Chapter 10
101
Chapter 2
Chapter 10
d n y (t )
d n 1 y (t )
d y (t )
a0 y (t )
a
...
a
n 1
1
n
n 1
dt
dt
dt
d mu (t )
d m 1u (t )
d u (t )
bm
b0u (t )
b
...
b
m 1
1
m
m 1
dt
dt
dt
(101)
The coefficients a0, a1, , an1 and b0, b1, , bm1 are real constants.
Because the principle of superposition is valid for linear systems, the total effect
on any output due to all the inputs acting simultaneously is obtained by adding up
the outputs due to each input acting alone.
In general, if a linear system has p inputs and q outputs, the transfer function
between the jth input and the ith output is defined as
Yi ( s )
Gij ( s )
R j (s)
(102)
Note that Eq. (102) is defined with only the jth input in effect, whereas the other
inputs are set to zero. When all the p inputs are in action, the ith output transform
is written
Yi (s) Gi1 (s) R1 (s) Gi 2 (s) R2 (s) ... Gip (s) Rp (s)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
(103)
Automatic Control Systems
_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo
Chapter 10
It is convenient to express Eq. (103) in matrixvector form:
Y ( s ) G( s ) R ( s )
where
Y1 ( s )
Y ( s )
2
Y( s)
Y
(
s
)
q
(104)
the q x 1
transformed output
vector
(105)
G11 ( s ) G12 ( s )
G21 ( s ) G22 ( s )
G( s )
Gq1 ( s ) Gq 2 ( s )
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
... G1 p ( s )
... G2 p ( s )
...
... Gqp ( s )
R1 ( s)
R ( s)
2
R( s )
R
(
s
)
p
the p x 1
transformed input
vector
(106)
(107)
the q x p transferfunction matrix
Automatic Control Systems
_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo
Chapter 10
1022 Block Diagrams and Transfer Functions of
Multivariable Systems
In this section, we shall illustrate the block diagram and matrix representations of
multivariable systems.
Two blockdiagram representations of a multivariable system with p inputs and q
outputs are shown in Fig. 101(a) and (b).
In Fig. 101(a), the individual input and output signals are designate, whereas in
the block diagram of Fig. 101(b), the multiplicity of the inputs and outputs is
denoted by vectors.
The case of Fig. 101(b) is preferable in practice because of its simplicity.
Fig. 102 shows the block diagram of a multivariable feedback control system.
The transfer function relationships of the system are expressed in vectormatrix
form (see Section 103 for more detail):
Y ( s ) G( s ) U ( s )
(108)
U ( s ) R ( s ) B( s )
(109)
B( s ) H ( s ) Y ( s )
(1010)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
Chapter 10
Figure 101
Block diagram representations of a
multivariable system.
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
Chapter 10
Substituting Eq. (109) into Eq. (108) and then from Eq. (108) to
Eq. (1010), we get
Y ( s ) G ( s ) R ( s ) G( s ) H ( s ) Y ( s )
(1011)
Y ( s ) I G ( s ) H ( s ) G( s ) R ( s )
1
(1012)
Chapter 10
The closedloop transfer matrix is defined as
M ( s ) I G( s ) H ( s ) G( s )
1
(1013)
Y( s ) M ( s ) R ( s )
(1014)
EXAMPLE 1021
Consider that the forwardpath transfer function matrix and the feedbackpath
transfer function matrix of the system shown in Fig. 102 are
1
s 1
G( s )
2
1
s 2
1
H( s )
0
0
1
(1015)
respectively.
