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_



, ,

_

3 ,
,

_
1.1
,



PV = NRuT

R = Ru / MW

PV = mRT

MW =

Pv = RT
P = RT

Ru = 8315 J / kmol k

_
1.2

.


u
u
du = dT + dv
T v
v T

u
Cv
T v

h
h
dh = dT + dP
T p
P T

h
Cp
T p

_

:
:
u
v = 0
T

h
P = 0
T

h(T ) href = C p dT
Tref

u (T ) uref = Cv dT
Tref

_
1.3
(Latent Heat of Vaporization)

.


.

h fg (T , P ) hvapor (T , P ) hliquid (T , P )

_
1.4 1

.
1

Q2 1 W2 = E12

Q2

E1 2

W2 : ,

( E2 E1 ) : , ,

1 2
E = m (u +
v + gz)
2

_
1.5

, ,

, , ,


_- ()

,
(Graphite),



.



.

H 2 + 1/ 2O2 = H 2O

C + O2 = CO2
CH 4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2 H 2O

_- ()
H 2 + 1/ 2O2 = H 2O

: 2000K

;

OH+H2 H2O+H
H+02 OH+O
O+H2 OH+H
H+02+M HO2+M
H, 0, OH

[]
[]
[]
[]
[]

10

_- ()


H 2 + O2 H 2O2
H 2O2 H 2O + O
H 2 + O2 HO2 + H

H 2O2 2OH

11

_- ()

, 2 , 3
, .

A B +
A + B C +
A + B + C D +


2
3

12

_- ()
( )
d [ B]
= k1[ A]
dt

d [C ]
= k2 [ A][ B ]
dt

d [ D]
= k3 [ A][ B ][C ]
dt

k l, k2 , k3

13

_- ()

T Arrhenius

E
)
k = fT exp(
RT
n

f :
E : [J/mol]
R : [= 8.3l4J/(mol-K)]
n : -2~2 0.5

14

_- ()
Char
.

O2, N2, H2O
CO, CO2

(0)

O2, 0, CO2, H2O



.

C + 02 CO2
C + 1/2 O2 CO
C + O CO
C + CO2 2CO
C + H2O CO + H2

15

_- ()
CO2
,
CO H2
CO2 H2O
CO + 1/2 O2 CO2
H2 + 1/2 O2 H2O
CO + H2O CO2 + H2

16

_- ()

m& c = k s ps (O2 )

ps : [Pa],
ks : [kg/(m3. s Pa)]

17

_- ()
CO2

m& c = ks ps (CO2 )

Es
k s = Fs exp(
)
RTs

Ts :
R : [8.314 J/(mol-K)]
Fs :
Es :

18






( )

19

20

_
/


/

().
(
)

21

_






(LFL) :
(UFL) :

22

23

__
(Smoldering)




(growing)
(charring) .

24

_/
(Laminar Combustion)

,

(Laminar Flame)



,
.
(Turbulent Flame)

25

_/

26



(H2), (C), (S)
2.1

[MJ/kg] [MJ/kg] [kg/kg] [mN 3/kg] [kg/kg] [mN 3/kg] [kg/kg] [mN 3/kg]

12.011

C+O2 =CO2

32.76

32.76

2.66

1.87

11.48

8.89

3.66

1.37

1.008

H+ O2
=H2O

14l.8

120

7.94

5.56

34.21

26.48

8.94

11.12

32.06

S+O2 =SO2

9.26

9.25

1.00

0.7

4.31

3.33

2.00

0.7

16.00

O- O2=O

-1.00

-0.7

-4.31

-3.33

14.006

N= 1/2N2

1.00

0.8

27


(-)

28

2.2 ( = 28.97)

O2

N2

CO2

Ar

H2

31.998

28.012

44.009

38.948

1.008

[wt%]

23.2

75.47

0.046

1.28

0.001

[vol%]

20.95

78.09

0.03

0.93

0.01

0.2095

0.7905

3.773

) , , ,
0.001%

29


c, h, s, o, n, a
, , , , ,
[/]

O0 = 2.66c + 7.94h + ( s o) [kg/kg]


O0 = 1.87c + 5.56h + ( s o) [m /kg]
3
N

30


1.87 ?
1 k(12.01) 1 k
(31.998 )
31.998/12.01=2.66427..
2.66 =2.66427/31.998 x 22.4 =1.8651

5.56 ?
1 k(2.016) 1/2 k
(15.999 )
15.999/2.016=7.936011.
7.36 = 7.936/31.998 x 22.4 =5.5554.

