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Phng php tip cn nghin cu khoa hc

PGS.TS. Phm Vn Hin pvhien@hcmuaf.edu.vn http://pgo.hcmuaf.edu.vn/pvhien TP. H Ch Minh, 2010

Chng 1. i cng v nghin cu khoa hc


1.1. Khi nim
- Phng php lun (Methodology) * Phng php (Method): Cch thc nhn thc, nghin cu hin tng ca t nhin v i sng x hi. * Phng php lun: Hc thuyt v phng php nhn thc khoa hc v ci to th gii. * Methodos v Logos: L thuyt v phng php (Methodology) - Khoa hc l h thng tr thc v mi quy lut ca vt cht v s vn ng ca vt cht, nhng quy lut ca t nhin, x hi, t duy (Pierre Auger, 1961); l sn phm tr tu ca ngi nghin cu.

1.2. Phn loi


a. Tri thc kinh nghim (Experiential/Local/Indigenous Knowledge-IK)

Tc ng ca th gii khch quan, phi x l nhng tnh hung xut hin trong t nhin, lao ng v ng x; Tri thc c tch lu ngu nhin trong i sng.
b. Tri thc khoa hc (Academic-AK)

l nhng hiu bit c tch lu mt cch h thng, da trn mt h thng phng php khoa hc.

c. Tri thc khoa hc khc g tri thc kinh nghim?

Tng kt s liu v s kin ngu nhin, ri rc khi qut ho thnh c s l thuyt. Kt lun v quy lut tt yu c kho nghim Lu gi # lu truyn ? EX: Chun chun bay thp th ma? Lng Gi! Vn IK AK @

1.3. Khi nim nghin cu khoa hc


Tm kim nhng iu khoa hc cha bit:

- Pht hin bn cht s vt - Sng to phng php/phng tin mi


Tm kim, vy bit trc cha? Gi thuyt NCKH: phn on ng/sai? Khng nh lun im KH or bc b gi thuyt NCKH = tm kim cc lun c chng minh gi thuyt nghin cu/lun im khoa hc

1.4. Cc bc nghin cu khoa hc

Bc 1: La chn vn Bc 2: Xy dng lun im khoa hc Bc 3: Chng minh lun im khoa hc Bc 4: Trnh by lun im khoa hc

Phn bit cc khi nim


Pht hin, pht minh, sng ch

Pht minh ra ngh in hay pht hin ra ngh in? Pht minh thuc n? Pht hin my hi nc? Mua bn pht minh, cp bng pht minh? Pht minh Hc thuyt di truyn C hi nhn to Chn lc ging sn c ngun gc t Thailand My ct ma

1.5. Sn phm ca nghin cu khoa hc


Pht minh Pht hin ra quy lut, tnh cht, hin tng ca gii t nhin. Ex: Archimede, Newton Khng cp patent, khng bo h Pht hin Nhn ra quy lut x hi, vt th ang tn ti khch quan. Ex: Marx, Colomb, Kock Khng cp patent, khng bo h Sng ch Gii php k thut mang tnh mi v nguyn l, sng to v p dng c. Ex: Nobel, Jame Watt, Edison Cp patent, mua bn licence, bo h quyn s hu

1.7 Trnh t logic ca nghin cu khoa hc


Bc 1. Bc 2. Bc 3. Bc 4. Bc 5. Bc 6. Bc 7. Pht hin vn nghin cu Xy dng gi thuyt Thu thp thng tin Xy dng lun c l thuyt Thu thp d liu, xy dng lun c thc tin Phn tch v tho lun Kt lun v ngh

K s

Kt lun, ngh Phn tch, tho lun Lun c thc tin Lun c l thuyt

Thu thp thng tin


Xy dng gi thuyt

Pht hin vn KH

Chng 2 VN KHOA HC

2.1 Vn khoa hc 2.2 Phn loi vn khoa hc 2.3 Cc tnh hung ca vn khoa hc 2.4 Phng php pht hin vn khoa hc

2.1 Vn khoa hc
Scientific/research problem l cu hi trc mu

thun gia hn ch ca tri thc khoa hc hin c vi yu cu pht trin tri thc trnh cao hn.
EX: Newton thy qu to rng nh lut Newton Tri c ph rng - Hin tng sinh l? Chi tr dch v rng? Kt rng? Bank ngho (Graming bank)?

