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UNIT 2.

ELECTRONICS PROJECT #1
In the table below, provide a definition as to the function of each of the listed electrical components, as well as an image of what each component looks like. In addition, include the schematic for the component, if available or appropriate.

1.

RESISTANCE (Ohm)
Image Schematic / Symbol

Definition:

A property of a conductor by virtue of which the passage of current is opposed, causing electric energy to be transformed into heat: equal to the voltage across the conductor divided by the current flowing in the conductor: usually measured in ohms.

How can electrical resistance be useful? Electrical resistance can be useful because everything is made up of resistance, it also allows you to be able to pick out what breaker is needed.

2.

CURRENT (Amperes) Definition: An electric current is a flow of electric charge. Electric charge flows when there is voltage present across a conductor.
How can current be increased or decreased?

Image

Schematic

If the resistance in a circuit is increased and the voltage does not change, the current will decrease.

3.

VOLTAGE (Volts)
Image Schematic

Definition:

Is the electric potential difference between two points, or the difference in electric potential energy of a unit charge transported between two points.
How can voltage be increased or decreased? If you want a higher voltage you have to decrease your resistance What is the advantage of high voltage? The advantage of high voltage is that you can go longer distance in power lines.

4.

POWER (Watts)
Image Schematic

Definition:

A unit of electricity in DC circuits equal to the product of current and voltage.

5.

SWITCH
Image Schematic

Definition:

A device for making and breaking the connection in an electric circuit

What are some different types of switches? There are several switches such as, toggle switch, push switch and joystick switch

6.

SPDT SWITCH
Image Schematic

Definition:

Single pole, double throw, a simple type of changeover electrical switch

What would you use a SPDT switch for?

Common household items. 7. DPDT SWITCH


Image Schematic

Definition:

Double people, double throw, a switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another

What would you use a DPDT switch for? A DPDT switch is used for turning one thing off or one thing on. Used in a hallways for a light switch.

8.

INDUCTOR (COILS & RELAYS)


Image Schematic

Definition: A component in electrical circuit that possesses inductance. What can a coil be used for in a circuit? A Coil can be used to conduct eletricty. What can a relay are used for in a circuit? A relay can be used to relay the electricity back to the power source

9.

RESISTOR
Image Schematic

Definition: A device have resistor to the passage of a electric current How does it change a current?

usually increasing as the temperature increases. For reasonably small changes in temperature, the change in resistivity, and therefore the change in resistance, is proportional to the temperature change.

10.

TRANSISTOR
Image Schematic

Definition: A Semiconductor device with 3 connections capable of amplification in addition to rectification What does a transistor do in electrical circuit? In a electrical circuit a transistor terminals changes

the current through another pair of terminals

11.

CAPACITOR
Image Schematic

Definition: A device used to store an electric charge consisting of one or more pairs of conductors separated by an insulator What does a capacitor do in electrical circuit?

In a electrical circuit a capacitor hold a charge like battery to holds a charge

12.

DIODE
Image Schematic

Definition: A semiconductor device with two terminals typically allowing the flow of current in one dirction only. What does a diode do in electrical circuit? A diode in a electrical circuit does controls the flow of electricity in a circuit

13.

LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED)


Image Schematic

Definition: A long lasting illumination technology used for exit signs which requires very little powering What does a LED do in electrical circuit? A LED is a long lasting light that uses little electric

14.

CONDUCTOR
Image Schematic

Definition: A substance or medium conducts heat, light, sound or especially a electric charge.

15.

CIRCUIT
Image Schematic

Definition: A roughly circular line route or movement that starts and finishes at the same place.

16.

STATIC ELECTRICITY
Image Schematic

Definition: A stationary electric charge typically produced by friction that cause sparks or crackling or the attraction of dust or hair. Where would you find static electricity? You can find static electricity in a carpet Why is static electricity a problem in electronics? Because it damages electrical components

17.

CURRENT ELECTRICITY
Image Schematic

Definition: A flow of electric charge How is current electricity different than static? The difference is the build of electrical charges while current electric is the flow of electrons in a object List several ways that current electricity is used. Houses Sheds Stores Hospitals Jail Companies

18.

DIRECT CURRENT (DC)


Image Schematic

Definition: An electric current flowing in one direction In what equipment is DC current used? Anything with a battery - Cell phones - Remotes - Toys What does DC Current look like?

A one way flow of electricity

19.

AC CURRENT
Image Schematic

Definition: In alternating current (also known as AC) the movement of electric charge periodically reveres direction In what equipment is AC current used? House hold items -kettle -toaster What does AC current look like? Ac current like the flow of electric charge is only

in one direction. 20. THREE PHASE CURRENT (3-Phase)


Image Schematic

Definition: A common method of alternating current electric transmission and distribution In what equipment is 3-phase current used? Is to prevent power in long distances Why is it used?

