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Chapter 10

Chapter 10
10-1
Chapter 2-

10-2 BLOCK DIAGRAMS, TRANSFER FUNCTIONS,

AND STATE DIAGRAMS
10-2-1 Transfer Functions (Multivariable Systems)
The definition of a transfer function is easily extended to a system with multiple
inputs and outputs.
A system of this type is often referred to as a multivariable system.
In a multivariable system, a differential equation of the form of Eq. (2-217) may
be used to describe the relationship between a pair of input and output
variables, when all other inputs are set to zero.
This equation is restated as
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
d n y (t )
d n 1 y (t )
d y (t )

a0 y (t )
a
...
a
n 1
1
n
n 1
dt
dt
dt
d mu (t )
d m 1u (t )
d u (t )
bm

b0u (t )
b
...
b
m 1
1
m
m 1
dt
dt
dt

(10-1)

The coefficients a0, a1, , an1 and b0, b1, , bm1 are real constants.
Because the principle of superposition is valid for linear systems, the total effect
on any output due to all the inputs acting simultaneously is obtained by adding up
the outputs due to each input acting alone.
In general, if a linear system has p inputs and q outputs, the transfer function
between the jth input and the ith output is defined as

Yi ( s )
Gij ( s )
R j (s)

(10-2)

with Rk(s) = 0, k = 1, 2, ..., p, k j.

Note that Eq. (10-2) is defined with only the jth input in effect, whereas the other
inputs are set to zero. When all the p inputs are in action, the ith output transform
is written

Yi (s) Gi1 (s) R1 (s) Gi 2 (s) R2 (s) ... Gip (s) Rp (s)
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(10-3)
Automatic Control Systems
_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
It is convenient to express Eq. (10-3) in matrix-vector form:

Y ( s ) G( s ) R ( s )
where

Y1 ( s )
Y ( s )
2

Y( s)

Y
(
s
)
q

(10-4)
the q x 1
transformed output
vector
(10-5)

G11 ( s ) G12 ( s )

G21 ( s ) G22 ( s )

G( s )

Gq1 ( s ) Gq 2 ( s )
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... G1 p ( s )

... G2 p ( s )

...

... Gqp ( s )

R1 ( s)
R ( s)
2

R( s )

R
(
s
)
p

the p x 1
transformed input
vector
(10-6)

(10-7)
the q x p transferfunction matrix
Automatic Control Systems
_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
10-2-2 Block Diagrams and Transfer Functions of
Multivariable Systems
In this section, we shall illustrate the block diagram and matrix representations of
multivariable systems.
Two block-diagram representations of a multivariable system with p inputs and q
outputs are shown in Fig. 10-1(a) and (b).
In Fig. 10-1(a), the individual input and output signals are designate, whereas in
the block diagram of Fig. 10-1(b), the multiplicity of the inputs and outputs is
denoted by vectors.
The case of Fig. 10-1(b) is preferable in practice because of its simplicity.
Fig. 10-2 shows the block diagram of a multivariable feedback control system.
The transfer function relationships of the system are expressed in vector-matrix
form (see Section 10-3 for more detail):

Y ( s ) G( s ) U ( s )

(10-8)

U ( s ) R ( s ) B( s )

(10-9)

B( s ) H ( s ) Y ( s )

(10-10)

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where Y(s) is the q x 1 output vector; U(s),

R(s), and B(s) are all p x 1 vectors; and
G(s) and H(s) are q x p and p x q transferfunction matrices, respectively.

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10

Figure 10-1
Block diagram representations of a
multivariable system.
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
Substituting Eq. (10-9) into Eq. (10-8) and then from Eq. (10-8) to
Eq. (10-10), we get

Y ( s ) G ( s ) R ( s ) G( s ) H ( s ) Y ( s )

(10-11)

Solving for Y(s) from Eq. (10-11) gives

Y ( s ) I G ( s ) H ( s ) G( s ) R ( s )
1

(10-12)

is nonsingular.

