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CHNG 4. CC MY P

4.1. Khi nim:
p l qu trnh tc ng lc c hc ln vt liu lm vt liu b bin dng nhm
mc ch:.
- Phn chia pha lng rn trong vt liu.
- nh hnh - Bin dng vt liu.
Phm vi s dng:
Sn xut ng, sn xut nc qu, sn xut du thc vt, tinh du.
Sn xut u ph, pho mt, b .
Ch bin bnh m, m si, bnh bch qui.
To hnh m si, bnh qui, p ng thnh vin, p cc sn phm kh: Bnh
rau, lng kh, vin canh
p cc loi bnh men, cc bnh thc n gia sc.
p cc vin thuc, cc loi ko.
Chun b cho cc qu trnh ch bin tip theo .
Cc yu t nh hng n qu trnh p:
+ Tnh cht vt liu
+ p lc p
+ Vn tc my p
+ Thit b p
+ Thao tc: u ca vt liu vo p
+ Vn cung cp nng lng.
4.2. Phn loi my p: C hai nhm my p l nhm my p tch pha lng ra khi
pha rnv nhm my p to hnh sn phm
4.2.1. My p tch pha lng ra khi pha rn
4.2.1.1. My p trc vt: My p trc vt l loi my p lm vic lin tc, c
th s dng cho nhiu loi nguyn liu khc nhau. B phn lm vic chnh ca my l
trc vt c bc vt nh dn hay ng knh trc ln dn quay trong xi lanh nm
ngang. Nguyn liu p khi di chuyn theo trc p chu p sut tng dn. S p xy ra
do khe h gia xi lanh v bc vt gim dn.
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My p kiu trc vt thng dng trong cc nh my tinh du, nh my hp
(p nc c chua v..v)






Hnh 4.1. MY P TRC VT
Trc vt 1 t trong xi lanh c c l 2 c nh. Trc quay 250 vng/pht.
Nguyn liu vo phu 3. Nc p chy qua l trn xi lanh vo mng 4 ra ngoi. B p
qua ca 5 ra theo mng 6. Kch thc ca tho b 5 c th iu chnh ty theo t
ca b i ra bng cch tnh tin trc vt v pha trc hay lui li v pha sau. Ca nh
nc p chy ra nhiu hn nhng cht lng km hn. Lc mi cho my chy nn
m to ca sau gim dn. Nng sut ca my p trc vt loi ln c th t c
khong 5 tn/ pht. p sut to ra khong 8-10kg/cm
2
.
Nng sut my p trc vt
Q = 3600 F
0
.v
0
. . ( kg/ h)
F
0
: Din tch ct ngang ca lp nguyn liu trong xi lanh ( m
2
)
F
0
=
4
) (
2
1
2
0
d d

d
0
: ng knh trong ca xi lanh (ch ca vo ) m
d
1
: ng knh c trc vt ( u) m
v
0
: Tc nguyn liu chy dc theo trc vt m/s
3
1
2
6
4

5
5
4
6
3
2
My p c ng knh
trc vt ln dn
Xi lanh hnh tr
My p c ng knh
trc vt nh dn
Xi lanh hnh nn
1
52
v
0
=
60
ns

n : S vng quay ca trc vt (vng/pht)
s : Bc vt ( u ) (m)
: H s cha y ca nguyn liu = 0,6 0,7 .
: Khi lng ring nguyn liu (kg/ m
3
)
Nhc im ca my p trc vt: Ch xt mnh trong qu trnh p, do lm
cho nc ngt (hoc du) b vn c.
4.2.1.2. My p thy lc:
L loi my thng c dng trong cc nh my ch bin thc phm nh sn
xut ru vang. N gm bm A c nhiu pittng tr, thng cha B, b phn phi C
v my p D, sn phm p c np vo bung 14.

