesium.

Table 1. Mechanical properties [25]

Alloy

(MPa) (MPa) A(%)


2024-T3 343 480 17

The theory of critical crack spacing (Crack-opening displacement, abbreviation CTOD.) was first
formulated by Wells [26]. The critical distance from the lips of a crack is considered a test of resistance to
boot tears. This theory of the critical crack spacing is especially applicable in the case of steels where the
plasticized zone at the crack tip becomes important and makes possible the separation of the lips of the
cracks years increasing its.
We show that the lamination produces a blunting the crack tip whose surfaces differ at this level of ,
called COD (Crack Opening Displacement).



Fig. 1: Alloys of airplane


From the expressions of displacement and taking into account the plastic zone correction, this is
expressed as:

] (1)

165 | P a g e Hannachi Mohamed Tahar, Djebaili Hami

small enough For a constraint to

, then :

with

(2)

Indeed the equation (1) can be written in the form of a Taylor expansion:

} (3)

The Calculations of Burdekin and Stone [27] show that the crack spacing (at the bottom of the real
crack) is given by the displacement in x a is:
the first term.

(4)

Using the model proposed by Dugdale and Barenblatt [28] [29], we link the critical crack spacing and the
fracture energy per unit area G
C
.

(5)

Comparing equations (4) and (5) we obtain the relation:

if

(6)

The value of the total deformation can be obtained experimentally by measuring the distance of
cracking on a gauge length equivalent (ie twice the value of the spacing of cracks).

(7)

Recently, Carboni [30] and Yamada and Newman [31] used micro-strain gauges glued near the front of
the crack locally to detect the small change of convenience for small cracks. In elastoplasticity, the crack tip
becomes blunt and some authors have proposed using the crack opening as a parameter of fracture
mechanics. The CTOD, crack or gap , has been defined from the displacement of the crack tip, measured at
the intersection of the boundary of the plastic zone with the lips of the crack. There are many ways to
calculate this distance . For example, Tracey has proposed to define this distance at the intersection of two
lines passing at 45 to the axis and the lips of the crack (see figure 2). Fellows and Nowell [32] used the
method of Moir interferometry to measure the displacement of the lips of the crack to detect the closed
position. Chang et al. [33] proposed a technique for detecting acoustic emission to detect the closure of
small cracks. The main quantities in fracture mechanics is the stress intensity factors and energy release rate.
These quantities can be connected to each other, we propose to calculate the energy release rate using the
method presented above G. Then we will compare the results with analytical results on geometrical
configurations known. After showing the good accuracy of the method G, we study the influence of the
mesh on the results. For Linear isotropic elastic material, the value of the integral J is easily obtained in
plane strain:

(8)

and in plane stress:

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 163-172 P a g e | 166

(9)

To determine the accuracy and robustness of the method G, we will compare the results obtained by this
method with known analytical results for certain geometric configurations.
For single specimens, and elasticity, it is possible to calculate stress intensity factors by analytical
formulas that can be found in several books. Then, the energy release rate is calculated using the following
formulas:

Specimen SEC (Single Edge Crack):

It is a semi-infinite plate, subjected to a stress homogeneous, and having a crack length of side 2a (see
fig. 3). For this type of geometry, the stress intensity factor for pure opening mode (mode I), is:

(10)

(11)




This method is available to the technical progress of the crack developed by Park [34]. This method is
still effective and widely used in recent studies [35].
In a two-dimensional diagram, the elastic behavior of a material connects the constraints
11
,
22
and
12

to deformation
11
,
22
and
12
In the case where the material is isotropic, the elastic behavior of the material
is characterized by its Young'smodulus (E) and its Poisson's ratio (). For a state of plane stress, the stress-
strain relationship can be written:


(
(
(

(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

12
22
11
2
12
22
11
2
1
0 0
0 1
0 1
1
c
c
c
v
v
v
v
o
o
o
E
(12)

and in the case of a state of plane deformation, it is written:

(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(

+

=
(
(
(

12
22
11
12
22
11
) 1 ( 2
2 1
0 0
0 1
1
0
1
1
) 2 1 )( 1 (
) 1 (
c
c
c
v
v
v
v
v
v
v v
v
o
o
o
E
(13)

Stress values plotted on the curves of simulated behaviors for various distributions studied were
calculated using the relation of strength of materials giving the maximum tensile stress as a function of the
applied load P.



