You are on page 1of 28

www.osamabahar.

com

  
       
    
     
 

* 
   .

"!! 
  

         
    
   
# %& '
 %! ( ) ( & #   (  *  ! "# $ !
+
!       ,
! -!  -! %& 
  $. "/0'
.,
%
Abstract
The goal of this study is to define the "fasid" (Vitiated) contract, which is
created by the 'Hanafi" jurisprudence, and to clarify the reasons for the "fasad"
(Vitiaton) of the contract, and the Justifications for such a contract.
This study is also deals with the rules of this kind of contracts in general, and the
rules related to its rescission in particular. In addition, this study has
concentrated on the obstacles that prevent the rescission of the contract, where it
deserves to be rescinded.
! 6  &  " (1) & 0  "23  0 .!  .! 
 
!2
7 !  ! "*3 % (3) + ! 
  (   " (2)23   
  0
"*3   
  ! !    !
!  !
 ! " (4)*3  
  + 8 9 2
: +
 2
+ 3   ! " ;< +#! +0   ! (&  "
  *3 
. !  ; : !  =
:

(5)

.  '  &   


    !
: 
 %  ?! -@ ?  %
.(6)0  %0A +&?!   !

. 
           

" (8)  B0  (&   " (7) %! 3?    &  *0
!
 "B0 3? %& C .  *! 8  %! 3?   3? !
: (10) (9) : 3? 
:$  %
#
..!  *
(11)
. 
:(  %
#'
.*  #7 = 3
. D%#!  
.   %
#)
.(%
 ! *!  E1
. + &?!  +!F! :
+ !  G    *! % +  0 *!  E2
.% 2
+ 8  + ! *!  E3
. ; : 2
+ 3    "! H  *# 3?  ! 3? *2'7
3?  !
 "

(12)


 3? & + # '   !  (&   0 !
:(14) ! C;  " (13)0
.I H    : 
.  %& *!? : 
.
3? %& 2
+ !?!  : 
.(%
  J K   : 
.7 !  %' 
.(%
 & .#
.!;  %& !  #

! :A 
  
 & K "+
 *# !   3?  *2'7
.(15)0 3?   *'
:    "+!  J  
  : 3?   $     
2 "#  ! 
   ( ! .(16) 
 : +!    "0 ! (.%
.! H *3     & .#
J C0 3 :" :   
 %   L 8. 30! (!  8
 *2'" :A 
  N  K "3 
& ? ! "
 !  &
.(17)",
% +
! %# !!! &    &? ! O  '! 
 "  %&  08: 9 P K "  & +; %' :  
:%& /  (109) C !   ( ) %#!  $' !

2

www.osamabahar.com

 & +
  & + 0    +0 : 2
+ 0 Q?!  
 -  "
:(1) C (170) C !  ) !   "# '  0
.R0 

*. P 0 : %0A +&?!   !  
 
! "+   S (  : 
  C '   ) 0'? *)  8 !
.+
    $:  (34) C !  
:    *+
:%! 
  !
. * 8 !  :) %!
.  !  : ; %!
:<  %&    %! 2' 
  ( %'
:,-. $    
" ; : *3    ! ";) T ! *3      * 8 
   = :
0!  & ) " (18)+; U : %& ! V 8 * 8 
  K "&  ! & )
+  (%&  '
J % * '
(19)8  ! * %& # "0 &   
.Q?
 0 H     -   0 P "-@  K%! %&   2
+ ;!     - !
 0  .
 %& K%  P K%  "
 % +!J +'
  "  R0

  %&  ;W  (& .K%! (   H  0 H  = &:    ?!
:< !)  -#    
K%! $ ;    # ! V8   X %! *  ( "V  * 8 %&  ;W  )
"
%     "?!  - ! (%
 -@  %& #    "J 8 * 8 ?!%
+ #   R 0   !) *X "
% +    ,
! ! * %& #  

.(20)V8   $8 D  & + ! 8  %&
. (21)!& J Q? # & %& ( L   * #
: %0! ! D 
. (22)'
! -! - ! # : "+ !@ ,
 # %& ! V 8  * 8 
 
:,-.      
+!  
  P J  '< 8 ! ( 8 %& ! (%
 
   ( 
! 371 C !  LF #  "( ) %#! %& $0 !  .%& !% + ! V   
!  ; C $0 T ") !   .V   +S!  
 -  :0
."J  : %& !  K%!  :" 
   %& (170) C !

: 3? : $ ; : K%! 


: %

 "J 8 &    K "K%! $ ; :  B J 8 P "-@  P ( 8 V   
 )     -@  CJ ?! J 8  ! .(23) H ! ! J! B J 8
:(24)  K  V  
V 8 : V  ":   "V  %&  3%
 ) "V   K%! $ ; :/ 
.  V 8  ! R0

) ":  ; ! : "0 # ( : ) "K%! $ ; : C ?!  :0 
.(26)   0 K  ! !  0  )  .(25) ; ! - ! 
: 0  %

-   $ ; ! 
 -   $ ; 3?  ' ) "3?  ' %&  *!? : 
R0     ' C!  K%! *  ! -!  ' # -!  "(27)R0
:< /@ 0' . ! V   
   K%! .(28)"
  "
? *) K%!!  Q : 
Y R  : T ' K%! 
  $ ; K%! 
K%! : 
   ?!    "(29)
 
