Work of Hamza (Mathemagician


Unit 1.1

Unit 1: Structure, bonding and main group chemistr Topic 1.1: Atomic structure
Definitions (easy marks in the exam…so must learn!):
Atomic number (Z) of an e!ement is the number of protons in the nuc!eus of its atom. ass number of an isotope is the number of protons " the number of neutrons in the nuc!eus. !sotopes are atoms of the "A # e!ement #hich ha$e the "A # number of protons but different number of neutrons. (%.e. the ha$e the same atomic number but different mass number) $elati%e atomic mass (Ar) of an e!ement is the a$erage mass (taking into account the re!ati$e abundance of each isotope) of the atoms of that e!ement relati%e to 1&1'th the mass of a carbon(1' atom. $elati%e isotopic mass is the mass of one isotope re!ati$e to 1&1'th the mass of a carbon(1' atom. $elati%e molecular mass ( r) of a substance is the sum of a!! the re!ati$e atomic masses of its constituent atoms. olar mass is the mass of one mo!e of the substance. Units are grams per mole and it is numerically equal to the relative molecular mass 1st ionisation ener)y is the amount of energ re)uired per mole to $# *+# one e!ectron from each )aseous atom to form a sin)ly positi%e ion: ( *(g) ((( *"(g) " e( ++ %onisation energies are a!#a s endothermic and re!ate to the formation of a positi$e ion++ 1st electron affinity is the energ change per mole for the ADD!T!*, of one e!ectron to a )aseous atom to form a sin)ly ne)ati%e ion: ( *(g) " e( ((( *((g)

" block are e!ements in #hich the hi)hest occupie- ener)y le%el is an s orbita!.
,he are in )roups 1 an- '.

Work of Hamza (Mathemagician)

Unit 1.1

++simi!ar definition app!ies to p b!ock (groups - to . and /) and d b!ock (Sc to 0n) e!ements++ 1ou2!! !earn more about the d b!ock in unit 3.

ass spectrometer: (
The basicprinciple:%f something is mo$ing and ou sub4ect it to a side#a s force, instead of mo$ing in a straight !ine, it #i!! mo$e in a cur$e ( def!ected out of its origina! path b the side#a s force. Suppose ou had a cannonba!! tra$e!!ing past ou and ou #anted to def!ect it as it #ent b ou. 5!! ou6$e got is a 4et of #ater from a hose(pipe that ou can s)uirt at it. 7rank! , its not going to make a !ot of difference8 9ecause the cannonba!! is so hea$ , it #i!! hard! be def!ected at a!! from its origina! course. 9ut suppose instead, ou tried to def!ect a tab!e tennis ba!! tra$e!!ing at the same speed as the cannonba!! using the same 4et of #ater. 9ecause this ba!! is so !ight, ou #i!! get a huge def!ection. ,he amount of def!ection ou #i!! get for a gi$en side#a s force depends on the mass of the ba!!. %f ou kne# the speed of the ba!! and the size of the force, ou cou!d ca!cu!ate the mass of the ba!! if ou kne# #hat sort of cur$ed path it #as def!ected through. ,he !ess the def!ection, the hea$ier the ba!!.

7ormu!a: r @ m$&9)

Where: ? @ radius of def!ection m @ mass of the ion being def!ected 9 @ magnetic fie!d strength ) @ charge on the ion

++this formu!a isn2t needed for *:*;<*= chemistr , but it he!ps understanding the concept>(ph sics peop!e ma come across this in their course)++

:iagram: (

Work of Hamza (Mathemagician)

Unit 1.1

,he $aporised samp!e passes into the ionisation chamber. ,he e!ectrica!! heated meta! coi! gi$es off e!ectrons #hich are attracted to the e!ectron trap #hich is a positi$e! charged p!ate. ,he partic!es in the samp!e (atoms or mo!ecu!es) are therefore bombarded #ith a stream of e!ectrons, and some of the co!!isions are energetic enough to knock one or more e!ectrons out of the samp!e partic!es to make positi$e ions. Most of the positi$e ions formed #i!! carr a charge of "1 because it is much more difficu!t to remo$e further e!ectrons from an a!read positi$e ion.

,hese positi$e ions are persuaded out into the rest of the machine b the ion repe!!er #hich is another meta! p!ate carr ing a s!ight positi$e charge.

Work of Hamza (Mathemagician)

Unit 1.1


,he positi$e ions are repe!!ed a#a from the $er positi$e ionisation chamber and pass through three s!its, the fina! one of #hich is at / $o!ts. ,he midd!e s!it carries some intermediate $o!tage. 5!! the ions are acce!erated into a fine! focused beam. 9asica!! , the e!ectrons are acce!erated b an e!ectric fie!d.


:ifferent ions are def!ected b the magnetic fie!d b different amounts.

An! ion stream 9 makes it right through the machine to the ion detector. ,he other ions co!!ide #ith the #a!!s #here the #i!! pick up e!ectrons and be neutra!ised. *$entua!! , the get remo$ed from the mass spectrometer b the $acuum pump.

