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Non-Destructive Testing Inspector's Handbook

Visual Inspection (VT) Liquid Penetrant Inspection (PT) Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) Ultrasonic Testing (UT) Eddy Current Testing (ET) Radiographic Inspection (RT)

Preface
This reference book was designed for use in the field and to support onthe-job training. It should not be Lised as a standard or referred to as a stand-alone document. This book covers basic formulas, charts, and other NDT related information.

Dedication
To all the people who have influenced my naval career and where I am today in the NonDestructive field. Thank you. I originally started this project as a self-knowledge application and began receiving comments from my fellow colleagues requesting a copy. I soon realized that this would prove to be an invaluable tool for general infomation in our field. I have received support from both military and civilian personnel and have taken a sample of their suggestions and compiled them for you, the end user. I wanted to take personal credit for this project and realized it would not benefit the NDT field as a whole. Instead, I encourage you, the end user, to change, manipulate, or configure this book for yourself. In closing, "Share the Wealth with Others."

Last Revision Date
20 April 2002

Contact Information
Keoke526@hotmail.com ndthandbook.zapto.org

Disclaimer
This book is not intended for sale or any monetary benefit to the editor.

Inspector's Handbook

........................................................................................2 ....................................................................... Liquid Penetrant Testing .....................................Chapter 1 ...........................................................................................................16 Thread Terminology (fasteners) ........ 1 Longitudinal Magnetization Math Formula ..1-16 Julian Date Calendar (Perpetual)............................................................................................................ 1-4 1-5 Order of Performing Arithmetic Operations ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................. I Scope of Standards.........................................................................................................................................17 -18 Julian Date Calendar p a p Year) .................................................................................................. 12 Consumable Insert Common Defect Locations .....................................................................................................1-3 Examples of Grooves ..............-3-1 Prorated Maximum Number of Indications ................... Table of Contents Schedule Designations of Pipe Sizes ........... 1.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1-2 Numerical Place Value Chart ... -1 d - Chapter 2 ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4 Finish Processing Discontinuities .................................................................. 1-7 Common Symbols and Terms .................. Basic Illustration of a Weld Welding Processes..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 15 1 .... 1 Fraction to Decimal Equivalent ..................................................... 1-7 Weld Area Calculation................................................................... 1-7 Solution of Right-angled Triangles ............................................................................................................................... 1....................... 1-6 Calculation of Area ..................1-2 Decimal to Second Conversion..........15 Micrometer ...........iv ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1-3 Elements of a Welding SyrnboL. 1 Temperature Conversions ......................1 Chapter 3 ..................................................... 1 Decimal to Inches ............................................ Areas of Circles .........................................................................................................................3-1 Common Terms and Definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................11 12 Backing Ring Common Defect Locations ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3-6 Penetrant Wetting Characteristics ............... 4F7 Prorated Maximum Number of Indications ...................................... 1................................. -1..................................2 Elements of a Nondestructive Examination Symbol.....................................................................................................................3-7 Chapter 4 ......................................................... Common Types of Magnetization . ...................................................................................................................................... 1-9 1 10 ................................................................................................................................................................................................ Copper Tubing Wall Thickness...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................General Information ........................................................................ 1...................................................................................... 4-1 Common Definitions and Examples ..........1............................................................................................... Dial Indicating Calipers ............4.......... Tap and Drill Size Chart:............................... 3-6 Areas of Circles ............................ 1..........................1 ................................................................. Primary Processing Discontinuities ..............1-4 Basic Joints (Welding) ............... ...................................................................................... Visual Inspection .............................................................................................................. 2-1 Common Definitions and Examples ..................................................................................................................Magnetic Particle Testing.............................. Ratio And Proportion......................................................................................... 4-9 Inspector's H m m k 4 - ..................

.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7-8 Two Types of Radiation..... 7-8 Components of an Isotope............................................................................................. -7-1 Structure of the Atom and an Element ..........................................................................................................13 Calibration Chart ........ 7-20 Basic Components of an X-ray Tube ............................... 7 12 Magic Circles ................................................................ 6 . 6-18 Eddy Current Relationship of Properties .......................................................... 7-25 ....................................................................... 7-1 Common Definitions and Examples ....... 7-17 KILLER CARL ..........................................................................................6-6 Conductivity and the IACS ..................................7-50 Probable Causes and Corrective Action for Processed Radiographic Film ...7-26 Probable Causes and Corrective Action for Automatic Film Processing ................................................................................................................................................... -4-9 ....................................................................................................................................................7-51 Inspector's Handbook iii .................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...............7-17 Double Wall Exposure 1 Single Wall View ...................................................................................................................................12 5................. ...............................................................................................1 ...................................................... Radiographc Fllm Interpretation................................. 7-16 Double Wall Exposure I Double Wall View (offset) .............................................................................................................. 6-9 Depth of Penetration................. 7-8 Characteristics of A Radioactive Element ................................................................................................. 7-9 60' Coverage for Pipes and Location Marker Measurements ............................................. Radiographic Inspection ...........................................-4-10 Hysteresis=Curve 4................................................................................................................................................................................................... Radiographic Film Interpretation.....................14 ............................................................................................................................. Eddy Current Testing ...................................................................................................................................................................................................7-18 Penny T-Hole Maximum Density................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7-25 Types of Scatter Radiation ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Two Types of Electrical Current .......................................................................... 7-16 Double Wall Exposure 1 Double Wall View (superimposed)....................................18 Chapter 7 ................6-18 Advantages of Eddy Current Testing ...........................................T h e o r y : "RigheHand Rule ............................................................................................................. Velocity Chart 5...... 6-7 Magnetic Domains ..................................................................................................................6-7 Right Hand Rule .................................................................................................... FPADSCRhD ............................. 5.. Chapter 5 ................................................. Ultrasonic Testing Common Terms and Definitions ...............................................11 Magnetic Particle Field Indicator (Pie Gage) ................. Common Math Formulas 5................................... UT Shearwave ................. 7-25 .. 7-8 History of Radiography...................................................................................................................................... 7-18 Penetrameter Material and Group Numbers ............................. 7-15 Single Wall Exposure 1 Single Wall Viewing for Pipe ................................................... 6-1 Common Terms and Definitions ............ 6 18 Summary of Properties of Eddy Currents ....... *& 5.................... 7 1 5 Single Wall Exposure I Single Wall Viewing for Plate ................................................ 7 19 2% Penetrameter Quality Conversion Chart (X-RAY ONLY)............................................................................................................................................ ......................15 Chapter 6 .................................................................................................................................................................... 7-11 Common Math Formulas ...................................... 5-1 .............................. 6-12 Limitations of Eddy Current Testing .................................................................................................................................................

when invoked by a fabrication document. order. automatic and machine welding and brazing of ferrous. welding design. welders. and record requirements. and automatic arc and gas welding processes for use onmetals and weldments. Nondestructive tests in an underwater environment shall be performed as specified in NAVSEA S0600-AA-PRO-070. weld joint design. materials. It includes manual. welds. NSTP 248 REQUIREMENTS FOR WELDING AND BRAZING PROCEDURE AND PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATION This document contains the requirements for the qualification of welding and brazing procedures. welding. forming. specifications for materials. WELDING. or repair of any item or component of machinery. inspection. piping. workmanship. mechanical fasteners. nonferrous. specification. It also contains the -mum requirements necessary qualifL nondestructive test and inspection personnel. inspection. (NDT)discontinuities in castings. MILSTD 2035 NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA The acceptance criteria contained herein are for use in determining the acceptability of nondestructive t. castings and records are included. and dissimilar metals. welding. welding operators. AND INSPECTION OF SHIPS STRUCTURE This standard contains the minimum requiremeas for the fabrication and inspection of the hull and associated structures of combatant surface ships. extrusions. brazers and brazing operators that must be met prior to any production fabrication. and pressure vessels in ships of the United States Navy. welding operators and brazing operators to produce sound welds or brazes. The welded joint designs shown herein represent standard joint designs used in welded fabrication and are not intended to be all inclusive. including shipbuilding practices. brazers.automatic. NSTP 271 REQUIREMENTS FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS This document covers the requirements for conducting nondestructive tests (NDT) used in detenninin( presence of surface and internal discontinuities in metals. and nondestructive equipment. cladding. workmanship. PIPING.Scope of Standards . The requirements for shipbuilding. contract. and other products when specified by the applicable Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) drawing. alteration. Inspector's Handbook . MILSTD 1689 FABRICATION. This document does not cover all of the requirements for performing nondestructive tests in an underwater environment. AND CASTING INSPECTION AND REPAIR FOR MACHINERY. NSTP 278 REQUIREMENTS FOR FABRICATION WELDING AND INSPECTION. . AND PRESSURE VESSELS This document contains the welding and allied processes (except brazing) and casting requirements including inspection for the fabrication. The qualification tests required by this document are devised to demonstrate the adequacy of the welding or brazing procedures and to demonstrate the ability of welders. This document does not contain acceptance criteria for nondestructive test. - NSTP 1688 FABRICATION. as applicable. semiautomatic. It also applies to those submarine structures which are not high-yield strength steels. or directive. WELDING AND INSPECTION SUBMARINE APPLICATIONS This document contains minimum requirements for fabrication and inspection of submarine and non combatant submersible structures. MILSTD 22D WELDED JOINT DESIGN This standard covers welded joint designs for manual. forgings. semi. procedures.

brazing. and safety when used for ship maintenance. repair.NSTP CHAPTER 074 . implementation of the training.VOLUME 1WELDING AND ALLIED PROCESSES This chapter furnishes both the minimum mandatory requirements (indicated by the word shall) and guidance information (indicated by the words should or may) necessary for welding. Inspector's Handbook . -NSTP CHAPTER 074 . and certification programs described in this chapter should be followed precisely.VOLUME 2 NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF METALS QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NAVAL PERSONNEL (NON-NUCLEAR) This chapter is M s h e d to ensure achievement of uniform and reliable nondestructive tests on naval materials and components. and alteration. qualification. inspection.

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Copper Tubing Wall Thickness Decimal to Inches inches 1 12 = decimal decimal 12 = inches Temperature Conversions - Fahrenheit = (915 * C) + 32 Celsius = (F .32) * 519 Inspector's Handbook .

01 0.000.001 0.000 TENTHS HUNDREDTHS 1/10 1/100 111.000 I I 0.00001 E 1 C 9 THOUSANDTHS 1 8 2 THOUSANDS 3 5 HUNDREDS TENS UNITS loo 10 TEN THOUSANDTHS HUNDRED TEN THOUSANDTHS MILLIONTHS A4 111.MK) 10.000001 bI I 1 ILI .Fraction to Decimal Eauivalent 1 I Decimal to Second Conversion I I I PLACE) I Numerical Place Value Chart ForExample2.000 D 6 100.000 1110.1 0.357.000.000 1.000 0.262.619844 2 MILLIONS THOUSANDS TEN THOUSANDS 1.000 1H00.0001 0.

SEAM.. -1'T-. SIZE OR STRENGTH FOR CERTAIN WELDS SPECIFICATION OR OTHER REFERENCE (OMITTED WHEN NOT USED) GROOVE ANGLE: INCLUDED ANGLE OF COUNTERSINK FOR PLUG WELDS ROOT 0PENING:DEPTH OF FILLING FOR PLUG AND SLOT WELDS LENGTH OF WELD PITCH OF WELDS -FIELD WELD WELD-ALL-AROUND T TAIL NUMBER OF SPOT. OR PROJECTION WELDS GROOVE Square Scad V ARROW A Mvel U J Flare-V Flarebevel -v.--Y---Ki 7r -I/_---LC-2x - --rcFlange Fillet Plug or Slot Stud Spot or Projetiin Seam Back or Backing Surfacrng Edge 1 Corner Basic Weld Symbols Consumable Insen (Square) Backing or Spacer (Recrangle) .-.--Y--A.-A-.--LL.Elements of a Nondestructive Examination Symbol NUMBER OF EXAMINATIONS REFERENCE LINE -EXAMINE SPECIFICATION OR OTHER REFERENCE IN FIELD LENGTH OF SECTION TO BE EXAMINED EXAMINE-ALL-AROUND TAIL EXAMINE ALL AROUND FIELD EXAMINATION ARROW RADIATION DIRECTION / L Elements of a Welding Symbol FINISH SYMBOL GROOVE WELD SIZE DEPTH OF BEVEL. PLUG. STUD.Contour Flush or Flat Convex Concave Weld all around Field Weld Melt ~hrough /-i -Tee Inspector's Handbook .

Examples of Grooves square Single J Single Bevel Single Vee Double Bevel Single U Basic Joints (Welding) I I Lav ' /I corner / / w e Tee Inspector's Handbook .

for example. n. in the order in which they appear. subtractions. 6(8 + 2) = 6 x (8 + 2). 1 .and-= D (AXBXC)+D Inspector's Handbook . The line or bar between the numerator and denominator in a fractional expression is to be considered as a division sign.Order of Performing Arithmetic Operations When several numbers or quantities in a formula are connected by signs indicating that additions. use is made of parentheses 0 and brackets These indicate that the calculation inside the parentheses or brackets should be carried out complete by itself before the remaining calculations are commenced. the one inside is first calculated.2 2 = 6 6 + 2 2 = 3 2+[1OX6(8+2)-4]X2=2+[1OX6Xl0-4]X2 =2+[600-4]X2=2+596X2=2+1192=1194 The parentheses are considered as a sign of multiplication. Thus ABC AB=AXB. If one bracket is placed inside of another. Examples: (6-2)X5+8=4X5+8=20+8=28 6 X ( 4 + 7 ) + 2 2 = 6 X 11 . For Example. the multiplications and divisions should be carried out %st. or divisions are to be made. before the additions or subtractions are performed. In formulas the multiplicationsign (X) is often left out between symbols or letters. the values of which are to be multiplied. Examples: 10+26X7-2=10+182-2=190 18+6+15X3=3+45=48 12+14+2-4=12+7-4=15 When it is required that certain additions and subtractions should precede multiplication's and divisions. multiplications.

* d sign (:). 4) The fourth term is equal to the product of the second and third tenns. the ration between 3 and 12 is '14. and the ratio between 12 and 3 is 4. Thus. divided by the fourth term. divided by the second. the inverse ratio 5 : 7 is 7 : 5. the second and thirds. Thus when then the compound ratio is: Prop is the equality of ratios. Ratio is generally indicated P . For example. 3) The third term is equal to the product of the first and fourth terms. divided by the third. 2) The second term is equal to the product of the first and fourth terms. The product of the extremes is equal to the product of the means. thus 12 : 3 indicates the ratio of 12 to 3. The f i r s t and last tenns in a proportion are called the extremes. Inspector's Handbook .Ratio And Proportion The ratio between two quantities is the quotient obtained by dividing the first quantity by the second. Thus. the means. If third terms in the proportion are known. In a compound ratio each term is the product of the corresponding terms in two or more simple ratios. Thus. the remaining term may be found by the following rules: 1) The f i r s t term is equal to the product of the second and third terms. divided by the first. A reciprocal or inverse ratio is the reciprocal or the original ratio.

Common Symbols and Terms 3.1415 Diameter / 2 Inside Diameter Outside Diameter Less Than (ie 6 ~ 9 ) (ie 9>6) Greater Than Equal To or Less Than Equal To or Greater Than Plus or Minus InspectaPs Handbook .Calculation of Area Square/Rectangle Circles Triangle Sphere = Length w2 * Width = Height * Base 4m2 * 1/2 - Weld Area Calculation Structural Welds Piping Welds Socket Welds = Length * Width (measured) = Circumference (OD*7t) * Width = L x W L = ((OD at A + OD at B) / 2) *7t W = Width of the weld is measured.

0% = -02 Change decimal (0.Change percent ( % ) to decimal (0..7 ..5 Tm = Material Thickness. Minimum Weld Throat Thickness Based upon 1T X 1T = . thickness of the thinner member excluding reinforcements. Ts = Specimen Thickness. Move decimal point 2 units to the right and add the percent sign. Example: 2% = 2. d x Tm Inspector's Handbook . .43 = 43% Change a fraction to a decimal. thickness of the thinner member including reinforcements. Example: . Divide the numerator by the denominator.0) to percent ( % ) . Example: 1/2 = 1 divided by 2 = .0) Move decimal point 2 spaces to the left and drop the percent sign.

Solution of Right-angled Triangles .

