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1. .

m n m 4 n 4 15.
. k , k 15 : 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,
9, 10, 11, 12, 13 14. k 4 15 ( ): 0, 1, 1, 6, 1,
6, 1, 1, 6, 10, 1, 6, 1 1. , : 0, 1, 6 10.
5 ,
4

m = 15m1 + r n = 15n1 + r . m n = 15(m1 n1 ) ,

m 4 n 4 15.

2. .
. p, q r .

pqr = 7( p + q + r ) .

7, 7.
p, q r 7. r = 7 .

pq = p + q + 7 . pq p q + 1 = 8 , ( p 1)(q 1) = 8 . ,
p 1 = 1, q 1 = 8 p 1 = 2, q 1 = 4 p 1 = 4, q 1 = 2 p 1 = 8, q 1 = 1 .
a: p = 3, q = 5 p = 5, q = 3 ( 9 ).
, 3,5 7.

3. n
m n . n 27.
. n = 3m , n 3. ,
m 3. m 3. m = 3k ,
n = 9k . , n 9.
m 9, m 9. k = 9l ,
n = 3 9l = 27l , .

4.

A = {1, 2,3, 4,5, 6, 7,8,9} .


A
. A .
. x , S
.

, 6 S = 3(1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9) 3 x . , 2 S = 45 x .
x . 45 x , x = 7 .

5. 2 x + 1 = y 2 .
. ( x, y ) , ( x, y )
. , y > 0 .
2 x = y 2 1 = ( y 1)( y + 1) y 1 = 2 s , y + 1 = 2t , t > s . ,

2 = ( y + 1) ( y 1) = 2t 2 s = 2 s (2t s 1) . 2s = 2 2t s 1 = 1 ,

2t s 1 . , s = 1 t = 2 , y = 3, x = 3 .
, ( x, y ) = {(3,3), (3, 3)} .