The closedloop transfer function matrix of the system is given by Eq. (1014) and
is evaluated as follows:
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
Chapter 10
1
1 s 2
1 s 1
s s 1
I G( s ) H ( s )
1
2
1
2
s 2
1
s
s 3
s 2
(1016)
1
s3 1 1
1 s 2 s s 1
1
s
M ( s ) I G( s ) H( s ) G( s )
1
s 2
2
2
s 1
s 2
(1017)
where
s 2 s 3 2 s 2 5s 2
s 1 s 2 s
s ( s 1)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
(1018)
Chapter 10
Thus,
3s 2 9 s 4
1
s
s( s 1) s( s 1)( s 2)
M( s ) 2
s 5s 2
3s 2
2
s( s 1)
(1019)
10
Chapter 10
Let the variables x1(t) and x2(t) be related by the firstorder
differentiation:
dx1 (t )
x2 (t )
dt
(1020)
Integrating both sides of the last equation with respect to t from the initial time t0,
we get
t
x1 (t ) x2 ( )d x1 (t0 )
t0
(1021)
Because the SFG algebra does not handle integration in the time domain, we
must take the Laplace transform on both sides of Eq. (1020). We have
t
t
t0
x1 (t0 )
x1 (t0 )
X1 ( s ) x2 ( )d
x2 ( )d x2 ( )d
t0
0
s
s
t0
X 2 ( s)
x (t )
x2 ( )d 1 0
0
s
s
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
11
(1022)
Chapter 10
Because the past history of the integrator is represented by x1(t0),
and the state transition is assumed to start at = t0, x2() = 0 for 0
< < t0. Thus, Eq. (1022) becomes
X2 (s) x1 (t0 )
X1 (s)
s
s
t0
(1023)
Eq. (1023) is now algebraic and can be represented by an SFG, as shown in Fig.
103.
Fig. 103 shows that the output of the integrator is equal to s 1 times the input,
plus the initial condition x1(t0)/s.
An alternative SFG with fewer elements for Eq. (1023) is shown in Fig. 104.
Before embarking on several illustrative examples on the construction of state
diagrams, let us point out the important uses of the state diagram.
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
12
Chapter 10
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
13
Chapter 10
1. A state diagram can be constructed directly from the systems
differential equation.
This allows the determination of the state variables and the state
equations.
2. A state diagram can be constructed from the systems transfer
function. This step is defined as the decomposition of transfer
functions (Section 1010).
3. The state diagram can be used to program the system on an analog
computer or for simulation on a digital computer.
4. The statetransition equation in the Laplace transform domain may
be obtained from the state diagram by using the SFG gain formula.
5. The transfer functions of a system can be determined from the state
diagram.
6. The state equations and the output equations can be determined
from the state diagram.
The details of these techniques will follow.
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
14
Chapter 10
1024 From Differential Equations to State Diagrams
When a linear system is described by a highorder differential equation,
a state diagram can be constructed from these equations, although a
direct approach is not always the most convenient.
Consider the following differential equation:
d n y (t )
d n 1 y (t )
d y (t )
a1 y (t ) r (t )
a
a
n
2
dt n
dt n 1
dt
(1024)
d n y (t )
d n 1 y (t )
d y (t )
a1 y (t ) r (t )
a
a
n
2
dt n
dt n 1
dt
(1025)
As a first step, the nodes representing R(s),s nY(s),s n1Y(s), , sY(s), and Y(s)
are arranged from left to right, as shown in Fig. 105(a).
Because s iY(s) corresponds to d iy(t)/dt i, i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n, in the Laplace
domain, as the next step, the nodes in Fig. 105(a) are connected by branches to
portray Eq. (1025), resulting in Fig. 105(b).
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
15
Chapter 10
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
16
Chapter 10
Finally, the integrator branches with gains of s 1 are inserted, and the
initial conditions are added to the outputs of the integrators, according
to the basic scheme in Fig. 103.
The complete state diagram is drawn as shown in Fig. 105(c).
The outputs of the integrators are defined as the state variables, x1, x2, ..., xn.
This is usually the natural choice of state variables once the state diagram is
drawn.
When the differential equation has derivatives of the input on the right side, the
problem of drawing the state diagram directly is not as straightforward as just
illustrated.
We will show that, in general, it is more convenient to obtain the transfer function
from the differential equation first and then arrive at the state diagram through
decomposition (Section 1010).
EXAMPLE 1022
d 2 y (t )
dy (t )
2 y (t ) r(t )
3
dt 2
dt
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
(1026)
17
Chapter 10
Equating the highestordered term of the last equation to the rest of
the terms, we have
d 2 y (t )
dy (t )
3
2 y (t ) r(t )
dt 2
dt
(1027)
Following the procedure just outlined, the state diagram of the system is drawn
as shown in Fig. 106.
The state variables x1 and x2 are assigned as shown.
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
Chapter 10
1025 From State Diagrams to Transfer Functions
The transfer function between an input and an output is obtained from
the state diagram by using the gain formula and setting all other inputs
and initial states to zero.