31

(kg)

(mN 3)

12.011
1.00
12.01
1.00


O2
N2
31.99
106.25
2.66
8.83
11.48kg/kg
22.4
84.3
1.87
7.02
8.89mN 3/kg


CO2
N2
44.009
106.25
3.67
8.83kg
12. 48kg/kg
22.4
84.3
1.87
7.02
8.89mN 3/kg

31.998
22.4

= 2.66 kg kg
= 1.87 Nm3 kg
12.011
12.011

31.998
1
1
22.4

= 11.48 kg kg

= 8.89 Nm3 kg
12.011 0.232
12.011 0.2095

44.009
22.4

:
= 3.66 kg kg
= 1.87 Nm3 kg
12.011
12.011

31.998 0.768
22.4 0.7905

+ 3.66 = 12.48 kg kg

+ 1.87 = 8.89 Nm3 kg


12.011 0.232
12.011 0.2095

32

(kg)

(mN 3)

2.016
1.00
2.016
1.00


O2
N2
15.99
53.12
7.94
26.34
34.23kg/kg
11.2
42.1
5.6
21.05
26.7mN 3/kg


H2O
N2
18.005
53.12
8.94
26.34
35.23kg/kg
22.4
42.1
11.2
21.05
32.3mN 3/kg

15.998
11.2

= 7.94 kg kg
= 5.6 Nm3 kg
2.016
2.016

15.998
1
1
11.2

= 34.2 kg kg

= 26.7 Nm3 kg
2.016 0.232
2.016 0.2095

18.014
22.4

:
= 8.94 kg kg
= 11.2 Nm3 kg
2.016
2.016

15.998 0.768
11.2 0.7905

+ 8.94 = 35.2 kg kg

+ 11.2 = 32.3 Nm3 kg


2.016 0.232
2.016 0.2095

33

(kg)

(mN 3)

32.06
1.00
32.06
1.00


O2
N2
31.99
106.25
0.99
3.31
4.30kg/kg
22.4
84.3
0.7
2.63
3.33mN 3/kg


SO2
N2
64.05
106.25
1.99
3.31
5.30kg/kg
22.4
84.3
0.7
2.63
3.33mN 3/kg

31.998
22.4

= 0.99 kg kg
= 0.70 Nm3 kg
32.06
32.06

31.998
1
1
22.4

= 4.30 kg kg

= 3.31Nm3 kg
32.06 0.232
32.06 0.2095

64.05
22.4

:
= 1.99 kg kg
= 0.70 Nm3 kg
32.06
32.06

31.998 0.768
22.4 0.7905

+ 1.99 = 5.30 kg kg

+ 0.70 = 3.31Nm3 kg
32.06 0.232
32.06 0.2095

34



: 0.232[/]
: 0.210[m3/m3]

1

A0 = O0 0.232 = 11.48c + 34.23h + 4.30( s o) [kg/kg]
A0 = O0 0.210 = 8.89c + 26.7 h + 3.31( s o) [mN3 /kg]

35


2.3

Hh

Hl

[mN 3 /mN 3]

[mN 3 /mN 3]

[mN 3 /mN 3]

[mN 3 /mN 3]

[MJ/mN 3]

[MJ/mN 3 ]

