Under graduate

Developed By B.Swaminathan, Asst.Prof., Benedict Jayapraksh, Lect, Department of CSE Department of Computer Science & Engineering RAJALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE, Rajalakshmi Nagar, THANDALAM, CHENNAI-602 105.

Lab Manual,

The students are expected to be in Lab at least 5 Minutes before the lab commence. Students should come to the lab with respective Lab coats and Identity cards. Students are required to attend the lab classes with required Manuals, Observation Note books and Record books. No student will be permitted to do the next experiment until the record of previous experiment is checked by the Lab In-charge. Late comers should get permission from the concerned Lab In-charge to attend the lab Students will not be allowed to come out of the lab during the lab Hrs. For late submission of record work 20% of marks will be deducted from the Internal marks. Internal marks will be awarded based on the performance during their lab classes. Students should leave their shoes in the shelf while entering into the computer center.

Computer Network Laboratory Manual & Hints Viva Voce Questions

1. What are the two types of transmission technology available? (i) Broadcast and (ii) point-to-point 2. What is subnet? A generic term for section of a large networks usually separated by a bridge or router. 3. Difference between the communication and transmission. Transmission is a physical movement of information and concern issues like bit polarity, synchronisation, clock etc. Communication means the meaning full exchange of information between two communication media. 4. What are the possible ways of data exchange? (i) Simplex (ii) Half-duplex (iii) Full-duplex. 5. What is SAP? Series of interface points that allow other computers to communicate with the other layers of network protocol stack. 6. What do you meant by "triple X" in Networks? The function of PAD (Packet Assembler Disassembler) is described in a document known as X.3. The standard protocol has been defined between the terminal and the PAD, called X.28; another standard protocol exists between hte PAD and the network, called X.29. Together, these three recommendations are often called "triple X" 7. What is frame relay, in which layer it comes? Frame relay is a packet switching technology. It will operate in the data link layer. 8. What is terminal emulation, in which layer it comes? Telnet is also called as terminal emulation. It belongs to application layer. 9. What is Beaconing? The process that allows a network to self-repair networks problems. The stations on the network notify the other stations on the ring when they are not receiving the transmissions. Beaconing is used in Token ring and FDDI networks. 10. What is redirector? Redirector is software that intercepts file or prints I/O requests and translates them into network requests. This comes under presentation layer. 11. What is NETBIOS and NETBEUI? NETBIOS is a programming interface that allows I/O requests to be sent to and received from a remote computer and it hides the networking hardware from applications. NETBEUI is NetBIOS extended user interface. A transport protocol designed by microsoft B.Swaminathan, Asst. Prof. Dept of Computer Science & Engineering, Chennai. Mail id: swamikb@gmail.com Mobile No.9444755536 3

Computer Network Laboratory Manual & Hints and IBM for the use on small subnets. 12. What is RAID? A method for providing fault tolerance by using multiple hard disk drives. 13. What is passive topology? When the computers on the network simply listen and receive the signal, they are referred to as passive because they don’t amplify the signal in any way. Example for passive topology linear bus. 14. What is Brouter? Hybrid devices that combine the features of both bridges and routers. 15. What is cladding? A layer of a glass surrounding the center fiber of glass inside a fiber-optic cable. 16. What is point-to-point protocol A communications protocol used to connect computers to remote networking services including Internet service providers. 17. How Gateway is different from Routers? A gateway operates at the upper levels of the OSI model and translates information between two completely different network architectures or data formats 18. What is attenuation? The degeneration of a signal over distance on a network cable is called attenuation. 19. What is MAC address? The address for a device as it is identified at the Media Access Control (MAC) layer in the network architecture. MAC address is usually stored in ROM on the network adapter card and is unique. 20. Difference between bit rate and baud rate. Bit rate is the number of bits transmitted during one second whereas baud rate refers to the number of signal units per second that are required to represent those bits. baud rate = bit rate / N where N is no-of-bits represented by each signal shift. 21. What is Bandwidth? Every line has an upper limit and a lower limit on the frequency of signals it can carry. This limited range is called the bandwidth. 22. What are the types of Transmission media? Signals are usually transmitted over some transmission media that are broadly classified in to two categories. a) Guided Media:

B.Swaminathan, Asst. Prof. Dept of Computer Science & Engineering, Chennai. Mail id: swamikb@gmail.com Mobile No.9444755536


Computer Network Laboratory Manual & Hints These are those that provide a conduit from one device to another that include twisted-pair, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable. A signal traveling along any of these media is directed and is contained by the physical limits of the medium. Twisted-pair and coaxial cable use metallic that accept and transport signals in the form of electrical current. Optical fiber is a glass or plastic cable that accepts and transports signals in the form of light. b) Unguided Media: This is the wireless media that transport electromagnetic waves without using a physical conductor. Signals are broadcast either through air. This is done through radio communication, satellite communication and cellular telephony. 23. What is Project 802? It is a project started by IEEE to set standards to enable intercommunication between equipment from a variety of manufacturers. It is a way for specifying functions of the physical layer, the data link layer and to some extent the network layer to allow for interconnectivity of major LAN protocols. It consists of the following:  802.1 is an internetworking standard for compatibility of different LANs and MANs across protocols.  802.2 Logical link control (LLC) is the upper sublayer of the data link layer which is nonarchitecture-specific, that is remains the same for all IEEE-defined LANs.  Media access control (MAC) is the lower sublayer of the data link layer that contains some distinct modules each carrying proprietary information specific to the LAN product being used. The modules are Ethernet LAN (802.3), Token ring LAN (802.4), Token bus LAN (802.5).  802.6 is distributed queue dual bus (DQDB) designed to be used in MANs. 24. What is Protocol Data Unit? The data unit in the LLC level is called the protocol data unit (PDU). The PDU contains of four fields a destination service access point (DSAP), a source service access point (SSAP), a control field and an information field. DSAP, SSAP are addresses used by the LLC to identify the protocol stacks on the receiving and sending machines that are generating and using the data. The control field specifies whether the PDU frame is a information frame (I - frame) or a supervisory frame (S - frame) or a unnumbered frame (U - frame). 25. What are the different type of networking / internetworking devices? Repeater: Also called a regenerator, it is an electronic device that operates only at physical layer. It receives the signal in the network before it becomes weak, regenerates the original bit pattern and puts the refreshed copy back in to the link. Bridges: These operate both in the physical and data link layers of LANs of same type. They divide a larger network in to smaller segments. They contain logic that allow them to keep the traffic for each segment separate and thus are repeaters that relay a frame only the side of the segment containing the intended recipent and control congestion. Routers:

B.Swaminathan, Asst. Prof. Dept of Computer Science & Engineering, Chennai. Mail id: swamikb@gmail.com Mobile No.9444755536


Computer Network Laboratory Manual & Hints They relay packets among multiple interconnected networks (i.e. LANs of different type). They operate in the physical, data link and network layers. They contain software that enable them to determine which of the several possible paths is the best for a particular transmission. Gateways: They relay packets among networks that have different protocols (e.g. between a LAN and a WAN). They accept a packet formatted for one protocol and convert it to a packet formatted for another protocol before forwarding it. They operate in all seven layers of the OSI model. 26. What is ICMP? ICMP is Internet Control Message Protocol, a network layer protocol of the TCP/IP suite used by hosts and gateways to send notification of datagram problems back to the sender. It uses the echo test / reply to test whether a destination is reachable and responding. It also handles both control and error messages. 27. What are the data units at different layers of the TCP / IP protocol suite? The data unit created at the application layer is called a message, at the transport layer the data unit created is called either a segment or an user datagram, at the network layer the data unit created is called the datagram, at the data link layer the datagram is encapsulated in to a frame and finally transmitted as signals along the transmission media. 28. What is difference between ARP and RARP? The address resolution protocol (ARP) is used to associate the 32 bit IP address with the 48 bit physical address, used by a host or a router to find the physical address of another host on its network by sending a ARP query packet that includes the IP address of the receiver. The reverse address resolution protocol (RARP) allows a host to discover its Internet address when it knows only its physical address. 29. What is the minimum and maximum length of the header in the TCP segment and IP datagram? The header should have a minimum length of 20 bytes and can have a maximum length of 60 bytes. 30. What is the range of addresses in the classes of internet addresses? Class A Class B Class C Class D Class E 31. What is the difference between TFTP and FTP application layer protocols? The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) allows a local host to obtain files from a remote host but does not provide reliability or security. It uses the fundamental packet delivery services offered by UDP. The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is the standard mechanism provided by TCP / IP for copying a file from one host to another. It uses the services offer by TCP and so is reliable and

