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Arc Welding - Basic Steps reading.pdf

Arc Welding - Basic Steps reading.pdf

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Published by Emad A.Ahmad
Arc Welding
Arc Welding

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HOT METAL SKILLS 8609-C

ARC WELDING – BASIC STEPS
GETTING STARTED As with any other skill, arc welding takes time to learn and master. Basic fundamentals must be learned and practiced repeatedly in order for one to become proficient at arc welding. It is necessary to understand the basic components of the arc welding process, however, for a person to really learn the trade it is necessary to have vast amounts of experimentation and experience. Industry is always searching for certified weldors. The agricultural science laboratory is a great place to learn the skills necessary to be American Welding Society (AWS) certified after graduation. Patience and determination are key character traits to keep in mind while learning the skill of arc welding. PREPARING METAL FOR WELDING In order to increase the efficiency of the welding process, it is necessary to prepare the metal beforehand. Stronger, cleaner, and more attractive welds will result if proper preparations are made. Another reason for preparing metal is that fewer electrodes will be needed, saving both time and money. If welding unprepared metal, more heat will be needed to perform the welds, therefore amperage should be increased an additional 20 amperes. There are several methods of preparing metal. Using a steel brush, filing, scraping, and grinding are all proven techniques. Using a grinder is the quickest method for preparing metal for welding. Weld surfaces should be ground to ensure that all metal burrs and rough spots are removed. This is especially needed for sheets of metal less than 1/4 inch thick. Metal that is more than 1/4 inch thick should be beveled* at a 30-degree angle. To bevel means to incline or slant an edge. The two pieces of prepared metal placed with the beveled edges together to form a 60degree angle.

* Underlined words are defined in the Glossary of Terms. -1-

-2- . Heat penetration is the depth at which the base metal is sufficiently heated and melted in order for fusion to occur. Most welding suppliers provide charts and information that show the proper amperage settings according to electrode size and thickness of metal. Correct Amperage – weld ripple will be uniform and the weld deposit will be equal to the depth of penetration. DETERMINING CORRECT AMPERAGE SETTING Ensuring that the welder is set to the correct amperage is critical to the overall success of any welding operation. These charts are available at many welding supply stores. allowing for proper penetration and producing minimum spatter.Metal sheets that are 1/ 4 to 1/ 2 inch thick should be spaced 1/ 32 to 1/ 16 inches apart before welding. Proper penetration will not occur. Amperage setting is determined by the following factors: Metal Thickness Size and Type of Electrode Speed of Travel Position of Weld Several scenarios can occur when the amperage is improperly set. Amperage setting is crucial to forming strong beads. excessive spatter will occur and the electrode will burn too hot. The metal will pile up. Amperage too High – the bead will be flat with increased porosity. as well as maintaining correct arc length. Amperage too Low – striking an arc will become very difficult. This spacing will provide for maximum heat penetration during the welding process and ensure quality welds. forming a high narrow bead.

and an individual can weld either standing up or sitting down.) Tilt the electrode toward the direction of travel. maintain a correct arc length throughout the entire process. Strike the arc and weld from left to right. It suggests the amperage setting according to electrode size and metal thickness. (Left handed weldors should do the opposite. There are several different types of welding positions that work for different people. After striking the arc. An example of one type of welding position is the following: To start welding. -3- . always keeping it at a 15-degree angle.The following chart is an example of one that might be found in a welding supply store. Welding can be done with one hand or two. AMPERAGE 65 80–100 80–120 115–130 130–150 140–150 160–175 175–200 ELECTRODE SIZE 3 METAL THICKNESS 1 3 /32” 3 /32” 1 /8” 5 /32” 5 /32” 5 /32” 5 /32” 5 /32” /16” /32” 1 /8” 3 /16” 1 /4” 5 /16” 3 /8” 1 /2” USING CORRECT WELDING POSITION A key component in developing proficiency in welding is finding a welding position that is comfortable and will allow for less fatigue. hold the electrode holder in the right hand and use the left hand as a support for the right hand.

the arc produces a continuous crackling or frying sound. The correct arc length may also be determined by sound. The result of this action is that electric current jumps the gap and makes an arc that produces enough heat to melt the base metal and the electrode. should be equal to the diameter of the bare end of the welding rod or electrode.STRIKING THE ARC To begin the welding process. Excessive spattering and porosity will be eliminated if a proper arc length is maintained. it is necessary to learn the skills involved in striking or starting an arc. It is necessary to maintain a correct arc length throughout the entire welding process to produce high-quality welds. or distance between the electrode and molten metal. After the arc is established. a blowing sound will be produced. If the arc is too long. hold the electrode about 1/8 inch from the metal. The following is an explanation of two methods of striking an arc commonly used in the field today. Tilt the electrode towards the direction of travel. Bring the electrode down diagonally across the work as if striking a match. The tapping method of striking an arc: Set the amperage correctly prior to beginning welding. The arc length. hold the electrode about 1/ 8 inch above the bottom of the crater. Tilt the electrode towards the direction of travel. thus opening the circuit. If the arc length and amperage are correct. Striking an arc is a challenge for most introductory weldors. After the arc is established. Arc length is an important factor to consider in producing quality welds. Bring the electrode straight down and tap the metal. Hold the electrode directly over the desired starting point. it takes time and practice to become adept at the procedure. The scratching method of striking an arc: Set the amperage correctly. -4- . When the arc length is too short a popping sound will be the result. An arc is formed when the electrode is brought into contact with the base metal and then withdrawn slightly.

