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**1 Continuous and Discrete Signals and Systems
**

A continuous signal is a mathematical function of an independent variable where ,

represents a set of real numbers. It is required that signals are uniquely except for a ﬁnite number of points. does not qualify for a signal even for For example, the function since the square root

deﬁned in

of

has two values for any non negative . A continuous signal is represented in

Figure 1.1. Very often, especially in the study of dynamic systems, the independent variable represents time. In such cases is a time function.

f(t)

0

t

**Figure 1.1: A continuous signal
**

The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals, Prentice Hall, 2003. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic

1–1

Note that signals are real mathematical functions, but some transforms applied on signals can produce complex signals that have both real and imaginary parts. For example, in analysis of alternating current electrical circuits we use phasors, rotating vectors in the complex plane, angular frequency of rotation, denotes phase, and , where represents the is the amplitude

of the alternating current. The complex plane representation is useful to simplify circuit analysis, however, the above deﬁned complex signal represents in fact a real sinusoidal signal, oscillating with the corresponding amplitude, frequency, and phase, represented by . Complex signal representation

of real signals will be encountered in this textbook in many application examples. In addition, in several chapters on signal transforms (Fourier, Laplace, we will present complex domain equivalents of real signals. -transform)

The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals, Prentice Hall, 2003. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic

1–2

A discrete signal is a uniquely deﬁned mathematical function (single-valued function) of an independent variable , where denotes a set of integers. Such

a signal is represented in Figure 1.2. In order to clearly distinguish between continuous and discrete signals, we will use in this book parentheses for arguments of continuous signals and square brackets for arguments of discrete signals, as demonstrated in Figures 1.1 and 1.2. If represents discrete time (counted in the number deﬁnes a discrete-time signal.

of seconds, minutes, hours, days, ... ) then

g[ k]

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

k

Figure 1.2: A discrete signal

The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals, Prentice Hall, 2003. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic

1–3

Sampling Continuous and discrete signals can be related through the sampling operation in the sense that a discrete signal can be obtained by performing sampling on a continuoustime signal with the uniform sampling period is a given quantity, we will use

f(t)

as presented in Figure 1.3. Since in order to simplify notation.

T

2T 3T

t

∆ f(kT)=f [ k]

T

2T 3T

kT

Figure 1.3: Sampling of a continuous signal

**More about sampling will be said in Chapter 9.
**

The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals, Prentice Hall, 2003. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic

1–4

by linear differential and difference equations with constant coefﬁcients. are constants. is the is the system output and external forcing function representing the system input. Mathematical models of such systems that have one input and one output are deﬁned by and ¢¡¥£ ¢¡¤£ ¢¡¥£ £ ¦ §©¨ where is the order of the system. Prentice Hall. we study only time invariant continuous and discrete linear systems for which the coefﬁcients . time invariant. 2003. In this textbook.Continuous. dynamic systems are described. linear. 1–5 The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals.and discrete-time. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic . respectively.

Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–6 . the system is also driven by its internal forces coming from the system initial conditions (accumulated system energy at the given initial time). The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. the set of initial conditions must be speciﬁed as where denotes the initial time. Prentice Hall. 2003. whose coefﬁcients vary in time are difﬁcult for analysis. and they are studied in a graduate course on linear systems.Linear time varying systems. It is well known from elementary differential equations that in order to be able to ﬁnd the solution of a differential equation of order . Initial Conditions In addition to the external forcing function.