B.Swaminathan, Asst. Prof. Dept of Computer Science & Engineering, Chennai. Mail id: swamikb@gmail.com Mobile No.9444755536


Computer Network Laboratory Manual & Hints secure. It establishes two connections (virtual circuits) between the hosts, one for data transfer and another for control information. 32. What are major types of networks and explain?  Server-based network  Peer-to-peer network Peer-to-peer network, computers can act as both servers sharing resources and as clients using the resources. Server-based networks provide centralized control of network resources and rely on server computers to provide security and network administration 33. What are the important topologies for networks?  BUS topology: In this each computer is directly connected to primary network cable in a single line. Advantages: Inexpensive, easy to install, simple to understand, easy to extend. STAR topology: In this all computers are connected using a central hub. Advantages: Can be inexpensive, easy to install and reconfigure and easy to trouble shoot physical problems.

 RING topology: In this all computers are connected in loop. Advantages: All computers have equal access to network media, installation can be simple, and signal does not degrade as much as in other topologies because each computer regenerates it.
34. What is mesh network? A network in which there are multiple network links between computers to provide multiple paths for data to travel. 35. What is difference between baseband and broadband transmission? In a baseband transmission, the entire bandwidth of the cable is consumed by a single signal. In broadband transmission, signals are sent on multiple frequencies, allowing multiple signals to be sent simultaneously. 36. Explain 5-4-3 rule? In a Ethernet network, between any two points on the network ,there can be no more than five network segments or four repeaters, and of those five segments only three of segments can be populated. 37. What MAU? In token Ring , hub is called Multistation Access Unit(MAU).

B.Swaminathan, Asst. Prof. Dept of Computer Science & Engineering, Chennai. Mail id: swamikb@gmail.com Mobile No.9444755536


Computer Network Laboratory Manual & Hints 38. What is the difference between routable and non- routable protocols? Routable protocols can work with a router and can be used to build large networks. NonRoutable protocols are designed to work on small, local networks and cannot be used with a router 39. Why should you care about the OSI Reference Model? It provides a framework for discussing network operations and design. 40. What is logical link control? One of two sublayers of the data link layer of OSI reference model, as defined by the IEEE 802 standard. This sublayer is responsible for maintaining the link between computers when they are sending data across the physical network connection. 41. What is virtual channel? Virtual channel is normally a connection from one source to one destination, although multicast connections are also permitted. The other name for virtual channel is virtual circuit. 42. What is virtual path? Along any transmission path from a given source to a given destination, a group of virtual circuits can be grouped together into what is called path. 43. What is packet filter? Packet filter is a standard router equipped with some extra functionality. The extra functionality allows every incoming or outgoing packet to be inspected. Packets meeting some criterion are forwarded normally. Those that fail the test are dropped. 44. What is traffic shaping? One of the main causes of congestion is that traffic is often busy. If hosts could be made to transmit at a uniform rate, congestion would be less common. Another open loop method to help manage congestion is forcing the packet to be transmitted at a more predictable rate. This is called traffic shaping. 45. What is multicast routing? Sending a message to a group is called multicasting, and its routing algorithm is called multicast routing. 46. What is region? When hierarchical routing is used, the routers are divided into what we will call regions, with each router knowing all the details about how to route packets to destinations within its own region, but knowing nothing about the internal structure of other regions. 47. What is silly window syndrome? It is a problem that can ruin TCP performance. This problem occurs when data are passed to the sending TCP entity in large blocks, but an interactive application on the receiving side reads 1 byte at a time. 48. What are Digrams and Trigrams? B.Swaminathan, Asst. Prof. Dept of Computer Science & Engineering, Chennai. Mail id: swamikb@gmail.com Mobile No.9444755536 8