Work of Hamza (Mathemagician)

Unit 1.1

When an ion hits the meta! boB, its charge is neutra!ised b an e!ectron 4umping from the meta! on to the ion (right hand diagram). ,hat !ea$es a space amongst the e!ectrons in the meta!, and the e!ectrons in the #ire shuff!e a!ong to fi!! it. 5 f!o# of e!ectrons in the #ire is detected as an e!ectric current #hich can be amp!ified and recorded. ,he more ions arri$ing, the greater the current. %n short: ( • • • ,he spectrum is gi$en b positi%e ions! Meta!s and the nob!e gasses form sing! positi$e! charged ions in the ratio of the abundance of their isotopes. ,he re!ati$e atomic mass of an e!ement can be ca!cu!ated from mass spectra data: ( 5r @ the sum of (mass of each isotope B percentage of that isotope)&1// *Bamp!e:( 9oron #as ana! sed in a mass spectrometer. <a!cu!ate the re!ati$e atomic mass of boron using the resu!ts be!o#: Ceaks at m&e of 1/./ 11./ 5bundance (D) 1E.. E1.-

5ns#er: 5r @ (1/./ B 1E.. " 11./ B E1.-) & 1// @ 1/.E can apply this to any /uestion of this type..

#lectron structure (facts!)
• • ,he first shell on! has an s orbital ,he secon- shell has one s and three p orbita!s

Work of Hamza (Mathemagician) • • ,he third and subse)uent she!!s ha$e one s, three p and 3 d orbita!s *ach orbita! can ho!d a max. of ' electrons

Unit 1.1

So the order of fi!!ing is: (

1s' 's' 'pF -s' -pF -d1/ Gs' GpF


*!ectronic <onfiguration can be predicted. %f the fo!!o#ing ru!es are fo!!o#ed: 1. *!ectrons go into !o#er energ !e$e!s before higher ones. '. *!ectrons go into !o#er subshe!!s before higher ones. -. *!ectrons occup orbita!s #ith 1 e!ectron rather than ' if possib!e.

"i0es of atoms an- ions
• • • • ,he atoms become smaller going across a period from !eft to right, because the nuc!ear charge increases, pu!!ing the e!ectrons in c!oser, though the number of she!!s is the same. ,he atoms )et bi))er )oin) -o1n a )roup because there are more she!!s of e!ectrons. 5 positi%e ion is smaller than the neutral atom from #hich it #as made, because the ion has one she!! fe#er than the atom. A ne)ati%e ion is bi))er than the neutral atom, because the eBtra repu!sion bet#een e!ectrons causes them to spread out.

+++%n an atom, the outer e!ectrons are shie!ded from the pu!! of the nuc!eus b the e!ectrons in she!!s nearer to the nuc!eus+++

1st ionisation ener)y

Work of Hamza (Mathemagician)

Unit 1.1

,his is a genera! increase going from !eft to right across a period. %ts caused main! b the increased nuc!ear charge (atomic number) #ithout an increase in the number of inner shie!ding e!ectrons. ,here are s!ight decreases after group ' (this is because, for group -, it is easier to remo$e an e!ectron from the higher energ p orbita!), and after group 3 (because for group F, the repu!sion of the t#o e!ectrons in the p orbita! makes it easier to remo$e one of them). ,here is a decrease going -o1n a group. ,his is caused b the outer e!ectron being further a#a from the nuc!eus. (,he eBtra nuc!ear charge is ba!anced b the same eBtra number of inner shie!ding e!ectrons).

"uccessi%e ionisation ener)ies
• • ,he 'nd ionisation energ of an e!ement is a!#a s bigger than the first, because the 'nd e!ectron is remo$ed from a positi$e e!ectron. When there is a $er big 4ump in the $a!ue of successi$e ionisation energies, an e!ectron is being remo$ed from a !o#er she!!, e.g. if this 4ump happens from the Gth to the 3th ionisation energ , four e!ectrons ha$e been remo$ed from the outer she!! during the first four ionisations, and so the e!ement is in Hroup G.

#lectron affinity
• 1st e!ectron affinit $a!ues are al1ays ne)ati%e (eBothermic), as a negati$e e!ectron is being brought to#ards the positi$e nuc!eus in a neutra! atom. +++,he are most eBothermic for the ha!ogens+++ • ,he 'nd e!ectron affinit $a!ues are often positi%e (endothermic), because a negati$e e!ectron is being added to a negati$e ion, so eBtra energ is needed to o$ercome the effect.

We!!>>that does it for Unit 1.1>.% #i!! post the rest of them a!so (#hen % get time). ,he ke to this unit is good memor 8 Most of the Imode! ans#ersJ can be $ie#ed abo$e. %f ou find memorizing the definitions difficu!t, #rite them each out 1/ times and it #i!! hopefu!! stick in our head8 ,hanks for reading it . ( Mathemagician

Work of Hamza (Mathemagician)

Unit 1.1

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