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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
The closed-loop transfer matrix is defined as

M ( s ) I G( s ) H ( s ) G( s )
1

(10-13)

Then Eq. (10-12) is written

Y( s ) M ( s ) R ( s )

(10-14)

EXAMPLE 10-2-1
Consider that the forward-path transfer function matrix and the feedback-path
transfer function matrix of the system shown in Fig. 10-2 are

1
s 1
G( s )
2

1
s 2

1
H( s )
0

0
1

(10-15)

respectively.
The closed-loop transfer function matrix of the system is given by Eq. (10-14) and
is evaluated as follows:
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
1
1 s 2

1 s 1
s s 1
I G( s ) H ( s )

1
2
1
2

s 2

1

s

s 3
s 2

(10-16)

The closed-loop transfer function matrix is

1
s3 1 1

1 s 2 s s 1
1
s
M ( s ) I G( s ) H( s ) G( s )

1
s 2

2
2

s 1
s 2

(10-17)

where

s 2 s 3 2 s 2 5s 2

s 1 s 2 s
s ( s 1)
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(10-18)

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
Thus,

3s 2 9 s 4
1

s
s( s 1) s( s 1)( s 2)
M( s ) 2
s 5s 2
3s 2
2

s( s 1)

(10-19)

10-2-3 State Diagram

In this section, we introduce the state diagram, which is an extension of the SFG
to portray state equations and differential equations.
The significance of the state diagram is that it forms a close relationship among
the state equations, computer simulation, and transfer functions.
A state diagram is constructed following all the rules of the SFG using the
Laplace-transformed state equations.
The basic elements of a slate diagram are similar to the conventional SFG,
except for the integration operation.
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Chapter 10
Let the variables x1(t) and x2(t) be related by the first-order
differentiation:

dx1 (t )
x2 (t )
dt

(10-20)

Integrating both sides of the last equation with respect to t from the initial time t0,
we get
t

x1 (t ) x2 ( )d x1 (t0 )
t0

(10-21)

Because the SFG algebra does not handle integration in the time domain, we
must take the Laplace transform on both sides of Eq. (10-20). We have
t
t
t0
x1 (t0 )
x1 (t0 )

X1 ( s ) x2 ( )d
x2 ( )d x2 ( )d
t0

0
s
s
t0
X 2 ( s)
x (t )

x2 ( )d 1 0
0

s
s

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(10-22)

Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
Because the past history of the integrator is represented by x1(t0),
and the state transition is assumed to start at = t0, x2() = 0 for 0
< < t0. Thus, Eq. (10-22) becomes

X2 (s) x1 (t0 )
X1 (s)

s
s

t0

(10-23)

Eq. (10-23) is now algebraic and can be represented by an SFG, as shown in Fig.
10-3.
Fig. 10-3 shows that the output of the integrator is equal to s 1 times the input,
plus the initial condition x1(t0)/s.
An alternative SFG with fewer elements for Eq. (10-23) is shown in Fig. 10-4.
Before embarking on several illustrative examples on the construction of state
diagrams, let us point out the important uses of the state diagram.

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Chapter 10

Figure 10-3 Signal-flow graph representation

of X1 (s) = [X2(s)/s] + [x1 (t0)/s].

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13

Figure 10-4 Signal-flow graph

representation of X1(s) = [X2(s)/s]
+ [x1(t0)/s].

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
1. A state diagram can be constructed directly from the systems
differential equation.
This allows the determination of the state variables and the state
equations.
2. A state diagram can be constructed from the systems transfer
function. This step is defined as the decomposition of transfer
functions (Section 10-10).
3. The state diagram can be used to program the system on an analog
computer or for simulation on a digital computer.
4. The state-transition equation in the Laplace transform domain may
be obtained from the state diagram by using the SFG gain formula.
5. The transfer functions of a system can be determined from the state
diagram.
6. The state equations and the output equations can be determined
from the state diagram.
The details of these techniques will follow.

