You are on page 1of 38

i

MC LC

MC LC .................................................................................................................... i
DANH MC T VIT TT..................................................................................... iii
DANH MC HNH V .............................................................................................. v
DANH MC BNG .................................................................................................. vi
LI NI U............................................................................................................. 1
PHN I GII THIU V N V THC TP ........................................................ 3
1. Gii thiu chung ...................................................................................................... 3
2. Chc nng chnh ca Trung tm .............................................................................. 3
3. Tnh hnh hot ng ................................................................................................. 5
PHN II NI DUNG BO CO THC TP ........................................................... 6
CHNG 1 GII THIU CHUNG V QUY HOCH MNG V TUYN V TI
U HA CHO MNG UMTS ................................................................................... 6
1.1 c im ca mng truy v tuyn 3G .................................................................... 6
1.2 Nhng thch thc................................................................................................... 7
CHNG 2 QU TRNH QUY HOCH MNG V TUYN ................................ 9
2.1 Dung lng ............................................................................................................ 9
2.1.1 K thut tng lu lng ...................................................................................... 9
2.1.2 Dung lng mm............................................................................................... 10
2.2 Vng ph ............................................................................................................. 10
2.2.1 Mc tiu ph sng ............................................................................................. 10
2.2.2 Sector ha v s to hnh chm tia thch nghi ................................................... 11
2.3 Cht lng dch v............................................................................................... 11
2.4 Th tc pht trin quy hoch v ti a dung lng cng nh vng ph sng........ 11
2.4.1 Chun b ........................................................................................................... 12
2.4.2 S ngi s dng .............................................................................................. 12
2.4.3 Qun l quy hoch mng................................................................................... 13
2.5 Pht trin k hoch thit k mng ......................................................................... 13
2.5.1 Phn tch lu lng .......................................................................................... 14
2.5.2 c tnh kch thc vng ph ........................................................................... 16
GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

ii
2.5.3 M hnh c tnh t bo .................................................................................... 17
2.5.4 Xc xut vng ph............................................................................................. 18
2.6 M phng phn tch k hoch thit k mng ........................................................ 20
2.7 Ti u ha ........................................................................................................... 21
CHNG 3 QUY HOCH DUNG LNG........................................................... 22
3.1 Dung lng truyn ............................................................................................... 22
3.2 H s ti ng ln .............................................................................................. 23
3.3 nh hng ca tp m ......................................................................................... 24
3.4 H s ti ng xung ......................................................................................... 25
3.5 Chuyn giao mm ................................................................................................ 26
3.6 Dung lng ng ln ng xung ................................................................. 27
3.6.1 Dung lng ng ln ...................................................................................... 27
3.6.2 Dung lng ng xung ................................................................................. 27
3.7 Ci thin dung lng............................................................................................ 29
3.7.1 Tng cng tn s............................................................................................ 29
3.7.2 Sector ha ........................................................................................................ 30
3.7.3 Phn tp pht................................................................................................... 30
3.7.4 M ha tc bt thp ..................................................................................... 30
KT LUN ............................................................................................................... 31
TI LIU THAM KHO ......................................................................................... 32

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

iii
DANH MC T VIT TT

T vit tt

T ting Anh

Ngha ting Vit

ACI

Adjacent Channel Interference

Nhiu knh ln cn

AMR

Adaptive Multi-rate

a tc tng thch

ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

B giao thc truyn khng ng


b

BER

Bit Error Ratio

Xc sut li bit

BS

Base station

Trm c s

CCQ

Coverage, Capacity, and Quality

Vng ph, dung lng v cht


lng dch v

CE

Channel Element

Phn t mng

CLP

Cell Loss Priority

u tin mt mt t bo

CN

Core Network

Mng li

COSSAP

Communications Simulation and

Chng trnh m phng truyn

System Analysis Program

thng v phn tch h thng

GFC

Generic Flow Control

iu khin lung chung

GPRS

General Packet Radio Service

Dch v v tuyn gi tng hp

GSM

Global System for Mobile

H thng thng tin di ng ton

Communication

cu

HSC

Hierarchical Cell Structure

Cu trc t bo phn cp

HEC

Header Error Control

Kim sot tiu trng li

ISS

Instruction Set Simulators

B cu trc m phng

ITU

International Telecommunication

Lin minh Vin thng Quc t

Union
MUD

Multi-user Detection

Tch sng a ngi dng

QoS

Quality of Service

Cht lng dch v

RAKE

Type of receiver utilizing multi-path Loi thit b thu s dng nhiu


propagation

ng truyn

RAN

Radio access network

Mng truy nhp v tuyn

RF

Radio frequency

Tn s sng v tuyn

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

iv
RX

Receiving functionality/receiver

Chc nng nhn/ B thu

SDH

Synchronic digital hierarchy

H thng phn cp s ng b

TX

Transmitting

Chc nng truyn/b truyn

functionality/transmitter
UE

User equipment

Thit b ngi dng

VCI

Vitual channel identifier

B nhn dng knh o

VPI

Vitual path identifier

Nhn dng ng o

WCDMA

Wideband code division multiple

a truy nhp phn m bng rng

access

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

v
DANH MC HNH V

Hnh 2.1 M hnh c tnh t bo ................................................................................. 18


Hnh 2.2
Hnh 2.3

c tnh ti a vng ph sng cell - yu t ti............................................... 19


ng cong lin quan cc phn nh ca tng s khu vc c tn hiu cao

hn ngng nh mt chc nng xc sut ca tn hiu caohn ngng ngoi vi ca


t bo. ............................................................................................................................. 20
Hnh 3.1 M hnh cell ATM .......................................................................................... 22
Hnh 3.2 Tng tp m ng ln................................................................................... 24

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

vi
DANH MC BNG

Bng 2.1

S dng mu v dch v a ra ..................................................................... 15

Bng 3.1 Cc tham s tnh ton h s ti ng ln ..................................................... 23


Bng 3.2 Cc h s ti ng xung ............................................................................. 25
Bng 3.3 Ph sng ng ln ....................................................................................... 27
Bng 3.4 Tnh ton thng lng gi nh ...................................................................... 28
Bng 3.5

Thng lng d liu/sector/sng mang trong mi trng microcell v

macrocell ........................................................................................................................ 28

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

1
LI NI U

Trao i thng tin lun l nhu cu cp thit trong x hi hin i. Cc h thng


thng tin di ng vi vi li th gip con ngi trao i thng tin mi lc, mi ni
ang ngy cng chim u th v ngy cng khng nh u im ni tri.
L trnh GSM-GPRS-EDGE-3G t ra c bit ph hp vi cc mng thng tin
di ng ca nhiu nc trn th gii. i vi cc nh khai thc mng di ng GSM th
ci ch n 3G l h thng CDMA bng rng (WCDMA) theo chun IMT-2000. Ti
Vit Nam, cc h thng thng tin di ng th h th 3 cng ang c cc nh khai
thc ro rit trin khai v a vo s dng.
Vit Nam l mt quc gia ang pht trin v vin thng. Hin nay cc nh
mng va Vit Nam nh Viettel, Vinaphone, Mobiphone , ang i vo quy hoch v
khai thc mng 3G. Vn c a ra l quy hoch mng 3G nh th no. y c
coi l mt bi ton cp thit vi cc nh mng. Trong bn bo co ny em xin a ra
mt bo co s lc, c th gip ngi c hnh dung mt cch khi qut v qu trnh
Thit k v quy hoch mng 3G t mng GSM.
Bn bo co gm 3 phn:
- Chng 1: Gii thiu chung v quy hoch mng v tuyn v ti u ha cho
mng UMTS
Phn ny mang ti mt ci nhn tng quan v c im ca mng 3G v nhng
thch thc trong qu trnh quy hoch mng 3g
- Chng 2 : Qu trnh quy hoch mng v tuyn
Chng ny nu ra mt cch s lc tng bc ca qu trnh quy hoch mng
bao gm: kho st, nh c mng; pht trin k hoch chi tit; m phng thit k k
hoch cui cng v cui cng l ti u ha mng.
- Chng 3: Quy hoch dung lng truyn
y l phn trng tm trong bn bo co m em mun hng n. N cp
n vic tnh ton nhng tham s nh hng trc tip ti dung lng truyn trong
mng 3G, ng thi a ra nhng bin php ci thin dung lng.

