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369

**CHAPTER NI NE 9. THE THREE M OM ENT EQUATI ON
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Most of the time we are concerned with the classical analysis of statically determinate structures. In this chapter we shall consider the analysis of statically indeterminate (externally) beams due to applied loads and due to settlement of supports. It must be remembered that supports for beams may be walls or columns. As we know that for the analysis of statically indeterminate systems, compatibility of deformations is also essential requirements in addition to considerations of equilibrium and statics. By compatibility it is understood that deformations produced by applied loads should be equal to those produced by redundants. It has been already mentioned that reactions occur at supports in various directions if (i) (ii) There is some action (applied load) in that direction. There is restraint offered by support in that directions

Action and reactions are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. In the structural analysis it is sometimes customery to think that rotations are generally associated with moments and deflections or translations are associated with loads. It must also be kept in mind that we never analyze actual structural systems or sub-systems, it is only the idealized ones which are analyzed. Representing beams and columns by just a straight line located on their centroidal axis is also a sort of idealization on the structural geometry. Reactions and loads are, therefore, also idealized and are shown by a sort of line loads acting on a point. The three-moment equation is a good classical analysis tool in which support moments produced by the loads as well as by the differential settlements can be easily calculated by using second-moment area theorem which states that “ The deviation of a point A on the elastic curve w.r.t any other point B on the elastic curve is 1 multiplied by the moment of area of B.M.D’ s between those two points.” The moments of equal to EI B.M.D’ s are taken about a line passing through the point of loaded beam where deviation is being measured. The method is essentially based on continuity (equality) of slopes on the either side of a support by reducing an indeterminate system to its determinate equivalents as follows by using supperposition.

=

+

An indeterminate beam under applied loads and redundant moments is equated to corresponding detemrinate system carrying these two effects separately. Let-us derive the three-moment equation. Consider a generalized two-span beam element under the action of applied loads and redundant support moments acting on BDS.

M.M. due to applied load on simple spans where A 1 is Area of B. AA 1 CC1 = L1 L2 .D. So invoking continuity of slopes and knowing that for small angels θ = tanθ. on span L 2.t intermediate support B is ha and hc.M.D.370 THEORY OF INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES W A/ C/ ha A1 hc A θb B θb Tangent at B C Fig (a) C1 I1 L1 I2 L1 BMD due to applied loads on simple spans a1 A1 A2 Fig (b) a2 Mb Ma Generalized redundant moment diagram A4 A3 A5 A6 Mc Fig ( c) L1/3 2/3 L1 2/3 L2 L2/3 Fig(a) is an indeterminate beam subjected to applied load (udl in this case) which has shown settlement such that support B is at a lower elevation than support at A and C and difference of elevation w.M.D’ s on L 1 and L 2 from left and right supports respectively. a1 and a2 are the locations of centroids of B. Fig(b) is B.D. on span L 1 and A 2 is area of B. The angle θB on either side of support B must be equal.r.

We have from geometry L2 (1) Now evaluate CC1 = C1C/ − CC/ = (deviation of point C/ from tangent at B) − hc = 1 2 L2 A 2a2 + A 5 × L 2 + A 6 × − hc EI 2 3 3 expressing A 5 and A 6 in terms of Moments CC1 = 1 2 1 L2 1 A 2a2 + L 2 × MbL 2 + × MCL 2 − hc EI 2 3 2 3 2 1 L 22 L 22 A 2a2 + Mb + MC − hc divide by L 2 EI 2 3 6 1 A 2a2 Mb L 2 MC L 2 hc + + − EI 2 L 2 3 6 L2 (2) = CC1 L2 = Equating (1) and (2). We know that AA 1 = AA / − A 1A / = ha − deviation of point A / on the elastic curve from the tangent drawn at point B on the elastic curve.THE THREE MOMENT EQUATION 371 Evaluate AA 1 by second Moment Area Method. 1 L1 2 A 1a1 + A 3 × + A 4 × L 1 EI 1 3 3 = ha − expressing A 3 and A 4 in terms of moments AA 1 = ha − = ha − AA 1 L1 1 L1 1 2 1 A 1a1+ × MaL 1 + L 1 × MbL 1 EI 1 3 2 3 2 1 MaL 12 MbL 12 A 1a1 + + EI 1 6 3 divide by L 1 = ha 1 A 1a1 MaL 1 MbL 1 − + + L 1 EI 1 L 1 6 3 CC1 on similar lines. we have ha 1 − L 1 EI 1 A 1a1 + Ma L 1 + Mb L 1 = 1 A 2a2 + Mb L 2 + Mc L 2 − hc 6 3 EI 2 L 2 3 6 L2 L1 .