Basic Illustration of a Weld FILLET LEG SIZE OF W E W 1qxctoP"s Handbook .

tungsten electrode. is used for shielding gas. consumable electrode wire and the work Shielding is obtained from a flux contained within the electrode core. Filler metal is normally used when welding. The arc is between a continuously-fed filler metal (consumable) electrode and the m r k piece.Welding Processes ELECTRODE COVERING ha Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) An arc welding process. WIRE GUIDE 6. Shielding gas is supplied from an external source of inert gas. CONTACT TUBE joins metals by heating them with an arc between a continuous. Commonly referred to as "MIG" welding. Depending upon the type of flux-cored wire. helium. L Jsually helium or argon. added shielding may or may not be provided from externally supplied gas or gas mixture. normally argon.ins metals by heating them with an arc oetween a covered metal electrode and the work. SHELDINGGASIN METAL AND SLAG SOLIDIFIEL) SLAG ON WELD CURRENT CONDUCTOR WIRE GUIDE DIRECTION OF WELDING AND CONTACT GAS NOZZLE Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) An arc welding process. Shielding gas is obtained from the electrode outer coating. which melts and b. or mixture. or a mixture of the two. which should not become part of the *ompletedweld. Inspector's Handbook 1-1 1 . which joins metals by heating them with an arc. often called flux. Commonly referred to as "stick" welding.

Backing Ring Common Defect Locations OVERLAP UNDERCUT \ CRACKING SLAG/OXIDE INCLUSIONS TUNGSTEN INCLUSIONS POROSITY i u I INCOMPLETE (LACK OF) FUSION CRACKING INCOMPLETE (LACK OF) PENETRATION SLAG OR UNDERCUT AT THE ROOT TOES CRACKING / BAD FITUP SLAG BETWEEN BACKING RING AND PIPE ID u MELT-THROUGH BURN-THROUGH Consumable Insert Common Defect Locations OVERLAP UNDERCU CRACKING SLAG/OXIDE INCLUSIONS POROSITY INcLuSroNS I INCOMPLETE (LACK OF) FUSION CRACKING CONCAVITY MELT-THROUGH BURN-THROUGH INCOMPLETE (LACK OF) FUSION UNDERBEAD CRATERS CENTERLINE CREASE OVERLAP CRACKING UNDERCUT AT THE#OO&OTTO# BACKING GAS LOS A% MPLETE (LACK OF) PENETMTION 4 .

Process :L Discontinuity Cold Shut Hot T e a r Cavity Primary Processing Discontinuities Caused By Lack of h i o n between two intercepting surfaces of metal as it flows into the cast Location Surface I Difference in cooling rates between thin sections and thick sections Lack of enough molten metal to fill the space created by shrinkage Improperly designed mold causing premature blockage at the mold gate Inability of external gasses to escape h m the mold 1 surface Subsurface Subsurface Surface I Casting Microshrinkage Blow Holes I Forging Porosity Lap Burst I Entrapped internal gasses Folding of metal in a thin plate on the surface of the forging Forging at improper temperature Flattening and lengthening of discontinuities in parent material Surface Surface or Subsurface I L I Laminations (flat plate) sdgem (bar I I Flattening and lengthening of discontinuities found in parent material Lengthening of surface cracks found in parent F r I L a C k o f Fusion pipe Incomplete weld Present in the parent material (sheet or parent material) I ( I I Subsurface Subsurface Surface Surface (inner and outer) Subsurface ( I I Laminations Seams Seamless Pipes and Tubes . Slugs Gouges I Present in the parent material (round bar stock) Metal buildup on piercing material Inner Surface 1I I I Sizing mandrel dragging Present in parent material Seams Porosity ( Surface 1 ( Present in parent material Improper metal flow through the die Surface Inspector's Handbook 1.13 w 1 Galling (cracks) .

transverse.Process Grinding Discontinuity Cracks Stress Cracks Cracks and Tears Crater Cracks (star.unequal heating and cooling Extreme deformation overstresses the material Improper use of heat source Stresses built up by the weld contraction (if material is restrained) - Surface I surface Surface or Subsurface Surface I I I I I Porosity Slag Inclusions Welding Entrapped gasses Incomplete cleaning of slag fiom the weld between passes Excessive current used during GTAW Improper welding technique Improper welding technique Improper welding technique Weld overlaps parent material ." I 1 I I Overstress of material Working with dull tools or cutting too deep Relief of internal stress Relief of internal stress Tears I 1 Surface Surface Surface I Cracks Cracks 1 Electroplating I Inspector's Harrdbook . and longitudinal) Stress Cracks - Finish Processing Discontinuities Caused By Excess localized heat created between the grinding wheel and the material ~ Location Surface - .not b e d - Surface or Subsurface Surface or Subsurface Subsurface Surface or Subsurface Subsurface I Tungsten Inclusions Lack of Penetration Lack of Fusion Undercut Overlapping Cracks I I I 1 ( I surface surface I I I Bending Machining I I Pz?. / I Heat Treating Explosive Forming Stress built up by improper processing .

000/ GIRHRT/ONS IS - s-L f C Y r C too 4%vo. C VEPN~ER . do not spin frame to adjust the micrometer. 3. Slip the micrometer over the area to be measured by placing the anvil f d y against the material and slowly turn the thimble clockwise until spindle is firmly against the material. Adjust measuring faces. Then turn the ratchet three clicks to be sure equal pressure is applied. and tighten the bezel clamp as needed. to fit item being measured. 4. 2. Adjust micrometer to fit the item being measured. Attach ball if measuring curved surfaces. Micrometer PART TO BE MEASURED GRADUATIONS TO BE READ FRAME READING L I N E 1. Do not forget to m i n u s the ball measurement if used. remove calipers carefully to prevent false measurements. Inspector's Handbook . Take reading in place. Apply lock screw and read measurement in place if practical. and clean all dirt from measuring contacts.Dial Indicating Calipers 1. VerifL the caliper's calibration date is current. Olb GRRDVRT/O/YS 4. 2. Perform user calibration on dial indicator. Determine reading on scale and note accordingly. Verifj. ensure reading is zero. w 5. or set the locking nut and remove fiom the item. and clean all dirt fiom measuring faces. 3. contact points. that the micrometer's calibration date is current. If not. Apply f m pressure to fine adjusting roll and ensure measuring contacts are in contact with the material being measured.

AXIS CREST PITCH DIAMETER R m Tap and Drill Size Chart 7 1 THREAD SIZE Inspector's Handbook .

31 031 L' Mar 060 061 062 063 064 065 066 067 068 069 070 071 072 073 074 075 076 077 078 079 080 081 082 083 084 085 086 087 088 089 090 Apr 091 092 093 094 095 096 097 098 099 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 I13 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 May 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 June 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 July Aug 182 213 183 214 184 215 185 216 186 217 187 218 188 219 189 220 190 221 191 222 192 223 193 224 194 225 195 226 196 227 197 228 198 229 199 230 200 231 201 232 202 233 203 234 204 235 205 236 206 237 207 238 208 239 209 240 210 241 211 242 212 243 Sep 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 Oct 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 - - Nov 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 Dec 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 Day I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 L Inspector's Handbook 1-17 .Julian Date Calendar (Perpetual) Day Jan Feb 1 0 0 1 032 "w 2 002 033 3 003 034 004 035 4 5 005 036 6 006 037 007 038 7 8 008 039 9 009 040 10 010 041 11 011 042 12 012 043 13 013 044 14 014 045 15 015 046 16 016 047 17 017 048 18 018 049 19 019 050 20 020 051 21 021 052 22 022 053 23 023 054 24 024 055 25 025 056 26 026 057 27 027 058 28 028 059 29 029 30 030 .

Julian Date Calendar (Leap Year)

Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I0 I1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
1-18

Jan 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031

Feb 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 041 042 043 044 045 046 047 048 049 050 051 052 053 054 055 056 057 058 059 060

Mar 061 062 063 064 065 066 067 068 069 070 071 072 073 074 075 076 077 078 079 080 081 082 083 084 085 086 087 088 089 090 091

Apr 092 093 094 095 096 097 098 099 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121

May 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152

June 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182

July 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213

Aug 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244

Sep Oct 245 275 246 276 247 277 248 278 249 279 250 280 251 281 252 282 253 283 254 284 255 285 256 2 8 6 257 287 258 288 259 289 260 290 261 291 262 292 263 293 264 294 265 295 266 296 267 297 268 298 269 299 270 300 271 301 272 302 273 303 274 304 305

Nov 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335

Dec 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366

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Inspector's Handbook

Chapter 2 - Visual Inspection
Common Definitions and Examples
r

Aligned rounded indications Four or more indications in a line, where each is separated i/ from the adjacent indication by less then 1/16 inch or D, whichever is greater, where D is the major diameter of the larger of the adjacent indication.
Arc strike

Any localized heat-effected zone or change in the contour of the surface of the finished weld or adjacent base metal resulting from m atc or heat generated by the passage of electrical energy between the surface of the finished weld or base metal and a current source, such as welding electrodes or magnetic particle inspection prods.
Burn throu~h

A void or open hole that extends through a backing ring, strip, fused root, or adjacent base metal.

Burst A rupture caused by forging at improper temperatures. B u r s t s may be either internal or external to the surface. Cold shut The result of pouring metal over solidified metal.
/

tear + Track or A linear rupture of metal under stress. Crater pit An approximately circular surface condition exceeding into the weld in an irregular manner caused by insufficient filler metal at the weld stop. Defect One or more flaws whose aggregate; size, shape, orientation, location, or properties do not meet the specified acceptance criteria and are rejectable. Discontinuity Any interruption in the normal physical structure or configuration of a part, which will cause a detectable indication or signal when nondestmctively examined. Evaluation A review, following interpretation of the indications noted, to determine whether they meet specified cceptance criteria.
L

Inspector's Handbook

2-1

False indication An indication that is interpreted to be caused by a condition other than a discontinuity or imperfection. Heat checks Fissures or tears in the weld heat affected zone of material containing low melting point.

ure of quality characteristic from its intended condition.
IndicaticLn IZvidence of a discontinuity that requires interpretation to determine its significance. ete fusion ,ack of complete fusion of some portion of the metal in a Weld jolnt with adjacent metal. The adjacent metal may be either base metal or previously deposited weld metal, or consumable insert. Incomplete penetration Lack of penetration of the weld through the thickness of the joint, or penetration which is less than specified. Interpretation The determination of whether indications are relevant, nonrelevant, or false.

I

Lap (forginas) Folding of metal on the surface of the forging, usually occ u when some of the forging metal is squeezed out between the two dies.
'

Linear indication An indication in whichthe length is equal to or greater than three times the width. Melt through A convex or concave irregularity on the surface of a backing ring or strip, fused root, or adjacent base metal resulting from fusion completely through a localized region but without development of a void or open hole. Non-linear rounded indications Indication whose length is less than three times its width. Nonrelevant indications An indication that is caused by a condition or type of discontinuity that is not relevant.

Inspector's Handbook

Root surface centerline crease or shrinkage An intermittent or continuous peripheral centerline concavity formed on the root surface. Quench crack A crack formed as a result of the& rapid cooling fiom a high temperature. that may occur in molten metal due to contraction during solidification. between weld metal and base metal. Inspector's Handbook .Oxidation A condition resulting from partial or complete lack of inert gas shielding of a surface which is heated ring welding resulting in formation of oxide on the surface. Tungsten inclusion Tungsten entrapped in the weld deposit. Unfused chaplet A metal support used in the casting process. internal purge. Porosity Gas pockets or voids in weld metal or castings. which has not fused with casting material. or shrinkage. stresses produced by Root surface concavity A depression on the root surface of a weld which may be due to gravity. & s Non-metallic solid material entrapped in the weld metal. or voids. Root undercut A groove in the internal surface of a base metal or backing ring or strip along the edge of the root of the weld. Weld spatter Metal particles which deposit on the surface of the weld or adjacent base metal during welding and which do not form a part of the weld. or in a casting. Undercut A groove melted into the base metal at the toe of the weld and left unfilled by weld metal. This condition may range fiom slight oxidation idenced by a multicolored or tightly adhering black film to the extreme of a very rough surface having a crystalline appearance. Shrinkage Void.

Inspector's Handbook .

Chapter 3 .Liquid Penetrant Testing Common Terms and Definitions L Alkaline Any soluble mineral salt or mixtures of salt capable of neutralizing acids. Black Light Filter A filter that transmits black light while suppressing visible light and hard ultraviolet radiation with L wavelengths less than 3200 angstroms. Black L i ~ h t Light radiation in the near ultraviolet range of wavelengths (3200 to 4000 A). Clean r o m interfering solid or liquid contamination on the d a c e . pits. Angstrom Unit (A) A unit of length equal to lo8 cm and used to express wavelengths of light. Bleedout The action of the entrapped Penetrant in spreading out from surface discontinuities to form an indication. It may be the natural surface of the test article or it may be the developer coating on the surface.. Inspector's Handbook . Blotting The action of the developer in soaking up the entrapped penetrant from d a c e discontinuities to form an indication. i. Free f Comparative Test Block An intentionally cracked metal block having two separate but adjacent areas for the application of different penetrants so that a d<ect comparison of their relative effeativeness can be obtained. Carrier Fluid (Vehicle or Medium) A fluid in which liquid penetrant inspection materials are dissolved or suspended. can interfere with the visibility of indications. Can also be used to evaluate ?enetrant test techniques and test conditions. Background Fluorescence Fluorescent residues observed over the general surface of the test article during fluorescent penetrant E h Term used colloquially to designate the liquid penetrant inspection materials into which test articles are immersed during inspection process. Capillary Action or Capillarity The tendency of liquids to penetrate or migrate into small openings such as cracks. This background may contain traces of unremoved penetrant (fluorescent or visible). if present.e. or fissures. electromagnetic radiation. Background The surface upon which an indication is viewed. just shorter than visible light. which.

usually oil-base (Lipophilic). Developer A material that is applied to the test article surface after excess penetrant has been removed and that is designed to enhance the penetrant bleedout to form indications. DuaLresponse Penetrant A penetr. Dwell Time The total time that the penetrant or emulsifier is in contact with the test surface. etc. Dragout The canput or loss of penetrant materials as a result of their adherence to the articles being processed. or developer is allowed to drain fiom the test article. Developing Time The elapsed time necessary for the applied developer to bring out indications from penetrant entrapments.Contact Emulsifier An emulsifier that begins emulsifying penetrant upon simple contact with the penetrant. Also Hydrophilic Emulsifjer. Electrostatic Spraying A technique of spraying wherein the material being sprayed is given a high electrical charge while the test axticle is grounded. Dark Adaptation The adjustment of the eyes when one passes from a bright to a darkened area. Drain Time That portion of the penetrant inspection process during which the excess penetrant. The developer may be a fine powder. Detergent Remover A penetrant remover that is a solution of a detergent in water.that contains a combination of visible and fluorescent dyes. detergent remover. Drvinn Time A time allotted for a test article to dry. Also see Emulsification Time. or a suspension (in solvent. dry powder developer that does not employ a carrier fluid. Contrast w The difference in visibility (brightness or coloration) between an indication and the surrounding surface. alcohol. u Inspector's Handbook . emulsifier.) that dries leaving an absorptive film on the test surface. w Drying Oven An oven used for drying test articles. including the time required for application and the drain time. Also called Development Time. Dry Developer A fine. water. a solution that dries to a fine powder.

Fluorescent penetrants fluoresce brightly under black light while the visible penetrants are intensely colored to be noticeable under visible light. the absorption of black light radiation. Penetrability The property of a penetrant that causes it to find its way into very fine openings. . Penetrant A liquid (sometimes gas) capable of entering discontinuities open to the surface. iodine. but more often the emulsifier is added to the water rinse and accompanied by some form of mechanical agitation or scrubbing to remove excess penetrant. fluorine and bromine. Fluorescent Dye Penetrant An inspection penetrant that is characterized by its ability to fluoresce when excited by black light. Near Surface Discontinuity A discontinuity not open to. Flash Point The lowest temperature at whicha volatile. Halogen (Halonenous) Any of four very active nonmetallic elements. Usually applied as a Contact Emulsifier. Can be used as a Contact Emulsifier. flammable liquid will give off enough vapor to make a combustible explosive mixture in the air space surrounding the liquid surface. - ~ e a Testing k A technique of liquid penetrant testing in which the penetrant is applied to one side of the surface while the other side is inspected for indications that would indicate a through. Fluorescence The emission of visible radiation by a substance as a result of. Lipophilic Emulsifier An oil-base agent that. Sometimes called a Hydrophilic Scrubber. Also called Solvent Developer. Hydrophilic Emulsifier A water-base agent that. but located near. the surface of a test article. L Inspector's Handbook . and which is adapted to the inspection process by being made highly visible in small traces. such as cracks. and only during.Emulsification Time The period of time that an emulsifier is permitted to combine with the penetrant prior to removal. chlorine. renders the penetrant water-washable. renders the penetrant water-washable. ' v Tmulsifier A liquid that combines with an oily penetrant to make the penetrant water-washable. Also called Emulsifier Dwell Time. when applied to an oily penetrant. when applied to an oily penetrant.leak or void.Nonaqueous Wet Develowr A developer in which the developing powder is applied as a suspension in a quick-drying solvent. Also see Hydmphilic Emulsifier &d Lipophilic Emulsifier.