Critical factor of stress intensity (Tenacity):
167 | P a g e Hannachi Mohamed Tahar, Djebaili Hami


|
.
|

\
|
=
w
a
f
b t
P
K
C
IC 2
(15)

The decomposition of the spacing critical crack (CTOD) an elastic portion and a plastic part.

pl e c
o o o + =
(16)

Manufacturers demonstrate the need for modeling tools and / or simulation of welding, methodological or
predictive, to improve the reliability of assemblies. A major challenge for development teams of structure
lies in the prediction of the mechanical effects of welding (stresses and deformation). Castem 2000 use finite
element method. For an elastoplastic material, it is possible to represent the shape of the plastic zone at the
crack tip. Indeed, in plane strain, the theoretical models of the plastic zone at the crack tip provides a form
resembling butterfly wings.






Fig. 2: Single Edge Crack Specimen Fig. 3: Records of deformation





Fig. 4: Von Mises stress after 10 seconds of loading Fig. 5: Von loading after 50 seconds of loading




Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 163-172 P a g e | 168





Fig. 6: Records of constraints SMXX and MYY

Table 2. results of CTOD, Size plastic zone and energy for three values of yield stresses.
Stress
Load
(MPa)
a
(mm)
Re=250 MPa Re = 450 Mpa Re= 650 Mpa
(mm) Rp
(mm)
G
*
J.mm
-2

(mm) Rp (mm) G
*
J.mm
-2

(mm) Rp (mm) G
*
J.mm
-2




= 200
MPa
2.5 0.0089 0.879 2.225 0.0036 0.763 1.620 0.0024 0.323 1.560
5 0.0178 1.758 4.450 0.0073 1.527 3.240 0.0048 0.646 3.120
7.5 0.0267 2.637 6.675 0.0109 2.290 4.860 0.0072 0.970 4.680
10 0.0356 3.516 8.900 0.0145 3.054 6.480 0.0096 1.293 6.240
12.5 0.0445 4.395 11.125 0.0182 3.817 8.100 0.0120 1.617 7.800
15 0.0534 5.274 13.350 0.0218 4.581 9.720 0.0144 1.940 9.360
17.5 0.0623 6.153 15.575 0.0255 5.344 11.340 0.0168 2.263 10.920
20 0.0712 7.032 17.800 0.0291 6.108 12.960 0.0192 2.587 12.480
*G unit: (1 J = 1 N.m)



Fig. 7: CTOD function of yield stress Fig. 8: CTOD function of size plastic zone





250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650
0.008
0.01
0.012
0.014
0.016
0.018
0.02
0.022
yield stress Re(MPa)
C
T
O
D

(
m
m
)
2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
0.008
0.01
0.012
0.014
0.016
0.018
0.02
0.022
Size of plastic zone Rp(mm)
C
T
O
D

(
m
m
)
169 | P a g e Hannachi Mohamed Tahar, Djebaili Hami



Fig. 9: size of plastic zone function of yield stress
Fig. 10 : CTOD and size of plastic zone function of length
of crack



Fig. 11 : energy function of CTOD for Re = 250 MPa Fig. 12 : energy function of CTOD for Re = 450 MPa

Fig. 13: energy function of CTOD for Re = 650 MPa
Fig. 14: energy function of CTOD for Re = 250, 450 and 650
MPa

3. DISCUSSION

To obtain the best compromise between different properties to use an alloy, it is necessary to follow the
evolution of these properties in an integrated manner throughout the production process [37]. The precision
of the parts is related to the first functional tolerances tooling and a similar deformation or other validated.
250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
yield stress Re(MPa)
S
i
z
e

o
f

p
l
a
s
t
i
c

z
o
n
e

R
p
(
m
m
)
Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (2), 2013, 163-172 P a g e | 170