In the discrete-time domain. 2003. for continuous-time systems all initial conditions are deﬁned at the initial time ! . In contrast. ! . Those values are the system output past values. For the difference equation. The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. that is. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–7 . and they have to be used to determine the system output current value. from some initial time ! to ! . Prentice Hall. for a difference equation of order . the set of initial conditions must be speciﬁed. the initial conditions are given by ! ! ! It is interesting to point out that in the discrete-time domain the initial conditions carry information about the evolution of the system output in time.

the homogenous solution is also called the system natural response. It is known from elementary theory of differential equations that the solution of a linear differential equation has two additive components: the homogenous and particular solutions. In engineering.System Response The main goal in the analysis of dynamic systems is to ﬁnd the system response (system output) due to external (system inputs) and internal (system initial conditions) forces. Prentice Hall. we have " " # # The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–8 . 2003. The homogenous solution is contributed by the initial conditions and the particular solution comes from the forcing function. and the particular solution is called the system forced response. Hence.

to the so-called zero-input and zero-state responses of dynamic systems. It is denoted by $(' . Deﬁnition 1. 2003. Deﬁnition 1.1).1: The continuous-time (discrete-time) linear system response solely contributed by the system initial conditions is called the system zero-input (forcing function is set to zero) response.Homogeneous and particular solutions of differential equations correspond. It is denoted by $&% .2: The continuous-time (discrete-time) linear system response solely contributed by the system forcing function is called the system zero-state response (system initial conditions are set to zero). Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–9 . see Example 1. in general. The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. Prentice Hall. respectively (not identically.

1 and 1. that is. More precisely. say from The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. the following holds for continuous-time linear systems )&0 and for discrete-time linear systems. Prentice Hall. it also follows that the linear system response has two components: one component contributed by the system initial conditions. in the linear system literature. the transient response represents the system response in the time interval immediately after the initial time. )21 . and the zero-input response is called the system transient response.In view of Deﬁnitions 1.2. )&0 . and another component contributed by the system forcing function (input). we have )21 )&0 )21 Sometimes. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–10 . the zero-state response is superﬁcially called the system steady state response. 2003.

contributed by both the system input and the system initial conditions. y(t) y( 0) ytr (t) 0 t1 yss (t) t Figure 1. contributed by the system initial conditions.3 some to 4 . Hence. after a certain time interval. 4. in most cases decays quickly to zero. 2003.4. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–11 . the system response is most likely determined by the forcing function only.4: Transient and steady state responses The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals.2. This distinction between the transient and steady state responses The system steady state response stands for the system response in the long run after is demonstrated in Figure 1. as demonstrated in Example 1. Note that the steady state is not necessarily constant in time. Prentice Hall. The component of the system transient response.

Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic . 2003.Example 1. but take the forcing function as .1 with the same initial conditions. that is 5 5 The solution is derived in the textbook as 687 6@9A7 It is easy to see that the system response exponential functions decay to zero pretty rapidly so that the system steady state response is determined by BCB D 1–12 The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. Prentice Hall.2: Consider the same system as in Example 1.

5: System complete response (solid line) and its steady state response (dashed line) for Example 1.2 and ECE are given in Figure 1.2 It can be seen from the above ﬁgure that the transient ends roughly at hence after that time the system is in its steady state. 2003. F .6 system response 0. The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–13 .The plots of 1.2 −0. Prentice Hall. 1 0.4 0 5 time in seconds 10 15 Figure 1.5.2 0 yss(t) −0.8 y(t) 0.4 0.

A block diagram representation of a linear system. is given in Figure 1. The processing rule is given in the form of differential/difference equations. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–14 .Linear dynamic systems process input signals in order to produce output signals. f Input Linear System y Output Figure 1. 2003. linear dynamic systems are called linear signal processors. Sometimes.6. Prentice Hall.6: Input–output block diagram of a system The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. processing one input and producing one output.

The corresponding general form of time invariant linear discrete-time systems is GHI Q The coefﬁcients I QSHI I and . 2003. the system input signal can be differentiated by the system so that the more general description of time invariant linear continuous-time systems is G G Q GHI GHI I G H I Q Q HI R QRHI Q Q HI R P I P This system differentiation of input signals leads to some interesting system properties (to be discussed in Chapters 3 and 4). Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–15 . P P are constants. Prentice Hall. T U Note that for real physical systems The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals.In general.