See-ability The characteristic of an indication that enables th: observer to see it against the conditions of background.. Solvent Remover A volatile liquid used to remow excess surface penetrant from the test article. due to molecular forces. Sometimes called Penetrant Remover. Also can be removed by applying a solvent remover. Viscosity The state or degree of being viscous.'v Solvent Removed A penetrant-removal technique wherein the excess penetrant is washed or wiped from the test surface with a solvent remover. . Also called Color Contrast or Nonfluorescent Penetrant. Also called Wash. Precleaning 4 The removal of surface contaminants or smeared metal from the test article so that they cannot interfere with the penetrant inspection process. Ouenchin~ of Fluorescence The extinction of fluorescence by causes other than removal of black light (the exciting radiation). Useful for production work in the detection of gross discontinuities. Rinse The process of removing liquid penetrant inspection materials from the surface of an article by washing or flooding with another liquid-usually water. Sensitivity The ability ofthe penetrant process to detect minute surface discontinuities. etc. Water-soluble Developer A developer in which the developer powder is dissolved in a water carrier to form a solution. Surface Tension That property of liquids which. 3-4 Inspector's Handbook d . Resolution The property of a test system that enables the separation of indications of close proximity in a test article. tends to bring the contained volume into a form having the least superficial area. Self-developinnPenetrant A penetrant not requiring the use of a developer. Visible Dye Penetrant An inspection penetrant that is characterized by its intense visible color-usually red. The resistance of a fluid to the motion of its particles. Not a suspension.Post-emulsification Penetrant A penetrant that requires the application of a separate emulsifier to render the surface penetrant waterwashable. outside light.

Water-suspended Particle Developer A developer in which the developer particles are mixed with water to firm a suspension. Wet Developer A developer in which the developer powder is applied as a suspension or solution in a liquid-usually water or alcohol. or wet developer can absorb before its effectiveness is impaired. Wetting Ability The ability of a liquid to spread out spontaneously and adhere to the test article's surfaces. Water Tolerance The amount of water that a penetrant. making it water-washable. Inspector's Handbook . Water-washable Penetrant A type of penetrant that contains its own emulsifier. L Water-wash A penetrant-removal technique wherein excess penetrant is washed or flushed from the test surface with water. emulsifier.

I00 .0079 Inspector's Handbook .w (MAX # OF INDICATIONSl36)X ACTUAL AREA = NEW MAX # OF INDICATIONS I - I Area = m2 .

Penetrant Wetting Characteristics Inspector's HandGook .

Inspector's Randbook .

This between visible light and ultraviolet light. or around the hole. peaking at 3650 A. the space is referred to as an air gap. Circular field See Field. Circular magnetization A method of inducing a magnetic field in an article so that the magnetic lines of force take the form of concentric rings about the axis of the current.& gap When a magnetic circuit contains a small gap. or any hole in an article. on the spectrum. The circular method is applicable for t h detection of discontinuities with axes approximately parallel to the axis of current through the article. One ampere is the current that flows through a conductor having a resistance of one ohm at a potential of one volt. Carbon steel Steel that does not contain significant amounts of alloying elements other than carbon and maganese. A measure of the magnetizing or demagnetizing strength of the coil. Alternating current Electric current periodically reversing in polarity or direction of flow. W h The suspension of iron oxide particles in a liquid vehicle (light oil or water). for the purpose of creating a circular field in the ring or tube. Carrier fluid The fluid in which fluorescent and no* fluorescent magnetic particles are suspended to facilitate their application in the wet method. This is accomplished by passing the current directly through the article or through a conductor which passes into or through a hole in the article. J Black light Radiant energy in the near ultraviolet range. Central conductor An electrical conductor that is passed through the opening in a ring or tube. Ampere turns The product of the number of turns in a coil and the number of amperes flowing through it.Chapter 4 . AmDere The unit of electrical current. Circular Magnetic. This light has a wavelength of 3200 to 4000 angstrom units (A).Magnetic Particle Testing Common Definitions and Examples -. Inspector's Handbook . which the magnetic flux must cross. Cracks produce small air gaps on the surface of an article. $lack light filter A filter that transmits black light while surprising the transmission of visible light and harrml ultraviolet radiation.

Current Flow Technique A technique of circular magnetization in which current is passed through an article via prods or contact 4 heads. 1 Continuous method An inspection method in which ample amounts of magnetic particles are applied. Materials such as bismuth and copper are diamagnetic. placed on contact heads to give good electrical contact thereby preventing damage to the article under test. or direct. These include headshots and prod shots. such as indications of subsurface defects. The current may be alternating. Demamethtio n The reduction in the degree of residual magnetism to an acceptable level. Curie point The temperature at which ferromagnetic materials can no longer be magnetized by outside forces. Diamagnetic Materials whose atomic structure won't permit any real magnetization. Direct Current An electrical current. usually of copper braid. Direct Contact Magnetization A magnetic particle testing technique in which current is passed throdgh the test article. Contact pads Replaceable metal pads. faed to the magnetic particle testing unit. half-wave rectified. and at which they lose their residual magnetism: approximately 1200 to 1600' F (646 to 871° C) for many metals. Core That part of the magnetic circuit that is within the electrical winding. which flows steadily in one direction 4-2 Inspector's Handboak . or are p r e s a on the piece. - Contact headshot The electrode. Coil shot A pulse of magnetizing current passed through a coil surrounding an article for the purpose of l o n g i d magnetization. through which the magnetizing current is drawn. Diffused Indications Indications that are not clearly defined.Coercive force The reverse magnetizing force necessary to remove residual magnetism in demagnetizing an article. during the time the magnetizing current is applied. C m t Induction Technique A technique of magnetization in which a circulating current is induced in a ring-shaped component by a fluctuating magnetic field. rectified alternating.

Field. This occurs in irregularly shaped objects. Longitudinal Magnetic A magnetic field wherein the flux lines traverse the component in a direction essentially parallel with the axis of the magnetizing coil or to a line connecting the two poles at the magnetizing yoke. or a conductor carrying current in which the magnetic force is present. Fluorescence The emission of visible radiation by a substance as the result of and only during the absorption of black light radiation. Field.Distorted Field A field that does not follow a straight path or have a uniform distribution. Electromagnet A magnet created by inserting a suitable metal core within or near a magnetizing field formed by passing electric current through a coil of insulated wire. Etching The process of exposing subsurface conditions of metal articles by removal of the outside surface through the use of chemical agents. Circular Mametic Generally the magnetic field in and surrounding any electrical conductor or article resulting from a current being passed through the conductor or article or fiom prods. Magnetic The space within and surrounding a magnetized article. J . . various surface or subsurface conditions are exposed or exaggerated and made visible to the eye. Magnetic Leakwe The magnetic field that leaves or enters the surface of an article at a magnetic pole. b Dry Medium Magnetic particle inspection in which the particles employed are in the dry powder f o m Dry Powder Finely divided ferromagnetic particles suitably selected and prepared for magnetic particle inspection.field. Field." Field. Residual Mametic The field that remains in magnetizable material after the magnetizing force has been removed Flash Magnetization Magnetization by a current flow of very brief duration. W Inspector's Handbook . Due to the action of the chemicals in eating away the surface. Field. Multidirectional A magnetic field that is the result of two magnetic forces impressed upon the same area of a magnetizable object at the sametime-sometimes called a "vector field. Ferromagnetic A term applied to materials that can be magnetized and strongly attracted by a magnetic field.

Heads The clamping contacts on a stationary magnetizing unit. negative." As the magnetizing force is increased to the saturation point in the positive. one gauss is one line of flux per square centimeter of area and is designated by the letter "B. and positive direction sequentially." plotted as a h c t i o n of magnetizing force. Hysteresis The lagging of the magnetic effect when the magnetic force acting upon a ferromagnetic body is changed. Flux Lines Imaginary magnetic lines used as a means of explaining the behavior of magnetic fields. Intercepts of the loop with the "B" and "H" axes and the points of maximum and minimum magnetizing force define important magnetic characteristics of the material. Horseshoe Magnet A bar magnet bent into the shape of a horseshoe so that the two poles are adjacent. Numerically. Inductance The magnetism produced in a ferromagneticbody by some outside magnetizing force. Flux Penetration. Usually the term applies to a permanent magnet. V Flux Density The normal magnetic flux per unit a r e a It is designated by the letter "B" and is expressed in telsa (SI units) n i t s ) . or gauss (cgs u Flux Leakage Magnetic lines of force which leave and enter an article at poles on the surface. Gauss The unit of flux density. Hysteresis Loop A curve showing the flux density. "B. Magnetic The depth to which a magnetic flux is present in an article. "H. The magnetism is not the result of passing current through the article." Head Shot A short pulse of magnetizing current passed through an article or a central conductor while clamped between the head contacts of a stationary magnetizing unit for the purpose of circularly magnetizing the article. Their conception is based on the pattern of lines produced when iron filings are sprinkled over a piece of paper laid over a permanent magnet. 4-4 w - w Inspector's Randbook . the curve forms a characteristic S-shaped loop. the phenomenon exhibited by a magnetic system wherein its state is influenced by its previous magnetic history. Furring Buildup or bristling of magnetic particles due to excessive magnetization of the article. Also called Lines of Force.Fluorescent Magnetic Particle Inspection The magnetic particle inspection process employing a finely divided fluorescent ferromagnetic inspection medium that fluoresces when activated by black light.

Lonnitudinal Magnetization The process of inducing a magnetic field into the article such that the magnetic lines of force extending through the article are approximately parallel to the axis of the magnetizing coil or to a line connecting the two poles when yokes (electromagnets) are used. i / Magnetic Particle Inspection A nondestructive inspection method for locating discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials. Mmetic Field Indicator An instrument designed to detect andlor measure the flux density and polarity of magnetic fields.The magnetizing field applied to a ferromagnetic material to induce magnetization. the alloy Alnico. shape changes. rectified alternating. usually expressed in amperes per meter or oersted (Oe). i.e. but located near. Magnetizing Current The flow of either alternating. Magnetic Writing A form of nonrelevant indications caused when the suface of a magnetized part comes in contact with another piece of ferromagnetic material that is magnetized to a different value. Magnetic Material Those materials that are attracted by magnetism. Medium The fluid in which fluorescent and nonfluorescent magnetic particles are suspended to facilitate their application in the wet method.Leakage Field The magnetic field forced out into the air by the distortion of the field within an article.. Magnetic Poles Concentration of flux leakage in areas of discontinuities. Magnet. Inspector's Handbook .ifit Intensitv The light energy reaching a unit of surface area per of time. etc. or direct current used to induce magnetism into the article being inspected. L . Permanent A highly-retentive metal that has been strongly magnetized. Magnetizin~ Force . permeability variations. . Magnetic Field Strength The measured intensity. b Jear Surface Discontinuitv A discontinuity not open to. the surface of a test article. of a magnetic field at a point always external to the magnet or conductor. '. Magnetic Particles Finely divided ferromagnetic material.

Solenoid (Coil) An electric conductor formed into a coil often wrapped around a central core of highly permeable mate . . Skin E f f e c t The description given to alternating current magnetization due to its containment to the surface of a test article. 4-6 Inspector's Handbook . Also known as rernanence. Residual Magnetism The amount of magnetism that a magnetic material retains after the magnetizing force is removed. w Residual Technique A procedure in which the indicating material is applied after the magnetizing force has been discontinued. aluminun.Oersted A unit of field strength. Rectified Alternating Current Alternating current. The ability of a ~mterial Saturation The point at which increasing the magnetizing force produces no M h e r magnetism in a material. Sensitivity The capacity or degree of responsiveness to magnetic particle inspection. and platinum. Examples are chromium. Permeability The ease with which the lines of force are able to pass through an article. manganese. A small group of these materials are classified as ferromagnetic." The area on a magnetized article fiom which the magnetic field is leaving or returning to the article. which has been converted into direct current. Retentivity to retain a certain portion of residual magnetization. which produces magnetic induction and is designated by the letter "H." / Paramagnetic 4 Materials which are slightly affected by a magnetic field. Pole Prods Hand-held electrodes attached to cables used to transmit the magnetizing current from the source to the article under inspection. Also called "residual field" or "remanence. Reluctance The resistance of a magnetic material to changes in magnetic field strength. Settling Test A procedure used to determine the concentration of magnetic particles in a medium or vehicle.

Yoke Magnetization A longitudinalmagnetic field induced in an article or in an area of an article by means of an external electromagnei shaped like a yoke.Suspension The correct term applied to the liquid bath in which the ferromagnetic particles used in the wet magnetic particle inspection method &e suspended. Yoke A U-shaped or C-shaped piece of highly permeable magnetic material. Longitudinal Magnetization Math Formula AT = 45. either solid or laminated.000 (+/. Wet Medium An inspection employing ferromagnetic particles suspended in a liquid (oil or water) as a vehicle.lo?!) W) A = ampere T = turns of the coil L = length of the item D = diameter or cross section of the item The minimum UD ratio is 2 The maximum L used in calculations is 20 inches Inspector's Handbook 4-7 . sometimes with adjustable pole pieces (legs) amund which is wound a coil carrying the magnetizing current. > Lrest Article An article containing known artificial or natural defects used for checking the efficiency of magnetic particle flaw detection processes.

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Common Types of Magnetization Central Conductor (circular) Horse shoe (longitudinal) Coil Shot (longitudinal) Yoke (longitudinal) Discontinuities Theory: "Right-Hand Rulen CURRENT FLOW Inspector's Handbook .

Hysteresis Curve B+ (FLUX DENSITY) 0 .C = Coercive force D = Reverse saturation point E = Reverse residual field 0 .F = Reverse coercive force L/ H.(MAGNETIZING FORCE OF OPPOSITE POLARITY TO H+) H= (MAGNETIZING FORCE) R (FLUXDENSITY OF OPPOSITE POLARITY TO B+) SLENDER LOOP WIDE LOOP HIGH PERMEABILITY LOW PERMEABILITY HIGH RENTENTMTY LOW RENTENTIVITY HIGH COERCIVE FORCE LOW COERCIVE FORCE LOW RELUCTANCE HIGH RELUCTANCE HIGH RESIDUAL WU3FETISM LOW RESIDUAL MAGNETISM Inspector's Hadbook d .A = Referred to as the virgin curve A = Saturation point B = Residual field 0 .

010 in t 0.Magnetic Particle Field Indicator (Pie Gage) Eight low carbon steel pie sections.001 i n thick Nonferrous handle of any Convenient length 7 I \ \ Braze weld or mechanically attach nonferrous trunnions Inspector's Handbook . furnace brazed 1 in. ' I I I ' ' / J Copper plate 0. Artificial flaw (all segment interfaces) .

Inspector's Hanetbook .

. Anisotropic A condition in which properties of a medium (velocity. in size or extent. Amplitude. . the horizontal distance between a& G o signals represents the sound path distance (or time of travel) between the two. Acoustic Impedance The factor which controls the propagation of an ultrasonic wave at a boundary interface. for example) vary according to the direction in vhich they are measured. Acceptance Standard A control specimen containing natural or artificial discontinuities that are well defined and. Angle Transducer A transducer that transmits or receives the acoustic energy at an acute angle to the surface to achieve a specific effect such up the setting up of shear or surface waves in the part being inspected.Ultrasonic Testing Common Terms and Definitions -\-scan Display A dimlav in which the received signal is displayed as a vertical displacement fiom the horizontal sweep time trace. similar to the maximum acceptable in the product. Angle of Reflection The angle between the reflected beam and a normal to the boundary interface. Angle Beam Testing A testing method in which trammission is at an angle to the sound entry surface. Linear The fractional decrease in transmitted intensity per unit of absorber thickness. Angle of Refraction The angle between the refracted rays of an ultrasonic beam and the normal (or perpendicular line) to the rehcting surface. It is usually designated by the symbol and expressed in units of cml. Amle of Incidence The angle between the incident (transmitted) beam and a normal to the boundary interface.Chapter 5 . Also may refer to the document defining acceptable discontinuity size limits. Amplifier A device to increase or amplify electrical impulses. wkl. b. Inspector's Handbook . Absorption Coefficient. . measured fiom base-to-peak or peak-to-peak. It is the product of the material density and the acoustic wave velocity within that material. The angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. Indication The vertkal height of a received indication.