GVHD : TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTT : Nguyn Mai Nga

2
Trong qu trnh lm bo co em c gng nhiu nhng do kin thc hn ch
cng khng th trnh khi nhng thiu st. Em mong nhn c s ph bnh, nh gi
nhn xt t qu thy c cng bn b.
Em xin chn thnh cm n s hng dn, gip tn tnh ca Tin s Phm
Thnh Phong, cng cc bn trong nhm thc tp lun bn cnh gip em hon thnh
bi bo co ny.

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

3
PHN I GII THIU V N V THC TP

Trung tm Nghin cu v t vn Vin thng in Lc


Center for Research and Consulting in Telecommunications (CRCT)
Vn phng: Tng 4, nh B, Trng i hc in Lc
S 235 Hong Quc Vit H Ni
in thoi: 042119256, Fax: 04836065
Website: Http://www.epu.edu.vn/crct Email: crct@epu.edu.vn
C cu t chc:
Gim c: PGS.TS. m Xun Hip
Ph Gim c: TS. Phm Duy Phong
in thoi: 042119256, D: 0912348885
Email: phongphd@epu.edu.vn
1. Gii thiu chung
Trung tm Nghin cu v T vn Vin thng in Lc l n v trc thuc
Trng i hc in Lc, c t cch php nhn, c con du v ti khon ring, c
thnh lp theo Quyt nh s: 656/Q-EVN-HQT ngy 01 thng 08 nm 2007 ca
Ch tch Hi ng Qun tr Tp on in lc Vit Nam.
c cp giy chng nhn ng k hot ng ca Khoa hc v Cng ngh s:
196/K-KH&CN ngy 22 thng 01 nm 2008 ca S Khoa hc v Cng ngh H Ni.
Trung tm Nghin Cu v T vn Vin thng in lc l ni tp hp ng o
cc nh khoa hc, cc cn b, ging vin c trnh cao, c kinh nghim trong nhin
cu khoa hc, o to, t vn u t, chuyn giao cng ngh, o kim nh gi cht
lng thit b, cng trnh Vin thng, in lc v Cng ngh thng tin.
2. Chc nng chnh ca Trung tm
2.1. Nghin cu, hp tc v chuyn giao cng ngh trong cc lnh vc vin thng,
in lc v cng ngh thng tin
-

Nghin cu trin khai cc ti, nhim v, d n khoa hc v cng ngh

cc cp v cc lnh vc vin thng, in lc v cng ngh thng tin.


-

Nghin cu n u cng ngh mi v dch v mi, nghin cu quy hoch,

pht trin mng vin thng. ng dng cng ngh mi trong o m in nng.
GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

4
-

Nghin cu v xut cc gii php phng chng nh hng ca st v

ng dy in lc sang thit b, cng trnh thng tin, vin thng, tn hiu.


-

Nghin cu ng dng cng ngh mi v trin khai ng dng cc kt qu

nghin cu phc v sn xut kinh doanh ca Tp on in lc Vit Nam v x


hi.
2.2 T vn u t v xy dng:
-

Lp quy hoch, lp d n u t, kho st, thit k k thut v tng d ton,

thit k bn v thi cng cc cng trnh vin thng, in lc, cng ngh thng
tin.
-

T vn u thu, lp h s mi thu, d n qun l u t cc cng trnh

vin thng, in lc, cng ngh thng tin.


-

T vn u t v tip t, chng st cho cng trnh vin thng, in lc v

CNTT. Kho st tnh ton, thit k phng chng nh hng ca ng dy in


lc sang cc h thng thng tin, vin thng, tn hiu.
-

T vn thm nh cc d n thit k, quy hoch, cc d n u t, n

thit k c s, thit k k thut v tng d ton, thit k bn v thi cng cc


cng trnh vin thng, in lc v cng ngh thng tin.
-

Gim st thi cng cc cng trnh vin thng, in lc v cng ngh thng

tin.
2.3 o kim v nh gi cht lng cc thit b dch v, cng trnh vin thng, in
lc v cng ngh thng tin
-

o kim ha mng:
+ o kim ha mng tng i c nh: o SS& & R2, o ng b,

Kim tra cc.


+ o kim ha mng MSC: o SS7, o ng b, o MOS, o t l
thnh cng, o tr, Jitter.
-

o nh gi nh k: o bo hiu SS7, o ng b, o MOS, o t l thnh

cng, o tr, Jitter.


-

o nghim thu k thut, o hp chun.

o cc: o chnh xc cc, kim tra tnh nng mt cc.

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

5
-

o kim nghim thu, bo dng h thng tip t, chng st cho cc cng

trnh vin thng, in lc, cng trnh xy dng v cng nghip,


2.4 T chc cc kha o to, bi dng trong trong cc lnh vc Vin thng, in
lc v Cng ngh thng tin
3. Tnh hnh hot ng
-

T khi thnh lp n nay, Trung tm ch tr thc hin nhiu ti, s n

KHCN, o kim nh gi cht lng mng vin thng.


-

T chc cc kha o to, bi dn cho sinh vin, cn b v in t Vin

thng.
-

Tham gia qun l mt s lp Lin thng t Cao ng, Trung cp ln i hc

do Trng giao.
L m hnh gn kt cht ch gia o to, Nghin cu khoa hc v Sn xut
kinh doanh ca Tp on in lc Vit Nam, trong thi gian qua Trung tm Nghin
cu v T vn Vin thng in lc thu c nhng thnh tu ng k, gp phn
nng cao cht lng o to trnh i ng cn b, ging vin, nng cao t l doanh
thu ca NCKH v CGCN.

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

6
PHN II NI DUNG BO CO THC TP

CHNG 1 GII THIU CHUNG V QUY HOCH MNG V TUYN V


TI U HA CHO MNG UMTS
Ngnh cng nghip thng tin di ng hin ang c s chuyn dch trng tm t
mng th h th 2 (2G) sang mng th h th 3 (3G). S pht trin ny khng ch lin
quan n s pht trin ca cng ngh truy cp v tuyn, m cn nh hng ti vic d
bo pht trin cc dch v d phng v nhu cu dch v, k vng ca khc hng cng
nh vic phn loi khch hng. Hn na, vai tr ca cc nh khai thc cng ang thay
i: ngi ta c th phn bit gia cc nh cung cp dch v ( nh iu hnh o) v
nh iu hnh mng, thc hin trch nhim ca c s h tng v ng truyn thu
bao cho cc nh cung cp dch v.
Song song vi vic pht trin mng khng dy 2G hin ti, gi s, ta a thm
nhng dch v d liu gi internet mi vo th trng, s tng nhanh chng s lng
ln cc nh khai thc v cc chuyn gia truyn thng khng dy khc ang tr nn
quen thuc vi cng ngh WCDMA v chun b cho mnh cho mng 3G. S c mt s
thch thc mi khi chuyn t mng 2G sang mng mi 3G, l cc vn lin quan
n vic thit k v quy hoch cho mt mng v tuyn a dch v thc, v mt s kha
cnh c bn ca cng ngh truy cp v tuyn WCDMA.
1.1 c im ca mng truy v tuyn 3G
Trc khi i su vo nhng vn mi trong qu trnh quy hoch v ti u ha
trong mng WCDMA, rt hu ch tm tt mt s c im ring ca cc mng v
tuyn a dch v 3G. C th m t mng truy nhp v tuyn 3G vi cc c im sau:

Giao din v tuyn tin tin, phc v linh hot cho vic thc hin v

ghp mt lng ln cc d liu thoi hay trong cc dch v d liu c th. Hn


na c th truyn t cc d liu c tc thp n cc d liu c tc rt cao,
gii hn ln nht c th ln n 2Mbit/s.

Kch c t bo v dch v thit k cho nhiu dch v vi cc yu cu v

QoS khc nhau. Do s khc bit gia cc gi tr suy hao tn hiu khc nhau,
nhng vng ph v lu lng c nh hin nay ch cn c s dng trong mng
GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

7
thoi v tuyn, khng th s dng cho cho tng lai. Yu cu lu lng v cc
ch tiu QoS phi c phn bit gia cc dch v khc nhau.

Mt lng ln cc tnh nng tinh vi v cc lp mng c thit k cc k

tt. V d: m ng thay i/h thng thch ng u vo: h tr cho hot ng


nng cao khi nim anten tin tin, chng hn nh phn tp truyn BS hay
khi ng c ch kh nhiu.