  X  Q : ) " H
  -  K " & 2' 2 2B
  0 K%! P .K%!!  Q :
?@ &   ! Q :  0 .# (   *
 8 .(30) C #7 
"(  L:   3? :    !  A C ?  $ ! & Z J
.(31)"3? *3  = .F #A  Z *
 K $ " & (; "(  L: $3? $?
 %& *  (32)"3? -  
-! = .F #   "    : #
. % -!  %0 %&  Q : ! "0 K%! ?!
-  $ ; : ? P    "!; ?! "- ! -@  =  -3 ( K%!  
.(33)?! K%! : "-@  = Q 3 # ! ) "

 6  : ,
  (%
! 
: (34) ,
 3 ! *% "(.: H K%!  
# ( ! +!
! +!@ 8   ,
  " (35)J  L J8  6  : ! "'< 3 J
% 
   !  0!!  0 .   ! +0 D .23  X - !
 V  #! ! " (36)

*.  : +0 % : 
  ) "V  +0
/ % !  .! $ &: %! *   ;X V  "+ 0 
  ! *# :
 ! "%& !   # 0   

 ( !" : 0!!  (2
 (  C #7  "!; !
  -   "(%! H L? %& -8 -  2
+ ;! C

V 8  !  "V -   ! V  +0 % J   " ! 
 
 8 .(37) R0 V QJ! L? V
! V 8   "- ! ?!
4

www.osamabahar.com

V  & +  0 


 -  :  L #  %#! ! 366 C ! /  K  
R 0 
    ( RJ  ! C ! .+.@ # - !  ?! 0 0 
   0! ! .V  +  0 
 -   $   ! * + 0 V 
" :  
 $   "  !  9  C !   ( [ C ! 
."+.@ # - !  ?! 0 0
:  
-  " !   (39)"   # 0!"  (38)"%  '! &" 
   =
! 
  (%&  8 ! ) "0! K% & #. ,
    " ,
  0! 
3
 : "Q?% = ,
     .(40)%& ( :   O ",
% =
! 

",
 -! & C! ! $:   " (41)CJ 3
 8  3 
7 J R0
 = ",
 - ! ! * ( !   !  : K & #  * 8 "-!   !
(42)
( # ! (.% !  :- ! 9'  # ! 23       # ! \
: ,

! CP  8 " 8 !
  3 CP  8  .(43) 3  *  ,
 !
.! & %& :  : (45) *  (44)J  (  8
* 8 - ! 23 -  & \
 

(46)

 H ] 3
 Q   :\
: !
.   
: (47)!%


    .(48)Q ? O   ;W  &: # 0


 (&  :23  !
: (50)# + 8 !   : "+ !
 (49)23  \
: &   L 
  !
:  " L  ! -! %& ] 3
R0  :  : \
: 
+0&  0 %& (  23  ! .C #7 &  #A!  "- ! K2  #
( E *! &?! "8 ! %A  *0A !
   E  0 & ! + #
+&? (! ) 
   ! +#!     S&?   ! 2
+ 0 #
. +
 (! 
 ! %0 !  -   \
:  ! "+ !@ %0 ! +!!  23    
.C #7 & N
  ! J !  
 : +0!  8 "(%
 * 8 - ! *2
: 
  ,
-! !
3
.   4  5   )
 :21 
 0 ) ".@ # 0 
 ? ! ?! 0   =
!  
! +  ! -  K   R0  0 "B 
 ? ! ?! Q % " (51)%!
:< 3? ,

. +
  ! (52)-! : ,
 P +
 2
+ 3   P "+ 0  ;   

! + !  : P -@ % 3?  ' %&  *!? P "3?  ' %&  *!? : 
.(53) ' # -! * : -@  K%! ) " ' C!  ,

.(54)
 % ,
 *) -@ %   P "*) @ B -   
 ?! $ 0 * V  !%   
  P "7

  : 
.(55) J !
:(56)< !)  -#  ,
 Q !
= +   D ",
 #  Q? = %&  ( "- !  ; ?! = =%
.#    J ! "Q?
Q?!   ;  ! ",
% +
!   K "0  %0A Q?! *)  )
.0 %0A
:< !)   O %&   R0  
   = K 
$ ; : K%! 
   ! "V   6  :  #! $ ;  ;   K%! 
.(57)V  :
 *) ?!% 3 : "R0  %! ) ?!% 3  ;   K%! 
.(58)

 " - ! C&  %' ,
 = 3
P *) ?! K%!  - !  & 
:    
"3?  ' %&  A " 6'  *)
 ?! K%!    :/    
.(59)   '  "X  ' 
! " (60)"Q!!  & - ! *. " C&  2
+ !& - ! *. ,
 =      
- ! K *. P "V & - ! &?! ( -! (; + &?! +.@ # L?   "  C& 
.(61)"&?! ( 
.(62)?! K%! ! 6' ( A - ! 0 
.%! !  6' 
 H #
   :0    