Its used for alternating-current electric power generation, transmission, and distribution

21.

POLARITY
Image Schematic

Definition:

Positive and negative is present in every electrical circuit. Electrons flow from the negative pole to the positive pole. In a direct current (DC) circuit, one pole is always negative, the other pole is always positive and the electrons flow in one direction only. In an alternating current (AC) circuit the two poles alternate between negative and positive and the direction of the electron flow reverses.

What happens when you reverse polarity? It will overheat the object

22.

ANALOG SIGNAL
Image Schematic

Definition:

An analog or analogue signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity,

Where are analog signals used?

some property of the medium to convey the signal's information.

23.

DIGITAL SIGNAL
Image Schematic

Definition:

A digital signal is a physical signal that is a representation of a sequence of discrete values (a quantified discrete-time signal), for example of an arbitrary bit stream, or of a digitized (sampled and analog-to-digital converted) analog signal.

Where are digital signals used?

digital communication, representing a bit stream or other sequence of discrete values 24. INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (IC)
Image Schematic

Definition:

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small plate ("chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon. This can be made much smaller than a discrete circuit made from independent components.

Where an IC might be used? -mobile phones -computers -house hold items What does it do? It does nothing

25.

PHOTO-DIODE Image Schematic

Definition:

is a type of photodetector capable of converting light into either current or voltage, depending upon the mode of operation.

Where might a photo-diode be used?

The common, traditional solar cell used to generate electric solar power is a large area photodiode.
What does it do? It measures the light coming in and turns it into a electrical current.

26.

PHOTOCELL
Image Schematic

Definition:

photoelectric cell: a transducer used to detect and measure light and other radiations

Where is a photocell used? A Photocell is used in automatic lights What does it do? A Photocell turns on a light when needed such as a solar powered light.

27.

THERMISTOR
Image Schematic

Definition:

Is a type of resistor whose resistance varies significantly with temperature, more so than in standard resistors.
How does it work?

internal electrodes that sense surrounding heat and measure it through electrical impulses.

28.

THERMOCOUPLE
Image Schematic

Definition:

temperature-measuring device consisting of two dissimilar conductors that contact each other at one or more spots
How does it work?

are used as measuring instruments and as control devices

30.

ELECTRONIC SPEED CONTROLLER (ESC)


Image Schematic

Definition:

is an electronic circuit with the purpose to vary an electric motor's speed, its direction and possibly also to act as a dynamic brake.
How does it work? An ESC can be standalone unit, which plugs into the receivers throttled control channel or incorresated into the receiver itself.

31.

SERVO CONTROLLER
Image Schematic

Definition:

offer industry-leading resolution and stability for precise, jitter-free control of your RC servos

How could you use a servo controller? (2 ways) Radio Controllers.

34.

USB SIGNAL
Image Schematic

Definition:

deliver true high-performance measurements while benefiting from the simplicity and portability of USB
What does a USB signal look like? >>>>>>>>>>>>>>> How is it different from serial and parallel? A serial and parallel signals are analog signals and USB are additional signals. What the distance limit is in can move over wire? The distance it can move over wires is under 25 ft.

35.

DC MOTOR
Image Schematic

Definition:

is a mechanically commutated electric motor powered from direct current (DC).

What could you use a DC motor for? Motcontroll Cars Window winders

How does a DC Motor work (think stator)

A Dc motor transforms electric energy into mechanical energy in form of rotation.

36.

SERVO MOTOR
Image Schematic

Definition:

is a rotary actuator that allows for precise control of angular position, velocity and acceleration.[1] It consists of a suitable motor coupled to a sensor for position feedback
Where would you use a servo motor? (3 uses) - In Robots - CNC machining - Automated Manufacturing

37.

STEPPER MOTOR
Image Schematic

Definition:

(Or step motor) is a brushless DC electric motor that divides a full rotation into a number of equal steps. The motor's position can then be commanded to move and hold at one of these steps without any feedback sensor (an open-loop controller), as long as the motor is carefully sized to the application.

What is the advantage of a stepper motor? The stepper motor has advantages like: Step angle of stepper motor is proportional to -

pulse rate As stepper motors are brushless ones, the lifetime of stepper motor is determined by the bearings' lifespan only

UNIT 2. ELECTRONICS PROJECT 1.2

Identify the components?

Using the information contained in your completed table, above, identify and describe each of the electrical components contained in the display. Each one is identified with a letter. Place the name of the component in the correct space number. Component E.g. Resistor A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V Specification of the component 15 K (15 kilo-Ohms)

X Y Z