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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
10-2-4 From Differential Equations to State Diagrams
When a linear system is described by a high-order differential equation,
a state diagram can be constructed from these equations, although a
direct approach is not always the most convenient.
Consider the following differential equation:

d n y (t )
d n 1 y (t )
d y (t )

a1 y (t ) r (t )
a
a
n
2
dt n
dt n 1
dt

(10-24)

To construct a state diagram using this equation, we rearrange

the equation as

d n y (t )
d n 1 y (t )
d y (t )

a1 y (t ) r (t )
a
a
n
2
dt n
dt n 1
dt

(10-25)

As a first step, the nodes representing R(s),s nY(s),s n1Y(s), , sY(s), and Y(s)
are arranged from left to right, as shown in Fig. 10-5(a).
Because s iY(s) corresponds to d iy(t)/dt i, i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n, in the Laplace
domain, as the next step, the nodes in Fig. 10-5(a) are connected by branches to
portray Eq. (10-25), resulting in Fig. 10-5(b).
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10

Figure 10-5 State-diagram

representation of the
differential equation of Eq.
(10-24).

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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
Finally, the integrator branches with gains of s 1 are inserted, and the
initial conditions are added to the outputs of the integrators, according
to the basic scheme in Fig. 10-3.
The complete state diagram is drawn as shown in Fig. 10-5(c).
The outputs of the integrators are defined as the state variables, x1, x2, ..., xn.
This is usually the natural choice of state variables once the state diagram is
drawn.
When the differential equation has derivatives of the input on the right side, the
problem of drawing the state diagram directly is not as straightforward as just
illustrated.
We will show that, in general, it is more convenient to obtain the transfer function
from the differential equation first and then arrive at the state diagram through
decomposition (Section 10-10).
EXAMPLE 10-2-2

d 2 y (t )
dy (t )

2 y (t ) r(t )
3
dt 2
dt
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(10-26)

17

Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
Equating the highest-ordered term of the last equation to the rest of
the terms, we have

d 2 y (t )
dy (t )
3
2 y (t ) r(t )
dt 2
dt

(10-27)

Following the procedure just outlined, the state diagram of the system is drawn
as shown in Fig. 10-6.
The state variables x1 and x2 are assigned as shown.

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(10-26).
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
10-2-5 From State Diagrams to Transfer Functions
The transfer function between an input and an output is obtained from
the state diagram by using the gain formula and setting all other inputs
and initial states to zero.
The following example shows how the transfer function is obtained
directly from a state diagram.
EXAMPLE 10-2-3
Consider the state diagram of Fig. 10-6.
The transfer function between R(s) and Y(s) is obtained by applying the gain
formula between these two nodes and setting the initial states to zero. We have

Y (s)
1
2
R( s ) s 3s 2

(10-28)

10-2-6 From State Diagrams to State and Output Equations

The state equations and the output equations can be obtained directly from the
state diagram by using the SFG gain formula.
The general form of a state equation and the output equation for a linear system is
described in Chapter 2 and presented here.
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
State equation:

dx(t )
ax(t ) br (t )
dt

(10-29)

Output equation:

y (t ) cx(t ) dr(t )

(10-30)

where x(t) is the state variable; r(t) is the input; y(t) is the output; and a, b, c,
and d are constant coefficients.
Based on the general form of the state and output equations, the following
procedure of deriving the state and output equations from the state diagram
are outlined:
1. Delete the initial states and the integrator branches with gains s 1 from the state
diagram, since the state and output equations do not contain the Laplace operator
s or the initial states.
2. For the state equations, regard the nodes that represent the derivatives of the
state variables as output nodes, since these variables appear on the left-hand side
of the state equations. The output y(t) in the output equation is naturally an output
node variable.
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20

Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
3. Regard the state variables and the inputs as input variables on the
state diagram, since these variables are found on the right-hand
side of the state and output equations.
4. Apply the SFG gain formula to the state diagram.
EXAMPLE 10-2-4
Fig. 10-7 shows the state diagram of Fig. 10-6 with the integrator branches and
the initial states eliminated. Using dx1(t)/dt and dx2(t)/dt as the output nodes and
x1(t), x2(t), and r(t) as input nodes, and applying the gain formula between these
nodes, the state equations are obtained as

dx1 (t )
x2 (t )
dt
dx2 (t )
2 x1 (t ) 3 x2 (t ) r (t )
dt

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(10-31)
(10-32)

21

Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10

Figure 10-7 State diagram of Fig. 10-6 with the initial states
and the integrator branches left out.
Applying the gain formula with x1(t), x2(t), and r(t) as input nodes and y(t) as the
output node, the output equation is written

y (t ) x1 (t )

(10-33)

EXAMPLE 10-2-5
As another example on the determination of the state equations from the state
diagram, consider the state diagram shown in Fig. 10-8(a). This example will also
emphasize the importance of applying the gain formula.
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10

Figure 10-8 (a) State diagram.