To better improve the step of calculating, it has been a change in crack length, in order to determine the
spacing elastic, plastic and any corresponding critical by comparing the results obtained in two main
standards data. However in recent years aluminum alloy have emerged as attractive and viable commercial
materials for automotive aerospace [38]. The results are recorded in Table 2. The test was simulated in 2D
and illustrated in figure 2. . The numerical method allows us to describe the behavior of a structure to the
point of resistance is therefore the finite element method. In our case, it is a calculation program for
aluminum alloy (2024-T3) isotropic elastic behavior in a state of plane stress with the software Castem2001.
These deformations are recorded at different amplitudes in figure 3 in parallel induce Von Mises stresses in
the figures 4 and 5. The purpose of the mesh is to discretize the field of analysis so as to associate a further
geometrical formulation. Weibull speculated known as the weakest link, whereby a solid volume V consists
of the juxtaposition of these N samples rupture of the weakest severing the entire solid. Visually spacings
cracks are remarkable in the amplitudes of the deformations are important (10 to 50 seconds), and at the tip
of the crack can clearly see the plasticized zone having residual stress due the gaps, with sharp shapes of
butterflies along the y axis. The other two curve (fig. 6) which register the constraints according to axes X
(SMXX) and Y (SMYY). The method of simulation is made by the energy method G-, with full resolution
J. The program allows us to obtain the dimensions of the plastic zone, and the distance to the crack tip
element on which the finite element gives the amplitude of the equivalent strain after a load operation. The
increased effort in terms of the evolution of plate movement is remarkable, which explains the greater the
thickness of the plate increases the more you need extra effort mainly due to increasing resistance to thick
walls and reinforced that requires that extra effort and load to be deformed. Values of the crack opening
during loading are shown in the figures (see Fig. 7 to fig.14). It is easy to evaluate the deformation locally
by the metal locally measuring its thickness. The evolution can reach 6.63 mm for the largest value of the
crack 5 mm which corresponds to the center of the plate, is a tremendous value but reasonable mechanical
point of view, giving a ductile appearance is a boon to the industry We know that determining the tensile
strength of brittle materials is usually done by a tensile test specimen on a rectangular section. The CTOD
vary depending on the lengths of the cracks, in fig. his variation is registered fig. 10. By analyzing the two
curves in figures 7 and 8, marked the first view is the continued evolution of the CTOD curves according to
yield stress and size of plastic zone. The explanation of the decay curves of the CTOD as a function of
plastic crack lengths involves the phenomenon of hardening due mainly referred to hardening during the
loading operation and the resulting gap in the plastic, it is a phenomenon of hardening mechanism favored
by blocking the so-called dislocation, which are specific configurations of atoms found in all crystalline
bodies. The evolution of CTOD and the size plastic zone is the result to failure criterion is associated with a
critical stress distribution near the crack tip (fig. 8 and 10) will be worth the stress intensity factor equal to
the critical value, or (K
I
= K
IC
), other state mode I stress the immediate vicinity of the crack extension. The
physical process of crack propagation evoked, McClintock proposed that the crack is due to the
accumulation of damage in an area around the crack tip to the sudden break. The size of this area of activity
is taken as a fraction of the cyclic plastic zone. The energy is calculate from CTOD variation with three
values of yield stress (250, 450 and 650 MPa), see fig. 11 to 14, but we can see the greet evolution of energy
for a middle value of yield stress (fig. 11 and 12) and diminution to great values of yield stress (fig. 14).

4. CONCLUSION

This work presents an interesting approach to modeling and calculation of spacing of cracks in a plate in
aluminum alloy. The behavior model G-theta isotropic hardening was used. Considering the lateral fissure of
the plate, we have successfully calculated key parameters in fracture mechanics which are the distances
elastic, plastic and critical. By completing the simulation of the plate 2 cracked before and after applying the
load is concentrated together with stresses and strains recorded. For the designer and producer of such
default is driven by all means.





171 | P a g e Hannachi Mohamed Tahar, Djebaili Hami

REFERENCES

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Please cite this article as: Hannachi Mohamed Tahar, Djebaili Hami, N. T. Makanjuola, (2013), Analysis of The Elastic Energy and Crack Tip Opening
Displacement With Increased Yield Stress, Journal of Science and Engineering, Vol. 1(2), 163-172.