H2 +O2 = H2 O

0.5

2.38

2.88

1.88

12.75

10.79

CO+O2 = CO2

0.5

2.38

2.88

2.88

12.63

12.63

CH4 +2O2 = CO2 +2H2 O

2.0

9.52

10.53

8.52

39.72

35.79

C2H2 + 5/2O2=2CO2+H2O

2.5

11.91

12.41

11.44

58.00

56.04

C2 H4+3O2 =2CO2+2H2 O

3.0

14.29

15.29

13.29

62.95

59.03

C2H6 +7/2O2=2CO2+3H2O

3.5

16.67

18.17

15.17

69.64

63.76

C3H6 +9/2O2=3CO2+3H2O

4.5

21.44

22.94

19.94

91.82

85.93

C3 H8+5O2 =3CO2+4H2 O

5.0

23.82

25.82

21.82

99.00

91.15

I-

C4 H10+6O2 =4CO2 +4H2 O

6.0

28.59

30.59

26.59

121.3

113.4

n-

C4H10+13/2O2=4CO2+5H2O

6.5

30.97

33.47

28.47

128.4

118.5

C6 H6+15/2O2=6CO2 +3H2O

7.5

35.73

37.23

34.23

147.3

141.4

Cm Hn +(m+n/4)O2
= mCO2 +(n/2)H2O

m+n/4

4.76(m+n/4) 4.76+1.44n 4.76+0.94n

O2 -O2=0

-1.0

-4.75

-3.76

-3.76

N2=N2

H2O=H2O

-1.96

36

CmHn
O0 A0

2 c= 12.01m/(12.01m + 1.01n),
h = 1.01n/(12.01m + 1.01n), s=o=n=a=0
O0
O0= (2.6612.01m + 7.941.01n) / (12.01m + 1.01n)
=8.00(4m+n) / (12.01m + 1.01n) [/]
A0
A0= O0/0.232= 34.5(4m +n) / (12.01m + 1.01n) [/]

37


: ( )
CmHn + a ( O2 + 3.773N2 ) bCO2 + cH2 O + 3.773aN2
: b = m
: a = b +

c
2

: 2c = n
n
n
a = m + , b = m, c =

4
2

38


n
n
n

CmHn + m + ( O2 + 3.773N2 ) mCO2 + H2O + 3.773 m + N2


4
2
4

1kg ( = 12m + 1.01n)


n

Oo = m + 32 (12m + 1.01n ) = 8.00 ( 4m + n ) (12.01m + 1.01n ) [ kg kg]


4

1kg
n

Ao = m + ( 32 + 3.773 28.016) (12m + 1.01n )


4

= 34.6 ( 4m + n ) (12.01m + 1.01n ) [ kg kg]

39


, c, h, s, o,
n, a
{H2}, {CO}, {CH4} [N /N]

( = )

O0 = 0.5{H2 } + 0.5{CO} + 2.0{CH4 } + {O2 }


A0 = O0 / 0.210 = 2.38{H2 } + 2.38{CO} + 9.52{CH4 }
+ 4.76{O2 }

40



(Hh) (Hl) [MJ/N]

A0

A0 = 0.228 H h 0.19 [m /m ]
3
N

3
N

A0 = 0.263H l 0.32 [m /m ]
3
N

3
N

41


(Hh)
(Hl) [MJ/N] A0

A0 = 0.248 H l 0.02 [mN3 /kg]


A0 = 0.248 H l 0.27 [mN3 /kg]

A0 = 0.256 H h 0.20 [m /kg]


3
N

A0 = 0.260 H l 0.09 [m /kg]


3
N

42


[]
H2 27%, CO 4%, CH4 39%, CO2
4%, N2 23%, O2 3%.

O0 A0?