*  "C&  2
+ !& =  : ,
 -!  "# L?  T     A
    *  (  " ! L? K%!
*  "  " (63)$ *  ( ! (@ 8 K%!
.(64):
+  !
6

www.osamabahar.com

?! ) -@  J   A "L J8 B    "   '      *'
=  -  8  =  +'
  "   ) ",
 ! - !  (
 *)
.(65)" !H
 : "J # %& * ! * !  !  -  ) "-  !  J  )
 ? (66) "SS ! -   !H =  +# +   "8 ! =  ,
 ( 3&
L J     ! 2'  " 
 ,
 ! -! K "-    !@ 8 - 
,
  %& * .(67)-!# =  ,
 "J (: -   ?  D% J 
^  (68) .,
 : -  $ ; ? "T ; 3% ? $ ;  "-  !  J
 
 ? ! ?!  % "
  ,
!  -! ! 80  
 : ! ) "80    V  (  3? K "@& -! ,
 P  =0
 .(69),
 -! :    "?! K%! & 6' : * ! V  * 8 ! "V  : K%!
  Q#   = : "- ! *. ,
 =  & " (70)    -#
+& $   C #7 ",
 !  ! C #7   : .(71)H   J  L J 
:A ! K ,
 !  ! $
  : "+ !.:
"- ! %& & C #7 ) .(73)
 -  ! 98 & : " (72)&) ,
 C #7 )
+& ! T (  - ! %& C .  "+ @? + @?   "  $8 C#! H 
. ! _ ,
  .(74)" %&  &
"  0  - !  C #7 ,
   #   - !  & %& -%3  ?! )
.(75)Q? = )  
!! ) " : ( :  & - ! ) "?!% C#) P C #7 $'

(; !  !J 9 8   P " %&  9#   ?! K%!  $%0 8 "% 8
"!J 8 ! R  C#) $  "! ! (@ 8 !J! *  !J ) "C#)  $ 3  #
.!J ( ! R  ) " 3 : C#) P "! L * 8 # 
B #A
 ! +
#A
! # % "C
 C #7 %& = 3 
 -  %& = 3 !
.(76)J 8  K   "    # .# !! #A!    C.@ # C #7 "0 C #
*;! C# *) #A
! %& # ") 
  ; C #7 ,
! +J -! : 
! ?! (78)`0  ! .(77)0   C !
! C#)  ; #A
! %& " 

:(79)    ,
 .# "0 $0 B +
?
 0 ) ",
 !  ! 0  :      "0! $! * 8 :/    
&  Q# *!  " # #! ! * 8 $ ; ) "C  *  (.: H 0
.(80) Q   "*  * 8 !H C #7 -   J !

"K%! = #7   $ ; ) "B = * 3   D *  * 8 Q#   (;


V  : K%! = ) "* *.    % ":   $ ;   #!
K%! = ) ".@ # H  K%! = K%! = *3 (.% Q# .# ( % "K%! 
: =  "#  &  * ! V K%!   = a  * "K%! = ! 98
.(81)2
+  ) %! (   !  0 = !  -!
K%!  " 0! K%!  * - ! ) "-! ,
 P "0! $!  :0    
" (   ) "0  0!  :  3? K "  &  ! R 0A " !
 0! R 0 "0    #7  . ( !7 & !   !# & 
+!@ 8   ,
 = A 0  0!   ! "0! $!  0! K%! T 
) ",
 = ;% $ ; * " (82),
 ! + ! 8   $!   : .- ! *.
!J! T K%! "& %' ) ";! + ;   !  $ ; " (83)"T! ( ! (@ 8 T
= ) "; =3 T% +  ; D =  .(84)T!% % K $ ; ,
 =
! 
K%! ) "L   $ ;   "%' =3 $ ;  ! "T :  "C @?! ,

.(85);! + ;   ! ! /2'% ,
% 6   "  * 8 

: ' 9   L #
$! : "C #7 ,
 = *3  : ",
 = *3  ! # ( ! - ! 
  -@ %"
= #! ! "?! ( ! T ( ?! T  * 
 K%! ) "?!
 ,
 Q ! * "
 ? ! ?! 0 R0 !  B ." (86)T 2
.(87) $ !  =
  ! ?!  0  B  !
.(88)"
 - (. B =  =%  
 " :(#   *
: 
 *
%0!  "  08 %0! 
  %& ;)      Q? "
- ! 
  ! B   ! Q? *  "?!  0  B  ! 
C; -!  
 B    ?% %
 K  $
E,
 =  !
 $ !
.(89)"O 8
   & 0 ! J    A# E & 


 J 8  
  !  %! *  V   & 0 K    8
! VB ! "R0  C 
!   %!  *   ! - : "?!
 -3
 : 
7     !) !   "B% ?! ! 0  0 R0
.(90)%! *  * !  : C
! %! B %!   "%! : ! H K%!