Computer Network Laboratory Manual & Hints The most common two letter combinations are called as digrams. e.g. th, in, er, re and an. The most common three letter combinations are called as trigrams. e.g. the, ing, and, and ion. 49. Expand IDEA. IDEA stands for International Data Encryption Algorithm. 50. What is wide-mouth frog? Wide-mouth frog is the simplest known key distribution center (KDC) authentication protocol.
51. What is Mail Gateway?

It is a system that performs a protocol translation between different electronic mail delivery protocols.
52. What is IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol)?

It is any routing protocol used within an autonomous system.
53. What is EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol)?

It is the protocol the routers in neighboring autonomous systems use to identify the set of networks that can be reached within or via each autonomous system.
54. What is autonomous system?

It is a collection of routers under the control of a single administrative authority and that uses a common Interior Gateway Protocol.
55. What is BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)?

It is a protocol used to advertise the set of networks that can be reached with in an autonomous system. BGP enables this information to be shared with the autonomous system. This is newer than EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol).
56. What is Gateway-to-Gateway protocol?

It is a protocol formerly used to exchange routing information between Internet core routers.
57. What is NVT (Network Virtual Terminal)?

It is a set of rules defining a very simple virtual terminal interaction. The NVT is used in the start of a Telnet session.
58. What is a Multi-homed Host?

It is a host that has a multiple network interfaces and that requires multiple IP addresses is called as a Multi-homed Host.
59. What is Kerberos?

It is an authentication service developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kerberos uses encryption to prevent intruders from discovering passwords and gaining unauthorized access to files.

B.Swaminathan, Asst. Prof. Dept of Computer Science & Engineering, Chennai. Mail id: swamikb@gmail.com Mobile No.9444755536


Computer Network Laboratory Manual & Hints
60. What is OSPF?

It is an Internet routing protocol that scales well, can route traffic along multiple paths, and uses knowledge of an Internet's topology to make accurate routing decisions.
61. What is Proxy ARP?

It is using a router to answer ARP requests. This will be done when the originating host believes that a destination is local, when in fact is lies beyond router.
62. What is SLIP (Serial Line Interface Protocol)?

It is a very simple protocol used for transmission of IP datagrams across a serial line.
63. What is RIP (Routing Information Protocol)?

It is a simple protocol used to exchange information between the routers.
64. What is source route?

It is a sequence of IP addresses identifying the route a datagram must follow. A source route may optionally be included in an IP datagram header.


What is BIND ? The Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) implements an Internet name server for the BSD operating system. The BIND consists of a server (or ``daemon'') and a resolver library. A name server is a network service that enables clients to name resources or objects and share this information with other objects in the network. This in effect is a distributed data base system for objects in a computer network. BIND is fully integrated into BSD (4.3 and later releases) network programs for use in storing and retrieving host names and address. The system administrator can configure the system to use BIND as a replacement to the older host table lookup of information in the network hosts file /etc/hosts. The default configuration for BSD uses BIND. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------66. What is the difference between BIND and DNS ? (text provided by Andras Salamon) DNS is the Domain Name System, a set of protocols for a distributed database that was originally designed to replace /etc/hosts files. DNS is most commonly used by applications to translate domain names of hosts to IP addresses. A client of the DNS is called a resolver; resolvers are typically located in the application layer of the networking software of each TCP/IP capable machine. Users typically do not interact directly with the resolver. Resolvers query the DNS by directing queries at name servers that contain parts of the distributed database that is accessed by using the DNS protocols. In common usage, `the DNS' usually refers just to the data in the database. BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain) is an implementation of DNS, both server and client. Development of BIND is funded by the Internet Software Consortium and is coordinated by Paul Vixie. BIND has been ported to Windows NT and VMS, but is most often found on Unix. BIND source code is freely available and very complex; most of the development on the DNS protocols is based on this code; and most Unix vendors ship BIND-derived DNS

B.Swaminathan, Asst. Prof. Dept of Computer Science & Engineering, Chennai. Mail id: swamikb@gmail.com Mobile No.9444755536


Computer Network Laboratory Manual & Hints
implementations. As a result, the BIND name server is the most widely used name server on the Internet. In common usage, `BIND' usually refers to the name server that is part of the BIND distribution, and sometimes to name servers in general (whether BIND-derived or not). ----------------------------------------------------------------------------68. How do you find the hostname given the TCP-IP address ?