2.Due to the presence of the derivatives of the input signal on the right-hand side of the general system equation. 2003. 1–16 The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic . Prentice Hall. Another method for solving the general system differential equation requires using V W with the particular solution being obtained through the convolution operation. The convolution operation will be introduced in Chapter 2 and used in Chapters 3 and 4 for analysis of linear time invariant systems.1 and 8. The impulse delta signal and its role in the derivative operation will be studied in detail in Chapter 2. The Laplace transform will be presented in Chapter 4. The convolution operation will be studied in detail in Chapter 6 and its use in linear system theory will be fully demonstrated in Sections 7. impulses that instantly change system initial conditions are generated at the initial time. These impulses are called the impulse delta functions (signals). We will learn in this textbook a method for solving the considered differential equations based on the Laplace transform.

It is basically the problem of solving the corresponding linear differential or difference equation. 2003.and discrete-time linear time-invariant systems.The problem of ﬁnding the system response for the given input signal or is the central problem in the analysis of linear systems. The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–17 . Chapters 3–5 of this textbook will be dedicated to the frequency domain techniques and Chapters 6–8 will study time domain techniques for the analysis of continuous. which leads to the conclusion that linear systems can be studied either in the time domain (to be generalized in Chapter 8 to the state space approach) or in the frequency domain (transfer function approach). This problem can be solved either by using knowledge from the mathematical theory of linear differential and/or difference equations or the engineering frequency domain approach—based on the concept of the system transfer function. Prentice Hall.

3 mathematical models for several real physical systems will be derived. X Y a .. A block diagram for a multi-input multi-output system is represented in Figure 1. These systems are known as multi-input multi-output systems. They are also called multivariable systems.6. . has only one input and one output . 2003. and outputs. 1–18 . say inputs X Y ` . Such systems are known as single-input single- output systems. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic . In general. The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals.7: Block diagram of a multi-input multi-output system The problem of obtaining differential (difference) equations that describe dynamics of real physical systems is known as mathematical modeling. f1 f2 fr y1 y2 yp Linear System Figure 1. Prentice Hall..The system considered so far and symbolically represented in Figure 1. In Section 1. systems may have several inputs and several outputs.7...

the concept of system linearity is tacitly introduced by stating that linear dynamic systems are described by linear differential/difference equations. Similar derivations and explanations are valid for presentation of the linearity concept of discrete-time linear dynamic systems.1. We have also stated that the concept of time invariance is related to differential/difference equations with constant coefﬁcients. we need the following deﬁnition. that is. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–19 .1 System Linearity The concept of system linearity is presented for continuous-time systems. The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. Before we derive and state the linearity property of continuous-time linear dynamic systems. Prentice Hall. all its initial conditions are equal to zero. 2003.1. 1.2 System Linearity and Time Invariance In Section 1. In this section we discuss the concepts of system linearity and time invariance in more details.2.3: The system at rest is the system that has no initial internal energy. Deﬁnition 1.

and that it is driven either by produce the system outputs e or g .3 that for a system at rest. that is f f e f f g f f e g Consider the general th order continuous-time linear differential equation that th order linear dynamic system. which respectively e and g . that is 1–20 The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic . Prentice Hall.It follows from Deﬁnition 1. that is b b cde c de b Systems at rest are also called systems with zero initial conditions. Assume that the describes the behavior of an system is at rest. The linearity property of continuous-time linear dynamic systems is the consequence of the linearity property of mathematical derivatives. the initial conditions are set to zero. 2003.

h i h r and r r i h p i i h p i hp i rSp i i rRp i rRp i i h p i s h p i hp i rRp i s rRp i rSp i i i i s i s i q i q i q s q s h s h r r r s Assume now that the same system at rest is driven by a linear combination i s where and are known constants. Multiplying the ﬁrst and adding the two equation by and multiplying the second equation by differential equations. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–21 . Prentice Hall. 2003. we obtain the following differential equation The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals.

Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–22 .t u t v y y t©w u u t w u y v x t w u y w u R u u v yRw u v x u y w u S u v v It is easy to conclude that the output of the system at rest (the solution of the corresponding differential equation) due to a linear combination of system inputs u v outputs. that is u is equal to the corresponding linear combination of the system of v . The linearity principle is. The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. 2003. in fact. the well known principle of elementary circuit theory. This is basically the linearity principle. the superposition principle. Prentice Hall. Note that the linearity principle is valid under the assumption that the system initial conditions are zero (system at rest).

If we introduce the symbolic notation. Prentice Hall. In order to get a solution of th order differential equation.The linearity principle can be put in a formal mathematical framework as follows. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–23 . say and producing The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. linear dynamic systems can be modelled as be integrated integrators. That is why. the solutions of the considered equations can be recorded as where an stands for a linear integral type operator. the corresponding differential equation has to -times. Note that the considered differential equations can be multiplied by some constants. 2003.

Prentice Hall.Adding these equations leads to the conclusion that It follows that the linearity principle can be mathematically stated as follows Using a similar reasoning. that is where are constants. we can state the linearity principle for an arbitrary number of inputs. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–24 . The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. 2003.

α f1 (t) Linear System α y1(t) β f2 (t) The Same Linear System β y2(t) α f1 (t) + β f2 (t) The Same Linear System α y1(t) + β y2(t) 1. by using similar arguments that the linear difference equation also obeys to the linearity principle. 1–25 The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals.8. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic .The linearity principle is demonstrated graphically in Figure 1. that is where are constants.8: Graphical representation of the linearity principle for a system at rest It is straightforward to verify. 2003. Prentice Hall.

2. The output response of a system at rest is invariant regardless of the initial time of the input. in addition. represented by @ S S S . Prentice Hall. it will preserve the The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. are assumed to be constant. 2003.1. we give an additional clariﬁcation of the system time invariance. Consider a system at rest. If the system input is shifted in time. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–26 .2 Linear System Time Invariance For a general th order linear dynamic system. and the coefﬁcients . Here. which indicates that the given system is time invariant. the system output response due to the same input will be shifted in time by the same amount and. The system time invariance is manifested by the constant shape in time (waveform) of the system output response due to the given input.

dfehg i ³z´qµ ¶ k ·z¸q¹º¹¼É » u j t & ¡£¥¤¦§©£ ¢ ¨©ª«¬&®¯°±«² ½¢¾¿ À ~ Á¢ÂÃÅÄÆÃÈÊ Ç xzy|{ } z| lfmhnpoqns r vw Figure 1. Prentice Hall. The system linearity and time invariance principles will be used in the follow up chapters to simplify the solution to the main linear system theory problem.9. The corresponding graphical interpretation of the time invariance principle is shown in Figure 1.same waveform. hold for the time invariance of discrete-time linear dynamic systems described by difference equations. the problem of ﬁnding the system response due to arbitrary input signals. described by differential equations.9: Graphical representation of system time invariance The same arguments presented for the time invariance of continuous-time linear dynamic systems. The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. 2003. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–27 .

10: An RLC network Applying the basic circuit laws for voltages and currents.10. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–28 . we obtain Ë Ì Ì Ì Í The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. 2003. i1 L R1 i2 ei R2 C i3 eo Figure 1.1. Prentice Hall.3 Mathematical Modeling of Systems An Electrical Circuit Consider a simple RLC electrical circuit presented in Figure 1.

which relates the input and output of the system. Prentice Hall.and Î Ï Ï Î Ó Ð Ñ Ò Ï Ñ Ñ Î It follows from the above equations that Ó Ï Î Î From these equations we obtain the desired second-order differential equation. and represents a mathematical model of the circuit given in Figure 1. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–29 . 2003.10 The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals.

the initial conditions and must be known (determined). any of the currents and any of the voltages can play the roles of either input or output variables. The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–30 . Prentice Hall. For electrical circuits. Hence. terms of Õ and Õ should be expressed in Ø and Ö Õ . However.Ô Õ Ô Ô Õ Ö Ô Õ Ö Ô Ô Õ Õ × In order to be able to solve this differential equation for Õ . the initial conditions are usually speciﬁed in terms of capacitor voltages and inductor currents. Note that in this mathematical model × represents the system input and is the system output. 2003. in this example.