[]
CO2, N2 O0
O0=.5{.27}+.5{.04}+2.0{.39}-{.03}=0.905[N/N]
A
A0=O0/0.210=4.31 [N/N]

43



27H2 + 4CO + 39CH4 + 3O2 + a ( O2 + 3.773N2 )
bCO2 + cH2 O + 3.773aN2
: b = 4 + 39
c
: a + 3 + 2 = b +
2
: c = 27 + 39 2

a = 90.5, b = 43, c = 105


44


a = 90.5, b = 43, c = 105
27H2 + 4CO + 39CH4 + 3O2 + 90.5 ( O2 + 3.773N2 )
43CO2 + 105H2 O + 3.773 90.5N2
1m 3N
( = 27 + 4 + 39 + 3 + 4 + 23 = 100)
Oo = 90.5 100 = 0.905 m 3N m 3N
1m 3N
Ao = ( 90.5 4.773) 100 == 4.31 m 3N m 3N

45



(A/F:Air Fuel Ratio)

(F/A) :
()


=(F/A)/(F/A)0
>1 : , <1 :

( ) : 1/

46


[]
(C8H18)
(A/F)0

[]
2.3
CmHn + (m + n/4)O2 =mCO2 + (n/2)H20
21%,
3.76 : 1.
C8H18 + 12 .5O2 + 3.76 12.5N2
8CO2 + 9H20 + 3.76 12.5N2

47


1 mol 12.5+3.76
12.5=59.5 mol
29/ mol,
(A/F)0

kg air
29.0 59.5
(A/F)0 =
= 15 .1
kg fuel
12.01 8 + 1.01 18

48

C8H18 + a ( O2 + 3.773N2 ) bCO2 + cH2O + 3.773aN2


: b = 8
c
: a = b +
2
: 2c = 18

a = 12.5, b = 8, c = 9

49


a = 12.5, b = 8, c = 9
C8H18 + 12.5 ( O2 + 3.773N2 )
8CO2 + 9H2 O + 3.773 12.5N2
= 8 12.01 + 18 1.01 = 114.26
1kg
Ao = 12.5 ( 32 + 28.16 3.773) 114.26
= 1728.1 114.26 = 15.12 [ kg kg ]

50


a = 90.5, b = 43, c = 105
27H2 + 4CO + 39CH4 + 3O2 + 90.5 ( O2 + 3.773N2 )
43CO2 + 105H2 O + 3.773 90.5N2
1m 3N

( 27 + 4 + 39 + 3 + 4 + 23) 22.4 = 2240m 3N )


H h = (105 285.84 + 43 393.53 4 110.53 39 74.87 ) 2240

( =
= 19.45 ( MJ m 3N )

1m 3N
H l = (105 241.83 + 43 393.53 4 110.53 39 74.87 ) 2240

= 17.38 ( MJ m 3N )

51

:
:
:
:

Gw[/]
Vw [N /]
Gd
Vd

Gw0, Vw0, Gd0, Vd0

52

53



+( ) = ( )
1 kg

Gw0 = 1 + A0 = 1 + 11.48c + 34.21h + 4.31( s o) [kg/kg]


Gw = 1 + A = 1 + A0
= 1 + [11.48c + 34.21h + 4.31( s o)] [kg/kg]

54



g
A0 = O0 / 0.210 = 2.38{H2 } + 2.38{CO} + 9.52{CH4 }
+ 4.76{O2 } [ mN3 mN3 ]
Gw0 = 1 + A0 g
= 1 + [2.38{H2 } + 2.38{CO} + 9.52{CH4 } + 4.76{O2 } ] g [kg mN3 ]
Gw = 1 + A g = 1 + A0 g
= 1 + [2.38{H2 } + 2.38{CO} + 9.52{CH4 } + 4.76{O2 }] g [kg mN3 ]

55



Gs
Gs =8.94h+w, w:

Gd 0 = Gw0 (8.94h + w)
= 1 + 11.48c + 25.3h + 4.31( s o) w [kg/kg]
Gd = Gw (8.94h + w)
= 1 8.94h w + [11.48c + 34.21h + 4.31( s o)] [kg/kg]

56


[]
(C3H8) 2

[]
c, h

12.01 3
= 0.917
c=
12.01 3 + 1.01 8
1.01 8
= 0.183
h=
12.01 3 + 1.01 8

57


Gw, Gd
Gw = 1+2[11.480.917 + 34.21 0.183] =
32.28 [/]
Gd = Gw (8.94h + w)
=32.28 (8.940.183 +0)= 30.54 [/]