(b) State diagram in part (a)
with all initial states and
integrators left out.

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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
Fig. 10-8(b) shows the state diagram with the initial states and the
integrator branches deleted.
Notice that, in this case, the state diagram in Fig. 10-8(b) still contains a loop.
By applying the gain formula to the state diagram in Fig. 10-8(b) with 1(t), 2(t),
and 3(t) as output-node variables and r(t), x1(t), x2(t), and x3(t) as input nodes, the
state equations are obtained as follows in vector-matrix form:

dx1 (t )
dt
0

dx2 (t ) (a2 a3 )
dt 1 a0 a3

dx
(
t
)
0
3
dt

1
a1
0

0
x1 (t ) 0
1 a0 a2
0 r (t )
x
(
t
)
2

1 a0 a3
x3 (t ) 1
0

(10-34)

y (t )

a0
1
x1 (t )
x3 (t )
1 a0 a3
1 a0 a3

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(10-35)

24

Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
10-3 -
i = 12n

1. n n

(10-36)

dxi (t )
f i [ x1 (t ), x2 (t ), , xn (t ), u1 (t ), u2 (t ), , u p (t ), w1 (t ), w2 (t ), , wv (t )]
dt
xi (t) i uj (t)j = 12p j wk(t)
k k = 12v
j = 12q
2.
(10-37)
y1(t)y2(t)yq(t) q
(dynamic equation)

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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
3. -
1)

2)

(10-38)

(10-39)

4)

3)

(10-40)

(10-42)

(10-41)

f f1f2fn
n 1

(10-43)
4.
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26

g g1g2gq
q 1
Automatic Control Systems
_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10

(10-44)

(10-45)

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(10-46)

(10-47)

(10-48)

(10-50)

(10-49)

(10-51)
27

Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
10-4
x(t0) u(t)
w(t)(t t0)

dx ( t )
Ax
(t ) Bu
(
t )
Ew(
t)

dt

(10-44)

1.
(10-52)
2.
(t) n n
(10-53)
x(0) t = 0 (t)
(10-54)
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t 0
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
3.
<> (10-52)
(10-55)
(sI A)

(10-56)

(10-57)
(10-54) (10-57) (t)
(10-58)
<> t 0 (10-52)
(10-59)
eAt At
(10-60)
(10-61)

(10-62)
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10

1. (free response)
2. (t) t = 0 t

1.
2.
<pf.>

()

(10-63)

(10-64)
(10-62) e At

(10-65)
(10-65) 1(t)
(10-66)
(10-67)

(10-59)
(10-68)
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
t0t1t2

3.
<pf.>

(10-69)

(10-70)

10-9 t
= t0 t = t2
t0 t1
t1 t2

10-9

4.
<pf.>
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k =

(10-71)

(k )

(10-72)
31

Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
10-5
1.

(10-73)

2.

x(0) t = 0
(10-74)
(10-75)

t = 0

(10-76)
t0 x(t0) u(t) w(t)
t 0
(10-64)
(10-76) t = t0 x(0)
(t)
(10-77)
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(10-64)
32

Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
(10-78)
(10-77) (10-76)
(10-79)
3.

