JOB ANALYSIS

HRM

DEFINITION
“Process of obtaining information about jobs by determining what the duties, tasks, or activities of jobs are.” “Systematic study of a job to discover its specifications and skill requirements for wage-setting, recruitment, training, or jobsimplification purposes.” “Systematic way to gather and analyze information about content, context, and the human requirements of jobs.”

Job analysis

Methods Questionnaires Interviews Observation Logs Diaries

Sources of Conducted by Job analyst data Employees Outside consultant Supervisors Supervisors Managers Managers Job analyst

Job Analysis Terminology
• Job
– Group of related activities and duties – May be held by one or several employees

--Facilitate the Organization's Goals

• Job Design
– Process of dividing work into specific tasks needed to do a job

Position
– Tasks and responsibilities performed by one individual – The different duties and responsibilities performed by only one employee

HR Activities Relying on Job Analysis
Improve productivity Compensation Eliminate discrimination Quality of work life Person-job matching Planning Training Performance standards Re-design jobs Performance appraisal

Relationship of Job Requirements to Other HRM Functions
J O B R E Q U I R E M E N T S
Determine recruitment qualifications. Provide job duties and job specifications for selection process. Determine training needs and develop instructional programs. Provide performance criteria for evaluating employees. Provide basis for determining employee’s rate of pay. May help to determine bargaining units. RECRUITMENT

SELECTION TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT LABOR RELATIONS

Steps in Job Analysis

Step1: Identify Jobs and Review Existing Documentation • The first step is to identify the jobs under review. such as existing job descriptions, organization charts, previous job analysis information, and other industry related sources. In this phase, those who will be involved in conducting the job analysis are Determined and the methods that will be used are specified.

Step 2: Explain the Process to Managers and Employees
• A step is to explain the process to managers and affected employees. Items to be covered often include: the purpose of the job analysis; the steps involved, the time schedule; how managers and employees will participate; who is doing the analysis; and whom to contact when questions arise.

Step 3: Conduct the Job Analysis. • The next step is actually the collection of job analysis information. Questionnaires might be distributed, interviews conducted, and/or observations made.

Prepare Job Descriptions and Specifications
• On the basis of the collected job analysis information, descriptions and specifications are drafted for each job under review. The drafts are then sent to appropriate managers and employees for their review

Maintain and Update Job Descriptions and Specifications • Once job descriptions and specifications are completed and reviewed with all appropriate individuals, a system must be developed for keeping them current. Otherwise, the entire process, beginning with a job analysis, ay have to be repeated. 

How to Collect the Information • Information about jobs can be gathered in several ways. • Observation • Interviewing • Questionnaires  • Performance evaluation • Diaries • Combination of these methods frequently are used, depending on the situation and the organization.

OBSERVATION.
• In observation, a manager, job analyst, or industrial engineer observes the      individual performing the job and takes notes to describe the tasks and duties performed

INTERVIEWING.
The interview method of gathering information requires that a manager, or HR specialist, visit each job site and talk with the employees performing each job. A structured interview   form is used most often to record the information . Both the employee and the      employee's supervisor must be interviewed to obtain a complete understanding of the job. For certain difficult to define jobs, group interviews may be used. The interview method may be time consuming and expensive, especially if the interviewer      talks with two or three employees doing the same job.

QUESTIONNAIRE
• The questionnaire is a widely used method of gathering data on jobs. A survey instrument is developed and given to employees and managers to complete. The typical job questionnaire often includes questions on the following areas:

Panel of experts
• Expensive and time consuming • Panel consist senior and immediate supervisors. • Interview with group • Benefit: clarification of expected job duties among the worker and supervisors who are in jury.

Mail questionnaires
• Fast and less costly • Accuracy is low • Incomplete response

Employees log or diary
• Worker periodically summarize their task and activities in the log. • If entries are made over the entire job cycle, the diary can be quite accurate.

COMBINATION
• Since each method is faulty analyst often rely on combination. • Two or more techniques are used.

Application of job analysis information
Job Descriptions • Job Job Specifications

Analysis • Informatio n

Job Design

Job Performance Standards

Job Description
• A recognized list of functions, tasks, accountabilities, working conditions and competencies for a particular occupation or job. • Job Description is a list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships,, and supervisory. • There is no standard format using writing job description but it contain:

Job Descriptions

Job Title

Job Description 1. Title. 2. Statement. 3. Essential Functions. 1. XXX 2. XXX 3. XXX 4. XXX 4. Specifications. 1. XXX 2. XXX 3. XXX 4. XXX

Job Identification

Job summary

Responsibilities and duties Working condition

JOB TITLE • Indicates job duties and organizational level • It specifies title of job like, marketing manager, clerk etc JOB ID ENT IF IC ATION • Distinguishes job from all other jobs • Contain several type of information. • Job status section permits quick identification of the exempt or non exempt status of job • The date at which description written, the name of a person who wrote it and name of a person who approved it. • The immediate supervisor title is some times also shown in identification section.

• Job summary : • Describes general nature of job, listing only major function and activities. • For example,marketing manager Plans, direct and coordinates the marketing of the organizational product. • Responsibil it ies a nd dutie s • List of major responsibilities and duties. • All major duties should be separately and described in few sentences. • Example.establishes marketing goals,develop marketing plans and programs, communicates with advertising agencies etc.

• . • Working conditions: • It also explain working condition, hours of work, safety and health hazards etc

SAMPLE JOB DESCRIPTION

Position Title: Incumbent: Effective Date: Reports to: Approved by:

Information Technology Manager Georgina Antonio 17 November 1998

Job Code: 1224-11 Business Unit/Division Group ITS

Executive Manager, Information Technology Services Anthony Vandenberg

Position Statement: The Information Technology Manager, Group Information Technology Services is accountable for supervising the planning, administration and review of the acquisition, development, installation, implementation, maintenance and use of computer and telecommunications systems provided through Group Information Technology Services across all locations.

JOB SPECIFICATION
• • • • Skills required to perform the job Physical demands of the job specify the minimum qualifications required of a worker to fill specific jobs Describes what the job demands of employees and the human factors and traits required to do job well. It include specific tool, action, experience, education, training, that help clarify individual requirement for successful job performance.

EXAMPLEOF JOB SPACIFICATION Job Specification (Example):
® relevant bachelor degree or higher qualification ® at least 5 years managerial experience, in IT environment ® demonstrated leadership and team skills ® ability to motivate team members ® good communication skills ® willingness to learn new skills

Job Performance Standard
• These standard serve two function: • First, they become target for employee’s effort,the challenge or pride in meeting objectives may motivate employees. • once standard are meet employee get sense of accomplishment and achievement. • with out standard employee performance may suffer.

• Second, • standard are criteria against which job success are measured. • When measured performance stray from the job standard, HR expert or line managers intervene (come between) and corrective action is taken.

ASSIGNMENT

• Explain how would you conduct a job analysis in a company that had never had job description. • You have been hired as a job analyst by CCBIT. The following is the assignment that you have been given: o Identify different jobs in the organization. o Explore the most effective ways in which you can gather information about the jobs you have identified. o Determine the job description, job specifications and job performance standards for these jobs.

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