8

www.osamabahar.com

6 5    78 :1 0


:Q %& !  *0  C .
) ",
 !  ! H C .  P "* !# !
 *;! "*0) ! C! %0! C .
2
+ !& .(91) 0B!  *   ! "  K  !J! *0) " %0)  
."-  - " C& 
+ ;    "*
&  !
% +3 - !    ! "*0) ! C! H %0! C .
*0) %&   ! ,
 ) K ",
 !  !  C .  P 3 '  "B 0
:(92)A ! !   *
: "C . %& %&   ! "3
.*0)  ,
  "*0) & C . *0 ! : )
.(93),
 $ *' 2 +  : 2
+ 0 -  $ *' ( C . )"  ;  *
:  !
.?!% K%! C . "%!  -#  -@ % )
-%8 L   ?! ( P "+ #?  DH  ?!   +J - !    !
.(94),
 -! (  #?)
:(95)8 %& ,
 = $ ;  %'  V)  L ?)  $  !
-3 "V  $8 V) !8 ?! %& ",
 -!    *8  :  
.(96). *8  "
:  -@  =
"L     "L   -! 
  ! %' :   "
: = $ ; " A    *

*0 0 ?! ! L   ) "*)  *
: "! : )  ;  *
:
.(97)"  -  0 V -!  "-@  ! 3%

V ?! %& ",
 -! :    T !! (98)
   *8  : 0   
.  0 V)   #?) .  L  
:A ! =  *

V)  L    ! " 0B  V   
   V  ) " 0B %& D 
.
   K "V  0B!
= "Q !#7 ? = V L   K P " ?  V)    ?! )
: L J8  'A -@  "J  L J : 'A : -?  * "-? = = -@ 
. -@  = V "-? = L   V !% "L J

  L   2' "-@  ! 3%


 # ( ? 0B *   L   A K & #
.(99)-@  ! 3%
   !P "

:A ! R#       9

 # ! ( ! V  
! : "J K%! 2 "-@  ! 3%
 *0 L   )
.! %&
.0! 0! -  2 "&  !  * !% + 2 L   (  #?) -% !)  )
 ? : =  D 0 B ) "=  -! D 8 0B %& 
    0 D 8 )
.=  ? % 
 ?! 2' "=
.(100) 372 C !  K    *  ( ) %#! $' 8
 *0  B  !  - ! ?! 0 !  ,
 Q ! !  B $  
 $ ! - ! =
  ! 
 8 !  !   ,
 Q ! !  B P "0
.,
 C ! $     ; C
! %! R 0 "C .  
:7 .     78  :3
 :   "C! %0! C . ( "C .  ( "C#? !;   "C ? % A
  # *0) "  ; ) " %0 -! C .  
  -@ % ",
 !  !
.(102)K2  : K2 
: ?! %& !J! C .  .(101)%;!
:7 . 
9    78  :4
*0) ) "*0) -! 
  -@ % ",
 !  ! $
 C .  "80   
* : C .   : .-@  K%! %& $%0 8 C .   ,
   " #
& C . $%  .(103)?!  !J  * " !J  *0 ( ) " 3 : 
V  %&  ( C .  "V  !J! 
  - ! ) "%&  !J 2 ?!
*
!
$%!
 *0  *    $
 ) +  : "V  & !: 2
+ 0
(104)
. *0) &
  &  !J %& "
 %%    & %&  !J 2 C .  ?! K% 
 
%& $%0 8 C .  %0 ! - 8   ,
 ,
 : " (105)!! 

.% : 27 !J!  !) "   !  "-@  K%!

 10 

www.osamabahar.com

:  
!8  0 -! ?! ! - ! 'A  -@ % ",
 ! + ! - !  0   :
* +  A 
 - ! *   !
 b  0    = : " (106)- !
.?! *  " (107)

'  # * *0  ! "- !% +
! -@   0 -@  * *0  0 K   
:  " # %& -#    " # %& -#  "?! %& -#   -@ 
.(108)! 27 * # ?! %& -#
:6 5    4: :1 0 0
" %&  ! %& :  : ,
 ) K "
  ,
-! ! - ! K2 ^ 
.*  : $ %& !
J % ,
   87 =3 & R0  ,
-! %& ! K2  *
. 
'
-! ! "8 !
+%&  "?! %A +! 3    ! " . & $ +  + 2  8 K2  
.= + - !    "+  8A + 3  "  !3A
+ - !  A "& L  -! 0 B K "+  D +! K2   8
.-@  ! 3 +3    "0 +!
!
 "+ !8 3
 !8 "+ !@ 8 ( !  #   " 0B V !   
  V !  ! 
.(109)%& ! !8 ?! %& # "  ,
 %& ! K2 P "+    
! 0B! =  -3: 0 B %  * * " %& ! K2  !  C& 
" (110)
   - ! 
  -@  =  -3 K " 0B!  ! & 
 
: R  L #
=  -3 ?! %  K ! =  -3 0 B %  0 *  *0 "
.(111)"-@ % 
:
R 0 K 
   %& ! P "  !J 0 B% + %! 0 0B!   
.(112)  !J  + %!
:
 :1 

      K ,


! + ! 
 ? ! ?!  ^ 

(113)

 "+ !.:  : J 8 * 8 ) "


: ,
 ! +  !  :  J 8 * 8 :/    
.! = * 3   D

11

+!.:  V    ) ",


 ! + !    "J 8  :0    
.(114)Q J !  ! =  0  ! K "%
 &  ! *.   &   P " (  $8X! Q ! 
,
 Q !
*. " C&  2
+ !&  3% ,
 = $ ; &  L  L   K   " 
 %& ( P "!  %& ( 8  :  3?  .(115)"Q!!  & - !
P  ?!  ! P ". & ,
 ! +  !    : .A
! ,
 -!
.
 