The following example shows how the transfer function is obtained
directly from a state diagram.
EXAMPLE 1023
Consider the state diagram of Fig. 106.
The transfer function between R(s) and Y(s) is obtained by applying the gain
formula between these two nodes and setting the initial states to zero. We have
Y (s)
1
2
R( s ) s 3s 2
(1028)
19
Chapter 10
State equation:
dx(t )
ax(t ) br (t )
dt
(1029)
Output equation:
y (t ) cx(t ) dr(t )
(1030)
where x(t) is the state variable; r(t) is the input; y(t) is the output; and a, b, c,
and d are constant coefficients.
Based on the general form of the state and output equations, the following
procedure of deriving the state and output equations from the state diagram
are outlined:
1. Delete the initial states and the integrator branches with gains s 1 from the state
diagram, since the state and output equations do not contain the Laplace operator
s or the initial states.
2. For the state equations, regard the nodes that represent the derivatives of the
state variables as output nodes, since these variables appear on the lefthand side
of the state equations. The output y(t) in the output equation is naturally an output
node variable.
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
20
Chapter 10
3. Regard the state variables and the inputs as input variables on the
state diagram, since these variables are found on the righthand
side of the state and output equations.
4. Apply the SFG gain formula to the state diagram.
EXAMPLE 1024
Fig. 107 shows the state diagram of Fig. 106 with the integrator branches and
the initial states eliminated. Using dx1(t)/dt and dx2(t)/dt as the output nodes and
x1(t), x2(t), and r(t) as input nodes, and applying the gain formula between these
nodes, the state equations are obtained as
dx1 (t )
x2 (t )
dt
dx2 (t )
2 x1 (t ) 3 x2 (t ) r (t )
dt
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
(1031)
(1032)
21
Chapter 10
Figure 107 State diagram of Fig. 106 with the initial states
and the integrator branches left out.
Applying the gain formula with x1(t), x2(t), and r(t) as input nodes and y(t) as the
output node, the output equation is written
y (t ) x1 (t )
(1033)
EXAMPLE 1025
As another example on the determination of the state equations from the state
diagram, consider the state diagram shown in Fig. 108(a). This example will also
emphasize the importance of applying the gain formula.
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
22
Chapter 10
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
23
Chapter 10
Fig. 108(b) shows the state diagram with the initial states and the
integrator branches deleted.
Notice that, in this case, the state diagram in Fig. 108(b) still contains a loop.
By applying the gain formula to the state diagram in Fig. 108(b) with 1(t), 2(t),
and 3(t) as outputnode variables and r(t), x1(t), x2(t), and x3(t) as input nodes, the
state equations are obtained as follows in vectormatrix form:
dx1 (t )
dt
0
dx2 (t ) (a2 a3 )
dt 1 a0 a3
dx
(
t
)
0
3
dt
1
a1
0
0
x1 (t ) 0
1 a0 a2
0 r (t )
x
(
t
)
2
1 a0 a3
x3 (t ) 1
0
(1034)
y (t )
a0
1
x1 (t )
x3 (t )
1 a0 a3
1 a0 a3
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
(1035)
24
Chapter 10
103 
i = 12n
1. n n
(1036)
dxi (t )
f i [ x1 (t ), x2 (t ), , xn (t ), u1 (t ), u2 (t ), , u p (t ), w1 (t ), w2 (t ), , wv (t )]
dt
xi (t) i uj (t)j = 12p j wk(t)
k k = 12v
j = 12q
2.
(1037)
y1(t)y2(t)yq(t) q
(dynamic equation)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
25
Chapter 10
3. 
1)
2)
(1038)
(1039)
4)
3)
(1040)
(1042)
(1041)
f f1f2fn
n 1
(1043)
4.
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
26
g g1g2gq
q 1
Automatic Control Systems
_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo
Chapter 10
(1044)
(1045)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
(1046)
(1047)
(1048)
(1050)
(1049)
(1051)
27
Chapter 10
104
x(t0) u(t)
w(t)(t t0)
dx ( t )
Ax
(t ) Bu
(
t )
Ew(
t)
dt
(1044)
1.
(1052)
2.
(t) n n
(1053)
x(0) t = 0 (t)
(1054)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
t 0
28
Chapter 10
3.