(10-78)
(10-69)

x(t) (10-79) (10-45)

(10-80)

10-5-1
(10-81)
t 0 u (t) = 1 t 0 (t) x(t)
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
<Sol.>
1. A B
(10-82)
(10-83)
(10-84)
2. A
(10-85)
3. t 0

(10-85) B u (t)
(10-76)
(10-86)

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(10-87)
34

Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
(sI A) 1BU(s)

(10-88)

1. SFG
(10-75)
(10-75)
75
2. t0 (10-75)
(10-89)
3. Xi (s)i = 12n
4.
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
10-5-2 10-5-1
<Sol.>
1. (10-81)

1010 t0

10-10 (10-81)

(10-81)

3. 10-10
(10-90)
(10-91)

(10-92)
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
(10-93)
t t0

4. -

(10-93)
5. t = t0 u(t)
(10-94)

t0

(10-95)

6. (10-93
)
(

t 0
(10-87)
(10-96)

10-11 10-12 RL t = 0 t = 0
i (0) t = 0 10-12
t > 0 i (t) = ?
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10

10-11 RL
10-12 10-11

<Sol.>
1.
(10-97)

(10-44)
(10-98)

2.
(10-99)
<>
1.
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
us(t)

(10-100)
(10-101)

(10-102)
2. t 0 i (t)

(10-102) (1076)
(10-103)

<>
1. t = 0 t = t1 t = t1 t =
2. 0 t t1
(10-104)
(10-105)
3. 0 t t1
(10-106)
t = t1
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
(10-107)
4. t1 t
i (t) t = t1 t1 t <
2Ein
i (t1) (10-107)
(10-108)
t = t1 t1

10-6
1. n
(2-97)
2.
(2-105)
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
3.

(phasevariable canonical form, PVCF)

(controllability
canonical form, CCF)

4. -
(10-109)

41

(2-106)

(10-110)
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(10-111)
Automatic Control Systems
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Chapter 10

5.
(10-112)

(10-113)

10-6-1
(10-114)

<Sol.>
1.
(10-115)
2.

(10-116)

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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
3. -
(10-117)
x(t) 3 1 u(t)
(10-118)
4.
y (t ) x1 (t ) 1 0 0 x(t )

Ogata3-5
(10-119)

State-Space Representation of nth-Order Systems of Linear Differential

Equation in which the Forcing Function Involves Derivative Terms
1. nth-order system:
(n)

( n 1)

(n)

( n 1)

y a1 y a n 1 y a n y b0 u b1 u bn 1u bn u

(O-1)

The state variable must be chosen such that they will eliminate the
derivatives of u in the state equation.
2. n state variables:
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
x1 y 0u
x2 y 0u 1u x1 1u
x3
y 0u 1u 2u x 2 2u

( n 1)

( n 1)

(O-2)

( n2)

x n y 0 u 1 u n 2 u n 1u x n 1 n 1u
where 0 , 1, 2 , , n are determined from

0 b0
1 b1 a1 0
2 b2 a11 a2 0
3 b3 a1 2 a2 1 a3 0

(O-3)

n bn a1 n 1 a n 1 1 a n 0
With the present choice of state variables, we obtain
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44

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
x1 x 2 1u
x 2 x3 2 u

(O-4)
x n 1 x n n 1u
x n an x1 an 1 x2 a1 xn nu
In terms of vector-matrix equations, Equation (3-36) and the output equation
can be written as

x1 0
x 0
2
. .

.
. .

x
n 1 0
x a
n n

0
a n 1

0
a n2

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0 x1 1
x1
0 x 2 2
x
2
. . .

.
. . . u and y 1 0 0 0 u
.
. . .

.
1 x n 1 n 1

x n
a1 x n n

45

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
10-7
1.
(10-120)
(10-121)

x(t) = n 1 y(t) = q 1
u(t) = p 1 w(t) = v 1

ABCDE H

(10-122)
(10-123)

Y( s ) C( sI A )1 x(0) C( sI A )1 BU( s ) EW ( s ) DU( s ) HW ( s )

2. x(0) = 0 (10-124)

Y( s ) C( sI A )1 B D U(s ) C( sI A )1 E+H W ( s )

(10-124)
(10-125)

(10-126)
(10-127)
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46

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
Gu(s) w(t) = 0 u(t) y(t) q p
Gw(s) u(t) = 0 w(t) y(t) q v
(10-125)

(10-128)

10-7-1
(10-129)
(10-130)

(10-131)
1) u(t) y(t) 2) w(t) y(t)
<Sol.>
<>
1.
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
A

E
(10-132)

2.
(10-133)
3. (sI A)
(10-134)
(10-135)
(10-136)
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
4. u(t) y(t)
(10-137)
(10-138)
<>
(10-129) (10-130)
(10-139)
(10-139) Y(s)
(10-140)

(10-141)

(10-137) (10-138)

(10-142)
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
10-8
10-8-1
1.

n>m
(10-143)

2. s
(10-144)
(10-143)

(10-145)

3.