C ch hiu dng vi nhiu sng trung bnh v chc chn khi hot ng

trong mi trng gii hn nhiu sng mnh. H thng hiu sut quang ph ln
i hi t bo c nhng u th tt bng cch la chn v tr thch hp, bng
thng anten, gc nghing, nh hng,vv

S dng rng ri n lc d phng ti a , tc l tm thi khng s

dng dung lng ngun ti nguyn v tuyn c to ra cho kt ni d liu gi


s dng mt cch linh hot v cng bng.

Tm quan trng ca giai on ti u ha mng v tuyn s ln hn so

vi mng 2G hin ti , ni m gnh nng chnh t vo qu trnh quy hoch tn


s ban u. Chnh bn cht mng hn ch dung lng ca chnh mng .

c th cung cp lu lng cc i, mng 3G phi cung cp phng

tin hiu qu cho mng li hot ng a tng. Hn na gia mng 2G v 3G


cn c mt s lin tc.

Mt kha cnh khc rt quan trng l kh nng ng xc nh a im

ca cc t bo 3G vi cc v tr mng 2G hin c, gim chi ph v tng ph trong


qua trnh thu v bo tr a im. Tuy nhin, 2G-3G ng xc dnh a im t
ra mt vn v v tuyn (mng truyn).
Trong phn gii thiu ny WCDMA c xem xt mt cch ngn gn. Tng
hp cc vn c lit k, ngi ta c th thy rng s c mt s mt hng mi v
chc chn nhiu chi tit mi cho cc nh mng khai thc v x l khi lp k hoch v
ti u ha mng WCDMA: n ch i hi mt k hoch thc thi tt cho cc mng
khng dy hin c v thc hin mt cch hp l v c tnh thm m nht nh.
1.2 Nhng thch thc
Nhng thch thc c bn cn i mt trong quy hoch mng 3G c xy dng
da trn thc t l rt nhiu vn lin kt vi nhau cn c xem xt cng mt lc:
GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

Lp k hoch c ngha khng ch p ng tnh trng hin ti v nhu

cu, m cc gii php c la chn cng cng cn ng vi nhu cu trong


tng lai theo nh hng pht trin ng n. Hn na, c ch kim sot
mng phi h tr cho cc quy trnh vn hnh v ch ra khng ch khu vc
ph/cng sut l nt c chai, m cn xc nh cc khu vc dch v mi c th
c gii thiu trong cc c s h tng hin c.

c tnh khng chnh xc ca s pht trin lu lng. Khng ch l cu

hi v tng s lng tng trng lu lng, m cn l cu hi v vic phn


phi dch v trong tng lai v nhu cu. Phn tch xu hng c th c s
dng vi cc dch v hin c, nhng gii thiu mt dch v mi c th dn n
mt s xo trn nhu cu dch v hon ton mi.

Hn na, c nhng kh khn thc t quy hoch mng li phi i mt.

Nu cc nh iu hnh c l mt mng, sau hoc l do kinh t hoc k


thut, v tr c s c s dng li.

Tt c cc h thng CDMA c mt kt ni gia dung lng v vng ph,

v ng nhin c c cht lng. Do , cc mng t quy hoch khng ch da


vo c lng truyn sng m cn ph thuc vo tnh trng nhiu ca mng.
L tng nht, la chn xem xt v tr s c thc hin da trn phn tch
mng c trng ti trong quy hoch v lu lng/danh mc u t dch v.

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

9
CHNG 2 QU TRNH QUY HOCH MNG V TUYN

u tin, vic cn thit l c lng v tr t bo, kiu ca cc trm gc v cu


hnh ca chng ( bao gm s lng phn t mng, sector, v cu hnh anten). c
c v tr v cu hnh cho cc trm th chng ta phi ng thi nh gi din tch ph
sng, dung lng v cht lng dch v (QoS CCQ) vi tng kiu khu vc ph sng,
v d mt khu th ng dn c. Vi nhng thng tin c c ta c th bt u quy
hoch vng ph v dung lng mng. Kt qu ca qu trnh quy hoch cho ta mt con
s gn ng v s v tr v cu hnh trm.
hiu c qu trnh quy hoch chng ta cn tm hiu ba nhn t sau:
a)

Dung lng;

b)

Vng ph;

c)

Cht lng dch v.

Vi mng 3G, qu trnh quy hoch v ti u/ti quy hoch l mt qu trnh lin
tc. Khi hon thnh quy hoch dung lng v ph sng v mt mng c xy dng,
nhng thit b u cui c a vo mng v cho php kim sot hiu sut mng.
Qu trnh ny l qu trnh lin tc m bo hiu sut v ti u ha. Mc ch ca quy
hoch mng li l kim sot v ti a ha nh hng gia ba tham s.
2.1 Dung lng
Dung lng WCDMA l mt vn nhiu mt v ph thuc vo nhiu yu t
tng tc vi nhau. V d, nhiu ngi cng truy cp vo mt t bo lm cho tc
d liu tng, dung lng t bo v th m gim i. Ngoi ra, ti trong t bo tng cng
khin mc nhiu tng ln; iu ny cng s lm gim dung lng ca t bo. Cui
cng, dung lng mm l mt vn khc cn c xem xt, bi v trong cc tnh
hung nht nh mt s th bo c th c lng ti nh hn nhng t bo khc, v do
cng sut d tha ny c th c chia s gia cc t bo.
2.1.1 K thut tng lu lng
Mt s k thut nng cao dung lng hu ch c th c h tr cho mng
WCDMA. Phng php s dng c th bao gm Macro, micro, picocell, c th chng
ph ln nhau nh l mt h thng phn cp t bo. H thng phn cp t bo s dng
GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

10
ba loi t bo khc nhau c bit n nh l cu trc th bc t bo HSC
(Hierarchical Cell Structure). HSC l mt phng php c in tng dung lng ti
mt im nng. tng y l s dng di tn s khc nhau cho nhng ngi s
dng khc nhau. Tuy nhin vi iu kin l nh iu hnh phi mua ph tn tn
dng li th ca HSC. V d, mt nh iu hnh c th mua ba ph tn ring bit trong
3 ph tn dnh cho ng xung v 3 ph tn dnh cho ng ln. Nh iu hnh
c c hi chuyn i thay th cc tn s trong mi trng dy c, lm gim nhiu
knh ln cn ACI, hoc nhiu iu hnh giao thoa.
2.1.2 Dung lng mm
Chuyn giao mm c s dng khi nhiu kt ni c kt ni n nhiu trm
gc, tt c u hot ng trn cng mt tn s v tuyn (RF). Vic s dng nhiu kt
ni lm gim cng sut t mi trm c s phc v cho mi thit b ngi dng (UE).
Chuyn giao mm nh vy s lm gim nhiu v tng dung lng t bo trong lt
chuyn giao.
2.2 Vng ph
Vng ph 3G cho php ngi dng c th di chuyn d dng t mng hin ti
vo cc mng 3G khc. Ngoi ra, vng ph s c cung cp theo kiu cu trc phn
cp t bo trong h thng. Theo ngi dng s chuyn t mt mi trng picocell,
microcell sang mi trng macrocell. Mng UMTS s khng c lp vi mng GSM
hin c m n s cng tn ti vi thng GSM. Nhiu thit b u cui c th chuyn
i t 2G sang 3G v ngc li.
2.2.1 Mc tiu ph sng
S a dng ca cc dch v mng yu cu mc khc nhau ca vng ph do
cc yu t nh Eb/No (enegy-per-bit/noise-per-spectral) khc nhau, cn p ng mc
yu cu ca dch v, li x l khc nhau v trong trng hp c th c hoc khng
c chuyn giao mm xy ra. Trng hp ny s xy ra trong mt HSC c mt t bo
bao ph mt t bo khc, hai t bo ny s dng tn s khc nhau, v vy, chuyn giao
mm s khng c tt. Cui cng, bt k s thay i qu ng truyn no, nh tp
m trm gc, tp m cng sut thu, vv, tt c s nh hng ln CCQ. Mc tiu vng
ph phi c a vo tnh ton bao gm mi trng ca ngi dng, cng vi cc
thng s tnh ton phm vi khc nhau. Vng ph sng a gic c th s dng m t
GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