2 Mc = − 23. an imaginary hinged span of length L o and Interia I o = ∞ is added to conform to acted support conditons and to make the method applicable in similar situations. 12 KN A B 9. we get.372 THEORY OF INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES Multiply by 6E and simplify.52 (1) . 9.6 A3 144 SOL UTI ON: When a fixed support at either end is encountered.6 KN/m C 32 KN 3m D Do Lo 2m 6m 2Ic 8m 4Ic 6m 2Ic Io = Lo Fig (a) 9. Take E = 20 × 106 KN/m2 and I c = 40 × 10-6 m4. Apply three-moment equation to spans AB and BC at a time. EXAM PL E: Analyze the continuous beam shown below by three-Moment equation. 3Ma + 10 Mb + 2 Mc = − 307. With the successive applications. the required member of equations are obtained and are solved simultaneously.8 32 x 6 4 = 48 BMD 3m Fig (b) A2 4m 409.2 put Ma = − 24 KN-m 10 Mb + 2 Mc = − 235. The same has already been done in Fig(a).6 x 8 8 A1 = 0 2 = 76. We apply three moment equation to two spans at a time which gives us one equation.2 divide by 10 Mb + 0.1.6 × 4 6 8 2Ic + 2Mb 2Ic + 4Ic + Mc 4Ic = − 6 × 0 − 4Ic × 8 Simplify and multiplying by Ic both sides of equation. Analysis of Continuous Beams by thr ee-M oment Equation. we have after re-arrangement Ma L 1 6 A 1a1 6 A 2a2 6 Eha 6 Ehc L 1 L 2 L 2 I 1 + 2Mb I 1 + I 2 + Mc I 2 = − I 1L 1 − I 2L 2 + L 1 + L 2 The above equation is called three-moment equation. Fig (b) is the BMD’ s on simple spans. their Areas and its locations. We have Ma 6 8 6 × 409.

right-down. (i.3 KN-m put Mc in equation (1). we get Mb = − 13.625 (2) Now apply three-moment equation to spans CD and DDO 6 6 Lo 6 × 144 × 3 Lo Mc + 2 MD 3Ic 3Ic + ∞ + Mdo ∞ = − 3Ic × 6 Simplify and multiply by Ic both sides of equation. we get MD = − 10.52 Mb + 4 Mc + MD = − 225. Slopes at any intermediate support point can be calculated from the two adjacent spans by using conjugate beam method. we have.85 KN-m Checks: The above calculated values of moments are correct if they satisfy the continuity of slope requirements. it is necessary to plot reactant moment diagram (support-moments) to get their contribution in slope calculation. “ left up.21 So Mc = − 50.21 Mc + 2 MD = − 72 − 6.8 Mc − MD = 202. Mc and MD can be calculated.e. Subtract equation (2) from (1) Mb + 0.625 − 3. positive) (4) .6 × 4 6 × 144 × 3 6 Mb + 2 Mc 4Ic 4Ic + 3Ic + MD 3Ic = − 4Ic × 8 − 3Ic × 6 Simplify and multiply by Ic.6 Mc − 2MD = 404. we must use the original sign convention for shear force as applied in strength of Materials subject.2 Mc = − 23. 2 Mc + 4 MD = − 144 divide by 2 Mc + 2 MD = − 72 (3) We have obtained three equations from which three-Unknowns Mb.3 divide by 2 Mb + 4 Mc + MD = − 225. 2 Mb + 8 Mc + 2 MD = − 307. M “ The shear force at any point on the conjugate beam loaded with diagram is the slope at the EI corresponding point in the actual beam carrying applied loads.2−144 = − 451. Here is the statement of conjugate beam theorem number one again.105 Multiply equation (4) by (2) and add in equation (3) − 7.THE THREE MOMENT EQUATION 373 Now apply three-moment equation to spans BC and CD 8 8 6 6 × 409.” In applying the conjugate -beam method. Before we could apply checks.. Finally Mb = − 13. it is assumed that reader is well conversant with the conjugate beam method.85 KN-m.6 MC = 332.3 KN-m MD = − 10. While applying checks.46 KN-m Mc = − 50.46 KN-m put Mc in (3).