 %&  ! ) " (116) K  O : V 
  ;<  :1 
%& L J  +0 ' +& L !%   ( "

 ,
-!  -! !
&   # " ,
(   (%! ! .%& ! !  "! ?!
- !    ! "! @ * !  O  ?!% .# : " (117) + !@ 8 ( ! - !
%& J " #   ?! ( 8  " +! - !    ! " !

 " 6' 
 D  K%!  !  &  " K  P "! J 
: ,
 ! -! H   
 0 K%  P "   =
  -@   8
! -@  = * ! ?! %& J  L J ) "?!  ! - ! 
 .#
0 B% +%! 0 0B! P 0B  ! " +  ! ?! R 0 "!8  - ! &
.(118) !J L &
: R  L #
%!   & (; %& J8 P "?! %& ! V (   ! 
: = (;"
0 B %& J =   0B!    "!   !  * 
  -@ % D
.(119)"'  ! D -# (; !
:(    L #
 -@  = *3  ! J  ) ",
 = -# 2 *;!  ! (  - ! *. "
%& J8  !
 -  "    2 Q? P !  % 
.(120)"$ & (; = 7
0B! ! 0 B
: 
         
:A ! %& ! 170 C ! $0  "
  ) !   '
.R0 

*. P "0 : %0A +&?!   !  
 
.J  : %& !  K%!  :
.  (   ! = 3  : ; %&  :
 12 

www.osamabahar.com

.'< 8  &  '


= ; 8 & ! *
O2  +
   "!2
7   %&  !& ( )     %' :
! 8 "
  C 'A    ! H & . !     !   %&
    .       V! !    : "
  
    & .#& ) !   N? V 9 !  : " 
C@
  $  3 C. ( ! J O $  "
  O  3  !2
7
$0 !  (121) "C   +! +0 8 +! L # 
 %   = 3  : "!2
7
= 
 & !;% -@   !J (& 3? R0 : :  L # T "(50) C ! ! ) C
."3?  -  
 - !
7  &  9' +!  !    3&   * 8  
 $:   !
*# ( "(123)23 % +
    *! #  B *# "(122) 8 +

. +0    2
+ 3 3?     3?  ) "(124)  +;A %
%& /% + ! 
 %  = 3  *   N? ! '< V  *L
 K
 .' R0 *   ! 
! 
  C $   .(125)!  (O

! .   ! 
  O 'A  V! !    "(  = 3
!! !2
7   # =3  C@ C# C3' ^   !
: ) !  8
.(126)  ! B :
+ ;! C8 %#
$!     J    CJ O  ! %& * !!
23 $:  ! *287 "  
  # C %!  ! $ 8  %  J7
*  A#% (   * #   " " (127)"  R0  R  
&8 %& ( + =%B :  A %   /   " !7    0
"0 *' %0 ( 8 & R0 :
+ #! K  A? ! %! $ #  =3! ! '

  ! 
% : 23 % +
%& !  B  & !   P K (128)
.
  C # !  H -! V8  8   !
! "V  * 8  ; :  170 C ! K %& $0 ! !    
  (
.V  * 8 '
-! - ! # : '
# (;
:(129) < $:   -! '
 : ,
% + 
!     V   !
.B = * 3   ,
 X :  K    -  %& ! ?! 0
 
: ,
 -! & "0 $B  K% 
  K% P "V   %& ! B
.V  * 8 %&   !  %& ! 
. +!.:  @& + 0  R 0
 *. P "

- 
: 
    $     

13

(  : "
 6. &   *3  6. &  ) 0'? *)  8 =
  $:  2
+ 3     $:  %& /  ! " ! ! + 
:% ! %& !33 C ! $0  +

:  $:   2
+ 3 6. 
.(%
! B !%
! 6.
.  H C! (%
! 6.
 ! "25 "24 "23 !   !  0)  "! (! ( $ C! *# 6.
. 
*' 8 (  "%& #. L  .# :" (130); %&  :    ( :
." !  =% (  &? = (
J 
+!  : *'  - (  *'  -8 L
*3  6." : 41 C ! %& $0 ! 
! C  ! R0 6. (  #.   $ ; : K %& L   "+20
." T7 C 0!
:  $:   +
6.  :  34 C ! %& $0  "
 6. !
.  %) 3? %& .@  H !   3   
. ? H ! 6. & 
.7 6. & 
. +&?  %3!  0a .@  H   ?   
.Q J 
 !
!  -!# Q!! ! 9 %& 6. S& 
.$8X! 6. ! 6.
   ! 
! ' ! 6. K * ;! "$:  K% H +
6.   $:  K 
N? V  K "9   +@ + 823 %3 S!! *# 6.  "L
 -  !0&
=
! *#  "=
! 
 6. $:  0 :    %& B     
! R#  
 6. ! Q) 8  -# 
 6.% %;! 34 C !  
.(131)
   ! 183 C ! 2
+ !&  !
:  )8  5 *+
:    
 6. &
# : "'
# ; %&  :      ( : *' * 8 :/    
.'
! -! - !
 - (  
 6. :  0'? *)  8 ! 42 C ! %& $0 ! 
.2
+ 0 + !  : *'
 14 

www.osamabahar.com

:  ;< V %&       *'  :0    

(132)