11
gn ng cc khu vc c t l bt buc. y c coi l c s tin hnh nhng php
kim nh thu nhn sau ny v iu ny c li rt nhiu cho nh iu hnh. Mc ph
cho khu th dy c, khu th v ngoi thnh thng hnh thnh nhng vng trn
ng tm bao quanh th trn. Vng ph theo cc tuyn ng c li hn khi s dng
mt danh sch hoc mt lch trnh cc tuyn giao thng tin hnh che ph thay v c
tm cch lin kt cc th trn bng nhng a gic. iu ny s cho kt qu kh a dng
nhng c th gy chng ln ln nhau.
2.2.2 Sector ha v s to hnh chm tia thch nghi
Sector ha l vic phn chia t bo thnh cc vng hnh qut (sector), ln lt
c th lm tng dung lng. Ngoi ra, tng cng vng ph sng ca cc sector ny
c th s dng anten thch nghi c kh nng theo di s di chuyn ca UE, do lm
tng vng ph sng thc t. Khi xem xt t bo sector ha v anten thch nghi, c th
c tnh nh hng ca mt quang ph ln k thut a ch ha. N ph thuc vo
cc loi sng v tuyn v cc thit b anten.
2.3 Cht lng dch v
Trong mng 3G, QoS c ngha quan trng hn rt nhiu so vi h thng 2G
trc y. iu ny l do s a dng ca cc dch v d liu bng thng rng. Nhng
dch v nh l gi video, trao i d liu i hi QoS cao hn, do cn m bo tr
truyn dn v QoS c th chp nhn c. Nh vy, cng vi dung lng v vng
ph, QoS l mt vn quan trng cn c xem xt cn thn trong h thng UMTS ,
do tnh cht ca dch v v yu cu ca ngi dng cui cng. C nhiu cp khc
nhau ca QoS, cho php nhiu loi nhng ng dng c h tr. Hin nay vn cha
th khng nh c tnh v mc dng ca mt s dch v phi thoi mi s ging vi
nh hng c a ra, v vy tht v l khi ti u ha UMTS cho mt nhm cc ng
dng ring.
2.4 Th tc pht trin quy hoch v ti a dung lng cng nh vng ph sng
Cc thng s CCQ cn c xem xt chc chn rng cc th tc hiu qu c
th c s dng cho k hoch pht trin mng. Mi tham s trong ba tham s dung
lng, vng ph v QoS cn phi c xem xt cn bng v ti u.
Giao din khng kh WCDMA khng th on trc v lin tc thay i. iu
ny l do ty bin ca ngi s dng v tc d liu ca h thay i. Mi cell phi
GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

12
c thit k chnh xc v do cc iu kin trc tin t c ca quy hoch
mng li chnh xc gm 3 giai on sau:
a)

Chun b;

b)

c lng t bo mng;

c)

Qun l quy hoch mng.

2.4.1 Chun b
Giai on chun b bao gm nh gi dung lng ban u v vng ph cn
thit, nh ngha k hoch quy hoch chin lc, kim tra cc hot ng hn ch v
cui cng chun b cc thit k s b. iu ny ph thuc vo yu cu ca nh iu
hnh v do n c xy dng da vo u vo thu c t thc t.
Xem xt ban u cho vic chun b l s lng ngi dng. Ta xt:
a)

Dn s lm vic trong khu vc c th;

b)

Dn s sng trong trong mt khu vc c th;

c)

Lng xe c trong khu vc;

d)

Khu vc gii tr hay s kin

Ngi dng c phn chia thnh hai khu vc: ngi dng doanh nghip v
ngi dng c nhn. V d, thi gian gi trung bnh trong khong 120 n 180 giy.
N s phn no kh khn hn khi tnh ton trong mng UMTS do cc dch v mi s
c s dng chuyn mch gi. Hin nay hu ht dch v mi c p dng
chuyn mch gi. Tuy nhin trung bnh thi gian gi nh hng ng k n lu
lng mng, d on chnh xc, hp l phi c coi l mt yu t quan trng. iu
ny nhiu khi kh khn do kch thc mi c b sung vo dch UMTS (3G), khi
lng d liu trung bnh thng qua l rt ln. Vn phc tp hn nhu cu v mt
dch v nht nh (V d: Vng ph sng theo s kin th thao) cng phi c a
vo tnh ton, v s kin ny s thay i theo thi gian trong ngy, theo ngy trong
nm. Khi lu lng mng s tng t bin.
2.4.2 S ngi s dng
Tnh ton s lng ngi dng trong mt khu vc c th c thc hin bng
m rng iu tra dn s. S ngi dng v lu lng yu cu cho tng ngi dng
cho ta lu lng yu cu.

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

13
2.4.3 Qun l quy hoch mng
Khi s lng t bo c xc nh, cn lp k hoch chi tit tn s, xc nh tn
s v tuyn (RF) cho tng cell. iu ny s nh hng n vng ph sng nh xy
dng cc vng ph sng, chi ph, xy dng lut quy hoch, cu hnh, t li v tr cell
v cc hot ng khc nh ACI cng phi c xem xt. Do cn b cng c lp k
hoch chuyn nghip. C nhiu cng c c sn trn th trng, c cung cp bi
ATDL, Logica, Commweb, Agilent B cng c lp k hoch bao gm mt b tin
ch module phn mm c tch hp vo cc ng dng quy hoch hin ti. Cc
module c th bao gm cc cng c qun l thng tin, thit k cc cng c di ng,
thit b, cu hnh, cc cng c kim k, gim st hiu sut mng v cc cng c bo
co d n hoc cc cng c qun l chung.
2.5 Pht trin k hoch thit k mng
Khi xem xt mt ci nhn tng th thit k quy hoch mng li, cc i tng
c xem xt. Bao gm:
a)

Vng ph Microcell/ Macrocell;

b)

Dung lng Microcell/ Macrocell;

c)

Vng ph trong nh v tc d liu cao.

d)

Thit lp v tr cell.

e)

S chuyn dch t mng GSM.

Cc chin lc c thng qua trin khai mng s ph thuc nhiu vo vic


iu chnh lu lng thc t. Thc t s dng vng ph Macrocell cho ngoi tri v
Picocell cho vng ph trong nh, Macrocell cng c th ph sng nhng khong trng
trong vng ph sng trong nh. Tuy nhin, c li ngi ta cung cp thm dung
lng bng cch tng s lng cc cell trong nh, tri ngc vi ph sng trong nh
cung cp t cc cell ngoi tri. Nu vic tng s lng cell trong nh khng c thc
hin, ngi ta buc phi dng microcell khc phc cc hn ch dung lng. Tuy
nhin, c th t c d liu tc cao hn trong ton b din tch cell, hoc tc
d liu c sn thp hn khi ngi s dng thi im vng bin cell, iu ny cho
php t c din tch ph sng mt cell ln hn. iu ny s ph thuc vo loi
dch v tc cao c sn. Vi dch v i hi QoS thp nh e-mail, lu tr v chuyn
tip cc dch v tin nhn ngn (SMS), th vng ph khng ng nht c th c xem
GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

14
xt. Tuy nhin i vi nhng dch v yu cu QoS cao v thi gian thc, th vng ph
phi l ng nht. Cui cng, nu mt nh iu hnh c mt mng li 2G hin ti th
ngi dng s chuyn giao gia 2G v 3G, ti s dng cell. Thng th cc nh quy
hoch s tn dng v tr cc trm BTS 2G b sung v tr cn thiu. iu ny lm
gim ng k chi ph cho vic xy dng h thng. Nu quy hoch hp l vic ti s
dng li cc trm BTS ca 2G nh quy hoch c th tit kim c 40% chi ph cho
xy dng mng 3G.
2.5.1 Phn tch lu lng
Phn tch lu lng bao gm nhng iu sau:
a)

Kho st phn b dn c trong khu vc ph;

b)

D bo th trng tnh ton s lng thu bao;

c)

Tnh ton cung cp lu lng cho mi thu bao;

d)

To ra mt bn cho thy lu lng d kin.

iu ny s l mt nhim v cho cc b phn tip th tuy nhin cc nh hoch


nh mng yu cu bn lu lng tnh ton kch thc mng. iu ny cng cho
php phn tch nng lc mng l thuyt v m phng cc hot ng ca k hoch
cui cng.
a) Cng lu lng
Vic nh gi cng lu lng ca nh cung cp v lu lng s dng thc
t trong mt khu vc c th phi c xc nh. Mt phn pht d liu c nh
ngha l tc thng tin c th gi i trong mt khu vc ph. u tin, chng ta phi
thit lp mt n v xc nh cng lu lng.
Thi gian gi/ (1 gi (h)) = lu lng