<> (1052)
(1055)
(sI A)
(1056)
(1057)
(1054) (1057) (t)
(1058)
<> t 0 (1052)
(1059)
eAt At
(1060)
(1061)
(1062)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
29
Chapter 10
1. (free response)
2. (t) t = 0 t
1.
2.
<pf.>
()
(1063)
(1064)
(1062) e At
(1065)
(1065) 1(t)
(1066)
(1067)
(1059)
(1068)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
30
Chapter 10
t0t1t2
3.
<pf.>
(1069)
(1070)
109 t
= t0 t = t2
t0 t1
t1 t2
109
4.
<pf.>
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
k =
(1071)
(k )
(1072)
31
Chapter 10
105
1.
(1073)
2.
x(0) t = 0
(1074)
(1075)
t = 0
(1076)
t0 x(t0) u(t) w(t)
t 0
(1064)
(1076) t = t0 x(0)
(t)
(1077)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
(1064)
32
Chapter 10
(1078)
(1077) (1076)
(1079)
3.
(1078)
(1069)
(1080)
1051
(1081)
t 0 u (t) = 1 t 0 (t) x(t)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
33
Chapter 10
<Sol.>
1. A B
(1082)
(1083)
(1084)
2. A
(1085)
3. t 0
(1085) B u (t)
(1076)
(1086)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
(1087)
34
Chapter 10
(sI A) 1BU(s)
(1088)
1. SFG
(1075)
(1075)
75
2. t0 (1075)
(1089)
3. Xi (s)i = 12n
4.
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
35
Chapter 10
1052 1051
<Sol.>
1. (1081)
1010 t0
1010 (1081)
(1081)
3. 1010
(1090)
(1091)
(1092)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
36
Chapter 10
(1093)
t t0
4. 
(1093)
5. t = t0 u(t)
(1094)
t0
(1095)
6. (1093
)
(
t 0
(1087)
(1096)
1011 1012 RL t = 0 t = 0
i (0) t = 0 1012
t > 0 i (t) = ?
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
37
Chapter 10
1011 RL
1012 1011
<Sol.>
1.
(1097)
(1044)
(1098)
2.
(1099)
<>
1.
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
38
Chapter 10
us(t)
(10100)
(10101)
(10102)
2. t 0 i (t)
(10102) (1076)
(10103)
<>
1. t = 0 t = t1 t = t1 t =
2. 0 t t1
(10104)
(10105)
3. 0 t t1
(10106)
t = t1
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
39
Chapter 10
(10107)
4. t1 t
i (t) t = t1 t1 t <
2Ein
i (t1) (10107)
(10108)
t = t1 t1
106
1. n
(297)
2.
(2105)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
40
Chapter 10
3.
4. 
(10109)
41
(2106)
(10110)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
(10111)
Automatic Control Systems
_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo
Chapter 10
5.
(10112)
(10113)
1061
(10114)
<Sol.>
1.
(10115)
2.
(10116)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
42
Chapter 10
3. 
(10117)
x(t) 3 1 u(t)
(10118)
4.
y (t ) x1 (t ) 1 0 0 x(t )
Ogata35
(10119)
( n 1)
(n)
( n 1)
y a1 y a n 1 y a n y b0 u b1 u bn 1u bn u
(O1)
The state variable must be chosen such that they will eliminate the
derivatives of u in the state equation.
2. n state variables:
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
43
Chapter 10
x1 y 0u
x2 y 0u 1u x1 1u
x3
y 0u 1u 2u x 2 2u
( n 1)
( n 1)
(O2)
( n2)
x n y 0 u 1 u n 2 u n 1u x n 1 n 1u
where 0 , 1, 2 , , n are determined from
0 b0
1 b1 a1 0
2 b2 a11 a2 0
3 b3 a1 2 a2 1 a3 0
(O3)
n bn a1 n 1 a n 1 1 a n 0
With the present choice of state variables, we obtain
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
44
Chapter 10
x1 x 2 1u
x 2 x3 2 u
(O4)
x n 1 x n n 1u
x n an x1 an 1 x2 a1 xn nu
In terms of vectormatrix equations, Equation (336) and the output equation
can be written as
x1 0
x 0
2
. .
.
. .
x
n 1 0
x a
n n
0
a n 1
0
a n2
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
0 x1 1
x1
0 x 2 2
x
2
. . .