!
 ! .
    ! (
 (  c% ! +B *;!  !  0!  ! #
 = # .!
!  *;!  ! ! *8)  @ # ! !     !
.*;!  ! !) 3   -# !  ! # : )     " 
 ! $
 *8 %;!  !   P "!
!  %& J ( ! K   ;    !
2 *8) $J  ; %;!  !    "R0  : # : !
!  ! ) " %;!
.(133)! ;  ! 3
:  (56) C ! %& $0 ! 
 ! ! *8) (.% !
 !   P O 
   *'  = : -8 "
-8  ! "c% ! + B *;!  ! (.% C
!
 $   (^
 (  !    "*;! !
!
"2
+ 0  ! (.% 2 *' * 8 = :
.
  $ ;
.C #
.C 0! !  $ ;
:  (42) C ! %& $0 
  ;<
C  !  (.% *'  -8  ! "+20 + !  : *'  - (  
 6."
."  = * 8  T7  ( )  (.% :" C 0! !
 $ ;
 (%&  '
  J % "'
#. %& #  !
: ( 
 6. &
:  (43) C ! K %& $0 8 "Q?% = 
) &? = (

K $ ; & !  J  = 8 ( P Q!! 
  *3  6. %& #. L  "
  ;
    : "'
-! ! # :   ."&? (  = (
!!
 B0
6. 
   !    "6. 
9& Q !
!  -! C
:< $: 
.#. $ 
.2
+ !  $  
.9& ! 8  %) 3? %& .@   #.   
 !# %& !  "CB0  B0 6. &?!  *0)   - !  

% ! ?   (0)     ' 0 ' $ &:    : "!%
! L !%&
 %& *  $%!  #. $ P    "CB0 B0 6. .# ( :
 ! = %& +O  %) 3? *& .@     K "d%    #.
.# *!

15

:  =.   6  $ .  / 5 '> 


"+ !! ,
 ( !  ,
 K "   # 0! 
    =
! S 
[ 0! K% -   ,
  % #  ! 
Q !:     $:   ,
 Q ! !    !  : *X
  &  #Y
 C ! K%! : J   !  ,
  3  8 !  K%! :  "@ J
:   - ! # ) " K   ! !
 .#  : K  " ,

*
% "+ !!    0!% +    K ,
8 ! %&   # * "0! - 
+ # K     0 %&   ! ! 6'   - ! 
 ?! Q 3
  * ;!
0! %& +0! -!!   '< -! ,
 !  3 P "0! ! 6'% %&
. .    !7  
K%  K !  3% %
   B
:   $    L J8 ,
   !
.0!

   (134)%& !  +  ! !    P 'W  # ! "  # ! 
!
! !; ) "  !
! !; D +!8    !  "+ %;!    *;! !J!
!; -@   X    ?! %& # ! P "(135)R0  : # :
: %! & - ! 6' J ! -@  ) "L J (  ! D  !
!
  J !
!  ! !. P K " J *' :  
 "!
! !;
P " ; 0!  -@   V ( * ' "0!  
 - ! K%! 8 ?!
.(136) ! - ! : !!  ; -  P " !
 ) -   !

 16 

www.osamabahar.com

:!. 
T   U@  ( /'% ! !2
7   
  ,
-! 
  
:< !)
=
!  : "   ;< V  ! &   "*3   & 
  %'
.,
%
.V  * 8 *3   ,
! -! - ! # :
: & -!  '
! -! ! #  : ",
% J&   P "V   !
: : 7
. ?  #
. + !.: +  +#' ?! K%! & - ! 6'
.*0) & C! H %0! C . %& ! C .
.2 
  %& ! K2
.$ ! (; %& ! ?! ^0 
,
 K   O P "H  #  & J %& ! ! ?! %& L J
.-!!
!   ,
 =  & *. P " # ,
 -!   : .$@  #'
.,
  =
 *. P + !@ 8  ( ! -!! ,
 "%&
 ! ?!  0 !  !  
 $:   ,
 Q ! !    B 
.R0
%!  *'   " $ ! - ! =

C .  .
%! 3%'   " $ ! - ! =
  ! 
 8 !  !
.C! H %0!

17

:A!B 
.713/ 2S# "$   "10S3 "*  B    "! 30! :L 8. .1
"$     "2S3 "?
 '.
.  ?  ? " L2& :
 .2
.299/5S# "1982
.337/ "1985 "!%   "
?C  ,  "  . :(#   .3
" 252 / @ O  ?) :3
 " 54/3 S# 8
 ?  -!   N? : .4
S# 1446 A
! %! :(.   " 59/ *0) %& Q U'   ! :
)
. 35 / O  J :!8   421/8
"252 / @ O  ?) :3
 "54/3 S# 8
 ?  -!   N? : .5
S# 1446 A
! %! :(.   " 59/ *0) %& Q U'   ! :
:
.35 / O  J :!8   421/8
"!2
7   "2S3 "D?$  8+ E
D?

  "  . :(#   .6
) !    "(109) C !  !  ( ) %#!   .74/6S#
.170 C ! 
"!%   "$ FG<.  / 5 G .  E
"
!   
:.  .7
.123/2S#
.2/3S# ",   "4S3 "$ "  T L   "B  H.  :!  .8
.651/2S# "*  B    "L 8. .9
"$ "  "2S3 " '!  %&  !  "! !! " &   O .10
. 2/3S#   9  :! .505/4S# "(1966
0    * ! ?   0   :  ! ) -     !# K ! ;
 .11
-@  :
 !. ( !7 K   ' "C & D    B !  *;! %;! 