(2.1)

V d, nu mt thu bao c hai cuc gi i trong 1 gi v thi gian trung bnh


ca mi cuc gi l 120 giy (s), theo cng thc trn ta c:
240/3600 = 66 mili Erlangs (mErl) lu lng
Hai cuc gi mi gi c thi gian gi trung bnh 120s bng 240s, c 3600s
trong 1 gi. Erlang (Erl) c thit k o lng nh lng lu lng. Trong thc
t, n c s dng m ta tng khi lng giao thng trong 1 gi (h). C nhiu
nhiu m hnh Erlang nhng ph bin nht l m hnh Erlang B (dng nh gi yu
cu lu lng trong gi bn). Trong m hnh ny, ngi ta xem nh tt c cc cuc
GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

15
gi b chn s xa ngay lp tc. Do mt ngi dng trong khu vc phi xem xt,
mt lu lng c th c tnh ton v c th hin trn mi km2 (Erl/km2 ). i
vi dch v d liu, khi lu lng c m t tt hn nh php o megabit trn 1
giy trn 1km2 (Mbps/km2), dung lng d liu c truyn i trong mt n v thi
gian qua mt khu vc.
b) Mc s dng v cung cp dch v
Thm nhp th trng kinh doanh bao gm s lng thu bao bnh qun u
ngi ca dn s chia cho s lng nhn vin kinh doanh. N c th c chia theo
phn trm iu tra cho cc nhm i tng khc nhau (v d ngi dng doanh
nghip).
Ngoi ra cn chia theo loi hnh dch v v tc d liu bao gm c nhu cu
QoS. s dng dch v cn phi thc hin cc dch v chuyn mch cuc gi/ gi
cn v cho cc dch v chuyn mch gi trong gi bn. Lu lng phi phn tch tnh
ton cho nhiu loi dch v (v d nh thoi, d liu, video). Cc mi trng khc
nhau, trong nh, ngoi tri, cng vi t nhn v s dng cng cng. Mt m hnh lu
lng n gin ha cc gi nh. M hnh lu lng cho php nh gi trong sut thi
gian gi v c tnh cc t l chuyn giao. lm c iu ny ta dng phng php
lp tnh ton cung cp lu lng truy cp mi cell. Ngoi ra, thng s cn thit nh
c tnh thi gian ngi dng bn ti mt cell s cho php d on chnh xc v lu
lng ca khu vc ph sng. Nu dch v c p dng cho mi thu bao, bn
lu lng c to ra. S khc bit s dng d liu c phn tch trong Bng 2.1.
i vi dch v tng tc a phng tin tc d liu l khong 128 kbps, v
th mt chiu di trung bnh cho cc cuc gi kiu ny s kt ni trong khong 144
giy. Trong khi mt cuc gi thoi c tc d liu khong 12,2 kbps trong sut
thi gian cuc gi hiu qu c th l khong 1 pht.

Dch v

Bng 2.1

S dng mu v dch v a ra

S dng
(kbps)

Khong thi gian


trung bnh hiu
dng cell (s)

Loi chuyn
mch (chuyn
mach gi tin)

Thi gian
gi/bn trong 1h

128

144

CS

0.25

2000

53

PS

0.01

a phng tin c
tnh tng tc cao
a phng tin c
GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

16
tc cao
a phng tin tc
bnh thng
D liu tc thp
SMS
Thoi

384

14

PS

0.2

14.4
14.4
12.2

156
156
60

CS
PS
CS

0.1
2
1.5

2.5.2 c tnh kch thc vng ph


c c nhng d on vng ph chi tit hn, cn a thm mt s nhn t
hiu chnh vo m hnh d on suy hao ng truyn. Cc m hnh suy hao ng
truyn c tnh bng cch kt hp d liu thc nghim v k thut phn tch. Mi
quan h gia h s ti N v dung sai nhiu Im c m t bng cng thc:

Im = 10log

(2.2)

Tch sng a ngi dng lm gim mc nh hng ca h s ti trong phm vi


cell. Nu MUD c s dng chuyn giao mm th c th gim 20% nhiu trong
macrocell. Lu lng bt i xng cng phi c quan tm khi tnh qu ng
truyn. C th cn bng ti h thng ng ln i vi mt vng ph ti a ca cell,
vng ph trong h thng WCDMA. Cng sut thc t ca ngi dng (UE) s b gii
hn bi phm vi ph sng ca cell.
a) Qu ng truyn
Qu ng truyn c tnh ton ring l theo ng ln (uplink) v ng
xung (downlink). Qu ng truyn c tnh ton t cc thng s li anten, tp
m thu, tn hao ng truyn.
b) li chuyn giao mm
li chuyn giao mm t c khi chuyn giao ti bin hay gia hai hay
nhiu cell c mt mt trung bnh bng nhau. c c chuyn giao mm, ta cn
tnh ton bin ng logarit chun tc tng. y l thng s cn thit cung cp xc
xut vng ph ti vng bin ca mt t bo ring r cng nh thng s tng ng ti
vng bin ca hai hay nhiu t bo. Do , li chuyn giao mm trn thc t s
khc nhau gia cc bin khc nhau. Xc sut vng ph cng ln, th mc yu cu bin
cng cao. Chuyn giao mm cng cung cp li phn tp macro, iu ny ph thuc
vo mi trng truyn sng v s nhnh RAKE (My thu RAKE ly mu, tnh ton v
dng li cc thnh phn ca cc tn hiu a ng b suy hao, kt hp, tng cng tn
GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

17
hiu). Mt b thu RAKE c s dng dch v WCDMA thng c 4-6 nhnh nhn.
Tuy nhin, chuyn giao mm vn c xem xt trong vic ci thin qu ng truyn.
c) Vng ph b gii hn
Vng ph gi l gii hn khi n khng c nng lc x l tt c cc lu
lng truy nhp. T quan im dung lng, kch thc cell cn ln hn rt nhiu. Di
cell ti a gi l h s gii hn. Din tch ti a ca cell c s dng xc nh s
lng trm gc yu cu.
d) Dung lng b gii hn
Mng c dung lng gii hn A l mng khng c kh nng h tr tt c cc
lu lng cung cp. S cell c tnh bng cch chia s ngi s dng m mt cell c
th h tr bi s ngi trn mi km2. Tng cell ca h thng bng tng s din tch
c chia cho din tch mt cell. i vi nhiu b gii hn, mt tn hiu nh hn s
gy mt tn trong cc cell nh hn, v do tng chi ph thc hin thm cc cell
cn thit, ngoi ra s lm gim dung lng.
e) H s ti
H thng t n cng sut cc i khi n t c ti ti 100 phn trm dung
lng, hoc cng sut ti a l thuyt t c. Dung lng ca mt cell ph thuc
vo Eb/No. Khu vc ph sng ph thuc vo ti so vi cng sut cc i. Khi cng
sut cc i kch thc cell s co li v khng v mc nhiu s tin ti v cng.
Cng sut lin quan trc tip n yu t ti v mt mng UMTS (3G) c th khng
vn hnh ht cng sut cc.
2.5.3 M hnh c tnh t bo
Nh cp trc , mt lng gn ng s yu cu ca cc t bo c th
c tnh bng cch nhn s dng ca ngi dn. Khi s lng ngi dng v lu
lng cho mi ngi dng c cho trc, chng ta c th tnh c lu lng yu
cu. Khi vng ph v dung lng c tnh ton, ta c th c tnh m hnh cell theo
m hnh:

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

18

Hnh 2.1 M hnh c tnh t bo


2.5.4 Xc xut vng ph
Xc sut vng ph ni ln kh nng ca ngi s dng truy cp vo mng ca
mt cell theo tiu ch xc nh trc. Cc loi hnh dch v v tc d liu cng s
c nh hng n kh nng ph sng.
a) Xc sut vng ph - outage
Thu hp bn knh cell s gim kh nng mt tn hiu. Do din tch vng ph
sng trn mt cell s gim. Chi ph ph sng mt din tch xc nh s tng ln. Do
ta phi cn i gia din tch ph sng ca cell vi xc sut mt tn hiu. Mc mt tn
hiu t 5-10% c coi l hp l cho nh quy hoch.
Din tch ph sng cng lin quan n mt tn hiu. Mt tn hiu khi cc mng
v tuyn khng th t c yu cu QoS. Mt tn hiu c th c m t nh l s
che khut v suy hao ng truyn vt qua s khc bit gia mc tn hiu yu cu
nhn c v cng ti a lan truyn ng. Cc minh ha trong Hnh 2.2 Cho
thy mt tiu chun ca mt phn b bnh thng vi mt lch chun 8dB. Din
tch nh ca phn phi xc nh mt mt. Nu 10% cho kh nng mt tn hiu t
c 10,3 dB. i vi mt mc tiu 5% vi yu cu 13,2 dB, v cui cng 18,6 dB
cho mt mt 1%. V vy mc tiu gia tng mt mt dn n gim phm vi ph sng v
li kh cao.