The operation of angle beam testing at less than first critical angle. \ s . . including the material in test. Basic. Boundary Indication A reflection of an ultrasonic beam from an interface. Bi-modal The propagation of sound in a test article where at least a shear wave and a longitudinal wave exists. Broad Banded Having a relatively wide frequency bandwidth. Back Reflection The signal received from the back surface of a test object. The display shows the location of a discontinuity. B-scan Display A cathode-ray tube display in which the received signal is displayed as an illuminated spot. Attenuator A device for measuring attenuation. document. The face of the CRT represents the area of a vertical plane through the material.Array Transducer A transducer made up of several piezoelectric elements individually connected so that the signals they transmit or receive nay be treated separately or combined as desired. Background Noise Extraneous signals caused by signal sources within the ultrasonic testing system. usually calibrated in decibels (dB).Calibration The procedure of standardizing an instrument using calibration reflectors described in an application . Baseline The horizontal line across the bottom of the CRT created by the sweep circuit. 4 - w Inspector's Handbook . Attenuation Coefficient A factor which is determined by the degree of scatter or absorption of ultrasound energy per unit distance traveled. Back Scatter Scattered signals that are directed back to the transmitterlreceiver. as it would appear in a vertical section view through the thickness direction of the material. Barium Titanate (Polycrystalliie Barium Titanate B a r n 3 ) A ceramic transducer material composed of many individual crystals fired together and polarized by the application of a dc field. Used to describe pulses which display a wide frequency spectnun and receivers capable of amplifying them.

C-scan A data presentation method yielding a plan (top) view through the scanned surface of the part. Calibration Reflector A reflector with a known dimensioned surface established to provide an accurately reproducible reference. Compressional Wave A wave in which the particle motion or vibration is in the same direction as the propagated wave (longitudinal wave). Comer Effect The strong reflection obtained when an ultrasonic beam is directed toward the inner section of two or three mutually perpendicular surfaces. Ld L . Critical An~le The incident angle of the sound beam beyond which a specific refracted mode of vibration no longer exists. Through gating.libration To determine or mark the graduations of the ultrasonic system's display relative to a known standard or reference. Collimator An attachment designed to reduce the ultrasonic beam spread. Contracted Sweep A contraction of the horizontal sweep on the viewing screen of the ultrasonic instrument. Cross Talk An unwanted condition in which acoustic energy is coupled from the transmitting crystal to the receiving . only indications arising from the interior of the test object are indicated.. Continuous Wave A wave that continues without interruption. Couplant A substance used between the face of the transducer and test surface to permit or improve transmission of ultrasonic energy across this b o u n w or interface. Contact Transducer A transducer which is coupled to a test surface either directly or through a thin film of couplant. Primarily used to remove the air in the interface. Inspector's Handbook . Contraction of this sweep pennits viewing reflections occurring over a greater sound-path distance or duration of time. either directly or through a thin layer of couplant. X/ ". Contact Testing A technique of testing in which the transducer contacts the test surface.pystalwithout propagating along the intended path through the material. Compensator An electrical matching network to compensate for circuit impedance differences.

Also referred to as time corrected gain (TCG). \ 4 Delay Line A material (liquid or solid) placed in front of a transducer to use a time delay between the initial pulse and the fiont surface reflection. Diffise Reflection Scattered." of a wave front when passing the edge or edges of a discontinuity. incoherent reflections caused by rough surfaces or associate interface reflection of ultrasonic r o m irregularities of the same order of magnitude or greater than the wavelength. Detectability The ability of the ultrasonic system to locate a discontinuity. waves f Discontinuity An interruption or change in the physical structure or characteristics of a material. Difiction The deflection. generally an area of unbonded materials.irregular surface. and is a function of diameter and frequency.& Inspector's Handbook . 5-4 . Divergence Spreading of ultrasonic waves after leaving search unit. hereby eliminating the presentation of early response data. or "bending. Dual-Element Technique The technique of ultrasonic testing using two transducers with one acting as the transmitter and one as f receiver. Decibel (dB) The logarithmic expression of a ratio of two amplitudes or intensities of acoustic energy Delamination A laminar discontinuity. Dispersion. Sound Scattering of an ultrasonicbeam as a result of diffuse reflection from a highly. Delayed Sweee A means of delaying the start of horizontal sweep.time variable gain (TVG) and sensitivity time control (STC).Damping (transducer) Limiting the duration of vibration in the search unit by either electrical or mechanical means. Dead Zone The distance in a material from the sound entry surface to the nearest inspectable sound path. Distance Amplitude CorrectionP A C ) Compensation of gain as a function of time for difference in amplitude of reflections fiom equal reflectors at different sound travel distances. Delta Effect Acoustic energy re-radiated by a discontinuity.

zffective Penetration The maximum depth in a material at which the ultrasonic transmission is sufficient for proper detection of discontinuities. using a liquid as an ultrasonic couplant.Dual-Element Transducer A single transducer housing containing two piezoelectric elements. First Leg The sound path beginning at the exit point of the probe and extending to the point of contact opposite the examination surface when performing angle beam testing. Frequency Number of complete cycles of a wave motion passing a given point in a unit time (1 second). distance. Emz (Hz) One cycle per second. LZ Focusing Concentration or convergence of energy into a smaller beam. An indication which has no direct relation to reflected pulses from discontinuities in the materials being tested. Inspector's Handbook 5-4 . or impulse. b 'Immersion Testing A technique of testing. - Gate Ghost An electronic means to monitor an associated segment of time. Focused Transducer A transducer with a concave face which converges the acoustic beam to a focal point or line at a d e f d distance from the race. Far Field The region beyond the near field in which areas of high and low acoustic intensity cease to occur. Electrical Noise Extraneous signals caused by externally radiated electrical signals or from electrical interferences within the ultrasonic instrumentation. Electromametic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) A device using the magneto effect to generate and receive acoustic signals for ultrasonic nondestructive tests. number of times a vibration is repeated at the same point in the same direction per unit time (usually per second). one for transmitting and one for receiving. in which the test part and at least the transducer face is immersed in the couplant and the transducer is not in contact with the test part. Horizontal Linearity A measure of the proportionality between the positions of the indications appearing on the baseline and the positions of their sources.

Longitudinal Wave Velocity The unit speed of propagation of a longitudinal (compressional) wave through a material. Insonification Irradiation with sound. for example) are the same in all directions. Manipulator A device used to orient the transducer assembly. This indication represents the emission of ultrasonic energy from the crystal face (main bang). Loss of Back Reflection Absence of or a significant reduction of an indication from the back surface of the article being inspected. Linearity (area) A system response in which a linear relationship exists between amplitude of response and the discontinuity sizes being evaluated necessarily limited by the size of the ultrasonic beam. Linearity(depth) A system response where a linear relationship exists with varying depth for a constant size discontinuity. Miniature Angle Beam Block A specific type of reference standard used primarily for the angle beam method.Impedance (acoustic) A material characteristic defined as a product of particle velocity and material density. it provides either angular or normal incidence and fmes the transducer-to-part distance. Isotropy A condition in which significant medium properties (velocity. Lamb Wave A type of ultrasonic vibration guided by parallel surfaces of thin mediums capable of propagation in different modes. As applied to immersion techniques. Maior Screen Divisions The vertical graticule used to divide the CRT into 10 equal horizontal segments. Interface The physical boundary between two adjacent acoustic mediums. Inspeetor's Handbook v . Indication(ultrasonics) The signal displayed or read on the ultrasonic systems display. Material Noise Extraneous signals caused by the structure of the material being tested. but also used for straig w beam and surface wave tests. Initial Pulse The first indication which may appear on the screen.

Near Field.. . defect axis." Normal Incidence A condition where the angle of incidence is zero. Narrow Banded A relative term denoting a restricted range of frequency response. Node The point on the examination surface where the V-path begins or ends. Also known as the Fresnel field. Phased Array A mosaic of probe elements in which the timing of the element's excitation can be individuallv controlled to produce certain desired effects. etc. Inspector's Handbook . Penetration (ultrasonic) Propagation of ultrasonic energy through an article. also referred to as "grass. such as steering the beam axis or focusing the beam. Piezoelectric Effect The characteristic of certain materials to generate electrical charges when subjected to mechanical vibrations and.Minor Screen Divisions i f t y equal segments. L40ise Any undesired indications that tend to interfere with t k interpretation or processinn . Nanosecond One billionth of a second. A distance immediately in front of a transducer composed of complex and changing wave front characteristics. Each major screen division is The vertical graticule used to divide the CRT into f divided into five equal segments or minor divisions. conversely to generate mechanical vibrations when subjected to electrical pulses. Mode The manner in which acoustic energy is propagated through a material as characterized by the particle motion of the wave. to a reference p l w or sound entry surface. plane. M o d e Conversion The change of ultrasonic wave propagation upon reflection or refraction at acute angles at an interface. Multiple Back Reflections Repetitive indications from the back d a c e of the material being examined. L .of the ultrasonic information. Orientation The angular relationship of a surface.

and polarized by applying a direct voltage of a few thousand volts per centimeter of thickness. Raylei& WaveISurface Wave A wave that travels on or close to the surface and readily follows the curvature of the part being examined. e. LCD's or computerized displays. lead metaniobate. created (approximately 100oOc). energy is not sent out continuously. Presentation or C-scans The method used to show ultrasonic information. Reference Blocks A block or series of blocks of material containing artificial or actual discontinuities of one or more reflecting areas at one or more distances *om the sound entry surface. the number of pulses transmitted in a unit of time (also called pulse repetition rate). . . This may include (among others) A-. 5-8 Inspector's EI. Reflections occur only at sharp changes of direction of the surface. Rarefaction The thinning out or moving apart of the consistent particles in the propagating medium due to the relaxation phase of an ultrasonic cycle. The sound wave is composed of alternate compressions and rehctions of the particles in a material. r Radio Frequency Display (RF) The presentation of unrectified signals in a display. Includes sodium bismuth titanate. Pulse Rate For the pulse echo technique.bxs The maximum ultrasonic path length that is displayed. Pulse Len* Time duration of the pulse from the search unit.Polarized Ceramics Ceramic materials that are sintered (pressed). and several materials based on lea+ u zirconate titanate (PZT). Pulse Echo Technique An ultrasonic test technique using equipment which transmits a series of pulses separated by a constant period of time. Also. These are used for calibrating instrume and in defining the size and distance of discontinuous areas in materials. Opposite in its effect to compression.andbook . CRTs. The polarization is the process that makes these ceramics piezoelectric. i. the probe that receives the reflected signals. R. Receiver The section of the ultrasonic instrument that amplifies the electronic signals returning from the test specimen. displayed on various types of recorders. Propagation Advancement of a wave through a medium. Probe Transducer or search unit..

Use of this control may affect vertical linearity. Inspector's Handbook 5- . Repetition Rate The rate at which the individual pulses of acoustic energy are generated. Resolving Power The capability measurement of an ultrasonic system to separate in time two closely spaced discontinuities or to separate closely spaced. Scattering Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in a medium due to causes other than absorption Second Leg The sound path beginning at the point of contact on the opposite surface and extending to the point of contact on the examination surface when performing angle beam testing. thickness or presence of laminar L Siscontinuities. resulting in large amplitude vibrations. Refractive Index The ratio of the velocity of a incident wave to the velocity of the refhcted wave. L Pehction A change in the direction and velocity of acoustic energy after it has passed at an acute angle through an interface between two different mediums. Resonance Technique A technique using the resonance principle for determining velocity. It is a measure of the amount a wave will be refracted when it enters the second medium after leaving the first. Reiect/Suppression An instrument function or control used for reducing low amplitude signals. Scanning (manual and automatic) The moving of the search unit or units along a test surface to obtain complete testing of a material. Sensitivity The ability to detect small discontinuities at given distances. the retun of sound 3-resfrom surfaces. Shear Wave The wave in which the particles of the medium vibrate in a direction perpendicular to the direction of propagation.multiple reflections. Saturation(scope) A term used to describe an indication of such a size as to exceed full screen height (100%). . The level of amplification at which the receiving circuit in an ultrasonic instrument is set.Reflection The characteristic of a surface to change the direction of propagating acoustic energy.iesonance The condition in which the hquency of a forcing vibration (ultrasonic wave) is the same as the natural vibration frequency of the propagation body (test object). also Pulse Rate.

such as heterogeneity in grain size. May be either send-receive or through transmission. Ultrasonic Absorption A damping of ultrasonic vibrations that occurs when the wave transverses a medium. the linear or surface distance from the sound entry point to the f i r s t reflection point on the same surface. Also the probe that emits ultrasonic signals. based on a range in ultrasonic velocity. Transmission Angle The incident angle of the transmitted ultrasonic beam. usually on the opposite side of the part. Snell's Law The law that defines the relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of refkction across an interface. piezoelectric element. Transducer (search unit) An assembly consisting basically of a housing. Transmitter The electrical circuit of an ultrasonic instrument that generates the pulses emitted to the search unit.. The ratio of the magnitudes of vibrations transmitted and received is used as the criterion of soundness.Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) The ratio of amplitudes of indications from he smallest discontinuity considered significant and those caused by random factors. backing material. top of a fatigue crack) of a discontinuity through the interruption of an incident sound beam propagating through a material. Straight Beam An ultrasonic wave traveling normal to the test surface.e. - u Skip Distance In angle beam tests of plate. Sweep The uniform and repeated movement of a spot across the screen of a CRT to form the baseline. Two Probe Method Use of two transducers for sending and receiving. ' 4 Tip Diffiction The process by which a signal is generated from the tip (i. Specific Acoustic Impedance A characteristic which acts to determine the amount of reflection which occurs at an interface and represents the wave velocity and the product of the density of the medium in which the wave is propagating. etc. It is zero degrees when the ultrasonic beam is perpendicular to the test swface. Inspector's Handbook . wear plate (optional) and electrical leads for converting electrical impulses into mechanical energy and vice versa. or welds. . Through-Transmission A test technique using two transducers in which the ultrasonic vibrations are ernitted by one and received by the other. pipe.

Water Path The distance fnrm the face of the search unit to the entry surface of the material under test in immersion testing.000 hertz. Inspector's Handbook .Ultrasonic Spectrum The frequency span of elastic waves greater than the highest audible kquency. L Wraparound Nonrelevant indications that appear on the CRT as a result of a short pulse repetition rate in the pulser circuit of the test instrument. 'Jltrasonic Svstem The totality of components utilized to perform an ultrasonic test on a test article. Video Presentation A CRT presentation in which radio frequency signals nave been rectified and usually filtered. V-path The vath of the ultrasonic beam in the test object from the point of entry on the examination surface to the back surface' and reflecting to the front surface again. generally regarded as being higher than 20. Wedgelshoe A device used to adapt a straight beam probe for use in a specific type of testing. Wavelength The distance in the direction of propagation for a wave to go through one complete cycle. including angle beam or d a c e wave tests and tests on curved surfaces. to approximately 1O00 megahertz. Velocity The speed at which sound travels through a medium.

Common Math Formulas Wavelength r L I T ? = Wavelength V F = Veloocity = Frequency Crystal Thickness CT = Acoustic Impedance Reflected Acoustic Energy ER= 100 ( 21-22 ) 2 21+22 h 2 z = POI) Z = Acoustic impedance P = Materials density V = Acoustic velocity CT = Crystal thickne$s h = Wavelength Use .22 Velocity of the material Diameter of the transducer Frequency of the transducer ET = El ER ET = Energy transmitted El = Energy intiated ER = Energy reflected K= V= D= F= - Times 2 for full angle beam spread Decibel Difference SIN 01 = A1 Db=20 [LOG (-)I A2 Db = Decibel difference LOG = Natural logrithm A1 = Amplitude number one A2 = Amplitude number two Snell's Law & Angle of Reflection SIN 02 * V1 V2 Angle of incidence Critical angle* Wedge angle I N SIN 02 = ' * V2 v1 * 1st critical angle V2 is long = 90° 2nd critical angle V2 is shear = 90° Rule of thumb: every 6 Db doubles the size of the indication height (pip) 5-12 Inspectar's Handbook .23 if material is unknown Energy Transmitted Half Angle Beam Spread SIN ER = Energy reflected Z1 = Acoustic impedance material #1 22 = Acoustic impedance material #2 Nearfield (nearzone) N= N= D= F= V= D * (F) 4 (V) Length of the near field Diameter of the transducer Transducer frequency Materials velocity u 0=K( v ) D*F 1.