For an address a.b.c.d you can always do: % nslookup > set q=ptr > d.c.b.a.in-addr.arpa. Most newer version of nslookup (since 4.8.3) will recognize an address, so you can just say: % nslookup a.b.c.d DiG will work like this also: % dig -x a.b.c.d dig is included in the bind distribution. host from the bind distribution may also be used. On a Macintosh, some shareware utilities may be used. IP Net Monitor has a very nice NS Lookup feature, producing DiG-like output; Mac TCP Watcher just has a simple name-to-address and address-to-name translator. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) allows IP addresses to be allocated to hosts on an as-needed basis. The conventional scheme of allocating a permanent fixed IP address to every host is wasteful of addresses in situations where only a relatively small number of hosts are active at any given time. DHCP lets a host 'borrow' an IP address from a pool of IP addresses; when the address is no longer needed it is recycled and made available for use by some other host. DHCP also allows a host to retrieve a variety of configuration information at the same time as it acquires an IP address. DCHP depends on UDP to carry packets between the client and server tasks. DHCP is defined by RFC's 2131 and 2132. A widely-used implementation of DHCP can be downloaded from <http://www.isc.org/dhcp.html>. 2. DNS The Domain Name System (DNS) provides dynamic on-demand translation between human-readable names (like www.pizzahut.com) and the numeric addresses actually used by IP (like The basics of DNS operation are defined in RFC's 1034, 1101, 1876, 1982 and 2065. DNS uses both UDP and TCP. It used UDP to carry simple queries and responses but depends on TCP to guarantee the correct and orderly delivery of large amounts of bulk data (eg transfers of entire zone configurations) across the network. B.Swaminathan, Asst. Prof. Dept of Computer Science & Engineering, Chennai. Mail id: swamikb@gmail.com Mobile No.9444755536 11

Computer Network Laboratory Manual & Hints DNS standards are discussed in the comp.protocols.dns.std newsgroup. A very widelyused implementation of DNS called BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain) is discussed in the comp.protocols.dns.bind newsgroup, and the BIND software itself can be downloaded from <http://www.isc.org/bind.html>. The operation and politics of DNS are discussed in the comp.protocols.tcp-ip.domains newsgroup. 3. FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) provides a mechanism for moving data files between systems. In addition to the fundamental PUT and GET operations, FTP provides a small number of file management and user authentication facilities. The protocol is defined in RFC 959. FTP depends on TCP to guarantee the correct and orderly delivery of data across the network. 4. HTTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the protocol used to move Web pages across an internet. Version 1.0 of HTTP is defined by RFC 1945. Version 1.1 makes more efficient use of TCP and is defined by RFC 2068. HTTP depends on TCP to guarantee the correct and orderly delivery of data across the network. 5. IMAP Interactive Mail Access Protocol (IMAP) allows clients to manipulate email messages and mailboxes that reside on some server machine. The current version of IMAP is Version 4, usually referred to as IMAP4. IMAP4 is described by RFC 2060. IMAP provides no way of sending email; client programs that use IMAP to read mail usually use SMTP to send messages. IMAP is more powerful and more complex than the other widely-used mailreading protocol POP. IMAP depends on TCP to guarantee the correct and orderly delivery of data across the network. IMAP is discussed in the comp.mail.imap newsgroup. 6. NFS Network File System (NFS) allows files stored on one machine (the "server") to be accessed by other machines (the "clients") as though the files were actually present on the client systems. NFS is defined in terms of a Remote Procedure Call (RPC) abstraction which in turn formats its packets according to a processor-independent eXternal Data Representation (XDR).