.135/5

! H  ; ! *3 !     2
+ %' T ! *" : '!   L # .12
: &   .*!  & + # '   ! 0  : !  ?  LF # "
.167/5S# "2000 " $   " '!  %&  !  :! !!

 18 

www.osamabahar.com

.2/3S# "B  H.  :! 

.13

.  !156/5 6 -@  :


 " !  : &   46  !  : &  

.14

  :J!   O .   & !  " 299/5S# "?  ? "
 .15
.380/3S#  '.
. 126/4S# "D 
 : 

.887/2S# " *  B    :L 8.
. 508/4S# "
.  
" &  

.16
.17
.18

 : "
  (  ) !   ! 170 C ! !  ; C  LF # .19
.J  : %& !  K%!
.304/5S# "-@ 0 -@ :


.20

.699/2S# "(    *'! :L 8.

.21

. 380/3S#  '.   :J!  

.22

.380/3 S#  '.   :J!   . 209/56 " !  : &  

.23

.304/5S# "?  "




.24

.304/5S# "?  "




.25

"2S3 " R ? -!  !  N? SS  "     %& : H! .26
.463/6S# " 
.169/3S# "  3. 
.459/6S# "  "2S3 "
  G. :( !   * !

19

.27
.28

.304/5S# "?  :




.29

.89/5S# "
.  
: &  

.30

T (2563)(8 T "D  X


  !  
  !    '   .31
! L: !P "L: (  3? & '" :(%
 %& Z %0 8  L #
."=&
.22/2S# "$ " !  "
.   .
.2 "!! :!  

.32

.401/6S# "
  G. :( !   * !

.33

! * 
  & ) !   ! 170 C ! !   C  LF # .34
.'< 8  &  '
= ;  8 &
.300/5S# "?  ? :


.35

: +%3!  ( : *3   " :* T 


  0!!    ? !  .36
I>   
C  ""
 0 *. + 0 R 0 
  "+  +0 %
.490/ "1972 "$ 2!% (%  "2S3  
.100/ "I>   
C  : 0!!

.37

.401 /66 "


  G. "( !   * ! "74/66 "D?

  "(#  

.38

.74/66 "D?

  "(#  

.39

.300/56 "?  "




.40

.300/56 "?  "




.41

.62/1S# ,   $  ( & "= :D  ! : 

.42

.338 @ O  ?) (#   "287/ @ O  ?: :3




.43

!  * 2 \
: "  0 J !  * %8 ,
 (;   * .44
0  ; !!  O  (    8 ! * *) "  0 J
.269/3S# = .J
. 524/1S# (    *'! : 8.

.45

-    ( :" *3   


 ( !7 * 524/1S# (    *'! : 8. .46
. 305/5S# -@  "" C0 T ! : -    # : "# ( : "+20
 20 

www.osamabahar.com

. 50/5S# " !;  - ! K2 -  ,


 "  &   *

.47

. 524/1S# (    *'! : 8.

.48

170/13S# " *3  V  * 8   %& ! K2 " 


'
 * .49
. \
  23  0!
. 524/1 S# (    *'! : 8.

.50

. 381/3S#  '.   :J!   " 25/136 "%  "


'


.51

.92 /56 "


.  
" &  

.52

"B K%!  0 ) " 0  :  ' C!  ? ! ?! 0 % .53
.281/76 "
.  
" &   "169/36 " '   O
.300 /56 "?  "


.54

.92/56 "
.  
" &  

.55

  "103/66 "D?

  "(#   "466/6) F
  G.  B  " H! .56
. 384/36    :J!
.398 /16 "*+ 

 " %&

.57

301/56 "?  "




.58

  "0 .- ! *. ,


L J  ) "J  L J    3? .59
.103/66 "D?

  "( !   * ! "231/76 "
.  
E

. 
H N? (   : .!  !! :
' 2! .  ( ) %#! ! (24) C ! .60
. 411/1S#     "( )
.35/16 "*+ 

 " %&

.61

.169/26   H.  "28/76 "


.  
" &  

.62

.%#! ! 98 C !

.63

21

.98 /16 "*+ 

 F %&

.64

.211/56 "?  "




.65

. 87 

.66

.103/66 "D?

  "( !   * !

.67

. 287/5S# -@  :




.68

.92/56 "
.  
" &  

.69

80 ! "K ! -! - ! # ( !     Q# .#   


.70
.284/6S# =@   :(#   . +%3!  Q# .# : %& =0!% !%
 
.26/136 "%  "
'


.71

  " !  
  J : %& ! L 
 ! ! ! : ! *  : .72
.81/66 "
.  
" &
.301/56 "?  "


.73

.499/66 "
  G. "( !   * !

.74

.26/136 "%  "


'


.75

 '< #A! K #  C


C #P #A
! : %& %#! ! 588 C ! / .76
.. # 0 C #P V 
.438/1S# "*+ 

 : %&

.77

.330/76 "?  
 " Q  3 $!  !   J! K%!  :0

.78

.302 /56 "?  "




.79

.378/76 "?  "




.80

.254 /66 "


  G. "( !   * !

.81

 22 

www.osamabahar.com

. 382/3 S#  '.   : J!   " 337/16 "*+ 

 " %&

.82

.104/66 "D?