21 SDD Surface distance to defect #DD =Depth of defed during half sound path ##OD =Depth of defect during full sound path T =Member thickness Calibration C h a r t .I. block for calibration Inspector's Handbook .Half / Full Sound Path & Skip / Setback Distance HSP= T COS 0 HALF SKIP = T TAN 8 FSP= 2T cos e FULL SKIP = 2T * TAN 0 T =Member thickness Surface Distance to Defect / Depth of Defect SDD = Sound Path * SIN 8 #DD = Sound Path * COS 8 ##DD = (Sound Path * COS 0) .UT Shearwave b PLATE THICKNESS 1" 112" *HALF SKIP 314" 1" PLATE THICKNESS I 1 112" - 1 314" - FULL SKIP 2" * Applicable holes in the M.

Inspector's Handbook .

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Pnspector's Handbook

Chapter 6 Eddy Current Testing
Common Terms and Definitions Absolute Coil b A test arrangement which tests the specimen without any comparison to either another portion of the test specimen or to a known reference.
Alternating A voltage, current or magnetic field that reverses direction at regularly recurring intervals. Bobbin Coil A coil or coil assembly used for eddy current testing by insertion into the test piece; e.g., an inside probe for tubing. Also referred to as Inside Coil or IP Coil. Coil it. Coil Spacing The axial distance between two encircling coils of a differential system.
/

-

Conductor wound in one or more loops to produce an axial magnetic field when current is passed through

Conductivity The willingness of a test circuit or test specimen to conduct current. Coupling A measure of the degree to which the magnetic field of the coil passes through the test specimen and is w ffkted by the magnetic field created by the flow of eddy currents. Defed Resolution A property of a test system which enables the separation of signals due to defects in.the test specimen that are located in close proximity to each other. Diamagnetic A material having a permeability less than that of a vacuum. Differential Coil A test arrangement which tests the specimen by comparing the portion being tested with either another portion of the same specimen or to a known reference specimen. Discontinuitv, Artificial Reference discontinuities, such as holes, grooves, or notches, which are introduced into a reference standard to provide accurately reproducible sensitivity levels for electromagnetic test equipment. Double Coil A test arrangement where the alternating current is supplied through one coil while the change in material condition is measured from a second coil. Eddy Current A circulating electrical current induced in a conductive material by an alternating magnetic field. L Inspector's Handbook

Edge or End Effect The disturbance of the magnetic field and eddy currents due to the proximity of an abrupt change in geometry (edge, end). The effect generally results in the masking of discontinuities within the affected region.
f

Effective Depth of Penetration The depth in a material beyond which a test system can no longer detect a change in material properties.

d

Effective Permeability A hypothetical quantity which is used to describe the magnetic field distribution within a cylindrical conductor in an encircling coil. The field strength of the applied magnetic field is assumed to be uniform over the entire cross section of the test specimen with the effective permeability, which is characterized by the conductivity and diameter of the test specimen and test frequency, assuming values between zero and one, such that its associated amplitude is always less than one within the specimen. Electromagnetic Induction The process by which a varying or alternating current (eddy current) is induced into an electrically conductive test object by a varying electromagnetic field. Electromagnetic Testing That nondestructive test method for engineering materials, including magnetic materials, which uses electromagnetic energy having frequencies less than those of visible light to yield information regarding the quality of the tested material. Encircling Coil A coil, coils, or coil assembly that surrounds the part to be tested. Coils of this type are also referred to as circumferential, OD or feed-through coils.
w

External Reference Differential A differential test arrangement that compares a portion of the test specimen to a known reference standard. Ferromagnetic A material which, in general, exhibits hysteresis phenomena, and whose permeability is dependent on the magnetizing force. Fill Factor For an inside coil, it is the ratio of the outside diameter of the coil squared to the inside diameter of the specimen squared. For an encircling coil, it is the ratio of the outside diameter of the specimen squared to the inside diameter of the coil squared. Flux Density A measure of the strength of a magnetic field expressed as a number of flux lines passing through a given area. Henry The unit of inductance. More precisely, a circuit in which an electromotive force of one volt is induced when the current is changing at a rate of one ampere per second will have an inductance of one henry. (Symbol: H) Hertz The unit of frequency (one cycle per second). (Symbol: Hz)

electrical Impedance Analysis An analytical method which consists of correlating changes in the amplitude. Inductive Reactance The opposition to current flow in a test circuit or coil when an alternating voltage source is applied and due solely to the electrical properties of the mil as affected by the magnetic field. Low Pass Filter An electronic circuit designed to block signals of high frequency while passing low frequency signals. Lift-off Effect The effed observed due to a change in magnetic coupling between a test specimen and a probe coil whenever the distance between them is varied.. Magnetic Flux Lines A closed curve in a magnetic field through points having equal magnetic force and direction. A value of conductivity established as a standard against which other conductivity values are referred to in percent IACS. Magnetic Field A condition of space near a magnet or current-carrying wire in which forces can be detected. Inspector's Handbook 6-3 . or quadrature components (or all of these) of a complex test signal voltage to the electromagnetic conditions within the specimen. IACS k w The International Annealed Copper Standard. plus the of the coil as affected by the coil's magnetic field. Inertia The property of matter which manifests itself as a resistance to any change in the momentum of a body. Impedance-plane Diagram A graphical representation of the locus of points indicating the variations in the impedance of a test coil as a function of basic test parameters. In haw detection. undesired response to dimensional and physical variables (other than flaws) in the test part is called "part noise. Lift-off The distance between a swface probe coil and the specimen. phase. An inductor resists any sudden change in the current flowing through it. Noise b Any undesired signal that tends to interfere with the normal reception or processing of a desired signal. Inductance The inertial element of the electric circuit. Impedance The ovtmsition to current flow in a test circuit or a coil due to the resistance of that circuit or coil.High Pass Filter An electronic circuit designed to block signals of low frequency while passing high frequency signals.

Resistance The opposition to current flow in a test circuit or coil based on specific material properties and crosssectional area and length of a conductor. and which is approximately independent of the magnetizing force. Phase Angle The angle measured cycle is equal to 360".Nonferroma. One complete Phase Shift A change in the phase relationship between two alternating quantities of the same frequency. essentially not affected by magnetic fields. Phase Analysis An instrumentation technique which discriminates between variables in the test part by the different phase angle changes which these conditions produce in the test signal. This would include paramagnetic materials having a magnetic permeability slightly greater than that of a vacuum and approximately independent bf the magnetizing force and diamagnetic materials having a permeability less tha.'' of a vacuum. Permeability Variations Magnetic inhomogeneities of a material. Reiection Level The setting of the signal level above or below which all parts are rejectable or in an automatic system at which objectional parts will actuate the reject mechanism of the system. Inspector's Handbook . Permeability A measure of the ease with which the magnetic domains of a material align themselves with an externally applied magnetic field. Saturation The degree of magnetization produced in a ferromagnetic material for which the incremental permeabili has decreased substantially to unity. Probe Coil Asmall coil or coil assembly normally used for surface inspections. Response Amplitude The property of the test system whereby the amplitude of the detected signal is measured without regard to phase. V Paramagnetic A material having a permeability which is slightly greater than that of a vacuum. - w Reference Standard A test specimen used as a basis for calibrating test equipment or as a comparison when evaluating test results.gnetic A material that is not magnetizable and hence. degrees that the current in the test circuit leads or lags the voltage.

Inspector's Handbook 6-5 . a concept that has been established by authority. Skin Effect A phenomenon where. Signalto-noise Ratio The ratio of response or amplitude of signals of interest to the response or amplitude of signals containing L no usell information.Self-comparison Differential A differential test arrangement that compares two portions of the same test specimen. or agreement to serve as a model or d e in the measurement of &tity or the establishment of a practice or a procedure. Standard Depth of Penetration The depth in a test specimen where the magnitude of eddy current flow is equal to 37 percent of the eddy current flow at the surface. Standard A reference used as a basis for comparison or calibration. custom. the eddy current flow is restricted to a thin layer of the test specimen close to the coil. at high frequencies. Single Coil A test arrangement where the alternating current is supplied through the same coil from which the indication is taken.

Two Types of Electrical Current Direct Current (DC) 4 - Current flow is constant over time Current is distributed uniformly over the cross-section of the conductor Example: battery Current strength and direction remain constant over time Time Alternating Current (AC) - Current flow varies over time w Current flows at or near the surface of the conductor this phenomenon is called the SL. effect Example: 60 cycle ac in wall sockets - Current strength varies over time. current direction reverses every 112 cycle Time Inspector's Handbook' .

From this figure it can be seen that the current flow in the conductor creates circular lines of force. The fingers will then point in the direction of the lines of force. A specific grade of high purity copper was designated as 100 % conductivity. A l l other metals (except silver) are designated some % less then 100 %. C* C B A The field intensity at point C is less than at point B. Right Hand Rule L An easy method for fmding the direction of an electrically induced magnetic field is to imagine grasping the conductor in the right hand with the thumb pointing in the direction of the current flow. These percentages indicate the relative efficiencies of the various metals for carrying electric current. and point B's intensity is less than point A's Inspector's Handbook . This is the right hand rule and is shown below. k. CURRENT FLOW The coil's magnetic field intensity (strength) decreases with'in~reasin~ distance away from the outside of the coil.Conductivity and the IACS Conductivity of a metal is usually expressed as a percentage (%) and is based on the international annealed copper standard (IACS).

and for all practical purposes the assumption is valid. The symbol for permeability is ' p '(mu). etc.-- .0 - 0 - Current out I When a metal rod is placed inside the coil. The number of lines of force in the rod divided by the cross-sectional area of the rod equals the flux density (symbol 'B') in the rod.)./- The coil's magnetic field can be viewed as a distribution of lines of force around the coil. example: p. The metal's willingness to carry these magnetic flux lines is called permeability. W ' Lines of Force ' Y \. This assumption is based on the use of AC and small diameter coils. the coil flux passes through the rod. permeability is expressed as the flux density in the material (B) divided by the magnetizing force (H) that caused it. for air = 1 p for copper alloys = 1 p.C1 The coil's field intensity (strength) is assumed to be constant across the inside diameter of the coil. permeability is a material property that is the same for all samples of a particular material (assume same chemistry. Permeability = o r p H B Flux densih Magnetizing force Like conductivity. 'N / \ . Current in C. The flux density in the rod depends on the metal's willingness to cany the magnetic flux. ' N-* ---I- ' w Mathematically. and represent the coil's magnetic force (symbol 'H'). for steels = several thousand . These lines of force are call magnetic flux.

the metal is said to be saturated. is applied.The permeability value of 1 for air and copper alloys (and all other nonmagnetic materials) means that the magnetic flux in the material is exactly equal to the flux coming from the coil. and the flux 'B' is many thousands of times greater than the applied flux 'HI. Completely Oriented Domains (saturation) Inspector's Handbook . something is happening in the ferromagnetic metals to create all this additional flux that is not happening in the nonmagnetic materials. stated another way: b/h = 2000 means h . Their combined individual magnetism starts to produce an observable increase in the flux in the metal. . Magnetic domains are groups of atoms within a ferromagnetic metal which behave like tiny permanent magnets. the domains are randomly oriented and neutralize each other. producing no observable magnetic flux in the metal. b stated another way: b/h = 1 only when b = h The high permeability value of steels (and all other ferromagnetic metals) means that the magnetic flux in the metal is thousands of times greater than the applied flux fiom the coil. . over and above the applied flux (H). Magnetic Domains Obviously. w In unmagnetized magnetic materials. When the magnetizing force fiom the coil.= 2000 x h . Partially Oriented Domains When the domains are completely aligned. the domains begin to align in the direction of the applied flux. . This domain behavior is responsible for the mrrlinear relationship between (E3) and (H) in ferromagnetic metals and for the hysteresis effect.

The alternating magnetic field that surrounds the coil will penetrate the article. \ 1 I . The circulating eddy currents possess their own "secondary" magnetic field. A --*# Eddy current field opposes coil's field Inspector's I F a n h k . in an article. Note: When a generator's electrical current reverses it direction. generating small circulating electrical currents. II II Electrical current Test coil $4 Article being tested Eddy currents are circulating electrical currents induced in an isolated conductor by an alternating magnetic field. called eddy currents.When a coil of wire carrying alternating current is brought into proximity to a conducting article. I . Note that there is no direct electrical contact between the coil and the test article . Direction of coil's field Ac .eddy currents are generated by electromagnetic induction. The "primary" magnetic field surrounding the ac coil will penetrate the test articles and induce eddy c m t s in the article. the direction of the eddy currents will ako reverse. This secondary field will oppose the coils and reduce the size and strength of the coil's field.

confusing the inspection. 3) Eddy currents flow in circular paths. A DC field will not generate eddy currents.----I------------------Changes in conductivity Change in coil's magnetic field Characteristics of Eddy Current T e s t circuit Change in coil's impedance - Change in meter reading Material 1) Can only be induced in conductors Coated (i.e. ET indications could originate from either the base metal or the plating. is essential to the production of eddy currents. parallel to the coil windings. where it will be sensed. which will affect the AC flowing in the coil. LTn this way. /ENCIRCLING COIL - CRACK EDDY CURRENTS . & @ ) \ \ e onc conductive 1--conductive -Conductive material material *Conductivematerial mate 2) Can be generated only by an alternating magnetic field there must be relative motion between the field and the test article. then breaks down and reverses direction every 112 cycle.Changes in the strength or shape of the secondary field will affect the primary field. since the coil's field will generate eddy currents in both the metallic plating and the base material. Plated articles should not be tested. painted) articles may be tested. Consequently. since the coils field will pass through the nonconducting coating and generate eddy currents in the metal beneath. The moving AC field which builds up. variations of the test article that disturb or alter the flow of the eddy currents will disturb the electromagnetic coupling between the two fields and cause indications on the test instnunent -------------.

As the frequency is lowered. the eddy current distribution extends deeper into the article.a relationship also exists between the frequency of the ac applies to the test coil and the eddy current depth of penetration. As the frequency is increased. the material and the test coil are the same. View B shows shallower penetration. this means that a lower frequency was used. Since view a shows deeper eddy current penetration into the material. I 4 (A) Coil position . /=' coil far away from article being tested 7 1 1 I \\ 1 + II '8 possible to the article being tested (B) Operating frequency . Keep in mind that a high frequency causes the eddy currents to accumulate near the surface closest to the test coil. and the test article conductivity and permeability. therefore.since the coil's field is limited in size and decreases in strength with increasing distance away from the coil. . the operating frequency. maximum field penetration into the article and. so a high frequency was used. The depth of eddy current penetration below the surface is directly affkcted by the nearness of the coil to the test article. The reverse is also true. eddy current distribution concentrates near the surface and decreases deep with the test article. Frequency \ - Depth of Penetration I Depth of Eddy Current Penetration I View A View B In both view A and B above. 02. maximum depth of eddy current penetration is achieved by mving the coil as close as practical to the test article surface.Depth of Penetration Eddy currents are strongest at the surface nearest the coil (due to skin effect) and weaken with depth.

: : : . a metal's magnetic permeability (p) affects the depth of eddy current penetration. A surface coil is designed to be used on localized areas on a surface.. : . The depth of penetration decrease as the permeability increases. ' : . .. ' L - An encircling coil. the depth of eddy currents decreases.. by referring to the % IACS conductivity chart shown earlier. on the other hand. and is usually contained in a hand-held probe.encircling .. the less conductive metals achieve deeper eddy current penetration than the more conductive metals. Inspector's Handbook . . As the figure shows. 2 : . and that copper is much more conductive than either.. : : : . copper In the figure. As conductivity increases.. You can verifl that tin is more conductive the lead.. There are 3 basic types of eddy current test: surface . the coil and test frequency are the same in each view. d) Magnetic permeability f d y . :. : .. . .c) Conductivity the figure below illustrates that the depth of eddy current penetration also varies with metal's electrical conductivity. Only the material type is different. : Depth of Eddy Current Penetration - : . ' : : . : : .: . is large enough to surround an object about one of its axes and is designed to test an entire segment of the object at one time. 'c/ - Indicator oil Depth of Eddy Current Penetration Lead Tin Indicator Coil Indicator oil . : . : .and inside.