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

19

Hnh 2.2

c tnh ti a vng ph sng cell - yu t ti

Kh nng truyn ti ngoi vi cell thc t l kh nng cc UE s nhn c mt


tn hiu trn mt ngng nht nh, chng hn nh cng tn hiu RF. Gi tr
ngng phi cung cp mt tn hiu chp nhn c trong iu kin pha inh nhanh.
b) Xc sut vng ph ra cell
Ra cell c xc sut vng ph sng tt nht c coi l xc sut UE s nhn
c mt tn hiu t trm anten gc, trn mt gi tr ngng quy nh ti v tr vng
bin ca cell. Gi tr ngng s cn cung cp mt tn hiu hp l trong iu kin
fading. Mi quan h gia xc sut ngoi vi cell v din tch c minh ha trong Hnh
2.3.
Trong y l s m suy hao ng truyn v sigma () l lch chun ca
vng ti c a trong dB. S m suy hao ng truyn c nh ngha l t l tng
ca suy hao ng truyn. Mt gi tr tiu biu cho suy hao ng truyn trong cell
macro c coi l 3,6 v cho lch chun nh va thy, 8dB. V vy, vi /y l 2.22
v tham gia mt vng ranh gii xc sut 75% s tng ng vi 90% vng c ph
sng.

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

20

Hnh 2.3

ng cong lin quan cc phn nh ca tng s khu vc c tn hiu cao

hn ngng nh mt chc nng xc sut ca tn hiu cao hn ngng ngoi vi ca


t bo.
2.6 M phng phn tch k hoch thit k mng
Mt v d chng trnh m phng v phn tch h thng (COSSAP) sn sut
bi Synopsys Incorporated, COSSAP l mt cng c thit k h thng, bao gm mt
b cc cu hnh end-to-end ca cc m hnh ti s dng thut ton, iu cn thit cho
vic thit k v thm tra ca h thng WCDMA. Do , cng c ny c kh nng cho
php xc minh thut ton ca cp lin kt cho h thng truyn ti WCDMA theo nh
ngha hin nay ca cc tiu chun. N c bit n nh l mt chng trnh m
phng dng iu khin, da trn m hnh lung d liu, h tr nhanh chng m phng
iu khin dng v ng m phng. Cc xy ra thng qua s hp tc ca cc hng
dn m phng iu khin dng thit lp m phng (ISS) cho c phn mm v phn
cng. Kiu m phng ng thm tra phn khc nhau ca vic thc hin ca h thng.
ch yu l t mt im chc nng,m trong cc phm mm v kin trc phn cng
khng phi l i din y chi tit. Vi COSSAP, khng cn thit phi kim sot
thi gian gia cc yu t m phng l v v th c th h tr hot ng khng ng b.
Bn yu t quan trng l xc nh kh nng h tr nh sau:

c im lu lng;

Tc d liu ngi dng;

Yu cu QoS;

Kh nng mt tn hiu.

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

21
D liu tc cao khin s lng ngi dng c kh nng s dng mng t
hn. V vy, cht lng mng tt hn, gim kh nng mt tn hiu. Kt ni v tuyn s
tt hn, tiu th ti nguyn nhiu hn, c ngha l c t thu bao hn c th s dng h
thng. Phm vi ph sng d liu tc cao, phm vi ph sng cho microcell v mi
trng trong nh, ng v tr vi mt h thng 2G, tt c nhng vn chnh s cn
phi c ln k hoch cn thn m bo mng li n nh hiu qu. Phn tch lu
lng, nh gi phm vi ph sng v m cell cng c thc hin phn tch m
phng.
2.7 Ti u ha
Ti u ha mng li lin quan n vic thu thp d liu lp i lp li s cung
cp mt bc tranh chnh xc v hot ng mng. Ti u ha s i hi cc cng c
driving test c dung lng hot ng cao. Vi v d v cc chc nng cn thit cao hn
bao gm phn tch ng b ha s cp v th cp m ng b ha, o cng sut, o
c xo trn m, v thi gian di chuyn v chng ln ln nhau. Cn phi thc hin
ng thi c ting ni v d liu ti mng 2G v mng 3G. D liu bao gm chuyn
tip v o ngc iu tit lin kt, t l li bit hoc khung hnh, ACI b cuc gi,
khng khi to cuc gi, nh v v tinh ton cu (GPS). Cc d liu ny cho ta ci
nhn ton cnh v qu trnh hnh thnh mng.

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

22
CHNG 3 QUY HOCH DUNG LNG

Cc tham s quy hoch mng cho h thng UMTS kh phc tp v bao gm


mt s lng ln phn cng, h thng, cc thng s m phng. Cc phn t knh (CE)
c nh hng ht sc c bn i vi dung lng, cu hnh v s trm gc yu cu. S
lng CE ti mt trm gc c th s gii hn vic truyn d liu tc ti a ti v tr
. Ngoi ra, cc h s ti ng ln v ng xung s c tho lun, v cc vn
dung lng ng xung v ng ln, v cui cng l cc vn ci tin dung
lng.
3.1 Dung lng truyn
UMTS s dng truyn khng ng b (ATM). ATM yu cu bo hiu overhead
ti thiu nn rt ph hp vi cc yu cu ca UMTS v y l cng ngh chuyn mch
gi. ATM c th c dng trong mng truy cp v tuyn (RAN) cng nh mng li
(CN) v c kh nng truyn d liu v lu lng thoi mt cch ng tin cy, hiu
qu, vi mc QoS yu cu cho cc loi hnh dch v s dng.
ATM c th s dng nh l nn tng tch hp truyn dn 2.5G (tng hp cc h
thng v tuyn gi, GPRS) n 3G. iu ny rt c li v nh vn hnh va c c tnh
linh hot v c bo m u t.
Kt hp ATM v SDH trong mt s khu vc nht nh ca mng s cho php
t c hiu sut mng cao hn. iu ny lm gim cc chi ph lin quan v phc tp
ca mng. Cc nh quy hoach cn phi bit mc overhead yu cu khi quan tm n
ng truyn ti ca h thng UMTS. Nhu cu kh nng truyn d liu tc cao
ngy cng tng khi cc gi d liu tc cao ca gi chuyn mch gi v knh cho
php ngi dng truy cp a phng tin di ng ng thi trong mt kt ni.