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88


Editorial Board


Bdescu Gabriel
Bensafi Abd-El-Hamid
Faraj A. El-Mouadib
Ghalib Y. Kahwaji
Lamyaa Gamal Eldeen Taha
Moinuddin Sarker
WaheedSabri
ZakariaZubi


Reviewers List

Aissat Sahraoui
Amir Samimi
Atta Oveisi
Basim Obaid Hassan
Bharath K N
Djamel Bensahal
Foued Chabane
Hannachi Mohamed tahar
Hassan Jafari
Idris El-Feghi
Kamlesh Kumar
Majid Zarezadeh
Mehdi Gheisari
Mohammad Gudarzi
Okba Belahssen
Said Benramache
Umar Sidik


The journal stimulates the exchange and sharing of knowledge and best
practice in all fields of engineering science and technology including:
Mechanics, Civil, Electronics, Computer science, Material science,
Industrial Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Energy, Agricultural
Engineering, Aerospace, Nuclear Engineering and alternative
technologies. As the Journal is international in scope, papers dealing with
state-of-the-art developments in various nations, or comparative studies
of engineering fields in several countries will be accepted.


SE Journal
se@oricpub.com
www.oricpub.com/hssr-journal
ORIC Publications
office@oricpub.com
www.oricpub.com
Benefits of publishing with SE:
Fast peer-review and publishing process
A rigorous double-blind peer review process to ensure
complete impartiality.
Indexing and abstracting by various open access sources
Shortly after acceptance for publication, the article is published
on the journals website.
Your paper will be published less than 15 working days after
submission (If it is accepted by referees).
Guaranteed quality - peer review managed by qualified
international reviewers.
All content is free
High readership visibility

Journal of Science and Engineering
is an open access journal which will
deliver timely information online to
all professionals and expertise
involved in basic and/or applied
engineering research. It will fulfil this
role by rapidly publishing a range of
peer-reviewed original or extended
papers, including:
Research papers
Reviews
Communications
Copyright by ORIC Publications http://www.oricpub.com

Journal of Science and Engineering

Editorial Board


Hakan Akyildiz
Istanbul Technical University,
Istanbul, Turkey

Ming-Jyh Chern
National Taiwan University
of Science and Technology,
Taipei, Taiwan

Tzyy-Leng Horng
Feng Chia University,
Taichung, Taiwan

Taro Kakinuma
Kagoshima University,
Kagoshima, Japan

Long Lee
University of Wyoming,
Wyoming, USA

Sam Syamsuri
Adhi Tama Institute of
Technology, Surabaya,
Indonesia

Nima Vaziri
Islamic Azad University
Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran



Design of offshore structures; Subsea engineering; Ocean energy
systems; Offshore engineering; Naval architecture; Marine structural
mechanics; Safety and reliability; Computational fluid dynamics; Port
and waterfront design and engineering; Underwater technology;
Geotechnology; Ocean mining; Coastal engineering; Marine
environmental engineering; Ocean acoustics; Oceanographical
engineering; Buoyancy and Stability; Ocean modeling and Natural fluid
systems.


OEFR
msph@oricpub.com
www.oricpub.com/j-oefr
ORIC Publications
office@oricpub.com
www.oricpub.com
Benefits of publishing with OEFR:
Fast peer-review (about one month) and publishing process
(less than 2 weeks after acceptance), Indexing and abstracting
by various open access sources, guaranteed quality (peer
review managed by qualified international reviewers), High
readership visibility.