.Encircling Coil An inside coil is designed to be placed inside a hole or cavity in the object. and is especially suited for testing thin wall tubing. oc . ARTICLE bb$Lc L .The eddy currents circulate parallel to the coil windings The eddy currents hug the surface that is nearest the coil - .INSIDE COIL Note that with each of the coil types: .

two side-by-side coils are wound and connected so that the output of on cancels the output of the other as long as the test object properties are the same under both coils. This mode is most ensitive to small defects and is relatively insensitive to material variations such as hardness. or may be due to the presence of defects. gross surface megularities. Since cracks or other discontinuities force the eddy currents to take a longer path by flowing around them. etc. and to material variations such as hardness.TEST COIL MAGNETIC FIELD E D D Y CURRENT CRACK . gross surface irregularities.Each of these 3 coil types may be used in either the differential or absolute test mode. etc. a single coil tests the area of the test object beneath it without comparison to a reference area This mode is most sensitive to large defects longer than the coil. A B S O L U T E COIL The 3 general material variables (properties) that affect the flow of eddy currents in the material are: 1) Changes in conductivity . the overall effect of the discontinuity is to reduce the conductivity of the metal. EDDY CURRENT MAGNETIC FIELD TEST COI L MAGNETIC F I E L D E D D Y CURRENT . In the differential coil arrangement.conductivity changes may be caused by variations in alloy chemistry or heat treatment. P1 DIFFEREN TlAL In the absolute mode.

Edge effed is the false indication caused by disruption of by disruption of the eddy current path when the coil approaches an end or edge of the material. they also cause a pronounced (and detectable) change in the eddy current flow. the false indication caused by changing the spacing between the test coil and the material d a c e is called lift-off. Since changes in permeability cause changes in the amount of flux in the metal. -------------' \ MAGNETIC Inspector's Handbook . Eddy currents are induf ' ' 4 by flux changes in the metal and are directly related to the density or amount of flux. On the other hand. Two more dimensional of eddy current testing is edge effect and lift-off. 2) The second material variable affecting eddy current flow is magnetic permeability. the eddy currents must flow around the crack. it clearly illustrates how a change in physical dimension can alter the electromagnetic coupling between the coil and the object. w The effect is strong enough to "mask' any changes due to other factors. 3) Changes in the physical dimensions. Although the figure below is a gross example. or size and shape of the test object also affect the eddy current flow. the edge of the material looks h e a very large crack to the eddy current instrument.As the figure illustrates. In effect. effectively reducing the conductivity of the metal.

The lift-off effect can be used to measure the thickness of nonconducting coatings. a surface coil passes over a surface crack and a subsurface lamination in the metal. causing a detectable disruption in their flow.Lift-off has a very large effect on the ET output display due to the decrease in primary field flux in the material as the coil distance from the materials surface is increased. will not cause much disruption of the eddy current path since the . Another important relationship between eddy current flow and the presence of discontinuities is that the discontinuity must lie perpendicular to the direction of eddy current flow to be detected. a coil placed in contact with the painted surface "sees" the paint thickness simply as lift-off distance. The lamination on the other hand. on a conducting object. WONCONDUC SURFACE I 1 b CvnOUCTlVE MATERIAL I I ARTICLE A c e eddy currents cannot be generated in the nonconductor. \ INSPECTION COIL EDDY CURRENTS ' SURFACE CRACK SUBSURFACE LAMINAR SEPARATION - In the situation above. netal separation lies parallel to the direction of current flow. It is easy to see that the crack will force the eddy currents to take a longer path around it. such as paint. Inspector's Handbook 6-17 .

and dimension variables is difficult and often not possible. and by nearness of the coil to the test object. Depth of penetration is affected by conductivity and permeability of test object. 6. inspection depth is limited to less then 1 ii. Able to test through surface coatings (nonconducting) but not through plating (metal). Advantages of Eddy Current Testing 1. Can locate only d a c e and shallow subsurface discontinuities. 4 4.Limitations of Eddy Current Testing 1. 2. real-time inspection. 3. Generated by an alternating magnetic field. magnetic permeability. permeability. Circulates parallel to coil windings. 2. 3. 5. Separation of the effects of conductivity. 7. dimension. paint). Eddy Current Relationship of Properties Penetration Decrease Increase Frequency Increase Decrease Conductivity Increase Decrease Permeability Increase Decrease Inspector's Handbook . Inspect only conducting articles (i. 2. by test frequency. 3.e. Eddy current flow is affected by changes in the material's conductivity. Fast. ET is an indirect inspection requiring the use of calibration standards. you must know what you are looking for in order to find it. Totally nondestructive. Flow only in conductors. 4. no interference with the test item. Limited to surface/shallow s u b d a c e testing. Able to inspect through nonconductive coatings (i. Summary of Properties of Eddy Currents 1. metals).e.

Inspector's Handbook . One angstrom equals lo-* centimeters. An~strom A unit of length used to express wavelength. It is expressed in "'rads." Accelerator A device that accelerates charged atomic particles to high energies.Radiographic Inspection Common Definitions and Examples w Absorbed dose The amount of energy imparted to matter by an ionizing particle per unit mass of irradiated material at the place of interest. This radiation is strongly ionizing with very weak penetration. Activity A measure of how radioactive a particular radioisotope is. Sackscatter includes secondary radiation resulting from the interaction between the primary radiation from the source and the material being radiated. with the exception of hydrogen. ' . Included in the atom is an extranuclear portion composed of electrons equal in number to the protons in the nucleus. The autotransformer is employed to adjust the primary voltage applied to the step-up transformer that produces the high voltage applied to the x-ray tube. It is made up of two neutrons and two protons. walls. Atom The smallest part of an element. The hydrogen atom includes a nucleus of one proton and extranuclear portion of one electron. Background radiation The radiation of man's radiation natural environment. and other items in the area of a radiation source.Chapter 7 . of a number of protons and neutrons. equipment." Alpha particle A positively charged particle emitted by certain radioactive materials. hence it is identical with the nucleus of a helium atom. W e (target side) The positive terminal of an x-ray tube. consisting of radiation that comes from cosmic rays and from the naturally radioactive elements of the earth. Backscatter Radiation scattered h m the floor. Its unit of measurement is the "curie. The term may also mean radiation extraneous to an experiment. It is a high melting point element that receives the electron bombardment from the cathode (filament). including radiation from within man's body. The atom consists of a nucleus composed. The number of atoms decaying per unit of time calculates activation. Autotransformer A special type of transformer in which the output voltage can be easily varied. -Q. Alpha ray As t r e a m of fast-moving helium nuclei (alpha particles). An x-ray machine is an accelerator.

I e'L-- \ \ \ ' \ continues with less energy \ Inspector's Handbook . "braking radiation" in German. \ 1 /@-o-. 200 Kev Electron Leaving L - 400 Kev Electron 8 200 Kev X-Ray A lightproof container. High energy Photon 0e d e . Bremsstrahlung ~lectroka~netic radiation (photon) emitted by charged particles when they are slowed down by e l e d fields in their passage through matter. Compton Effect The glancing collision of an x-ray or gamma ray with an electron to an orbital electron in matter with a lower enxgy in matter with a lower energy photon scattered at an angle to the original photon path. that is used for i l m s in position during the radiographic exposure.Beta particle An electron or position emitted from a nucleus during radioactive decay. 's/ A device used to surround a radiation source and so constructed as to both minimize the scattered radiation and to direct the primary or useful radiation into a more or less parallel beam onto a localized area. holding the radiographic f Cathode (filament side) The negatively-biased electrode of the x-ray tube. \ / / Ejected electron Photon 4 - I ' . The electron does not absorb all of the energy. Literally means. which may or may not contain intensifying andlor filter screens.

in rems per hour. Dosimeter A device that measures radiation dose. Thus. L Tontrast (radiographic) The measure of difference in the film blackening resulting from various x-ray intensities transmitted through the object and recorded as density differences in the image. Contrast (subiect] The ratio of radiation intensities passing through selected portions of a specimen. The radiation dose delivered per unit time and measured. Definition The measure of sharpness in the outline of the image of an object recorded on film. for instance. Dose The amount of ionizing radiation energy absorbed per unit mass of irradiated material at a specific location. 'Y Dose rate D u t y cvcle Usually expressed in a percentage to represent the time used versus the time not used. such as a film badge or ionization chamber. radiation energy and film characteristic. the sharpness is the function of the types of screens. Densitometer An instrument utilizing the photoelectric principle to determine the degree of darkening of developed photographic film. Developer A chemical solution that reduces exposed silver halide crystals to metallic silver. Contrast is determined h t h e slope of the characteristic curve. The lines are not definie boundaries but rather phase into one another. X-RAYS AND GAMMA RAYS ULTRAVIOLET RAYS LIGHT RAYS INFRARED RAYS DECREASING INCREASING L INCREASING - RADAR WAVELENGTH FREQUENCY ENERGY - SHORT WAVE RADIO LONG WAVE RADIO INCREASING DECREASING DECREASING Inspector's Handbook 7-3 . Electromametic Spectrum Represents the electromagnetic waves of different wave lengths. exposure geometry. such as a part of the human body. difference in film blackening from one area to another is contrast.Contrast (film) The change in density recorded on the film that results from a given change in radiation input.

. Half-life The time in which half the atoms in a radioactive substance decay...life (biological) The time required for a biological system. certain wavelengths and thus controlling the quality of the radiograph. to eliminate.. pre-exposure to radiation.. Discharges are counted to measure the radiation's intensity.. . of the x-ray tube used to produce electrons when heated.. Graininess A film characteristic that consists of the grouping or clumping together of the countless small silver grains into relatively large masses visible to the naked eye or with slight magnification. Filament A piece of wire in the cathode side.filled tube that discharges electrically when ionizing radiation passes through it. Time is dependant upon the element... Fon A darkening of the f i l m resulting from chemical action of the developer. negative side.. acetate base t protective layers Film b a d ~ e A package of photographic film worn as a badge by workers in the nuclear industry to measure exposure to ionization radiation. Encapsulation The process of sealing radioactive materials to prevent contamination. 7-4 Inspector's Handbook _c . aging... and one acetate base layer. ... The components of the film are two protective layers. or exposure to visible light. two Specialized f emulsion layers.Electron volt Is an amount of energy equal to the energy gained by one electron when it is accelerated by one volt... Filter A layer of absorptive material that is placed in the beam of radiation for the purpose of absorbing rays. i l m used for radiographic purposes. scattered or secondary radiation... Geiger counter A radiation detection and measuring instrument. by natural processr half the amount of a substance that has entered it. It contains a gas. Half...d Fixer - A chemical solution that dissolves unexposed silver halide crystals from developed film emulsions. The absorbed dose can be calculated by the degree of film darkening caused by the irradiation. . Emulsion A gelatin and silver bromide crystal mixture coated onto a transparent film base. such as a man or an animal...

. special nuclear material. Latent image The potential image that is stored in the form of chemical changes in the film emulsion and i s brought out by development of the film. or electron. possessed. Ion A charged atom or molecularly-bound group of atoms.Hal6 value layer The thickness of a material required to absorb one half of the impinging radiation. used. or by-product material received. F Interlock A device for precluding access to an area of radiation hazard either by preventing entry or by automatically removing the hazard. having charges of the same magnitude and formed from a neutral atom or molecule by the action of radiation or by any other agency that supplies energy.onizing radiation Any radiation that directly or indirectly displaces electrons from the orbital shells of atoms. Ion pairs A positive ion and a negative ion. v & The energy of X-rays or gamma rays measured in thousand electron volts. High tempe~tures. sometimes also a free electron or other charged subatomic particles. Licensed material Source material. atoms or molecules thereby creating ions. Intensifying screen A layer of material placed in contact with the film to increase the effect of the radiation. or transferred under a general or speciailicense issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. or knocking electrons from. Ionization chamber An instrument that detects and measures ionizing radiation by observing the electrical current created when radiation ionizes gas in the chamber making the gas a conductor of electricity. and nuclear radiation can cause ionization. Leak test A test on sealed sources to assure that radioactive material is not being released. ele~tricaldischar~es. thereby shortening ' v h e exposure. Latitude Latitude most closely aligned with contrast is commonly called the scale of the film. Ionization The process of adding electrons to. A high contrast f i l m has little latitude and conversely a low contrast film has great latitude. Latitude is the range of thickness of material that canbe transferred or recorded on the radiograph within the usell reading range of f i l m density. Inspector's Handbook 7-5 .

\ g4-' ' \ . Microshrinkage Cracks that appear as dark feathery streaks. 7-6 Inspector's Handbook . or meson.Mev - The energy of X-rays or gamma rays measured in million electron volts. - Photoelectric effect This process involves the complete absorption of the photon during the process of knocking an electron out of orbit. It occurs primarily with lower energy X-rays photons of 10 Kev to 500 Kev. Photons have no momentum but no mass or electrical charge. such as a neutron.-. t space of partial illumination between the umbra. T = thickness 4TDIA T DIA I k 2T DIA I I Penumbra The shadow cast when the incident radiation is partly.\ / \ ' I \ \ \ ' \ \ \ \ \ \ --e4 ' '.' 0 / Charged atom (positive atom) 4 Photon A discrete quantity of electromagnetic energy. / e Ejected electron . in which all gamma rays oi x-rays produced are of the same wavelength.. that indicate cavities in the grain boundaries. cut off by an intervening body.a Approaching Photon Photon absorbed 0 @ (negative ion) / / / 4 . Particle A minute constituent of matter with a measurable mass. Its thickness represents a percentage of the specimen thickness. proton. but not wholly. Penetrameter A small strip of material of the same composition as the specimen being tested. its image on the radiograph provides a check on the radiographic technique employed. or irregular patches. on all sides and the fidl light.'. When placed in the path of the rays. or perfect shadow. hypothetical. Pair production The transformation of a high-energy ray into pair of particles (an electron and a positron) during its passage through matter. \ w Monochromatic radiation A rare condition.

Safelight A special lamp used in the darkroom to provide working visibility without affecting the photosensitive emulsion of the radiographic film.Positron A hdamental atomic particle having a mass equal to that of the electron and possessing a positive charge equal to the negative charge of the electron. Sensitivity A term usually referring to the ability of the radiographic procedure to detect discontinuities. generally expressed . n inches. It is that amount of gamma or x-rays required to produce ions carrying 1 electmst&ic unit of electrical charge in one cubic centimeter of dry air under standard conditions. Tar~et The piece of material. usually tungsten. Source-film-distance The distance between the focal spot of an x-ray tube or radiation source and the film. Two. Inspector's Handbook . embedded in the anode side. Screens Metallic or fluorescent sheets used to intensify the radiation effects on films. Scatter Secondary radiation that is emitted in all directions. of the x-ray tube.A effective and efficient target has the following four properties high atomic number. Specific activity Total radioactivity of a given isotope per gram of element. < 'VRoentaen A unit of exposure dose of ionizing radiation.f i l m technique A procedure wherein two f i l m s of different relative speeds are used simultaneously to radiograph both the thick and the thin sections of an item. positive side. high thermal conductivity. high melting point. and low vapor pressure.

of a proton or a neutron. 2) Hard x-rays . X-rays .A negative charged particle weighing about 111840'~ Nucleus .high energy.Structure of the Atom and an Element $ 0 Proton .low energy. Alpha particles (a) . Beta particles (13) . Mass number "A" .Those elements that are created by bombarding with swarms of neutrons.Atoms that are radioactive.This number represent the number of protons and neutrons in the atom. Unstable isotopes . Gamma rays (?) . Natural isotopes . Activation .An artificial produced wave from a high voltage electron tube. 1) Soft x-rays . Characteristics of A Radioactive Element v/ During the decay or disintegration process tiny particles of energy are emitted in the form of particles and waves h m the nucleus. actually a high-speed electron.This number represents the number of protons in the atom. Electron .Close to the same weight and size of the proton with a neutral charge. Atomic number " Z ".This is the process of creating artificial isotopes. Stable isotopes .A very light particle.The biggest and heaviest of the radiation particles and is composed of two protons and two neutrons.The proton(s) and ~utron(s) are group here in the center of the atom. fi Helium Atom E = element symbol Z = atomic number A = mass number Components of an Isotope Isotope .Atoms that are not radioactive.A product of nuclear disintegration or decay of radioactive elements.One or more of the same element having the same number of protons but not the same number of neutrons.Those that occur naturally. Artificial isotope .A form of energy that is a wave not a particle. Inspector's Handbook . Two Types of Radiation Gamma radiation .A heavy atomic particle with a positive charge. Neutron .

only 6 months after Roentgen announced his discovery. He also found that the new ray would pass through most substances casting shadows of solid objects. General Electric Company developed 1000. it can be argued that the fkst use of X-rays was for an industrial (not medical) application as Roentgen produced a radiograph of a set of weights in a box to show his colleagues. Bertha's hand with a ring on. The main reason that were not used in industrial application before this date was because the X-ray tubes (the source of the X-rays) of that period broke down under the voltages required to produce rays of satisfactory penetrating power for industrial purpose. Thus. several medical radiographs had been made & Europe and the United States that were used by surgeons to guide them in their work.000 volt X-ray L/ qenerators. Both the scientist and the public were enthusiastic about potential applications of the newly discovered rays as an aid in medicine and surgery. albeit a shadowy diffuse one. X-rays were being used by battlefield physicians to . provide a picture. X-rays were used little outside the realms of medicine. others fanciful. and dentistry.locate bullets in wounded soldiers. that presaged new and great vistas in physics.000 volts. Prior to 1912. Roentgen found that the ray would pass through the tissue of humans leaving the bones and metals visible. Inspector's Handbook 7-9 . though some X-ray pictures of metals were produced. In 1931. Roentgen's discovery was a scientific bombshell. Working with a cathode-ay tube in his laboratory. One of Roentgen's first experiments late in 1895 was a film of his wife. This ray was capable of passing through the heavy paper covering. the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) permitted X-ray approval of fusion welded pressure vessels. and the newspapers and magazines of the day provided the public with numerous stories. of shorter wavelength than light. in conjunction with a photographic plate. Roentgen shielded the tube with heavy black paper. that changed in 1913 when the high vacuum X-ray tubes designed by Coolidge became available. He concluded that a new type of ray emitted from the tube. operating at energies up to 100. The public fancy was caught by the invisible ray with the ability to pass through solid matter.1923) who was a Professor at Wuerzbug University in Germany. and found that a green colored fluorescent light could be seen from a screen setting a few feet away from the tube. Scientists everywhere could . and when a high voltage was applied to it. of the bones and interior of the body. the tube would produce a fluorescent glow. That same year. Scientific fancy was captured by an extraordinary new radiation. about the properties of the newly discovered rays.000-volt X-ray tube that allowd radiographs of three inches thick steel parts to be produced in a reasonable amount of time. The high vacuum tubes were an intense and reliable X-ray sources. industrial radiography took another step forward with the advent of the 200.within a month after the announcement of the discovery. In his discovery.duplicatehis experiment because the cathode tube was very well known during this period. and the structure of matter. In 1922. and was received with extraordinary interest by both scientist and laymen. Many scientist dropped other lines of research to pursue the mysterious rays. and. The tube that Roentgen was working with consisted of a glass envelope (bulb) with electrically positive and negative electrodes encapsulated in it. In June 1896. some true. Roentgen observed a fluorescent glow of crystals on a table near his tube. The tube was evacuated of air.- History of Radiography X-rays were discovered in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (1845. However. However.