If this happens. it may be necessary to make a tack weld in order to get a good ground. grab the electrode with a free hand and bend it back-andforth. -5- . ensuring that proper contact is made. Check the ground clamp and reapply the clamp to the metal. CAUSES OF DIFFICULTIES IN STRIKING AN ARC There are many obstacles that most beginning weldors will face as they learn the techniques and methods involved in the welding process. The metal should be clean where the ground clamp is attached. release the electrode from the electrode holder by squeezing the lever. If the end is free of flux. In some instances. The work may be improperly grounded. A fast scratching technique is also recommended to help alleviate this problem. Electrodes that have lost their flux on the end are very difficult to strike. Discard electrodes in which the flux is removed and begin with a new one. This back and forth action should break the electrode free. discard the electrode and begin with a new one. After breaking the electrode free. check to see if the flux on the end of the electrode has been removed.Most beginning weldors will experience difficulties caused by electrodes sticking to the work. especially for a beginning weldor. Striking an arc is the first major skill that any weldor must develop. Some of the causes for increased difficulty that an introductory weldor might encounter in striking an arc are: The flux coating may be absent from the end of the electrode. Arcing may occur where the ground clamp is attached to the metal. Turn the welder off and while wearing welding gloves.

Check the metal thickness. and continue to watch the puddle instead of watching the arc.5 times as wide as the width of the electrode. Loose or dirty connections will reduce the electrical efficiency of the welder. Adjust the amperage according to electrode size and type and the thickness of the metal. Maintaining a good puddle is one of the most important steps in making a good weld. The second step is to hold a long arc until the base metal begins to melt. The following steps will guide a beginning weldor through the process. The correct arc length should be maintained throughout the process. Check and tighten any loose connections. After the metal begins melting. The connections between the cables and welder terminals may be loose. Consult an amperage chart for correct specifications. Look for a weak spring or foreign materials. electrode being used. This practice is known as preheating. RUNNING A BEAD After learning to strike an arc. the next step for any weldor is to learn how to run a bead. The weld puddle is the area that is being heated and melted to a hot liquid state during welding. The puddle should be about 1. Clean any dirty connections prior to resuming welding. Beginning weldors should first learn how to run a bead in the flat position. speed of travel. and position of weld. Be certain that the electrode holder is not clamped on the flux coating. This is another process that will take time and practice to master. The electrode and amperage setting may not be correctly matched in relation to the metal or job to be done. Consult a chart that gives correct amperage settings for different situations and make the proper adjustments. the electrode should be maneuvered to the proper arc length and tilted correctly toward the line of the weld. The bare end of the electrode should be held in the electrode holder. It is suggested that you hold the arc for a count of three seconds to allow the base metal to melt before actually running the bead. -6- . The electrode may not be making proper contact with the electrode holder.

The following are some common movements or weaves that are used today. width. By doing this. the weld will pass through the crater toward the bead and then over the same path in the line of the weld. The drawings are self-explanatory. The electrode movement is also vital to the quality and strength of the weld. You must learn to adjust your travel speeds for different types and sizes of metal. This can happen when the weldor finishes one electrode and must start another. The bead should be started on the metal behind the crater. the speed of travel must be adjusted to permit a desired bead height. The bead should not be restarted in the same place (the crater of the interrupted bead). ELECTRODE MOVEMENTS FOR RUNNING A BEAD The main movements that a weldor must perform and master in order to become skilled at the craft are feeding the electrode to maintain the proper arc length and moving the electrode along the weld line. Downward motion is necessary to compensate for the area of the electrode that is being consumed. push the end of the electrode down into the crater and pull it away quickly to break the arc. Several types of electrode movements are utilized and the exact type that is used is the weldor’s personal choice. This process is known as tying in or tying the beads together. porosity. -7- . and buildup of the bead that is produced. To maintain a good puddle. Electrode movement is very important because it controls the penetration. Sometimes the arc will have to be broken while running a bead. To fill a crater. Welding heavy plate requires a slower speed than welding thin metal.