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

23

T bo ATM
S bit:

GFC iu khin lung chung


VPI

L gi tr nhn dng ng o

VCI

Nhn dng knh o

PT

Kiu t bo

CLP u tin mt t bo
HEC iu khin tiu trng li

Hnh 3.1 T bo ATM


3.2 H s ti ng ln
Cc h s ti ng c nh hng rt ln dn dung lng. Bng di cung cp
mt v d v cc thng s tnh ton ti ng ln.
H s hot ng ca ngi ngi s dng l tc d liu ca chnh ngi s
dng v tng cng sut bng thng rng thu c bao gm cng sut tp m nhit
ti trm gc. Mt gi tr thoi in hnh ca h s hot ng c gi thit l 0.67
(trong gii gi tr t 0 n 1). Nng lng tn hiu trn bit c chia bi mt ph
tp m (Eb/No) c th tnh c t cc php o ng truyn v m phng, bao gm
nh hng ca chuyn giao mm v iu khin cng sut vng kn. li kt hp
phn tp macro lin quan n Eb/No c th c gi l mt php o ca nh hng
chuyn giao mm. Mi trng cell khi xt n t k nhiu ca cell ln cn n cell
hin thi l mt hm ca s cch ly cell. V d, mi trng cell micro/macro,
th/ngoi cng bao gm anten chun nh anten v hng, v cu hnh v tr an ten, v
d nh cu hnh 3 hoc 6 sector. Tham s cui cng l tc d liu ca ngi s
GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

24
dng v ph thuc vo kiu dch v. a nhng tham s ny vo tnh ton ta c th
tnh h s ti cho ng ln.
Bng 3.1 Cc tham s tnh ton h s ti ng ln
nh ngha
Eb/No c xc nh v nhiu nhit v nhiu
tp m

H s s dng ca ngi dng X ti lp vt


l

Cc t bo khc s hu t l giao thao bi


macrocell vi anten v hng trm thu c
s
Tc d liu ca ngi s dng X

sut gi tr/ thng s


Ph thuc vo tc UE
Tc d liu
Anten phn tp RX
Fading a ng
Cc kiu dch v
0.67 cho thoi
50% cho thoi v DPCCH overhead trong
DTX
1.0 cho d liu
Macrocell vi anten v hng (55%)

Ph thuc vo kiu dch v

3.3 nh hng ca tp m
Tp m c th m t nh l s gia tng mc can thip bng rng qua nhit
tp m trong vic tip nhn trm gc. T cc th minh ha trong Hnh 3.2 c th
cho thy rng, tng tp m 3dB, tng ng vi 50% lu lng d liu, hoc c th
c m t nh l mt yu t tng ng vi ti trng 50%.

Hnh 3.2 Tng tp m ng ln

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

25
Tuy nhin, tp m tng khng phi tuyn tnh, do s can thip tp m tng
0.6dB tng ng vi mt yu t np l 75%. Tng s d liu thng qua kt hp ca tt
c ngi dng ng thi. Trong v d ny, mt lu lng d liu 1300 kbps c th t
c vi mc tng 6dB ca tp m. Kt qu cui cng l tp m tng lm gim kch
thc cell.
Dng s suy gim trung bnh gia cc trm gc v ngi nhn UE (c tnh n
nhy ca UE), cng sut cho mi thu bao c th c xc nh. nh hng gia
tng tp m ty thuc vo nhiu, cng do mc cng sut pht ti thiu, v vy cn quy
nh mc cng sut truyn cn thit cho ngi dng mt v tr trung bnh trong t
bo. Cng sut truyn phi da trn sc mnh truyn trung bnh v khng phi l cng
sut pht ti a cho cc ngoi vi ca t bo.
3.4 H s ti ng xung
Cng nh cc h s ti ng ln tho lun phn trc, cc nhn t trn cng
rt quan trng i vi h s ti ng xung. Bng 3.2 lit k v m t cc tham s
khc nhau v sut cc gi tr tnh kch thc ny c tho lun chi tit di y.
H s hot ng ni chung c gi l t l lu lng thoi so vi lu lng d
liu truy cp. T l thoi v d liu s c s on chnh xc hn ton b d liu tip
theo c cung cp t cc hot ng dch v UMTS. Mt tham s quan trng cn
c a vo xem xt khi c gng so snh gia h s ti ng xung v ng ln l
h s ca ngi dng.
Bng 3.2 Cc h s ti ng xung
Tham s phn loi
Kch thc ngh
a)H s hot ng ca ngi dng X 0.67 cho ting ni, gi s 50% thi gian c
lp vt l
hot ng ni v mo u DPCCH lin tc TX
1.0 cho d liu
b)Tc d liu ca ngi dng X
Ph thuc vo loi dch v
c)Eb/No cn thit p ng c QoS Ph thuc vo tc UE, Fading a ng, v
(E.g.BER). Ting ni bao gm c ting ni loi hnh dch v, anten phn tp TX.
v nhiu
Ph thuc vo ng dn-a ng truyn
d)Knh trc giao ca ngi s dng
1=trc giao hon ton;
0=khng trc giao.
e)T l cell khc ring ca trm gc Ph thuc vo v tr ca UE trong cell v vng
quyn lc, nhn c bi ngi s dng ti loga chun, mi ngi dng s c mt t l
GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

26
X
f)T l trung bnh trc giao trong cell

khc nhau v cng sut cell ln cn ring


ca cell cng sut nhn BS bi ngi s dng
ITU cho xe mt knh ~ 60%
ITU cho ngi i b mt knh ~ 90%

g)T l trung bnh ca cell ln cn cell


BS nhn c cng sut ca ngi dng. Macrocell vi anten v hng
Nhiu cell l bng rng

Tnh trc giao c nh ngha l thuc tnh phn tch tn ti gia hai ngi
dng. Nu c hai ngi dng c thuc tnh phn tch tt h s khng ly nhiu cho
nhau. Nu cc m trc giao ng xung c s dng m bo vic phn tch
ngi s dng, trong trng hp khng c truyn lan a ng, tnh trc giao vn cn
khi UE nhn c tn hiu trong ng xung ny. Tuy nhin, nu tri tr ln
xy ra trong cc knh radio, th UE s xem y l nhiu a truy cp.
Mt h s trc giao bng 1 tng ng vi ngi s dng hon ton trc giao
vi nhau, Trn knh a ng, h s trc giao in hnh nm trong khong 0.4 v 0,9 (
trong phm vi 0-1).
3.5 Chuyn giao mm
Mo u chuyn giao mm c th c nh ngha l tng cc kt ni ang hot
ng, chia cho tng s ngi s dng tr 1. li t c bng chuyn giao mm
tng i vi cc ng truyn n Eb/No phi c quan tm v c gi l li
phn tp macro. iu ny c o khi gim Eb/No yu cu cho mi ngi dng.
li ny c th t c bng cch phn tch m phng mc ng truyn.
Nu ngi dng hin ti tham gia vo mt qu trnh chuyn giao mm, th tt
cc trm gc khc trong tp hot ng c tnh l mt phn ca cell khc. Cng
sut ti a m b khuch i trm gc c th cung cp l h s gii hn ng xung.
khi mng bo ha, s tng ng xut hin gia h s ti ng xung v ng ln,
t , vi vic t cng sut nh, tng tp m trn tp m nhit tng n v cng.
Trong trng hp ny, cn phi c tnh tng cng sut pht trm gc thc hin
vic nh c ng xung.

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

27
3.6 Dung lng ng ln ng xung
3.6.1 Dung lng ng ln
Tip theo s pht trin mng cc khu vc nng thn, dung lng ng vai tr
th cp so vi vng ph sng. Tuy nhin, trong mt th mi trng, ni mt dch
v d liu tc cao ang c cung cp bi trm gc ngoi tri tiu chun th phm
vi vng ph sng c th gim do cc yu cu dung lng cc b ha. Ngc li khi
khng c nhu cu dung lng trong kch thc cell th s lm tng vng ph.
V u ra cng sut UE l lun thp hn cng sut ca mt trm gc, phm vi
ph sng macrocell c th c tnh ton bng ti ng ln. Do , u ra cng sut
ca mt trm gc macro l khong 40-46 dBm (tng ng vi 10-40 W) cho mi
sector v cng sut u ra ca UE thng l 21dBm ( tng ng vi 125mW).
S dng mt m hnh truyn tiu chun, nh m hnh Okamura-hata, ngi ta
c th tnh ton nhng ci tin c thc hin trong quy ng truyn trn bn knh
cell tng ng. Kt qu c th nhn thy trong bng 3.3, trong c th thy mi quan
h r rng gia din tch vng ph v mt trm gc.
V d, vi mt mc ci thin hiu nng ng truyn 2dB ( t 4dB tng ln
6dB), th s c mt s ci thin v mt cell yu cu t 59 xung 46%.
Bng 3.3 Ph sng ng ln
Mt trm gc-s v tr tng i (%)

Ci tin qu ng truyn (dB)

27

10

46

52

59

68

77

88

100

0-Trng hp tham kho

3.6.2 Dung lng ng xung


Trong ng xung, giao din v tuyn b gii hn bi nhiu, do cn phi
c tnh mc nhiu v dung lng cell. Bn cnh , vic nh gi tc ng ca cc
m trc giao ln dung lng ng xung trong c mi trng microcell v macrocell
GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