(10-143)

(10-146)
10-8-1 (10-114)

(10-114)
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
<Sol.>

(10-147)
10-8-2
(10-143):
(10-148)

10-8-2 (10-114)

<Sol.>

(10-114):

(10-114)

(10-149)

(10-147)

(10-126)

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(10-150)

(10-151)
51

A
sI A
Automatic Control Systems
_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
10-8-3 (10-114) A
(10-128) A
(10-152)
10-8-4 A

1. A
2. 12n A
(10-153)

A A
3. ii = 12n A A'
4. A ii = 12n 1/ii = 12n
A1
10-8-4 (10-118) A
<Sol.> (10-152)
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(10-118)
Automatic Control Systems
_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
(10-154)
10-8-5
ii = 12n A
pi
(10-155)
A i
10-8-5 (10-44)
(10-156)
A
<Sol.>
1. A
(10-157)
2. 1 = 1 2 = 1
3.
(10-158)
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53

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
1=1 p1 (10-155)
(10-159)

p 1
p1 11
p21 0

2 = 1(10-155)
(10-160)

(10-161)

p12 1
p2
p22 2

(10-162)
10-8-6
1. A A (10-155)

2. A n q(< n) q

i i i = 12q
(10-163)
3. j m (m n q)

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Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
(10-167)
(10-164)

3.

2 = 1 (10-164)

10-8-6 A
(10-165)

(10-168)

A
<Sol.>
1. A 1 = 22 = 3 = 1

(10-169)

2. 1 = 2 (10-163)

3 = 1 (10-164)

(10-166)
p11 = 2 p21 = 1 p31 = 2
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Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
1 6 5 p11
1
(3I A )p3 1 1 2 p21 p 2 3/ 7

3 2 3 p31
5 / 7

(10-170)

(10-171)

10-9
1. - (SISO) :
x(t) n 1 u(t)
y(t)

(10-172)
(10-173)
2.

P n n
(10-174)
(10-175)

3.

(10-176)
(10-177)

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Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
4. (10-175) t
(10-178) (10-176)
(10-179)
(10-180)
(10-174) (10-177)

(10-178)

(10-181)
(10-181) (10-173)

(10-182)

10-9-1

1.
sI A = 0
(10-183)
(10-184)
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Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
2.

(10185)
(10-186)
10-9-2 (CCF)
1.

(10-174) (10-172)
(10-173) 10176) (10-177)
(Controllability Canonical Form, CCF)

(10-172)
(10-173)
2. A

(10-187)

3.
(10-188)
(10-190)

(10-189)
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Automatic Control Systems

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Chapter 10
(10-191)

A B

(10-192)

C D (10-182)
(10-189) n n S (controllability matrix)
10-9-1 (10-172)
(10-193)

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59

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
<Sol.>
1. A

(10-194)

a0 = 3a1 = 1 a2 = 3 (10-190)
(10-195)
2.
(10-196)
3. S M (10-188)
(10-197)
(10-191) (10-192)
(10-198)
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Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
10-9-3 (OCF)
1.

(10-172)

(Observability
Canonical Form, OCF)

(10-173)
2.
(10-199)
3.
(10-176)
(10-177)
(10-200)

(10-201)

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(10-202)
61

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
4.
(10-203)
M (5-155)

(10-190)

(10-204)

V (observability matrix) V 1
OCF
10-9-2 (10-172) (10-138)
(10-205)

<Sol.>
1. M (10-195)
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(10-195)
62

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
2.