Hnh 4.2. S thit b p thy lc ( p ru vang)
Nguyn tc lm vic:
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Khi bt u lm vic, a tay gt 18 vo v tr II v cho bm chy.
Khi pittng tr 2 chuyn sang bn tri nng van ht 3 v cht lng lm vic t
thng cha B dng ln ng 4 v np y xi lanh ca bm. Khi pit tng tr chuyn
ng ngc li th van 3 ng, van 1 m. Cht lng lm vic theo ng 10, i vo b
phn phi C. Qua van nng 6, cht lng chy vo xi lanh lm vic ca my p. Di
p sut ca cht lng lm vic, pittng 15 nng bung 14 c sn phm p v pha u
p 13. Trong bung to ra p sut mi mt, nn 1 phn cht lng ca sn phm p
c tch ra qua b mt khoan l ca bung p .
p sut ca pittng truyn qua sn phm n thanh ging 11 v thanh ngang
12. Tu theo vic tch mt phn cht lng m p sut tng ln trong xilanh lm vic
ca my p v trong cc ng ng dn. Trong khi th tch ca sn phm p gim
i, nn tc nng ca tr trn cng phi gim. Do phi thay i vic bm cht
lng lm vic: Cht lng t xi lanh ca bm theo ng 9 i vo di pittng 7 v p
lc n n mt p sut nht nh, pittng nng ln trn p l xo 5 v m van 8. Qua
van , cht lng chy v pha van ht 3 ca bm, nh lng cht lng i vo xi
lanh lm vic ca my p gim i.
Khi p xong th tt bm v chuyn tay gt 18 v v tr I, khi van 6 ng li,
van 17 m ra v cht lng lm vic t xi lanh 16 chy vo phn bn phi ca thng B.
Tr trn 15 v bung p 14 c h xung di v b c tho ra. thng B c t
li 10, lc cht lng lm vic trc, khi vo xi lanh ca bm .
4.2.1.3. My p trc:
1. Cu to my p:
Mt b my p gm cc b phn chnh:
- Gi my.
- Cc trc p: Trc nh, trc trc, trc sau.
- B gi trc v b iu chnh v tr lp trc.
- B phn nn trc nh.
- Tm dn ma (lc y v cc lc khc)
2. Trc p:
Gm c li trc bng thp, 1 u gn 1 bnh xe rng cao chn truyn chuyn
ng, lng cht trong o trc bng gang c bit. Thp lm li trc c thnh phn
Ni = 3-4% ; Cr = 0,5 - 1% ; C = 0,2 0,45%. Hai c trc trn nhn bng, ng knh
bng 1/2 ng knh trc p. . hai u ao truc co vanh chn nc ma khoi bn vao
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c truc. Hnh dang va v tr lp cua vanh o trn truc nh va hai truc trc co khac
nhau
Gi my c nhiu kiu: kiu nh thng (hnh 2.31), kiu nh nghing v kiu
cn nn cong (hnh 2.32)

Hnh 4.3: My p kiu nh thng Hnh 4.4: My p kiu cn cong.
(kiu Fives Lille- Cail C
46
).

3. B phn nn trc nh ( p lc trc nh) .
Trong qu trnh p, p lc trc nh ng vai tr quyt nh. N ph v t bo
ma, gii phng nc ma ra khi t bo.
to ra p lc ln trc nh, c th s dng cc thit b :
- Thit b tng p l xo
- Thit b tng p du
- Thit b tng p kh nn.
Nhc im ca thit b tng p l xo l lc tc dng ln trc nh khng u
nn hin nay t dng.


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Hnh 4.5: Lc nn l xo. Hnh4.6. Lc nn thy lc

Hnh 4.7. Mt ct mt chp nn

4. Thit b tng p du:
Gm : Pittng nn du A v hp du trn trc nh B.
Nguyn l hot ng nh sau: Du trong xi lanh A c pittng nn ti p
sut cao. Du c p sut cao c dn vo hp cha du trn trc nh. Hp du c
din tch nn vo c trc ln. Do vy p lc du nn xung trc nh ln.
Nu ta gi:
- ng knh xi lanh du bn A l d : f
A
=
4
2
d

- ng knh hp du trc nh l D .
- Khi lng trng vt bn A l p .
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Ta thy p sut du l F =
2 2
4
4
d
p
d
p

=
Theo nguyn l Pascan, p sut ny chnh l p sut trong hp du. Do vy p
lc tc dng ln c trc s l :
4
.
2
D
F


Lc tc dng ln trc nh l P = 2 . p
d
D D
d
p
. . 2
4
.
4
2
2 2
2
=


So snh lc tc dng ln trc nh vi khi lng gang bn A
2
2
2
2
2 . 2
d
D
p
P
d
D
p
P
= =
u: To c p lc ln trc nh. p lc ny khng thay i khi lp ma
vo dy mng khc nhau.
Nhc: Chim nhiu din tch .
Lm vic nng n, mc ln.
5. Thit b, tng p bng kh nn:
Nguyn l ging thit b tng p bng du nhng p sut cao, y c to
ra bng kh nn.
4.2.1.4. My p dng kh nn:
Trong my p ny lc tc dng ln nguyn liu l khng kh nn. My ny c
dng nhiu trong dy chuyn sn xut nc qu trong cho cc nguyn liu khng
cng nh da, cam, qut (hoc nho), phng php p ny rt tt v qu trnh p khng
ph v nhng c cu cng ca nguyn liu v, cung, x, l nhng cht khng c li
cho thnh phn ca nc qu.
My lm vic gin on, chu k p 2,5 gi (cc thao tc ph u c c kh
ho)
Cu to v nguyn tc lm vic ca my p dng kh nn
Thng p 1 lm bng kim loi khng r, tm dy 1mm, trn c c l
1,2 x 20mm. Bn ngoi bc cc tm kim loi chu lc. Hai u thng p 2 bng gang,
bn trong lt kim loi khng r. Dc thng p c ca nguyn liu vo p, c th
ng cht nh 1 cnh ca c vt vn. Bn trong thng p l thng cao su 3