- The initial gamma ray source was radium. the Curie's discovered another radioactive element for which the*named 'radium'. Becquerel stored some of the compound in a drawer with photographic dates. manmade gamma ray sources such as cobalt and iridium became available in 1946. Marie and her husband. At this time. the Curies discovered another radioactive element in pitchblende. Thus the manmade sources rapidly replaced radium. Pierre Curie started looking for these other elements. Becquerel continued to test many samples of uranium could penetrate heavy paper and affect photographic f compounds and determined that the source of radiation was the element uranium. he noticed that only the plates that were in the drawer with the -umuum compound were fogged. While working in France at the time of Becquerel's discovery. Only a relatively few scientist were interested in Becquerel's findings. or shining element. On a day when it was too cloudy to expose-his samples to direct sunlight. a French scientist. He utilized photographic plates to record this fluoresc:ence. . enough information was gathered to determine that an element. virtually unnoted by the layman and scientist alike. In addition. unlike that of the X-rays. He knew he had wrapped the plates tightly before using them. Becquerel concluded that the uranium compound gave off a type of radiation that i l m . It was Henri Becquerel who discovered this phenomenon while d : --. Polish scientist Marie Curie became very interested in his work. Some of this new evidence showed that cer'qi/ types o f 'atoms disintegrate by the rnselves. and it was not until the discovery of radium by the Curies two years later that interest in radioactivity became wide spread. I A -- . Since thes~ discoveries. Later that same year. . French scientist Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity somewhat by accident. another form of penetrating rays was discovered. which allows radiography of castings up to 10 to 12 inches thick During World War 11. Many of the scientists of the period were working with cathode rays... Shortly after the war. and possesses the property of radioactivity. She too. is said to be radioactive. In 1898. . In 1896. they named it 'polonium' in honor of Marie Curie's native homeland. many other radioactive elements have been discovered or produced. sothe fog* g was not due to stray light.. industrial radiography grew tremendously as part of the Navy's shipbuilding program. - One of the minerals Becquerel worked with was a uranium compound. These new sources were far stronger than radium sources and were less expensive. like many other great scientific discoveries. . Becquerel questiorled whalt would have caused this fogging. and other scientists were gatherin~gevidence on the theory that the atom could be subdivided. 7-10 Inspector's Handbook .--+: ulvcar~~ating the properties of fluorescent minerals. he discovered that they were fogged.Shortly after the discovery of X-rays. certain Iminerals glow (fluoresce) when exposed to sunlight. Both polonium and radium are more radioactive than uranium. suspected that a uranium ore known as pitchblende contained other radioactive elements. which gives off radiation. . . Becquerel was working on the principles of fluorescence. and the use of gamma rays grew quickly in industrial radiography. When he developed these plates a couple of days later. Becquerel's discovery was.

Inspector's Handbook 7-11 . 4 .60" Coverage for Pipes and Location Marker Measurements I I General Information I Distance Between Location Markers (centerline) 1 Outside Circumference 60" L~ NPS Diameter (OD times pi) Coverage 5 6 7 8 9 10 I1 12 Outside Circumference k .

.) 2 2 2 1 (SFD 2 ) 2 Ma (SFD Ma=Milliamperage SFD=Source to film distance 1 ) SFD . (SFD (SFD 1 ) 2 2 ) SFD .:'" a a.J"." .Common Math Formulas Ii(D1) = 12(D2) 2 Ma. Ma. (SFD a 2 ) (SFD Ci=Curie SFD=Source to film distance 1 ) Inspector's Handbook . (SFD Ma. - (SFD .= . = a.

(SFD (SFD Ef . ) 2 = (SFD 2 ) SFD . (SFD OF. = (SFD Ef=Exposure factor SFD=Source to film distance ) SFD . = (SFD OF=Offset SFD=Source to film distance (SFD ) ' OF OF 2 1 ) Inspector's Handbook 7-13 . 2 2 ) (SFD 2 ) ' Ef.Ef.i' OF (SFD 2 ) OF. = Ef.i' T 2 (SFD 1 ) 2 1 SFD T2 - T 1 (SFD 2 ) 2 (SFD 1 ) T=Time SFD=Source to film distance OF.

3 1.75" .500" .130" d Determining Shielding Required h HVL = (IA ) .25 1.0 1.92 4.6 Inspector's Handbook .730 1.5 2.0 F I AA .5 6.0 1.6 2.0 2.55 T 1.190" .5 3.1 L 2.4 4.0 2.5 3.46 2.0 5.(TS + GAP) x OM SFD = new SFD TS TS=Depends on technique used SFD=Source to film distance GAP=Film to specimen distance 7 (TM or TS) X DS MS TM)=Thickness (TM if location marker is on TM) DS=Defect shift MS=Marker shift Dm( Efi) = Dm ( Efl) Dn=Densitv Ef=Ex~osure factor FSS = IS (2 X PHs) FSS=Focal spot size IS=lmage size PHS=Pin hole size - Adding / Removing Shielding I = Intensity after adding shielding 10 = Original intensity HVL = # of Half-value layers added I = Intensity after removing shielding 10 = Original intensity HVL = # of Half-value layers added Common Half-ValueLayers for IRl 92 Concrete Steel Lead Tungsten 1.0 2.2 M M Y 4.8 9.693 HVL = # of HVCs required to reduce intensity In = Natural logrithm lo = Original intensity I= Desired intensity Kodak Radiographic Films Type Decay Fomula R M T AA Speed 8 4 2 1 Grain Ultra fine Extra fine Extra fine Fine A = New activity Ao = Original known activity n = TlHL T = Time passed since known activity passed HL = Half-life of the isotope Gamma Radiation Exposure Calculator Experienced Based Roentgen Factors (Steel) I T D E N S 1.652 .

.Magic Circles D=Dose DR=Dose rate T=Time Ef-Exposure factor Ma=Milliamperage T=Time L EeExposure factor Ci=Curie T=Time Single Wall Exposure 1 Single Wall Viewing for Plate I SWE 1 SWV (PLATE) 1 Film Pb "B" TM PENNY SHIM SFD ENERGY = DESIGN MATERIAL THICKNESS = BASED ON Tm = BASED ON (1) WELD AND (1) ROOT REINFORCEMENT = BASED ON Ts = BASED ON Ts Inspector's Handbook 715.

I Single Wall Exposure 1 Single Wall Viewing for Pipe SWE ISWV (PIPE) Source * 1 Film Pb "6" TM = DESIGN MATERIAL THICKNESS PENNY = BASED ON Tm SHlM = BASED ON (1) WELD AND (1) ROOT REINFORCEMENT SFD = BASED ON Ts ENERGY = BASED ON Ts Double Wall Exposure 1 Double Wall View (superimposed) I Source DWE 1 DWV * Pb "B" I Film I TM PENNY SHlM SFD ENERGY = DESIGN MATERIAL THICKNESS = BASED ON (2) Tm = BASED ON (2) WELD AND (2) ROOT REINFORCEMENT = BASED ON OUTSIDE OD = BASED ON (2) Tm. (2) WELD AND (2) ROOT REINFORCEMENTS I * I .

(1) WELD AND (1) ROOT REINFORCEMENT - Double Wall Exposure / Single Wall View DWE I SWV I Consumable Insert I Film Pb "B" u TM = DESIGN MATERIAL THICKNESS PENNY = BASED ON (1) Tm FILM SIDE PENNY CHART SHlM = BASED ON ( I ) WELD AND (1) ROOT REINFORCEMENT SFD = BASED ON (1) Ts ENERGY = BASED ON (2) Tm. (1) WELD AND (1) ROOT REINFORCEMENT Inspectds Handbook .Double Wall Exposure / Double Wall View (offset) I Tm F Source +% DWE I DWV I Consumable lnsert I I markers Film Pb "B" I I TM = DESIGN MATERIAL THICKNESS PENNY = BASED ON (2) Tm SHlM = BASED ON (1) WELD AND (1) ROOT REINFORCEMENT SFD = BASED ON OUTSIDE OD ENERGY = BASED ON (2) Tm.

S-44 Nickel-copper alloys Copper-nickel alloys Tin bronze Gun metals Valve bronze Inspector's Eandbook . S-43.?1GROUP01 S-51. S-36 Nickel-chromiumiron alloy V~GR 3 S-42. S-37A. S-I 1C. S-36B. S-11 D.s-53 Carbon steel Alloy steel Stainless steel Manganesse-nickel-aluminum bronze Aluminum bronze 11 .KILLER CARL Penetrameter Material and Group Numbers Magnesium Aluminum Titianium .S-52. jGROUP 2 S-35.

.

7-20 Inspector's Handbook .

- - Inspector's Handbook .

2% Penetrameter Quality Conversion Chart (X-RAY ONLY) .

Inspector's Handbook 7-23 .

Inspector's Handbook .

Basic Components of an Xray Tube Cathode Struc Highvoltage Power supply Lowvoltage power supply I / ' Filament 87 I/ . Electron 7 Focusing cup X-ray beam 1 Types of Scatter Radiation \ Tube envelope Test piece L (a) Internal scatter - (b) Side scatter - (c) Back scatter Inspector's Handbook .

well as on the base metal. Accidentally striking an arc on the completed weld or base material. rounded or irregular. Visual inspection should always be performed to confirm arc strikes. The density of the indication appears lighter when the discontinuity is convex from the addition of filler metal with arc strikes resulting from SMAW process. welding arc strikes may occur from another welding operation in the area after the VTPT inspectior and prior to the RT. However. CAUSES: Not initiating the arc as required by the welding procedure. The density of the indication appears darker when the discontinuity is concave resulting from a gouging of the material with arc strikes resulting from the GTAW or SMAW processes. Moving or removing the prods from the test surface without disengaging the magnetizing current. Engaging the magnetizing current prior to establishing fmcontact with the test surface when using prods. Arc strikes fiomMT will be difficult to detect by RT. base material and a current source. REMARKS/SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Arc strikes from welding and MT are generally revealed and dispositioned upon acceptance Visual inspection. Arc strikes occurring in this sequence have a random location and can be found on the we.anarc or heat generated by the passage of electrical energy between the surface of the finished weld. and generally found adjacent to the edge of the weld image on the base metal. such as welding electrodes or magnetic particle inspection electrodes.Radiographic Film Interpretation Arc strikes DEFINITION: Any localized heat-affected zone or change in the contour of the surface of the furished weld or adjacent base metal resulting from . Y Inspector's Handbook . 4 RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE: A localized area.

into a backing . fused oot or acliacent b&e metal. s edges of the in CAUSE. t . void or open hole extending . The nature of burn through is such that the i may or may not be sharply defined. Burn through most often occur during the welding of the root pass.-Improper n r --up of the wela jomt (unacceptable root gap). are present on the inside of the weld joint.ring or strip. often rounded. to confirm bum through. although it is possible for this discontinuity to be introduced during the welding of the second layer. . IXAULWKAYHIC APPEARANCE: m irregular localized area of darker density. I L Burn through frequently occur during weld repairs. u. if possible. If excessive globules of the weld puddle resulting from the burn through. I 11G - Inspector's Handbook 7-27 . d of travel will cause overheating of the Using too slour a weldp weld putIdle. C L ECIAL ( IERATIONS: u~s~~l~~ fea~urt. .B u r n through DEFINITION: A A.- . their appearance will have a lighter density due to the additional weld metal. gmerdlly found at the center of the weld image. especially when the repair cavity is at the root depth. Visual inspection should always be performed. 'Improyjerly preparing the tungsten electrode tip. shin UG g L~XII a burn through and a melt through is that a burn through results in an open hole on the ID of the pipe. Using a weld c:urrent higher than allowed by the welding procedure.

Concavity I-ION: RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE: CAUSE! REMARKS/SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: 7-28 Inspector's Handbook .

feathery?twisting lines of darker density oriented within a weld crater.Random raaographic indications from crater cracking may be oriented in any direction to the weld axis. ' Impr01 T 4B )f the welding arc by abruptly removing the arc. b ~ ~~IRANCE: o ~ ~ ~ ~ Generally a star shaped indication with irregular. The discontinuity is usually shallow. Not ad . 3: Inspector's Handbook 7-29 . -. therefore.Crack crater DEFINITION: A linear rupture of metal under stress. the indication may not be as pronounced as indications ~UUU from ~G other C. meters of the welding procedure. CAUSES: 4 . crater cracking does not always take this shape. . IREMAP 2ONSIDERATIONS: hasized that although the discontinuity and resulting radiographic indication is generally star It is to be emp shaped.incomplete fillmg 01 ule weld crater. . types I of cracking.

be difficult to detect due to the geometric principles of the radiographic technique. feathery. Cracking can. at times. REMARKS/SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Longitudinal cracks can occur throughout the weld.Crack. fusion lines and in the root. Contamination of base material. in the centerline. CAUSES: Improper fit-up of joint. Violation of the welding procedures. . longitudinal (shown in the root) DEFINITION: A linear rupture of metal under stress. RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE: Irregularly shaped. twisting lines of darker density oriented along the axis of the weld.

but may also propagate fiom the weld metal into the adjacent heat affected zone. u &IDIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE: Irregularly shaped. transverse DEFINITION: A linear rwture of metal under stress. Transverse cracks are generally tight discontinuities. CAUSES: Transverse cracks are generally the result of longitudinal shrinkage strains acting on weld metal of low ductility. at times. REMARKSISPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Cracks may be limited in size and completely within the weld metal. Orientation and subtleness of the discontinuity can. therefore producing subtle indications on the radiograph. \v Inspector's Handbook 7-31 . Most commonly found in weld joints having a high degree of restraint. feathery. Cracking indications can be masked in the as-welded condition. be difficult to detect due to the geometric principles of the radiographic technique.Crack. twisting lines of darker density oriented perpendicular to the axis of the weld.

in the root area of lble insert welds. . The radiographic indication from crater pits can range fiom subtle to pronomnced. while crater pits occur in the weld root area. The irregularity of the discontintinuity can produce a "halo" effect on the edge of the indicatia~n.g. putting the indication in the sidewall or profile view. due to the irregular nature of discontinuity. Porosi ccur anywhere in the weld. * Additional radiography. similar to porosity. I CAUSES: per tennination of the welding arc. the edge of the indication is usually I~UL a 5 uefined as porosity.xr:--.-1 v . Impr01 lhering to the parameters of the welding procedure. REMARKSISPECLAL CONSIDERATIONS: The in s from crater pits can be misinterpreted as porosity. distinguishing a crater pit fiom porosity. A " - 7-32 Inspector's Handbook .l q 1 1 n ~mspecrion should always performed. e RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE: %e indication will appear as a circular dot with darker density. However. may be employed to assist in confiinn.Crater pits DEFINITION: An approximately circular surface condition extending into the weld in an irregular manner. e.ation of the discontinuity. if possible to confirm crater pits. depending on the severity of the pit.

to confirm incomplete fusion of the insert. An improper motion or weaving technique of the torch.Incomplete fusion of a consumable insert DEFINITION: Tncompletemelting of the consumable insert without fusion and bonding to the base metal along one or F :s of the consumable insert. oriented along I i unifomn elonge~ted 1he axis of the weld. Using too low a welding current. I L The indication nlay appear in the following ways -. The indication pear with one edge having a smooth. Using too fast of a travel speed. The indcation rnav aDpear with both edges straight with abrupt density transitions fiom the insert area to the base Imaterial area. where possible. Inspector's Handbook . lllis indicates the former edge is blended with firsion into the adjacent base metal and the latter edge is not fused. b8 REMARKS/SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Visual inspection should always be performed. The width of the band appears approximately equal to the diameter of the consumable insert.gradual density transition fiom the insert area to the base material area and the other edge straight with an abrupt density transition fiom the insert area to the base material area. . with both sides of the insert not fused.. I CAUSES: Impro! ~ f iUP t of the weld joint. when viewed on radiographs. \c/ RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE: band or localized bad of lighter density in the center of the weld image. An incorrect torch angle. T I rites lack of filling or blending to the base metal.

. RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE: Irregularly edged. as it indicates the weld puddle not fusing to the prepared base meal. lying in a horizontal plane. Improper torch or electrode angle may prohibit melting of the adjacent metal. Tightly adhering oxides resulting from improper cleaning of items to be welded. Too fast a welding speed of travel will not allow for fusion to the adjacent metal.Lack of fusion DEFINITION: Lack of complete fusion of some portion of the metal in a weld joint with the adjacent metal. Sometimes the lines are interspersed with darker density spots. indicating voids resulting from the lack of fusion. tends to be undetectable but often the sides of lack of fusion lines tend to curl out of the horizontal plane and are recorded on the radiograph. Too fast a welding current to melt the adjacent metal. The adjacent metal may be either base metal or previously deposited weld metal. both edges of the indication may be irregular as they indicate the weld puddle not fusing to the contour of the previously deposited weld beads. one edge of the indication will be straight. Lack of proper access to the face of weld joint. does not occur in the root. If the lack of fusion occurs between a weld bead and base metal. Improper placement of weld passes may cause a sharp valley to fonn. CAUSES: mcient welding current to melt the adjacent metal. When the discontinuity occurs between a weld bead and the adjacent base metal. of varying shapes. or straight and irregularly edged lines of darker density oriented along the axis of the weld. Inspector's Handbook .A distinguishing characteristic between lack of fusion and incomplete penetration is that lack of h i o n can occur anywhere in the weld and incomplete penetration occurs at the weld root. If lack 6f fusion occurs between weld beads. . REMARKS/SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Lack of fusion on the under bead side of the weld. the term "lack of sidewall h i o n " is often used.

Inspector's Handbook 7-35 . from both sides. as it is a RT indication of the actual weld joint preparation.nonnal fit-up. right .Lack of penetration (left . The straightrless of both edges of the indication's image and location in the center of the weld image help to distinguish incomplete penetration from lack of fusion. fine edged lines of darker density oriented along the axis of the weld in the area of the root. Joints REMARKSISPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: weld roc~tand is always straight. GRAPHIC APPEARANCE: Straight. In both backing ring joints and joints to be welded from both sides. insufficient removal of the backside prior to welding. improper placement of initial weld pass may cause a sharp valley to form at the root weld.mismatch) DEFINITION: Lack of penetration of the weld through the thickness of the joint or penetration which is less than kspecified. r-I - elding current or to fast travel speed. CAUSE Insuff - -Irnnroya wren or electrode angle to melt the root land. The s atthe7 on can be prominent or subtle depending on the severity of the discontinuity.

CONSIDERATIONS: The entire thickness of metal is melted or re-melted and deforms. The density of the indication appears lighter when the discontinuity is convex and darker when the discontinuity is concave. and generally found at the center of the weld image. RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE: A localized area. if possible. Melt through most often occurs during the welding of the root pass. fbsed root or adjacent base metal resulting from fusing comple through a localized region but without development of a void or open hole. Visual inspection should always be performed. to confirm melt through. CAUSES: Using a weld current higher than allowed by the welding procedure. Improperly preparing the tungsten electrode tip. m hole or void develops as with a burn through. usually rounded. - REMARKS/SPECIAL. u Inspector's Handbook .Melt through DEFINITION: A convex or concave irregularity on the s&ce of a backing ring or strip. . although it is possible for this discontinuity to be introduced during the welding of the second layer. Improper fit up of the weld joint (unacceptable root gap). Using too slow a welding speed of travel will cause overheating.

the offset image will appear in the sidewall or profile view. The radiographic image is dependent upon the orientation of the e a m of radiation. and the entire image of the item is on the film. RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE: Offset on piping weld joints can appear on the film in different ways. generally half m y across the width of the weld image. the offset image may appear as an abrupt density change. Inspector's Handbook 7-37 . Improper welding block sequencing on the root pass. CAUSES: Improper fit-up or fixturing may cause the members to be offset.Offset (misalignment/rnismatch. REMARKSISPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Visual inspection should always be performed to c o n f i i questionable offset conditions when viewed on radiographs. shown with LOP) DEFINITION: Lateral misalignment of two butt joint members of equal ' L thickness. as lateral misalignment of the members with a high-low effect of the pipes' ID and OD. When the offset condition is perpendicular to the beam of radiation. When the offset condition is parallel to offset to the b the beam of radiation.

with a wrinkled or sugared appearance in the center of the weld image. REMARKSISPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: A visual inspection should always be performed. to confirm oxidation. if possible. Moisture in the area of the weld. However.Oxidation DEFINITION: A condition resulting from partial or complete lack of purge of a surface which is heated during weldiv u resulting in formation of oxide on the surface. leakage. CAUSES: *. due to inadequate drying of the purge path. The condition may extend for the entire circumference of the weld when there is a complete loss of purge. High oxygen content in purge gas or path.. . in one or more areas of the weld. This condition may range from slight oxidation through the formation of heavy black scale to the extreme of a very rough surface having a rough crystalline appearance. The condition may only be localized. OGRAPHIC APPEARANCE: Highly irregular.Loss of internal purge gas resulting in an unshielded molten weld puddle on the ID. etc. Oxidation frequently occurs during weld repairs. loss of purge. low density area. this condition may occur during welding if there is a degree of root reflow. occurring whenever the purge is partially interrupted. Oxidation generally occurs during the flowing of the weld root.. or moisture present.

the overlap image will appear consistent with that of -.Overlap (re-entrant angle) DEFINITION: The protrusion of weld metal beyond the weld toes or weld root. it will appear as roll over of the weld root reinforcement with an unsatisfactory blending sion line:ofthe\weld root image. overlap i on ult: mternal weld surface consumable insert piping weld butt joints can appear on the f i l m in different ways. C u l ~ v c n l r vW I U ~ an abrunt density change at the fusion line of the weld root image. Inspector's Harrdbook 7-39 . However. iat the fu: d - I I S: ow of a welding speed. .&+L .. " . ~ I O G R A P H I C APPEARANCE: 3verlap conditions on the OD of piping butt weld joints should be an extremely m e occurrence in as much .roo low or too hi& of a welding current. When the offset image is in the ! sidewall or profile view. - REMARKSISPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Visual inspection should always be performed. When the overlap I r is not . such as PT or MT are required prior to RT. where possible. t o confm questionable root surface conditions when viewed on radiographs.factory VT and other surface inspections. The phic im2ige is dependent upon the orientation of the overlap to the beam of radiation.located in the sidewall or profile view. ect torchI or eleclM e angle.

REMARKSISPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: None. Although usually spherical in shape.clustered porosity. bottom right aligned porosity in the root) - DEFJNITION: Gas pockets or voids in weld metal. sometimes referred to as "piping or wormhole porosity".distributed porosity. The density of the indication varies directly with the diameter or magnitude of the pore. Improper cleaning of the weld joint. porosity may also occur as nonspherical pockets and appear on the radiograph as elongated voids. bottom left . Inspector's Handbook . RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE: Usually spherically shaped areas of darker density and may be scattered throughout single pass welds or throughout several passes of multiple pass welds. CAUSES: Faulty welding techniques such as using too long an arc with the SMAW process.Porosity (right .

CAUSES: Moisture in the area of the weld. with a sharp ridge or peak and ribs fi." RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE: The image of root razorback is consistent with that of convexity with an associated herringbone appearance and sharp peak at the center. Moisture in the purge gas. Also known as "reverse center line crease. The lightest density of the image is in the center and is dependent upon the height of peaked condition. where possible.om the peak to the edge giving it a 'ierringbone effect. Visual inspection should always be performed.Root razorback condition DEFINITION: An oxide membrane. gray in color. to confm root razorback condition when viewed on radiographs. The density of the image gradually increases as the condition blends into the base metal. REMARKSISPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: This is one of the most common root surface defects encountered when welding NiCu and Ni-C-r-Fe. L Inspector's Handbook .

Root surface centerline crease DEFINITION: An intermittent or continuous peripheral centerline concavity fonned on the root surface. the image will crease oriented along the axis of the weld. If the crease has a notch or a questionable blending condition at the center. where possible to confm questionable centerline crease when viewed on radiograph. I 4 RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE: T h e image of centerline crease is consistent with that of concavity with an associated herringbone appearance. Inspector9s Handbook . REMARKSISPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Visual inspection should always be preformed. Approved workmanship sample radiographs may be employed to evaluate centerline crease when a visual inspection is not possible. CAUSES: Thick cover pass over a consumable insert that had minor concavity. Excessive welding current.

L/ RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE: The image of concavity may appear as intermittent elliptical areas i l m density oriented along the axis of the or elongated bands of darker f weld in the center of the weld image. too slow of a travel speed. where possible to confirm questionable concavity when viewed on radiograph. or extremely high purge gas flow rate. Inspector's Handbook 7-43 . REMARKSISPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Visual inspection should always be preformed. internal purge or shrinkage.Root surface concavity DEFINITION: A depression on the root surface of the weld. The width of the image is consistent with the weld root width. The darkest density of the concavity's image is generally in the center and is dependent up6n the depth of the concavity. which may be due to -pvity. CAUSES: Improper fit up of the weld joint. . Using too high of a'welding current. The density of the image gradually decreases as the concavity blends into the base metal.

Root surface convexity

I

TION: Reinforcement of t k root surface of a butt- ksed t y p e weld.

I

4

RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE: The image of convexity may appear as intermittent elliptical areas or elongated bands of lighter f i l m density oriented along the axis of the weld in the center of the weld image. The widthof the image is consistent with the weld root width. The lightest density of the convexity's image is generally in the center and is dependent upon the height of the convexity blends into the base metal. CAUSES: Using to low or high of a welding currert. Using too slow travel speed when welding. REMARKS/SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Visual inspection should always be performed, when possible, to confirm questionable convexity when viewed on radiographs.

Slag,

DEFINITION: Non-metallic solid material entrapped in weld metal or b'ptween weld metal and base metal. .2 RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE: Well defined, irregularly shaped, uniformly darker density areas usually elongated along the axis of the weld.
(

unproper 111-up, - sucn as maequate bevel of the joint sides. g currer~tfor the size of electrode. Using too low a weldink Faulty welding: techniques sucl1 as wrong electrode position or orientatic3n. I bead placemtznt causing sharp valleys or undercutting 'Impr01nx +La L , , 1between is. slag from the surface. mpro]per interpass clel

-

.---,--REMARKSISY~CIAL CUNSIOERATIONS: Slag isr a byproduct of 'the bur^ning of the flux covering on welding O n S are iasociated with the SMAW process. roods. Thus, slagg inclusi~ -. . . . . . I + Slag hlulw~v~la w -UJ ull~rlghout the weld, in the center of the welcl-in fusion lines and in the r&t.
. . . , a a , . ,

...

'v

Inspectds Handbook

Tungsten inclusion

DEFINITION: Metallic tungsten inclusions in the weld deposit. RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE: Irregularly shaped spots of low film density areas, usually r a n d o m in size and location. They are solid or liquid bits of tungsten electrode from the TIG welding process that drop or are melted from the electrode and become entrapped in the weld puddle. Tungsten inclusions appear as low or light density areas on the radiograph because of the differences of radiographic absorption between the inclusion and is dnwr radi6graphically then the surrounding metal. surrounding metal and therefore absorbs more radiation. This, in t u r n , allows fewer rays to reach the film.

sten en

CAUSES: Overheating the tungsten electrode due to excessive current for the particular electrode size. DpfPctive tungsten electrode (flaking of particles). --*m Dipping the tungsten into the molten puddle. REMARKSISPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: None.

cxccsslve welding current. ion shouId always be performed to confirm questionable Visuali inspect: .'a REMARKS/SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: External undercut is readily revealed and dispositioned upon acceptarice Visu inspec:tion. extema unaercut wnen viewed on radiographs. w nen uslng me GTAW process. using too long an arc length will result in a gouging effect. . An t l intermittent or continuous groove on the external surface of he base Imetal along the edge of the weld. 5 1 k A u l u G W H l c MY~ARANCE: a irregular. - Inspector's Handbook 7-47 . adding an -cient amount of filler me ectrode angle can cause a gouging effect. I8 using excessiv. An inc t rrn . elongated area of darker density oriented along the extamdl h i o n line of the weld image to the base metal. .Undercut DEFINITION: .e welding speed of travel.

mproper la up of the weld joint.Undercut. elongated area of darker density oriented along the lnternai h i o n line of the weld image to the base metal. c evaluation of root undercut in backing ring joints can be nanship sample radiographs as well as the use of slotted 7-48 ImyectoISs Handbook . Excessive current during welding When using the GTAW process. )GRAPHIC APPEARANCE: An irregular. adding an insufficient amount of incorrect electrode angle can cause a gouging effect. root - DEFINITION: An intennittent or continuous groove in the internal surface of the base metal. backing ring/strip along the edge of the root of the weld. filler m KEMARKS/SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Radic based ..

the metal particles expelled during welding which do not form a part of the weld.Weld splatter DEFINITION: In arc welding. long arcing is a factor. Lack of concentricity or damage to the electrode flux. However. Weld spatter is generally revealed and dispositioned upon acceptance Visual inspection. rounded areas of lighter density generally found adjacent to the edge of the weld image on the base metal. . Inspector's Handbook . REMARKS/SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Weld splatter is most commonly found when the SMAW welding process is employed. However. weld spatter may occur from another welding operation in the area after the acceptance VTPT inspections and prior to the RT. iL/ . RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE: Small. CAUSES: There will be some weld spatter when using the SMAW process.

dai.Probable Causes and Corrective Action for Automatic Film Processing CXtaFityorArtiliact Densiitohii Robablecause cclmchAclion Qudityorm DevdoperBgmperahrebh@."delaysbedd"' wwk b y ' r r l e r v a l d 1 5 r r i m & s a r mnfeeji-gofsuccesive l h s .dean preqlkbilwater ~ r a d t a d ~ w a s h sy-rpliedlo~seclianwalerinpwzssa. - Caused byditor tfconclitionis-.G&k~ Fwreaxrmendaliasla ConectiveAclion krprs>erlya4usledsuides c k & m npocessor guidedevicesand- - m & r d l e r s a d h e r c o m p o n e n t s Sbpcrhesbthgdes Besmalldlersareinthei Wabasbns dwekwand~used IlqxcpdyNixedchemicals. Fob#ins$uctionsfw preperationof- pcprposifias.14 ins&lledar freshty deaned 1 v w-bhkh F*bmperahre recnmnendaticnsfor devebper - edae o fa film Associatedwlthtempod L o n g i l k n a l .l& t=lk*shutli-9po~ssar dcMnrIfaKiperisfuse filtersilhoaringwaterCnes I s e e Fog I steak becauselheyomr 3.Wpea used.andthatend p l a y i s ~ f w ~ t o mfreely . 7-50 Inspector's Handbook .r n dfJms. ~ r e s u K s ~ ~ d sokaknsonprxessorrdlers sgxsedbai.

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