Prentice Hall. we obtain Ù Ù Ú Ù Ú Ù Ù Ú Ù Ù Ú The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals.11.A Mechanical System A translational mechanical system is represented in Figure 1. 2003. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–31 . k2 k1 m2 F2 m1 F1 B2 B1 y2 y1 Figure 1.11: A translational mechanical system Using the basic laws of dynamics.

and Û Û Û Û Û Û Ü Ü Ü Û Ü Ü Û Û Û Û Ü Ü Ü Û This system has two inputs. The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. These Ü Û Ü Û Ü Ü Ü Ü Û Û Û Ü Û Û Û Ü Û Ü Û Û Û Ü and Ü Ü Ü Û Techniques for obtaining experimentally mathematical models of dynamic systems are studied within the scientiﬁc area called system identiﬁcation. equations can be rewritten as and . and Û . and two outputs. 2003. Prentice Hall. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–32 .

Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–33 . . The Let us assume that the monthly loan payment is constant. Prentice Hall. then the loan is paid back through the process known in economics as amortization. say question that we wish to answer is: what is the monthly loan payment needed to pay back the entire loan of dollars within months? The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. 2003. .Amortization Process Model If we purchase a house. Using simple logic. it is not hard to conclude that the outstanding principal. at discrete time instant (month) is given by the following recursive formula (difference equation) where is the payment made in ( )st discrete-time instant (month). and take a loan of interest rate of percent per year ( dollars with a ﬁxed per month). or a car.

we have for and and Ý Continuing this procedure for we can recognize the pattern and get Þ ß ßáàâ Ý Ý ßãàâ ß äæåèç ä The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. Prentice Hall. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–34 . 2003.The answer to this question can be easily obtain by iterating this difference equation and ﬁnding the corresponding solution formula. Since are known.

we obtain ð ð ð ð We conclude that the loan is paid back when for the required monthly payment as . 2003. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–35 . Prentice Hall.The formula obtained represents the solution of the difference equation. which implies the formula ð ð ð ð The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. The formula can be even further simpliﬁed using the known summation formula é êæëèì ê éîíï Applying this formula.

and ó represents dynamics of an electrochemical is a small positive parameter. 2003. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–36 .Heart Beat Dynamics Dynamics of a heart beat (diastole is a relaxed state and systole is a contracted state of a heart) can be approximately described by the following set of linear differential equations ñ ò ó where ñ ñ ò ò ò ò ó ñ is the length of muscle ﬁbre. Prentice Hall. is equal to ñ ò ó . represents the tension in the ﬁber caused by blood pressure. in this model. whose normalized value. The system process that governs the heart beat. The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. and is driven by the initial condition that characterizes the heart’s diastolic state.

and orbit) can be modeled by the second-order system represented by ô ô and õ ô ô õ ô õ ô where õ are respectively the minor and major eye is the eye stimulus time constants. is the eye position in degrees and force in degrees (reference eye position. eye. Several other mathematical models for eye movement exist in the biomedical engineering literature. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–37 .Eye Movement (Oculomotor Dynamics) Dynamics of eye movement (muscles. The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. including a more complex model of order six to be presented in Chapter 8. 2003.46. target position). Problem 8. Prentice Hall.

BOEING Aircraft The linearized equations governing the motion of a BOEING’s aircraft are ö ö where in the aircraft angle of attack. that is ø ö ö The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. 2003. ö stands for the elevator deﬂection Differentiating the above system of three ﬁrst-order linear differential equations. is the pitch rate. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–38 . it can be replaced by one third-order linear differential equation that gives direct dependence of ÷ ÷ ø on ö . and represents the aircraft pitch angle. Prentice Hall. The driving force angle.

wave propagation. Dynamic systems are. For example. or algebraic equations in statics indicating that at the equilibrium the sums of all forces are equal to zero. behavior of antennas. propagation of light through optical ﬁber. For example. Static systems are represented by algebraic equations. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–39 . Prentice Hall. 2003.4 System Classiﬁcation Real-world systems are either static or dynamic. for example algebraic equations describing electrical circuits with resistors and constant voltage sources. described either by differential/difference equations (also known as systems with concentrated or lumped parameters) or by partial differential equations (known as systems with distributed parameters).1. electric power transmission lines. one dimensional electromagnetic wave propagation is described by the partial differential equation The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. and heat conduction represent dynamic systems described by partial differential equations. in general.