C3H8 + 5(O2 + 3.76N2 ) 3CO2 + 4H2 0 + 5 3.76N2


2
C3H8 + 5(O2 + 3.76N2 ) 2 3CO2 + 4H2 0 + 5O2 + 5 3.76 2N2

58

C3H8 + 5(O2 + 3.76N2 ) 3CO2 + 4H2 O + 5 3.76N2


12 3 + 8 = 44

3 (12+32 ) +4 ( 2 + 16 ) +5 3.76 28=748.4

3 (12+32 ) +5 3.76 28=676.4
1kg /
748.4
676.4
= 17.01( kg kg ) ,
= 15.37 ( kg kg )
44
44

59



2
C 3H8 + 5(O 2 + 3.76N2 )+5(O 2 + 3.76N2 )
3CO 2 + 4H2 O + 5 3.76N2 + 5(O 2 + 3.76N2 )
3CO 2 + 4H2 O + + 5O 2 +10 3.76N2

12 3 + 8 = 44

3 (12+32 ) +4 ( 2 + 16 ) +5 32+10 3.76 28=1416.8

3 (12+32 ) +5 32+10 3.76 28=1344.8
1kg /
1416.8
676.4
= 32.2 ( kg kg ) ,
= 30.56 ( kg kg )
44
44

60


Vw Vd

(m3/m3)

CO
=
CO+ CO2

61


(C, H, S) a(>1)

C, H, S CO2, H2O,
SO2
0.210(-1)A0

CO
CO CO2
CO 1/2

62






( 0.790)

63



1 kg (mN3)

CO2

(22.41/12.01)c(1-)=1.87c(1- )

CO

(22.41/12.01)c=1.87c

H2O

N2

O2

SO2

(22.41/2.016)h+ (22.41/18.02)w
=11.12h+1.24w
0.790A0+ (22.41/28.02)n
= 0.790A0+0.80n
0.210(-1)A0+1/2 (22.41/12.01)c
= 0.210(-1)A0+0.93c
(22.41/32.06)s=0.70s

64



Vw = ( 0.210) A0 + (1.87 + 0.93 )c + 11.12h
+ 0.80n + 0.70s + 1.24w [mN3 /kg]
= ( 0.210)[8.89c + 26.5h + 3.33(s o)]
+ (1.87 + 0.93 )c + 11.12h + 0.80n + 0.70s + 1.24w [mN3 /kg]


Vd = ( 0.210)[8.89c + 26.5h + 3.33( s o)]
+ (1.87 + 0.93 )c + 0.80n + 0.70 s[mN3 /kg]

65


(=1, =0)

Vw0 = 8.89c + 32.1h + 0.80n


2.63o + 3.33s + 1.24 w [m /kg]
3
N

Vd = 8.89 c + 20.9 h + 0.80 n


2 .63o + 3 .33 s[m /kg]
3
N

66


[]
(C3H8) 1.2


1kg ?

[]

c= 0.817 h= 0.183

67


CO CO2 = 0.5
Vw
Vw = (1.2-0.210)
[8.890.817+26.50.183]+(1.87+0.93
0.5)0.817+11.12 0.183
=15.90[N/kg]
Vd
Vd= (1.2-0.210)[8.89O.817+ 6.50.183]
+(1.87 + 0.93 0.5)0.817
=13.87[N/kg]

68



C3H8 + 5(O2 + 3.76N2 )+0.2 5(O2 + 3.76N2 )
aCO2 + aCO + 4H2 O + 6 3.76N2 + bO2

2a=3 a=1.5

10 + 2 = 2a + a + 4 + 2b b = 1.75
1.5CO2 + 1.5CO + 4H2 O + 1.75O2 +6 3.76N2

69


1.5CO2 + 1.5CO + 4H2 O + 1.75O2 +6 3.76N2

12 3 + 8 = 44
1 kmol

(1.5 + 1.5 + 4 + 1.75 + 6 3.76 ) 22.4 = 701.344(m 3N )