B.Swaminathan, Asst. Prof. Dept of Computer Science & Engineering, Chennai. Mail id: swamikb@gmail.com Mobile No.9444755536


Computer Network Laboratory Manual & Hints Version 2 of NFS is defined in RFC 1094 and Version 3 is defined in RFC 1813. The RPC mechanism most often used with NFS, ONC/RPC, is defined by RFC 1831. The XDR conventions used by ONC/RPC are defined by RFC 1832. The ONC/RPC binding mechanism (a minimal directory service which allows RPC clients to rendezvous with RPC servers) is defined by RFC 1833. NFS can run over any kind of transport, but is most often used over UDP. UDP does not guarantee packet delivery or ordering, so when NFS runs over UDP the RPC implementation must provide its own guarantees of correctness. When NFS runs over TCP, the RPC layer can depend on TCP to provide this kind of correctness. NFS is discussed in the comp.protocols.nfs newsgroup. 7. NNTP Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) is used to propagate netnews postings (including Usenet postings) between systems. It is defined in RFC 977. (The format of netnews messages is defined in RFC 1036.) NNTP depends on TCP to guarantee the correct and orderly delivery of data across the network. NNTP is discussed in the news.software.nntp newsgroup. A very widely-used implementation of NNTP called INN (InterNet News) can be downloaded from <http://www.isc.org/inn.html>. 8. NTP Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used to synchronise time-of-day clocks between various computer systems. The current version of NTP is Version 3, defined in RFC 1305. Earlier versions (2 and 1 respectively) of the protocol are defined in RFC's 1119 and 1059. David Mills maintains a publically-available implementation of NTP server and clients along with a comprehensive collection of NTP documentation on the web at <http://www.eecis.udel.edu/~ntp/>. NTP depends on UDP to carry packets between server and client tasks. NTP is discussed in the comp.protocols.time.ntp newsgroup. 9. POP Post Office Protocol (POP) allows clients to read and remove email from a mailbox that resides on some server machine. The current version of POP is Version 3, usually referred to as POP3. It is described by RFC 1939. POP provides no way of sending email; client programs that use POP to read mail usually use SMTP to send messages. POP is simpler and less powerful than the other widely-used mail-reading protocol IMAP.

B.Swaminathan, Asst. Prof. Dept of Computer Science & Engineering, Chennai. Mail id: swamikb@gmail.com Mobile No.9444755536


Computer Network Laboratory Manual & Hints POP depends on TCP to guarantee the correct and orderly delivery of data across the network. POP doesn't have its own dedicated newsgroup. It is sometimes discussed in clientspecific newsgroups in the comp.mail.* hierarchy. 10. Rlogin Remote Login (rlogin) provides a network terminal or "remote login" capability. Rlogin is similar to Telnet but it adds a couple of features that make it a little more convenient than Telnet. Rlogin is one of the so-called Berkeley r-commands, (where the "r" stands for "remote") a family of commands created at UC Berkeley during the development of BSD Unix to provide access to remote systems in ways that are more convenient than the original TCP/IP commands. The most obvious convenience is that rlogin, like other r-commands, examines a .rhosts (pronounced "dot ar hosts") file on the server side to authenticate logins based on the client host address. The .rhosts file can be constructed to allow remote access without requiring you to enter a password. If used improperly this feature can be a security threat, but if used correctly it can actually enhance security by not requiring a password to be sent over the network where it might be read by a packet sniffer. The r-commands depend on TCP to guarantee the correct and orderly delivery of data across the network. 11. Rsh Remote Shell (rsh) is an r-command that provides for remote execution of arbitrary commands. It allows you to run a command on a server without having to actually log in on the server. More importantly it allows you to feed data to the remote command and retrieve the command's output without having to stage the data through temporary files on the server. Like other Berkeley r-commands, rsh uses the .rhosts file on the server side to authenticate access based on the client's host address. On some non-BSD systems the Remote Shell command is named remsh because by the time the command was delivered on those systems the usual rsh name had been used for a "restricted shell" application, a command line interpreter intended to boost security by preventing its users from performing certain activities. On Unix systems most of the work of rsh is handled by the rcmd(3) library function, so if you're writing a program that needs rsh-like functionality then you might be able to use that function. However, since the rsh protocol requires the client to use a privileged port