it is not a continuous support) θa θb = − = 1 A4 1 1 80.65 A8 = 10.7 31.85) A6 = 13.374 THEORY OF INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES 2m 6m 8m 6m A4 A O A5 24 BMD divided into convenient shapes.45 B A6 C A8 D O 10. The areas of negative BMD’ s act as loads in upward direction to which support reactions are downwards.3 − 13.3 1 − − A7 = − − × 147.65 EI 2 3 2EIc 2 3 30.1 2 6(50.6 A9 = = 118. 8(50.7 2 − − A5 = − × 31.5 4EIc 2 2 3 4EIc 2 2 3 25.46 Clockwise EIc = .3 − 10.45 × 6 = 80.6 107.45) A5 = = 31.F at A = θa = 1 A4 2 1 − 80. The direction of reaction is accounted for in the signs appropriately.85 A7 A9 Fig ( c) 50. EIc = SPAN BC θb θb = 1 A2 A6 1 1 409.725 EIc (There is no check on this value as.45) A4 = 13.2 2 6(24 − 13.7 A7 = = 146.45 Clockwise. SPAN AB S.85 × 6 = 65.35 2 Checks.65 + A5 = + 2EIc 2 3 2EIc 4 3 25. 13.45 × 8 = 107.3 Fig(c) is the reactant moment diagram The areas of positive BMD’ s act as loads in downward direction to which reactions are upwards.

Determine reactions and plot SFD and BMD.6 107. Now beam is statically determinate we can construct SFD and BMD very easily.1 2 − − A9 = − − × 118.33 − + + A9 = − + + 3EIc 2 2 3 3EIc 2 2 3 (Fixed end) = 0 All slope values have been satisfied. . We have seen that numerical values of E and I are required in this case only if one is interested in absolute values of θ.3 2 + + A7 = + + × 147.33 3EIc 2 2 3 3EIc 2 2 3 13.18 EIc 375 θc = θc = SPAN CD θc θc θD θD = 1 A3 A8 2 1 144 65.THE THREE MOMENT EQUATION 1 − A2 A6 2 1 − 409. This means calculated support moment values are correct.16 EIc = − = 1 A3 A8 1 1 144 65. these values are required while attempting a support settlement case.5 4EIc 2 2 3 4EIc 2 2 3 − 13.1 118. However.

8 O A4 A5 -1.44 -24 50.376 THEORY OF INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES 12 KN A 2m 6m B 9.76 O 26.806 33.76 32. Take E = 20 × 106 KN/m2.856 EXAM PL E-2: Analyze the continuous beam shown below by three moment equation if support at B sinks by 12 mm.031 KN 69.308 10.6 KN/m 8m C 32 KN 3m 6m D 13.194 KN o 12 3. A B C D Do 12mm 6m 2Ic B / 8m 4Ic 6m 3Ic Lo Io = 2. Ic = 40 × 10-6 m4.52m 43.203 5.6 Fig (b) Reactant moment diagram A1 to A5 are areas of adjusted BMD.009 5.0 A O A1 A2 C A3 0.806 SFD BMD 13. .79 1.