Linear dynamic systems are described by linear differential/difference equations and they obey to the linearity principle. Dynamic systems with lumped parameters can be either linear or nonlinear. is the spacial coordinate and is the constant that characterizes the medium. Systems with distributed parameters are also known as inﬁnite dimensional systems. Nonlinear dynamic systems are described by nonlinear differential/difference equations. represents time. in contrast to systems with concentrated parameters that are known as ﬁnite dimensional systems (they are represented by differential/difference equations of ﬁnite orders. ).ù ù ù ù ù is electric ﬁled. 2003. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–40 . Prentice Hall. For example. a simple pendulum is described by the nonlinear differential equation The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals.

ú ú is the pendulum angle. the linear time varying model of the Erbium-doped optical ﬁber ampliﬁer is given by ý û ü ü þæÿ¡ þ ¢þ represents deviation from the nominal value of the average level of the normalized number of Erbium atoms in the upper excited state. û is the time 1–41 The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. Prentice Hall. and ú is the gravitational constant. and is is a nonlinear function. the pendulum mass. For example. 2003. We can also distinguish between time invariant systems (systems with constant coefﬁcients) obeying to the time invariance principle and time-varying systems whose parameters change in time. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic .

electric current under electron thermal noise. Some system parameters and variables can change according to random laws. 2003. Sometimes system inputs are random signals. the generated power of a solar cell. Stochastic systems can be either linear or nonlinear. continuous or discrete. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–42 . £ and ¤¦¥ are respectively laser pump and optical signal power deviations from their nominal values. For example. time invariant or time-varying. The real physical system can only to produce the system output at time equal to §. The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. Prentice Hall. aircraft under wind disturbances. that is § . Real world physical systems are known as nonanticipatory systems or causal systems. Systems that have random parameters and/or process random signals are called stochastic systems. Let the input § be applied to a system at time §. In contrast to stochastic systems. we have deterministic systems whose parameters and input signals are deterministic quantities.varying time constant. house humidity and temperature. and £ and ¥ are coefﬁcients. For example.

The system causality can also be deﬁned with the statement that the system input © has no impact on the system output ¨ for © ¨. In contrast to nonanticipatory (causal) systems. the system output at time ¨ depends not only on the system input at time ¨. based on the information that the system has the future system response ¨ . The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. Dynamic systems are also systems with memory. produce information about for ¨. Prentice Hall. Let be the solution of the corresponding differential equation representing a dynamic system. but also on all previous values of the system input. Namely. we have anticipatory or noncausal systems. 2003. at time ¨.The real physical system cannot. Anticipatory systems are encountered in digital signal processing—they are artiﬁcial systems. at time That is. the system is unable to predict the future input values and produce . Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic 1–43 .

That is. for static systems the output at time depends only on the input at the given time instant . static systems have no memory.The fact that the dynamic system possesses memory can be formally recorded as the relationship . Prentice Hall. 2003. signals are discretized with respect to both time and magnitude (signal sampling and quantization). If came from a static system. Digital systems process digital signals whose magnitudes can take only a ﬁnite number of values. an electric resistor is a static system since its voltage (system output) is an instantaneous function of its current (system input) so that for any . Static systems are known as memoryless systems or instantaneous systems. 1–44 The slides contain the copyrighted material from Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals. In contrast. In digital systems. Prepared by Professor Zoran Gajic . then we would have . Analog systems deal with continuous-time signals that can take a continuum of values with respect to the signal magnitude. For example.

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