1 kmol

(1.5 + 1.5 + 1.75 + 6 3.76 ) 22.4 = 611.744(m 3N )


1kg /
611.744
701.344
3
= 15.93 ( m N kg ) ,
= 13.90 ( m 3N kg )
44
44

70

_
( )

(heat of formation)


(-) , (+)

H0f (kJ/mol)
Ho

71

_
()
1mol 1atm
298.15K(25)

C, H2, 02

/

Hf(kJ/)

72

_

(o )

( )
(datum state)


298.15K(25) 1
(reference) 0

(reference)

73

_



.
JANAF Table


,
, Gibbs
, , ,
Gibbs ,

(log10 )

(298.15K(25) 1 atm)

(O 2 )
(N2)
(H2)
( C )
(CO 2)
(H2 O)
(H2 O)
(CO)
(CH4)
(C3 H8 )
(CH3 OH)
(CH3 OH)
(C2 H5 OH)
(C2 H5 OH)
(C6H6 )
(C8 H18 )
(C8 H18 )
(C16 H34 )

MJ/kmol
0
0
0
0
-393.52
-241.83
-285.84
-110.54
-74.87
-103.85
-201.17
-238.58
-234.60
-277.00
-49.00
-208.45
-249.35
-454.50

74

_
,

()


H o = n h% o
P

f ,i

products


H o = n h% o
R

f ,i

reacants

ni : ()

75

_


H 0 = ( H )T 0, P
=

ni h% fo ,i

products

ni h% of ,i

reacants

= H Po H Ro
T1
CV = H T 1, P
= ( H1R H 0 R ) + H T 0, P ( H 0 P H1P )

76

_
1R

T1

= T Cp, R dT
0

H
,
y
p
l
a
h
t
n
E

H1R H0R

Enthalpy of
Reactant, HR

HT1,P

Qc
Isothermal
()

Enthalpy of
Product, HP

0R
1P

Qh

H0 = ni h%of ,i ni h%of ,i
reacants
products

0P

T0

= H1R H1P

T1

H1P H0P = T Cp, P dT


0

T1

Temperature(T)

77

_
[]
298.15K

.

[]
: CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O

CH4 :-74.87, O2 :0, CO2 :-393.52, (): -285.84,
() :-241.83
() :
H0p= -393.52+2(-241.83)=-877.18 MJ/k
H0R= -74.87 MJ/k

78

_
(H)

0 =
R

-877.18+74.87 = -802.31 MJ/k

() :

H0p= -393.52+2(-285.84)=-965.20 MJ/k C


H0R= -74.87 MJ/k CH4
(H) 0R= -965.20+74.87 = -890.33 MJ/k

79

_
(U)

0
R

(U)0v = (H) 0R = -802.3 MJ/k CH4


:

(U)0v= -890.33-8.3143x10-3(1-3)298.15
MJ/k CH4

= -885.4 MJ/k CH4




(1-3)? : pv=RT, h=u+pv=u+RT,
(np-nr)RT= 8.3143x10-3(1-3)298.15

80

_

( )

(HCV, ) Hh

(LCV, ) Hl

81

_
HCV - LCV = y (hfg), hfg=r
y :
hfg :
(44.01MJ/kmol=44010/(2.016+15.99) kJ/ kg
2442 kJ/kg 44.01/22.4=1.96 MJ/m3)

(298.15K(25), 1 atm) MJ/kmol

H2 O

-241.83

H2 O

-285.84

44.01

82

_

HCV - LCV = ( 9hX 2440 ) (kJ/kg)
H2
+ 1/2 O2
1(2)kg
8(16)kg

H2O
9(18)kg

83

_
2.4 (0.1MPa, 25 )

H2
C
S
CO
CH4
C2H6
C3H8

"

"
"
"
"