B.Swaminathan, Asst. Prof. Dept of Computer Science & Engineering, Chennai. Mail id: swamikb@gmail.com Mobile No.9444755536


Computer Network Laboratory Manual & Hints you'll only be able to use rcmd(3) if your program executes with superuser privileges. That's why the rsh executable is setuid-root on Unix machines. If your program will not run as root then you might be able to use the rexec(3) function instead. rexec(3) does not use the server-side .rhosts file. Instead it requires the client to supply an account password which is then transmitted unencrypted over the network. 12. SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is used to deliver email from one system to another. The basic SMTP is defined in RFC 821 and the format of Internet mail messages is described in RFC 822. SMTP depends on TCP to guarantee the correct and orderly delivery of data across the network. A very widely-used implementation of SMTP called sendmail can be downloaded from <http://www.sendmail.org/>. Other open-source SMTP implementations include qmail (available at <http://www.qmail.org/>) postfix (available at <http://www.postfix.org/>), smail (available at <ftp://ftp.planix.com/pub/Smail/>), exim (available at <http://www.exim.org/>) and smtpd (available at <http://www.obtuse.com/smtpd.html>). 13. SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) provides a means of monitoring and managing systems over a network. SNMP defines a method of sending queries (the GET and GET-NEXT primitives) and commands (the SET primitive) from a management station client to an agent server running on the target system, and collecting responses and unsolicited event notifications (the TRAP primitive). Version 1 of SNMP is defined by RFC's 1098 and 1157. SNMP Version 2 is defined by RFC's 1441, 1445, 1446, 1447 and 1901 through 1909. The various things that can be monitored and managed by SNMP, collectively called the Management Information Base (MIB) are defined in dozens of additional RFC's. SNMP sends traffic through UDP because of its relative simplicity and low overhead. SNMP is discussed in the comp.protocols.snmp newsgroup. 14. Ssh Secure Shell (ssh) provides remote login and execution features similar to those of the rsh and rlogin r-commands, but ssh encrypts the data that is exchanged over the network. Encryption can protect sensitive information, and it is not uncommon for securityconscious administrators to disable plain rsh and telnet services in favour of ssh.

B.Swaminathan, Asst. Prof. Dept of Computer Science & Engineering, Chennai. Mail id: swamikb@gmail.com Mobile No.9444755536


Computer Network Laboratory Manual & Hints The SSH protocol used by the ssh command has also been used to build a secure file transfer application which can be used as an alternative to FTP for sensitive data. Complete information on ssh and its SSH protocol can be found at <http://www.ssh.fi/>. 15. Telnet Telnet provides a network terminal or "remote login" capability. The Telnet server accepts data from the telnet client and forwards them to the operating system in such a way that the received characters are treated as though they had been typed at a terminal keyboard. Responses generated by the server operating system are passed back to the Telnet client for display. The Telnet protocol provides the ability to negotiate many kinds of terminal-related behaviour (local vs. remote echoing, line mode vs. character mode and others) between the client and server. The basic Telnet protocol is defined in RFC's 818 and 854 and the option negotiation mechanism is described in RFC 855.

B.Swaminathan, Asst. Prof. Dept of Computer Science & Engineering, Chennai. Mail id: swamikb@gmail.com Mobile No.9444755536


Computer Network Laboratory Manual & Hints

Try Out Question. Question  Try to Create a program to print the name and address of the remote machine whose website address is given to you.  Try printing the date and time of the SERVER in any client machine.  Try Creating a chat program similar to yahoo chat.  Create a TCP connection between two system and write a program transfer any file between the systems.  Write a program to calculate the area of circle or Square or both in the server machine, taking the input radius or side dimension from the client machine.     

B.Swaminathan, Asst. Prof. Dept of Computer Science & Engineering, Chennai. Mail id: swamikb@gmail.com Mobile No.9444755536


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