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Hnh 4.8. S nguyn l lm vic ca my p dng kh nn
1. Thng p . 2. u thng p.
3. Thng cao su. 4. ng dn khng kh nn.
5. Trc rng 6. trc.
. Khng kh nn t my nn kh i theo ng 4 vo trc rng 5 qua cc l c
trn trc vo trong thng cao su (trn hnh v thng cao su trng thi khng p).
Di tc dng ca khng kh nn thng cao su b cng ln to mt p sut cn thit,
tc dng ln nguyn liu p nc qu. Lp nguyn liu p nm gia thng p v
thng cao su. Nc p qua l trn thng p ra ngoi mng hng chy i. B cn li
trong thng p, sau mi ln p m ca trn thng v cho thng quay, b s t ri ra
ngoi mng c trc vt y i.
Mi my p phi dng ti 3 ng c in quay thng p, trc vt v cho my
nn kh. Vn tc thng p 20 vng/pht. Nng sut my 1,5 tn nguyn liu/ gi.
My p ny lp trn khung khng cn b xy kch thc 5180 x 2510 x 2290mm.
Qu trnh p: Thng khng quay cho nguyn liu vo t t cho ti khi y, ng
ca li cho thng quay 5 pht khng cho khng kh vo. Khi nguyn liu c
phn b u trn mt thng. Bt u cho khng kh vo thng cao su. Cho t t 5 -
10 pht cho t n p sut 3 3,5 atm. Li x kh ra cho thng quay o nguyn
liu. Li cho khng kh nn vo vi p sut cao hn v gi thi gian lu hn. Lm
nh vy 3 ln v p sut khng kh nn ln cui cng trong thng cao su phi t 6
atm.

2
3
1
6
4
5
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4.2.2. My p to hnh:
4.2.2.1. My p trc ln (My p nn)
Dng trong sn xut m ng.

Hnh 4.9 : Nguyn l lm vic ca my p nn
My p trc ln lm vic lin tc, gm c b phn nn (2 trc ln) v b phn
to hnh (khun c ). Hai trc ln quay ngc chiu nhau to nn p sut y bt
nho v khun c.
Khun c l cc a kim loi c gia cng l c hoa vn
4.2.2.2. My p cn:
a. Nhng cc bt nho m chuyn ng nh bng ti vn chuyn 1 v tc dng
ln mng c nh 2 (hnh 2.38.a). Khi cc bt nho i dc theo mng c tit din nh
dn th n c gi cht to nn c cu ng nht v trn.
b. Qu trnh dt mng nhng cc bt nho m u xy ra khi n chuyn ng
dc theo k h nh dn to nn bi bng ti vn chuyn 1 v thnh c nh 2 hoc
bng ti v tn khc 3, chuyn ng v pha ngc li.Lc ny cc bt nho quay
xung quanh trc ca n, chuyn di ra khi khe h v dn dn c to thnh hnh
tr ( hnh 2.38b).
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c. Khi dt bt nho m trng s thc hin 1 s khu. u tin nhng cc bt
nho i qua gia i trc 1, quay ngc chiu nhau v cn mng thnh bnh. Sau
nh trc c rnh 2 c cun li thnh cun xon c. Cun c a ra bi thng
quay 3, v c cn gia thng v b mt v my c nh 4 v sau chuyn sang
bng ti 5, kt qu n t ko di ra n kch thc cn thit (hnh 2.38c) .


Hnh 4.10 : Nguyn l lm vic ca my p cn.

4.2.2.3. My dp p:
Dng trong CN bnh ko.





Hnh 4.11. S my dp p to hnh bnh qui
B phn to hnh( khun c 1 ca my p (hnh 2.39) c gia cng thnh
hnh hoa vn phong ph. B phn to hnh thc hin chuyn ng qua li, a khi
bt nho c cn 2 nm trn bng ti 3 v p xung. p sut dp gn 0,3-0,5
MN/m
2
( 3-5 kg/cm
2
)

1
2
3
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4.2.2.4. My p ng bnh :
B phn ch yu ca my p c khun c kiu ng l cc a hoc ci bnh
quay chm.
a c nhng l t cc khun c. Vt liu m t b phn np liu cho
vo cc khun ng bnh. y khun l cc bn di ng ln xung.
Qu trnh ng bnh c th theo di s hnh 2.40. To v tr I, bn 2
thp nht. Sau khun c 1 cht y sn phm t 3 (v tr II), tip n p nguyn
liu bi bn ( giai on ny trn khun c c t tm 4 v tr III) v cui cng
bn y thnh phm ng bnh v nng cao hn mt bn khong 0,5mm.
Trong 1 vng, bn s ngng li 4 ln vi thi gian 11,5 giy, c 4 khun c,
lm vic vi v = 8 vng/ pht, to 32 bnh/ pht. p sut p gn 150 - 200 kg/ cm
2
.

Hnh 4.12. S lm vic ca my p c khun c kiu ng
1. Khun c 2. Bn
3. sn phm 4. Tm kim loi