vertical. Numerous practice exercises exist and it is the weldor’s personal choice as to which one he/she uses to learn the craft. -8- . This type of bead is most beneficial to students who are working on maintaining arc length. Cover the entire plate and brush it clean for the next layer. and achieving proper electrode angle. In order to become a (AWS) certified entry-level weldor. Repeat each step until the entire surface of the plate is completely covered with deposited metal. Clean the plate so that all the beads may be examined. Chip and wire brush the bead until it is completely clean before running another bead along its side. Deposit a third layer without moving the plate. Begin the stringer bead at the upper left corner of the plate and move from left to right keeping the bead flush with the top edge of the plate. The following is a good practice method to become more skilled at welding in a variety of different positions. The flat. The following is one set of directions for running stringer beads. and is often referred to as running stringer beads. Be sure the bead runs in a straight line flush with the top of the plate and fill the crater at the end. horizontal. practicing weave patterns. There are many different ways to practice running beads. Keep in mind that patience and determination are very important character traits to possess when learning the arc welding process. Without changing the position of the practice plate. Add the fourth layer with the steel plate in the initial position. moving the arc from right to left. and overhead positions are just a few. begin at the lower left hand corner and run the bead away from the body. This is used to practice and gain experience.USING BEADS AND WEAVES IN PADDING Practice is the key to becoming a polished weldor. The American Welding Society (AWS) has come up with a set of codes to identify different welding positions. It is necessary to work repeatedly at running a straight bead on a flat metal plate. the weldor must be able to perform welds in many different positions. It is important to realize that there are many possible weld positions. Place the second bead so that it will fuse with 20% (1/5) of the first bead. Cover the entire plate and brush it clean for the next layer.

For arc welding activities related to your SAEP. Activities for Agricultural Science 221. This video is an excellent learning tool for introductory weldors and explains the basic processes and skills involved in arc welding. and click on 221-H for the Course and Unit of Instruction.One learning tool that is available for purchase from the Instructional Materials Service (IMS) is a videocassette # 9779 Stick Metal Arc Welding I. After completing an activity. refer to IMS #RB-221. be sure to record the entry in the journal page of your Internet record book. -9- .

Sosnin. Christine Stetter. Arc Welding Instructions for the Beginner. The Fundamentals of Welding. Instructional Materials Service. Bohnart and R. 1999. 6th ed. J. Hoerner and W. The Lincoln Electric Company. Porosity – Permeable to liquids. Delmar. Welding. and Surfacing of Metals. “Welding Made Easy. Heat penetration – The depth at which the base metal is sufficiently heated and melted in order for fusion to occur. OH: The James F. Brazing. Metals and Welding.asp [2002. 2000. T.lincolnelectric. B. Welding: Principles and Applications. Instructional Materials Service. 1976. Soldering. Cleveland. Spatter – Fragments of metal that are thrown onto the metal surrounding the actual weld area. 1988. Kirk Edney. Sosnin. prepared the layout and design for this topic. Available: http://www. Weld puddle – Area that is being heated and melted to a hot liquid state during welding process. Jefferson. 4th ed. Larry.. Artist. 2nd ed. and Gorham Woods. E. 1964.com/knowledge/articles/ tips. . H.Acknowledgements Jared Doughty. Texas A&M University. 1990. Graduate Technician. Vickie Marriott. Preheating – Holding the arc for a count of three seconds allowing base metal to melt before running a bead. Morford. V. New Lessons in Arc Welding. Cleveland. REFERENCES Alexander. Department of Agricultural Education. June] GLOSSARY OF TERMS Bevel – To incline or slant an edge.10 - . Cleveland. 2nd ed. Curriculum Specialist. OH: The James F. Texas A&M University. A. John Deere Publishing. Jeffus. Instructional Materials Service. R. H. OH: The James F. Witcraft. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation.” [On-line]. Texas A&M University. reviewed this topic. Anderson. prepared the illustrations for this topic. Arc Welding Instructions for the Beginner Teachers Manual. Office Software Associate. Stringer bead – A type of flat bead that is used as a practice technique for introductory weldors. T. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation. Cutting. revised and organized this topic. Hobar Publications. Texas A&M University. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation. 1970. Metals and How to Weld Them. A.

List three reasons for preparing metal prior to beginning a welding job. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 5. 1. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 4. Explain in detail the two effects that can occur if amperage is improperly set. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 3. and one that is correct. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ .11 - . ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. List five types of electrode movements for laying a bead.SELECTED STUDENT ACTIVITIES SHORT ANSWER/LISTING: Answer the following questions or statements in the space provided or on additional paper. List the types of sounds for an arc length that is too long. too short. List three causes for increased difficulty in striking an arc for beginning weldors.

Present your findings to the class.ADVANCED ACTIVITIES 1. Research the American Welding Society (AWS) for information concerning the certified weldor program.edu 2002 . Present this display to the class along with an explanation for each completed weld. Discover ways to implement your instructions into the agricultural science laboratory. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Reproduction prohibited without written permission. Instructional Materials Service Texas A&M University 2588 TAMUS College Station. Search for innovative ways to instruct other beginning weldors in arc welding.tamu. Find out the expectations and requirements for becoming an AWS certified weldor. Construct a display of welding rods used at proper and improper amperage settings on the same piece of metal. Texas 77843-2588 http://www-ims. Present a demonstration to the class and test the ease of use for others. 2.12 - . 3.

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