3. OCF
(10-207)

(10-206)
4. OCF

B
(10-208)

10-9-4 (DCF)
1.
(10-172)
(10-173)
2. A
(10-209)

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(10-176)
63

(10-177)
Automatic Control Systems
_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10

(10-210)

(10-211)
B C D (10210)

12n A n
(DCF)

3. DCF T
A
(10-212)
pii = 12n i
4.
n n

(10-213)

(10-214)
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64

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
(10-215)

(10-215)

(10-216)

A (10-211)

(10-217)

A CCF DCF
(Vandermonde)
12n A
(10-218)

10-9-3
(10-219)
DCF
<Sol.>
1. 1 = 12 = 2 3 = 3
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65

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
2. A CCF DCF (10-218)

(10-220)
3. A DCF
(10-221)
10-9-5 (JCF)
1. A

2. JCF
A 1
2 3

(10-222)

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66

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
3.

(5-182)
(10-217)

4. T JCF

1. A
2. A
3. 1 (10-222)

4. 1 (10-222)

5. A n n A
r (r < n)
6. r

7. 1 n r
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67

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
10-9-4 (10-165)
(5-130)
(10-165)

<Sol.>
1. A 211
2. DCF
(10-223)
DCF

(10-224)

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68

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
10-10

10-13

10-13

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69

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
10-10-1
1.
2. n SISO U(s) Y(s)
(10-225)

CCF

1. s
2. X(s) (10-225)
(10-226)
3. (10-226)
(10-227)
(10-228)
4. (10-227) (10-228) (10227) (10-228)

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70

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
(10-229)

(10-228)
5. 10-14

s nX(s) x1
s n + 1X(s) x2

10-14 (10-225)
CCF
s 1X(s) xn X(s) xn

1) x1(t)x2(t)xn(t)

2) u(t)

3)
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71

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
State equation:

(10-230)

Output equation:

(10-231)
(5-197) A
B CCF
(10-232)

(10-233)
OCF
1.

(10-225)

2. (10-225) s n
(10-234)

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72

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
(10-235)
3. 10-15

10-15 (10-225)

OCF

4.
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73

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
State equation:

(5-195)
(10-230)

Output equation:

(5-196)
(10-231)

SFG

(10-236)

(10-237)
-
CCFOCFDCF
10-10-1 -
(10-238)
CCF CCF OCF OCF

<Sol.>
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74

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
1. CCF 10-16

10-16 (10-238)

CCF

(10-239)
(10-240)
2. CCF

(10-241)

(10-242)
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75

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
3. OCF 10-17
10-17 (10-238)
OCF

(10-238)
(10-243)
4. OCF

(10-244)

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76

(10-245)

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
10-10-2
1.

a1a2b1 b2
Y (s)
s b1 s b2
K

(10-246)
U (s)

s
a
s
a
1
2

2.
10-18

10-18 (10-246)
3. u(t) SFG
10-18
18
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77

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10

(10-247)
4. u(t) y(t) 10-18
18

(10-248)

1.
Y ( s ) s 5 s 1. 5

U ( s ) s 2 s 2 3s 4

(10-249)

2. 10-19
3.

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(10-250)

(10-251)
78

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10

10-19 (10-249)
Y ( s ) s 5 s 1. 5

U ( s ) s 2 s 3s 4

(10-250)

(10-251)
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79

Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
10-10-3
1.
2. DCF JCF

3.
Q(s) 2
(10-252)
a1 a2
4. (10-253)
(10-253)

K1 K2

5. 10-20
6.

DCF

(10-254)
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80

(10-255)
Automatic Control Systems
_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10

(10-253)
10-20 (10-252)

DCF
JCF
10-10-2
(10-256)

<Sol.>
1. (10-256) 10-21

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Automatic Control Systems

_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
10-21 (10-256)

(10-256)

2.
JCF
(10-257)

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_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo

Chapter 10
Homework:
10-39
10-40
10-43
10-44
10-46
10-47
10-48
10-49
10-52
10-53
10-54
10-55
10-59
10-60
10-62
10-64
10-66

10-1: (c)
10-2: (d)
10-4
10-6: (c) and (f)
10-11: (c)
10-13: (b) and (e)
10-15: (b) and (e)
10-17: (c) and (d)
10-18: (e) and (f)
10-19: (e) and (f)
10-20
10-22
10-26
10-28
10-31
10-33 (d)
10-36
10-38
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