an imaginary Hinged span of length Lo and Ic = ∞ has already been added to make the method applicable and to conform to the support characteristic at D.2 Mc = 1.8 Mb + 0. Ma 6 6 8 8 6E × 12 × 10-3 6E × 12 × 10−3 + 2Mb + + Mc = + 6 8 2Ic 2Ic 4Ic 4Ic put Ma = 0.2 Mb + 4 Mc + Md = − 3. we find that situation is similar so both ha and hc terms are positive and equal to 12 mm using three-moment equation. Only analysis due to differential settlement at B is required. we also know that Ma = 0 and MDO = 0 being extreme hinge supports. simplify and multiply by Ic 2Mb (3+ 2) + Mc (2) = EI C × 12 × 10-3 + 0. Ma 8 8 6 6 6E(− 12 × 10-3) + 2Mc + + Md = + 0 8 4Ic 4Ic 3Ic 3Ic divide by 10 (1) Simplify and multiply by Ic 2 Mb + 8 Mc + 2 Md = − 7. we notice that ha term is equal to − 12mm and hc term is zero.68 Spans BC and CD Comparing these two spans with the derivation.2 = 16. Spans AB and BC When we consider these spans and compare them with the derivation.THE THREE MOMENT EQUATION 377 SOL UTI ON: As the extreme right support is fixed.6 + 7.75 EI C × 12 × 10-3 put EI = 800 10 Mb + 2 Mc = 9. those could have been considered at the same time also. Now it is a sort of continuous support. Had there been some applied loads also. Now EI = 20 × 106 × 40 × 10−6 = 800 KN-m2.6 Spans CD and DDO There is no load and settlement on these two spans so right handside of equation is zero Mc 6 6 Lo Lo 3Ic + 2Md 3Ic + ∞ + Mdo ∞ = 0 divide by 2 (2) .

6 KN-m Md = − Mc = + 0. Add and subtract equal areas on spans BC and CD and apply conjugate beam method.56 Mb = 2 KN-m Plot end moment diagram.6 Mc − 2 Md Mc + 2 Md − 6.4 2 1 A4 = × 8 × 1. Subtract (2) from (1) Mb + 0.8 2 Compute slopes at supports.6 = 5.378 THEORY OF INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES We know that Mdo = 0.6 = 4. 1 ×6×2= 6 2 1 A2 = ×8×2= 8 2 1 A3 = × 6 × 0. A1 = θa = Slope due to settlement (configuration) + due to end moments 12 × 10−3 1 A1 12 × 10−3 1 6 = + = + = 3. Lo = 0 ∞ Simplify and multiply by Ic 2 Mc + 4 Md = 0 Mc + 2 Md = 0 divide by 2 (3) Above three linear simultaneous equations which are solved. 2EIc 3 6 6 1600 3 Span AB .8 = 2.2 Mc Mb + 4 Mc + Md − 3.26 (4) Now multiply equation (4) by 2 and add to equation (3) − 7.8 Mc − Md = 1.4 2 1 A5 = × 6 × 1.6 = 6.6 Mc Mc = − 1.25 × 10−3 rad.8 2 = 10.56 = 0 = 10.68 = − 3.

= − 0. Unsolved Examples: Solve the following loaded beams by three-moment equations.49 Md = − 4. θc = 12 × 10−3 1 1 2 + − A2 + A4 8 4EIc 3 3 θc = − 1 × 10−3 rad.8 − A3 + A5 = 0 + 3EIc 3 3 3 3 × 800 3 θd = 0 + θd = 0 (Fixed end) Checks on slopes have been satisfied so computed moment values are correct. Now beam is determinate. 1 2 1 1 −2 × 2.8 A3 − A5 = 3EIc 3 3 3 3 × 800 3 θc = −1 × 10−3 rad.418 apply continuity checks and plot SFD and BMD.4 = − 4.2 Mc Mb + 4 Mc + Md Mc + 2 Md Solution gives Mc = + 3. SFD and BMD can be plotted. we get the following equations.145 Mb = − 1.4 + A2 − A4 = + 8 4EIc 3 3 8 3 4 × 800 3 θb = − 5 × 10−4 rad.8 (1) (2) (3) .72 = 8.4 + 1 × 4. for a differential sinking of 12 mm at support C.4 − 2 × 4. Mb + 0. Span BC θb = 12 × 10−3 1 2 1 12 × 10−3 1 2 × 8 − 1 × 6.THE THREE MOMENT EQUATION 12 × 10−3 1 2 12 × 10−6 1 2 + − A1 = + − × 6 2EIc 3 6 6 1600 3 379 θb = = -5 × 10−4 rad. Span CD θc = 0 + 1 1 2 1 1 × 2. Resolve same problem.