2.2 Phn loi vn khoa hc


Vn v bn cht s vt cn tm kim Vn v Phng php nghin cu lm sng t v l thuyt v thc tin vn bn cht s vt
EX: - pht hin ra gm Hong thnh Thng Long, cu

hi thuc nin i no? (Bn cht s vt)/Ching c - Tiu ch no, lm cch no xc nh tui nin i, phng php xc nh (Phng php nghin cu)

2.3 Phng php pht hin vn khoa hc


Pht hin mt mnh, yu trong nghin cu Nhn dng nhng bt u trong tranh lun khoa hc Ngh ngc/khc li quan nim thng thng Nhn dng nhng vng mc trong hot ng thc t Lng nghe li phn nn ca nhng ngi khng am hiu Cu hi bt cht xut hin khng ph thuc l do no ngh?

Chng 3 GI THUYT KHOA HC

3.1 Khi nim Gi thuyt khoa hc 3.2 Tiu ch xem xt mt gi thuyt 3.3 Phn loi gi thuyt 3.4 Kim chng gi thuyt khoa hc

3.1 Khi nim Gi thuyt khoa hc

Gi thuyt khoa hc (scientific/research hypothesis) l mt nhn nh s b, kt lun gi nh v bn cht s vt do ngi nghin cu a ra chng minh hoc bc b.

3.2 Tiu ch xem xt mt gi thuyt


* Mt gi thuyt cn n gin, c th v r rng v khi nim
EX: NS ging mi cao hn ging i chng 15% Hnh nh c g y? Tng vn ODA 30% GDP tng 15%

Gi thuyt da trn c s quan st Gi thuyt khng tri vi l thuyt Gi thuyt phi c th kim chng

3.4. Bn cht logic ca gi thuyt khoa hc


3.4.1. Gi thuyt l mt phn on a. Phn on: l mt hnh thc t duy nhm ni lin cc khi nim li vi nhau khng nh khi nim ny l hoc khng l khi nim kia.
EX: - V anh A l c th ngi l v anh ta - C ph l cy c hm lng cafein cao trong ht, bt ny c hm lng cafein cao c th l t ht c ph. - Lng tng th trng tng

3.4. Kim chng gi thuyt khoa hc


3.5.1. Khi nim: Kim chng gi thuyt khoa hc chnh l chng minh hoc bc b gi thuyt
chng minh: da vo phn on c cng nhn, khng nh tnh chnh xc ca phn on cn chng minh . Ex: NS la lai 10 t/ha

bc b: l chng minh khng nh tnh khng chnh xc ca phn on. Ex: NS la 5 t/ha, chng minh n 10 t/ha

Chng 4 C S L LUN CA TI
4.1. Khi nim c s l lun ca ti 4.2. Ni dung c s l lun ca ti

4.1 Khi nim c s khoa hc


C s l lun l lun c l thuyt c chng minh bi nh khoa hci trc (trch dn ti liu). ngha ca CSLL - Tit kim vt cht, thi gian, ti chnh - Lm c s kin gii cho nhng lun c thc tin

Phn bit cc khi nim


Tn ti Mc tiu Mc ch i tng

Tn ti di
t ch nht, thng tin nhiu nht, key word

ti: Nghin cu quan h ph thuc gia sn phm ngoi g vi rng v con ngi v xut cc gii php thch hp gp phn ci thin, nng cao i sng ng bo dn tc Thi sau khi ng ca rng t nhin ti vng cao x T Bnh, huyn T Nng, tnh LS (57)

Trnh nhiu ca/th/m/l ti: nh hng ca trnh hc vn ca ch h n tng thu nhp ca nng h x A, huyn B, tnh C.
Trnh hc vn ca ch h nh hng tng thu nhp nng h x A, huyn B, tnh C.

Hm cha nhiu key word

Nghin cu nh hng ca d lng kim loi nng n sinh trng cy trng v sc kho con ngi, v xut cc gii php thch hp hn ch nh hng v nng cao nng sut cy trng v an ton cho con ngi

Mc tiu (Objective)/mc ch (Aim)?

Mc tiu: Lm ci g? What ci ch v ni dung m ngi n/c vch ra nh hng n lc tm kim


- ng t xc nh nh gi xut tm ra chn ra nng cao

Mc tiu phi

SMART

Specific - C th

Measurable - o c
Achievable - Kh thi Realistic - Hin thc Timebound - C thi hn

Mc ch: nhm vo vic g? For what


ngha thc tin ca nghin cu

Trng t ch mc ch nhm nhm gp phn, Qui trnh cngngh/nng cao kinh t/ci thin i sng/nng cao thu nhp/hiu qu mi trng.