  "( !   * !

.83

.302/56 "?  "




.84

.302/56 "?  "




.85

.169 /26 " '  

.86

.703 /26 "*  B    "L 8.

.87

.212 / "
?C  , 2 "(#  

.88

.171/26 "D 
 " 


.89

.178 /16 ") !  %  J7 $!

.90

.302/56 "?  "


 "303/76 "
.  
" &  

.91

.302/56 "?  "




.92

.302/56 "?  "




.93

.338 /16 F*+ 

 " %& "J J 8 @&  )

.94

.470 /66 "


  G. B
 B  " H!

.95

. 384/3S#  '.   :J!  

.96

.304/56 F?  "




.97

  * '< 8 "*) 


   *8    N J7  0  .98
.471 /66 "B  E
  : "
.471 /66 "
  G.  B  " H!

.99

.398 /16 "*+ 

 " %&

.100

23

.304 /56 "?  "




.101

.100 /56 "


.  
" &  

.102

.303/76 "
.  
" &   "304 /56 "?  "


.103

/56 "?  "




.104

.339/16 "*+ 

 " %&

.105


" &   "-  ! -@  %& -# ?! P "  *. / -  .106
.100/56 "
. 
. 239/5S# -@  :


.107

.303 /76 "


.  
" &  

.108

. 382/36  '.   :J!  

.109

.105/6S# FD?

  :(#  

.110

.469/61S# "
  G. :( !   * !

.111

.52/11S# "%  "


'


.112

.26/13 6 "%  "


'


.113

.488/66 "
  G. "( !   * !

.114

3 /16 "*+ 

 " %&

.115

382/3S#  '.   :J!  

.116

""2  !8 "! 8 *   &  # 


 V !" "
'
 * .117
.31/136 3
!
.102/76 "?  "
 "96/116 "%  "
'


 24 

.118

www.osamabahar.com

.499/66 "
  G. "( !   * !

.119

.339 /16 "*+ 

 " %&

.120

 !& "*@  "13 ) !   N?  3


! : # 
 . .121
.201/1S#2002
.171 C ! O

.122

.161 C ! O

.123

. 215/ !   N? :3 '  .

.124

.640 C ! O

.125

!   # %& 


!8 
  O ! C 
:  C&  .126
$ %3!  #
:     +O   L !%& ! ;  & ")
 " :*  C0 6 (!  & . K  & !! C#  08: Q J)
%! #  #
   +O 0      (  ! 'A  # 
 
" !   
  !   !!   & 0  "*!  
0 150/  ! $2! !  J   !2
7 ?   ! 

.1970   * ! #    $
 T   !
.170/1S# 185 =   3! 23 ) !  %  J7 $!

.127

.17/1S  J7 $! .128


.125/ ") 0'? *)  8 N? : 3
 
 .

.129

.235/2S -@  :




.130

.125 / ) 0'? *)  8 N? : 3


 !! .

.131

#  *;!  !     " . ( !7 K  (  '   !# *8  .132
.235/2S# -@  :
 O "  

. 235/2S -@  : 


25

.133

. 459/6S# -@ 0 -@ : 




.134

.398 /16 "*+ 

 " %&

.135

*'! O " = (%


 #  8. 30! (!   !  .136
. 700/2S# (   

 26 

www.osamabahar.com

: !>
 
"33  
 !! . = "*0) %& Q U'   ! : * !# "
: .1
.(1984 $ 
 

X!
  $ 13 ,   C# = <  " ;< %! :%&  !! "(.   .2
.(1985 !%
.$  $ & 3!  "O ! # O  J : = ! "!8   .3
.(1979 $   "33 " '!  %&  !  :! !! " &   .4
.(1947 L 0 " ! !  " '.   :  . "J!   .5
.(1985 !%   "@ O  ?) :  . "(#   .6
.   23 =@ 8 . N? =@   :  . "(S#   .7
.,   $   "23  R N? : * ! "( !    .8
.!%   $ "RJ %& R% N? :
!   
".  .9
.2002  !& *@  "13 ") !   N?  3
! :
 " # . .10
  %    3! 8
 ?  -! Q 3!   N? :$     "  .11
., 
.,   $ "   "10  3 (    *'! :! 30! L S8.

.12

.,   $ " !  "3


! : I!
"
'


.13

.(1981  !&   "23 ") 0'? *)  8 N? :!! " 3
 .14
  T L   $ "!2
7   =  0! :=.  & " 
 .15
.,  
.1983 $ !%   "13 @ O  ?) : *2# "3


.16

$2! !  J   !2


7 ?   ! 
 :N (!  & "C0 .17
.(1970   * ! #    $
 T   ! 0 " !
27

.$ "  ( & = "D  ! " 

.18

.(1982 $     23 -@?   -@ 0 -@ : L2& 
 .19
$ 2!% (%  "23 " $ #!% !  O : 0 " 0!! . .20
.1972
 /23 " R ? -! ] !  N?   :    %& " H! .21
.,   
.,   $ "  T L   43   9  :! 

.22

.(1985 =   3! 23 "!  %  J7 $!

.23

 28