"
"
"

n-
n-
n-
n-
n-

C4H10
C5H12
C6H14
C8H18
C16H34
C3H6
C2H2
C6H6
CH4 O
C2H6 O

[kJ/mol] [MJ/kg] [kJ/mol] [MJ/kg] [kJ/mol] [MJ/kg]


[]
0
0
285.8
141.8
241.8
120.0
-252.7
0
0
393.5
32.76
393.5
32.76
0
0
296.8
9.259
296.8
9.259
-110.53 -3.946
283.0
10.10
283.0
10.10
-191.5
-74.87
-4.677
890.3
55.50
802.3
50.01
-161.5
-84.0
2.794
1561
51.90
1429
47.51
-89.0
-104.5
-2.370
2219
50.33
2043
46.34
-42.1
-126.5
-2.176
2877
49.49
2657
45.71
-0.5
-147.5
-2.538
2856
49.13
2636
45.35
-146.5
2.303
3536
49.01
3272
45.35
36.1
-173.2
-2.401
3509
48.64
3245
44.98
-167.1
-1.939
4195
48.68
3887
45.10
68.7
-198.6
-2.305
4163
48.31
3855
44.74
-208.5
-1.325
5512
48.25
5116
44.79
125.7
250.0
-2.189
5471
47.89
5075
44.42
-374.8
-1.655
10781
47.61
10033
44.30
286.3
-456.1
-2.014
10699
47.25
9951
43.95
20.2
0.480
20.58
48.91
1926
45.78
-47.0
226.73
8.708
1300
49.91
1256
48.22
83.6
82.9
1.061
3302
42.27
3170
40.58
80.1
49.0
0.627
3268
41.83
3136
40.14
-201.6
-6.292
763.6
23.83
675.6
21.08
64.7
-239.1
-7.462
726.1
22.66
638.1
19.91
-234.8
-5.097
1410
30.60
1278
27.74
78.3
-277.1
-6.015
1367
29.68
1235
26.82

84

c, h, s,
o

Dulong (0.4MJ/ )

85

_
H h = 33.8c 144.3(h o 7.94) + 9.42s [MJ/kg]
H l = H h 2.44Vs = H h 2.44(8.94h + w)
= 33.8c + 122.5h 18.2o + 9.42 s 2.44 w [MJ/kg]
W :
w :
w :

(h-o/7.94) :

86

H h = 12.75{H2 } + 12.63{CO} + 39.72{CH4 }


+ [MJ/mN3 ]
H l = H h 1.96Gs = 12.75{H2 } + 12.63 {CO}
+ 39.72{CH4 } + 1.96{H2O} [MJ/m ]
3
N

87


()

,

H l = G C p (tc t1 )

Hl
tc =
+ t1
G Cp

H l : ( kcal / kg )
G : ( m3 / kg )
C p : ( kcal / m 3 )
t : ( o C )
c

: ( o C )

t1

88

tc =

H l Q0 + Q
+ t1
Gw C p

:
Gw : ( m3 / kg )
Q0 : , , ( kcal / kg )
Q :

ta :
C pa ;

t f :
C pf

Q = ma C pa (ta t1 ) + C pf (t f t1 )

89

_ (C0)

, , ,

.

1) (C0)

200
.


90

_ (CO2)
2) (CO2)


.



.

91

_ (CO2)
2%()
1.5

3%
2

5%

1 .

9%
10

20%
20~30
.

92

_ (H2S)
3) (H2S)
, ,
,
.
0.02%

0.04%
30

0.08%
.

93

_ (SO2)
4) (SO2)

.

0.05%
.

94

_(NH3)
5) (NH3)
, ,


.
0.25~0.65%
30

95

_(HCN)
6) (HCN)
0.3%
.
,

.


.

96

_ (HCl)
7) (HCl)
PVC

1.500ppm
.

.
PVC

.

97

_(NO2)
8) (NO2)


200~700ppm
.


(NH4NO3)


98

_ (CH2CHCH0)
9) (CH2CHCH0)

1ppm

1Oppm
.

99