Khach the, oi tng nghien cu, oi tng khao sat


* oi tng nghien cu la ban chat s vat/hien tng can xem xet va lam ro trong nhiem vu nghien cu
* Khach the nghien cu la he thong s vat ton tai khach quan trong cac moi lien he ma ngi nghien cu can kham pha, la vat

mang oi tng nghien cu

* oi tng khao sat la mot bo phan u ai dien cua khach the nghien cu c la chon e xem xet. * Pham vi nghien cu la gii han trong mot so pham vi nhat nh (a
im, thi gian, khong gian, noi dung)

V d 1

ti: Xy dng bin php hn ch ri ro tn dng ngn hng nng nghip Qun I, TP. HCM i tng nghin cu: Cc bin php hn ch ri ro tn dng Khch th nghin cu: Cc ngn hng nngnghip i tng kho st: ngn hng nng nghip qun I

V d 2

ti: Xy dng qui trnh canh tc ging ma nhp ni c ngun gc Thailand i tng NC: Qui trnh canh tc Khch th NC: Cc b ging ma nhp ni i tng kho st: B ging ma nhp ni c ngun gc Thailand

B sung 1: Khung logic ca lun vn


Tn ti Mc tiu nghin cu c th tng mc tiu, cp 1, 2 Ni dung nghin cu p ng tng mc tiu c th Phng php nghin cu cho tng ni dung nghin cu Kt qu v tho lun: nghin cu theo ni dung nghin cu, c th c nhiu kt qu/ni dung Kt lun phi khi qut kt qu v tha mn mc tiu t ra, khng nn tm tt kt qu.

Tn ti: Mc tiu 1 Ni dung 1.1 Ni dung 1.2 Phng php 1.1.1 Phng php 1.1.2 Phng php 1.2.1 Phng php 1.2.2 Kt qu 1 Kt qu 2 Kt lun 1

Mc tiu 2

Ni dung 2.1 Phng php 2.1.1 Phng php 2.1.2 Phng php 2.1.3 Ni dung 2.2 Phng php 2.2.1 Phng php 2.2.2 Phng php 2.2.3 Ni dung 2.3

Kt qu 3

Kt lun 2

Kt qu 4

...

...

...

...

...

Tn ti: So snh su ging la cao sn ti Tin Giang


Mc tiu 1 Chn c 1 ging NS cao hn /c 12% Ni dung 1.1 iu tra ging ti Tin Giang Phng php 1.1.1 PRA KIP Kt qu 1 Kt lun 1 Hin trng ging Ging xu, ln ti Tin tp Giang Kt qu 2 - Sinh trng - Pht trin ca 6 ging Kt qu 3 Kch c, hnh dng cp ht ca su ging Kt qu 4 Th nm Ha sinh su ging ... Kt lun 2 Ging N1 c NS cao nht (8t/ha) Kt lun 3 Ging N1 cp ht t chun nht Kt lun 4 Ging N1 phm cht ht tt nht ...

Ni dung 1.2 Phng php 1.1.2 So snh NS su Th nghim ng ging rung ca IRRI Mc tiu 2 Chn c ging CL tt Ni dung 2.1 So snh phm cp ht su ging Phng php 2.1.1 Sn lc qua sn Phn loi

Ni dung 2.3 Phng php 2.1.2 So snh phm Th nm cht ht su Phn tch sinh ha ging Khng su, bnh ... ...

B sung 2: cng nghin cu

L ti liu hng dn cho bn nghin cu Chun b cn thn, cng phu cng tt Di < 30 trang Su phn cn c

M u
Tnh cp thit Mc tiu nghin cu Phm vi nghin cu

Tng quan nghin cu (C s l lun)


Lun c l thuyt Lun c thc tin c

Ni dung nghin cu
Ni dung 1 Ni dung 2

Phng php nghin cu


Vt liu Cch b tr thc nghim Ch tiu v phng php theo di (TCVN, IRRI, IPGRI, CIP, )

D kin kt qu t c
Da vo ni dung d kin kt qu

K hoch thc hin (< 1 nm)

Chng 5 TRNH BY V THUYT TRNH LUN VN KHOA HC


1. Hng dn vit lun vn (Group Tm tt, kt lun) 2. Trnh by lun vn trn Powerpoint - Ni dung - Hnh thc * * 3. K nng thuyt trnh lun vn trc H chm * - Chun b bi bo co (C nhn trnh by) - Cch trnh by - Tr hun c - Nhng iu nn trnh

* Chng ny cp nht 10/2009 theo nhu cu ca hc vin K2009

Lm vic nhm
Mi nhm/lp Xc nh tn ti Mc tiu Mc ch i tng nghin cu i tng kho st