28 Kn-m Mc = − 147.4 Mb + 1.380 THEORY OF INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES 70 KN 3m A 8m EI = Constt.312 = − 213.12 = 0 (1) (2) (3) 60 KN 6m 24 KN/m A B 6m 3Ic 12m 10Ic C 6m 2Ic 1.5 m D 16 KN/m 4m Lo E 72 KN 24 KN Final Equations: 2 Ma + Mb 2 Ma + 6.91 = − 90.25 Kn-m A B = − 216 = − 1555.2 Mc = − 600 = 1800 (1) (2) .4 Mb + 1.2 Mb + 8.5 Mc Mb + 2 Mc End Moment Values: Mc = 16.82 Ma = − 73.5 Mb Ma + 5 Mb + 1. B 12m C Final equations: Ma + 0.2 (1) (2) (3) C D 15 mm E = 200 x 106 KN/m2 Ic = 400 x 10 m -6 4 3Ic 6m 10Ic 12m 2Ic 6m Final Equations: 2 Ma + Mb 2 Ma + 6.2 Mc 1.41 Mb = − 32.2 = − 1495.4 Mc End moment values: Ma = − 0.361 KN-m Mb = − 215.

38 Mc = − 139.34 KN-m 15 KN A (3) 3 KN/m B C 20 KN 5m 2I 8m I 8m I 3m 2I End moment values: Ma = − 75 KN-m Mb = 21.88 Mc = − 53.18 Md = 0 12 KN 2m A = − 235.2 Mb + 8.75 Mc = − 60 KN-m 12 KN 2m A B 9.69 KN-m Mb = 475.THE THREE MOMENT EQUATION = − 600 381 1.4 Mc End moment values: Ma = − 537.6 KN/m B C 32 KN 3m D 6m 2I 8m 4Ic 6m 3Ic .2 = − 451.6 KN/m C 32 KN 3m D 6m 2I 8m 4Ic 6m 3Ic Final equations: 10 Mb + 2 Mc 2 Mb + 8 Mc End moment values: Ma = − 24 KN-m Mb = − 12.2 (1) (2) 9.

455 Mc = − 50. C Final equations: 2 Ma + Mb = − 144 2 Ma + 10 Mb + 3 Mc = − 288 Mb + 2 Mc = 0 End moment values: (1) (2) (3) .382 THEORY OF INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES Final equations: 10 Mb + 2 Mc 2 Mb + 8 Mc + 2 MD 2 Mc + 4 MD End moment values: Ma = − 24 KN-m Mb = − 13.5 mm 2m 6m 2Ic 8m 4Ic 6m 3Ic Final equations: 10 Mb + 2 Mc 2 Mb + 8 Mc + 2 Md 2 Mc + 2 MD End moment values: Ma = 0 Mb = 0.7714 Mc = − 0.33 Md = − 10.835 A = − 235.707 = 6.7 = 0 (1) (2) (3) 64 KN A 3 3m B 9m EI = Constt.2 = − 451.707 Md = 0.3 = − 2.2 = − 144 (1) (2) (3) B C 3m D 4.

THE THREE MOMENT EQUATION 383 Mb = -19.5 mm E = 200 x 106 KN/m2 Ic = 400 x 10 m -6 4 6m 2Ic 8m 4Ic 6m 3Ic Final equations: Mb + 0.45 Mc = − 0.86 = 5.4 A B C 3m D 3 mm 4.6 Ma = − 62.5 = − 12 (1) (2) (3) .27 MD = − 5.4 = − 1.2 Mc = 9.2 Mc Mb + 4 Mc + MD Mc + 2 MD End moment values: Ma = 0 Mb = 5.

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