Ocean and Environmental Fluid
Research (OEFR) provides an open
access medium for the publication of
the original research and
development work in a range of fields
relevant to ocean engineering and
environmental fluid mechanics. Some
of the main topics include: Wave
mechanics; Fluid-structure
interaction; Hydrodynamics; Floating
and moored system dynamics;

Copyright by ORIC Publications http://www.oricpub.com

Ocean and Environmental Fluid Research

Editorial Board


Alexandros Psychogios
Arzu ener
Monoranjan Bhowmik
Muhammad Sabbir Rahman
Namita Rajput
Syed Iftikhar Hussain Shah

Broad Areas

Anthropology, Business
Studies, Communication
Studies, Psychology,
Philosophy, Corporate
Governance, Criminology,
Crosscultural Studies,
Demography, Development
Studies, Economics,
Education, Ethics,
Geography, History,
Industrial Relations,
Information Science,
International Relations, Law,
Linguistics, Library Science,
Media Studies, Methodology,
Political Science, Population
Studies, Public
Administration, Sociology,
Social Welfare, Linguistics,
Literature, Paralegal,
Performing Arts (Music,
Theatre & Dance), Religious
Studies, Visual Arts, Women
Studies




The journal is published in online versions including:
Research papers
Reviews
Communications
As the Journal is international in scope, authors of several countries
are welcome from all fields which have relevant to the humanities
and social sciences.


HSSR
hssr@oricpub.com
www.oricpub.com/hssr-journal
ORIC Publications
office@oricpub.com
www.oricpub.com
Benefits of publishing with OEFR:
Fast peer-review (about one month) and publishing process
(less than 2 weeks after acceptance), Indexing and abstracting
by various open access sources, guaranteed quality (peer
review managed by qualified international reviewers), High
readership visibility.

Human and Social Science Research
(HSSR), is an academic open access,
peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary and
online journal. The purpose of the
journal is to publish scholarly work in
all aspects of humanities and Social
Sciences defined in the classical sense
that is in the social sciences, the
humanities, and the natural sciences.

Copyright by ORIC Publications http://www.oricpub.com

Human and Social Science Research
Benefits of publishing with HSSR:
Fast review process and publication
Publishing in a ranked journal
Your paper will be published less than 15 working days
after submission (If it is accepted by referees).
Guaranteed quality - peer review managed by qualified
international reviewers
All content is free
High readership visibility


Broad Areas


Anatomy, Physiology,
Biochemistry, Pharmacology,
Pathology, Forensic medicine,
Microbiology, Community
Medicine, Ophthalmology,
Otorhinolaryngology,
Internal Medicine, General
Surgery, Paediatrics,
Obstetrics and Gynecology,
Orthopedics, Psychiatry,
Radiology, Pulmonary
Medicine, Dermatology and
Venereal diseases, Infectious
Diseases, Anaesthesia,
Cardiology, Diabetes, Cancer
research, Endocrinology,
Urology, Neurosurgery,
Geriatric Medicine,
Gastroenterology, Neurology,
Nephrology, Dentistry and
Medical education. Animal
Research, Free radical
biology, Immunology,
Infertility, Hematology,
Medical Genetics, Laboratory
Medicine, Medical Statistics,
Biotechnology and Nursing.




MSPH welcomes contributions in these fields in the form of:
Research papers
Reviews
Communications
Case reports
The Journal seeks to provide its readers with the highest quality scientific
information published through a process of careful peer reviews and
editorial comments. All publications are in English.


HSSR
msph@oricpub.com
www.oricpub.com/j-med-sci-pub-health
ORIC Publications
office@oricpub.com
www.oricpub.com
Benefits of publishing with OEFR:
Fast peer-review (about one month) and publishing process
(less than 2 weeks after acceptance), Indexing and abstracting
by various open access sources, guaranteed quality (peer
review managed by qualified international reviewers), High
readership visibility.

The Journal of Medical Sciences and
Public Health (MSPH), is a bi-
monthly, an editorially independent
and interdisciplinary journal
published by ORIC and aims to be a
publication of international repute
for reporting international adventures
in all areas of the medicine and
medical sciences.

Copyright by ORIC Publications http://www.oricpub.com

Medical Sciences and Public Health
Benefits of publishing with MSPH:
Fast peer-review and publishing process
A rigorous double-blind peer review process to ensure complete
impartiality.
Indexing and abstracting by various open access sources
Shortly after acceptance for publication, the article is published on
the journals website.
Your paper will be published less than 15 working days after
submission (If it is accepted by referees).
Guaranteed quality - peer review managed by qualified international
reviewers.
All content is free
High readership visibility