.
. . . u and y 1 0 0 0 u
.
. . .
.
1 x n 1 n 1
x n
a1 x n n
45
Chapter 10
107
1.
(10120)
(10121)
x(t) = n 1 y(t) = q 1
u(t) = p 1 w(t) = v 1
ABCDE H
(10122)
(10123)
Y( s ) C( sI A )1 B D U(s ) C( sI A )1 E+H W ( s )
(10124)
(10125)
(10126)
(10127)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
46
Chapter 10
Gu(s) w(t) = 0 u(t) y(t) q p
Gw(s) u(t) = 0 w(t) y(t) q v
(10125)
(10128)
1071
(10129)
(10130)
(10131)
1) u(t) y(t) 2) w(t) y(t)
<Sol.>
<>
1.
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
47
Chapter 10
A
E
(10132)
2.
(10133)
3. (sI A)
(10134)
(10135)
(10136)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
48
Chapter 10
4. u(t) y(t)
(10137)
(10138)
<>
(10129) (10130)
(10139)
(10139) Y(s)
(10140)
(10141)
(10137) (10138)
(10142)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
49
Chapter 10
108
1081
1.
n>m
(10143)
2. s
(10144)
(10143)
(10145)
3.
(10143)
(10146)
1081 (10114)
(10114)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
50
Chapter 10
<Sol.>
(10147)
1082
(10143):
(10148)
1082 (10114)
<Sol.>
(10114):
(10114)
(10149)
(10147)
(10126)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
(10150)
(10151)
51
A
sI A
Automatic Control Systems
_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo
Chapter 10
1083 (10114) A
(10128) A
(10152)
1084 A
1. A
2. 12n A
(10153)
A A
3. ii = 12n A A'
4. A ii = 12n 1/ii = 12n
A1
1084 (10118) A
<Sol.> (10152)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
52
(10118)
Automatic Control Systems
_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo
Chapter 10
(10154)
1085
ii = 12n A
pi
(10155)
A i
1085 (1044)
(10156)
A
<Sol.>
1. A
(10157)
2. 1 = 1 2 = 1
3.
(10158)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
53
Chapter 10
1=1 p1 (10155)
(10159)
p 1
p1 11
p21 0
2 = 1(10155)
(10160)
(10161)
p12 1
p2
p22 2
(10162)
1086
1. A A (10155)
2. A n q(< n) q
i i i = 12q
(10163)
3. j m (m n q)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
54
Chapter 10
(10167)
(10164)
3.
2 = 1 (10164)
1086 A
(10165)
(10168)
A
<Sol.>
1. A 1 = 22 = 3 = 1
(10169)
2. 1 = 2 (10163)
3 = 1 (10164)
(10166)
p11 = 2 p21 = 1 p31 = 2
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
55
Chapter 10
1 6 5 p11
1
(3I A )p3 1 1 2 p21 p 2 3/ 7
3 2 3 p31
5 / 7
(10170)
(10171)
109
1.  (SISO) :
x(t) n 1 u(t)
y(t)
(10172)
(10173)
2.
P n n
(10174)
(10175)
3.
(10176)
(10177)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
56
Chapter 10
4. (10175) t
(10178) (10176)
(10179)
(10180)
(10174) (10177)
(10178)
(10181)
(10181) (10173)
(10182)
1091
1.
sI A = 0
(10183)
(10184)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
57
Chapter 10
2.
(10185)
(10186)
1092 (CCF)
1.
(10174) (10172)
(10173) 10176) (10177)
(Controllability Canonical Form, CCF)
(10172)
(10173)
2. A
(10187)
3.
(10188)
(10190)
(10189)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
58
Chapter 10
(10191)
A B
(10192)
C D (10182)
(10189) n n S (controllability matrix)
1091 (10172)
(10193)
NTUBIME
_JoeAir Jiang
59
Chapter 10
<Sol.>
1. A
(10194)
a0 = 3a1 = 1 a2 = 3 (10190)
(10195)
2.
(10196)
3. S M (10188)
(10197)
(10191) (10192)
(10198)
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Chapter 10
1093 (OCF)
1.
(10172)
(Observability
Canonical Form, OCF)
(10173)
2.
(10199)
3.
(10176)
(10177)
(10200)
(10201)
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(10202)
61
Chapter 10
4.