28
phi c a vo tnh ton. nh hng ca nhiu gia cc cell, gy ra bi cc trm
gc ln cn, s nh hng ng k n dung lng ng xung . Tuy nhin, vic s
dng m trc giao s m bo rng nh hng ca nhiu gia cc cell lin k s gim
ng xung so vi vi cc ng ln. Ngoi ra, quy hoch mng v mi trng
truyn sng s c nh hng n mc nhiu t cc cell ln cn nu quy hoch mng
khng c thc hin chnh xc. Trong mi trng th dy c, cc gc ph c xu
hng cch ly cc cell hn hn macro cell, v vy bng cch s dng microcell s m
bo rng trong mt mi trng nh vy, nhiu gia cc cell s thp hn trong mt mi
trng macrocell. c tnh cch ly cell c biu din vi tham s t l nhiu cell ln
cn-trn-cell hin thi. Tnh trc giao tt hn i vi m ng xung thng tn ti
trong mi trng cell thng thng c t truyn lan a ng trong microcell. Ngoi ra
nu c t truyn lan a ng , iu ny s dn n iu ny s dn n tp m a
ng, do , Eb/No yu cu ln hn trong ng xung c th c gi nh trong
microcell v tri ngc vi macrocell.
Bng 3.4

Tnh ton thng lng gi nh

T l nhiu cell ln cn cell hin thi


ng ln Eb/No (dB)
Ti ng ln (%)
ng xung Eb/No (dB)
Ti ng xung (%)
ng xung trc giao

Microcell
0.20
1.50
60.00
8.00
80.00
0.95

Macrocell
0.65
1.50
60.00
5.50
80.00
0.60

H s ti gi thit l 80% cho ng xung v 60% cho ng ln. V rt kh


c c vng ph i xng mt ng ln, nn h s ti ng ln c gi nh l
thp hn.
Bng 3.5 Thng lng d liu/sector/sng mang trong mi trng microcell v
macrocell
ng ln (kbps)
ng xung (kbps)

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

Microcell
1430
1440

Macrocell
1040
660

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

29
Vi microcell c mt s cn bng tng i hp l gia dung lng ng ln
v ng xung. Tuy nhin, trong cc macrocell, thng lng ng xung thng
thp hn hn ng ln. Do vic s dng m trc giao, cng sut ng xung ph
thuc vo a ng v mi trng truyn lan hn so vi ng ln.
Nu cc UE nm gn cc trm gc, dung lng cell trong vng ph s ln hn.
Tuy nhin, trong Bng 3.5 gi nh tt c ngi dng c phn phi ng nht trn
din tch cell. N khng th h tr 2Mbps cho mi ngi dng trong cell nu ngi
dng cn 2Mbps nm ri rc c lp trong khu vc di ng, bao gm c vng bin
cell.
Vn chnh nh hng n ng xung l tnh trc giao ca ngi s dng
v h s ti cell, v nhng tham s ny thay i ph thuc vo loi cell s dng. nh
vy vi v d gi thit c gii thiu v nh quy hoch mng phi quan tm n
nhng vn trn khi quy hoch dung lng ng xung. Phn tip theo s gii qut
vn l lm th no c th tn dng u im dung lng vi mt lot nhng ci
thin tim nng.
3.7 Ci thin dung lng
C mt s phng thc c sn nng cao dung lng nh cch thm cc tn
s b sung, sector ha, s dng phn tp pht v s dng m ha bit tc thp hn.
Nhng phng thc c s dng trong phn ny, bt u vi phng php b sung
tn s.
3.7.1 Tng cng tn s
S dng tn s b sung s cho cng sut ln hn mt cell. V d, nu mt nh
iu hnh mua nhiu hn mt ph tn, mt s sng mang c th c s dng
cn bng lu lng ti v cng c th tng dung lng cho mi cell. Mt trong nhng
phng php gim nh u t hn na l chia s b khuch i cng sut cho cc
sng mang. Hn na phng php khuch i cng sut hiu qu nht c th t c
bng cch chia s mt b khuch i cng sut gia hai sng mang. Ngoi ta, khi
ng cong ti bt u gim, cng sut pht cn thit cho mi ngi dung gim. Tuy
nhin tng cng sut pht ng xung c kh nng ch t c li dung lng ti
thiu t ng cong ti. Do , iu ny l khng c xem l mt phng php hiu
qu tng dung lng ng xung.
GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

30
3.7.2 Sector ha
Mt phng php chun tng dung lng ca mt v tr c th c thc hin
bi sector ha. Y sector l tng s tng y ln cng sut, tuy nhin trong thc t hiu
qu t c khong 90%. Nhc im ca sector ha khi quan tm n tng dung
lng l khi tng s lng sector th phi tng s lng anten s phi ci t v quy
hoch sng v tuyn phi c xem xt sau ti u. N khng th trnh khi v nhu
cu lu lng tng ln, do , nng cp t mt v tr n hng thnh mt v tr c 3
sector s cho dung lng tng khong 2.7. V do vi mt v tr c sau sector dung
lng c th tng 5.5. Tng s sector cng s lm tng li ca anten, do ci thin
phm vi ph sng, nhng cch tip cn ny b gii hn vi chi ph ph lin quan n
vic tng cc sector v s l ny sinh thm cc vn quy hoch cn c gii quyt.
3.7.3 Phn tp pht
ci thin hiu sut vi phn tp pht ng xung, d liu c th c chia
thnh hai lung ring bit v truyn bng cch s dng m trc giao. Phn tp a
ng trong mi trng v tuyn c th s c nh hng i vi cc li t c.
V d, nu c t phn tp a ng th li dung lng trong cc ng xung s cao
hn khi s dng phn tp pht. Vi tng ny, li dung lng cao nht c th xy
ra trong microcell v picocell, ni m phn tp a ng hn ch.
3.7.4 M ha tc bt thp
Cui cng, c th tng dung lng thoi vi m ha ting a tc tng thch
(AMR). M ha thoi AMR c tm tc ngun v dung lng ph tr c th t
c bng cch s dng mt tc ngun thp hn. Cc m AMR mang li s cn
bng gia dung lng thoi v cht lng thoi nh yu cu. Vi AMR, s lng kt
ni c th c tng ln, trong khi ng thi gim tc d liu trn mi ngi dng.
Cc vn c nhc trn y cho php cc nh quy hoch nhn nh c
nhng yu cu cn thit quy hoch mng UMTS mt cch chnh xc nht. Cc vn
nh m hnh ha lu lng, dung lng truyn, hiu sut ph, h s ti ng ln
v ng xung c trnh by u c nh hng trc tip n dung lng ca
mng.

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

31
KT LUN

Trong thi gian qua, nh s hng dn nhit tnh ca thy c v bn b trong


khoa in t Vin thng, gip em hon thnh bn bo thc tp vi ti Quy
hoch mng 3G mt cch tt nht. c bit em xin chn thnh cm n TS. Phm Duy
Phong ngi gip em nh hng v chn la mt ti ph hp vi mong mun
ngh nghip v xu hng pht trin ca Vin thng Vit Nam trong giai on hin
ti.
Trong bi bo co ny em hon thnh c bn nhng vn l thuyt nh
sau:
-

Nm c cch qu trnh, phng php v cc bc quy hoch ti u

mng 3G.
-

Phn tch c nhng yu t c trng nh hng n quy hoch dung lng.

Bn bo co hon thnh s l bc m tt gip em c c s chc chn cho

k hoch lm n tt nghip vi ni dung chi tit v c th hn v qu trnh


Quy hoch mng 3G.
Bn bo co ny vn mang tnh l thuyt v c nhiu thiu st do hiu bit ca
em trong qu trnh dch, v tm hiu ti liu vn cn hn ch. V vy em rt mong nhn
c s ph bnh, b sung ca thy c em c th khc phc nhng hn ch .
Em xin chn thnh cm n!

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga

32
TI LIU THAM KHO

[1] Chris Braithwaite and Mike Scott, UMTS Network Planning anh DevelopmentDesign and Implementtation of the 3G CDMA Infrastructure
[2] Edited by Jaana Laiho, Radio Network Planning and Optimisation for UMTS, Jonh
Wiley & Sons, Ltd
[3] Jaana Laiho, Radio Network Planning and Optimisation for UMTS, Thesix for the
degrees of Doctor of Science in Technology

Cc trang web tham kho:


http://vntelecom.org/diendan/forum.php
http://www.docstoc.com/
http://www.telecomsource.net/forum.php
http://www.huawei.com/en/

GVHD: TS. Phm Duy Phong

SVTH: Nguyn Mai Nga