(10203)
M (5155)
(10190)
(10204)
V (observability matrix) V 1
OCF
1092 (10172) (10138)
(10205)
<Sol.>
1. M (10195)
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(10195)
62
Chapter 10
2.
3. OCF
(10207)
(10206)
4. OCF
B
(10208)
1094 (DCF)
1.
(10172)
(10173)
2. A
(10209)
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(10176)
63
(10177)
Automatic Control Systems
_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo
Chapter 10
(10210)
(10211)
B C D (10210)
12n A n
(DCF)
3. DCF T
A
(10212)
pii = 12n i
4.
n n
(10213)
(10214)
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Chapter 10
(10215)
(10215)
(10216)
A (10211)
(10217)
A CCF DCF
(Vandermonde)
12n A
(10218)
1093
(10219)
DCF
<Sol.>
1. 1 = 12 = 2 3 = 3
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Chapter 10
2. A CCF DCF (10218)
(10220)
3. A DCF
(10221)
1095 (JCF)
1. A
2. JCF
A 1
2 3
(10222)
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Chapter 10
3.
(5182)
(10217)
1. A
2. A
3. 1 (10222)
4. 1 (10222)
5. A n n A
r (r < n)
6. r
7. 1 n r
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Chapter 10
1094 (10165)
(5130)
(10165)
(10224)
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Chapter 10
1010
1013
1013
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Chapter 10
10101
1.
2. n SISO U(s) Y(s)
(10225)
CCF
1. s
2. X(s) (10225)
(10226)
3. (10226)
(10227)
(10228)
4. (10227) (10228) (10227) (10228)
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Chapter 10
(10229)
(10228)
5. 1014
s nX(s) x1
s n + 1X(s) x2
1014 (10225)
CCF
s 1X(s) xn X(s) xn
1) x1(t)x2(t)xn(t)
2) u(t)
3)
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Chapter 10
State equation:
(10230)
Output equation:
(10231)
(5197) A
B CCF
(10232)
(10233)
OCF
1.
(10225)
2. (10225) s n
(10234)
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72
Chapter 10
(10235)
3. 1015
1015 (10225)
OCF
4.
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Chapter 10
State equation:
(5195)
(10230)
Output equation:
(5196)
(10231)
SFG
(10236)
(10237)

CCFOCFDCF
10101 
(10238)
CCF CCF OCF OCF
<Sol.>
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Chapter 10
1. CCF 1016
1016 (10238)
CCF
(10239)
(10240)
2. CCF
(10241)
(10242)
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Chapter 10
3. OCF 1017
1017 (10238)
OCF
(10238)
(10243)
4. OCF
(10244)
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(10245)
Chapter 10
10102
1.
a1a2b1 b2
Y (s)
s b1 s b2
K
(10246)
U (s)
s
a
s
a
1
2
2.
1018
1018 (10246)
3. u(t) SFG
1018
18
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Chapter 10
(10247)
4. u(t) y(t) 1018
18
(10248)
1.
Y ( s ) s 5 s 1. 5
U ( s ) s 2 s 2 3s 4
(10249)
2. 1019
3.
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(10250)
(10251)
78
Chapter 10
1019 (10249)
Y ( s ) s 5 s 1. 5
U ( s ) s 2 s 3s 4
(10250)
(10251)
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Chapter 10
10103
1.
2. DCF JCF
3.
Q(s) 2
(10252)
a1 a2
4. (10253)
(10253)
K1 K2
5. 1020
6.
DCF
(10254)
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(10255)
Automatic Control Systems
_F. Golnaraghi & B. C. Kuo
Chapter 10
(10253)
1020 (10252)
DCF
JCF
10102
(10256)
<Sol.>
1. (10256) 1021
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Chapter 10
1021 (10256)
(10256)
2.
JCF
(10257)
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Chapter 10
Homework:
1039
1040
1043
1044
1046
1047
1048
1049
1052
1053
1054
1055
1059
1060
1062
1064
1066
101: (c)
102: (d)
104
106: (c) and (f)
1011: (c)
1013: (b) and (e)
1015: (b) and (e)
1017: (c) and (d)
1018: (e) and (f)
1019: (e) and (f)
1020
1022
1026
1028
1031
1033 (d)
1036
1038
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