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You are on page 1of 23

Instructor: Zhang

Fast Fourier Transform Algorithms

10-1 Introduction

1. x(t) --- Continuous-time signal

X(f) --- Fourier Transform, frequency characteristics

Can we find

X ( f ) =x (t )e j 2ft dt

2. What can we do?

(1) Sample x(t) =>

x0, x1, , xN-1 over T (for example 1000 seconds)

Sampling period (interval) t

N (samples) over T => t = T / N

Can we have infinite T and N? Impossible!

N 1

j 2kn / N

=> X k = x n e

k = 1, 2,..., N

n =0

3. Limited N and T =>

limited frequency resolution 2

k

T

1

T

1

0 < 2N / T

N 1

j 2kn / N

4. xn = N X k e

---- periodic function (period N)

k =0

x(t) --- general function

sampling and inverse transform

xn --- periodic function

5. X k

( k = 2

Xk =

N 1

k

T

line spectrum)

xn e j 2kn / N

n =0

Page 10-1

Instructor: Zhang

1. Preparations

(1) Ideal sampling waveform

y s (t ) =

(t mTs ) :

m =

y s (t ) f s ( f nf s )

=

n

( fs =

1

)

Ts

Fourier

Transform

Pair

in DFT Ts = t = T / N

(2) Rectangular Pulse (window)

t t 0

) T sin c (Tf )e j 2t0 f

T

width

of

the

window

when t0 = 0

Center of the

window

sin x

x

sin Tf

sin c (Tf ) =

Tf

sin cX =

t

( ) T sin c (Tf )

T

(3) x1 (t ) * x2 (t ) X 1 ( f ) X 2 ( f )

(4) x1 (t ) x2 (t ) X 1 ( f ) * X 2 ( f )

Example 10-1: Continuous time signal: two-sided exponential signal

x (t ) = e

|t |

Page 10-2

Instructor: Zhang

2

1 + (2f ) 2

( ,+)

in

X(f ) =

not

lim ited

as

in

DFT

|t |

sampled signal x (t ) = y (t )e

s

s

its Fourier transform:

X s ( f ) = Ys ( f ) * F ( e

X s ( f ) = fs

|t |

) = Ys ( f ) * X ( f )

X ( f nf s ) = 2f s

n =

1 + (2 ( f

n =

nf s )) 2

(2) periodic function, introduce frequencies beyond fs .

(2) Limited T (over which x(t) is sampled to collect data for DFT)

t

)

T

t

x sw (t ) = x s (t )( )

T

window

X sw ( f ) = ( 2f s

{1 + 2 ( f

n =

nf s ) 2 }1 ) * (T sin c(Tf ))

X sw ( f ) is a worse estimate of X(f) than Xs(f) due to the introduction of

( Tsinc( Tf ) ) for convolution!

Effect of limited T

X

(

f

)

(3) Dose DFT give s

for every f ?

No! only discrete frequencies.

DFT as an estimate for X(f): even worse than X s ( f ) due to the limited

frequency resolution.

Page 10-3

Instructor: Zhang

given: Example

t

( )

4

|t |

for e

4. Effect of T (window size)

use

Compare

t

( )

4

and

t

( )

8

|t |

for e

Page 10-4

Instructor: Zhang

Page 10-5

Instructor: Zhang

5. DFT Errors

(1) Aliasing

X s ( f ) = fs

X ( f

n =

spectrum X(f) and its translates (X(f-nfs)

n0)

nf s )

Caused by sampling

Overlapping of X(f) and its translates: aliasing (sampling effect)

(2) Leakage Effect

limited window size T

( ( T ) )

t

X s ( f ) = X s ( f ) * F (( ))

T

t

( f ) = F (( ))

T

X s ( f ) : contribution of X s ( f + f ) to X s ( f ) : determined by

weight (f )

frequency energy leaks from one frequency to another!

As an estimation of X(f), does X s ( f ) have picket fence effect? No!

DFT: discrete frequencies (not blocked by the fence).

6. Minimization of DFT Error Effects.

Problem: DFT for large N.

(Preparation for Mathematical Derivation of FFT)

Page 10-6

Instructor: Zhang

1. DFT Algorithm

N 1

X ( k ) = x ( n )e

= x ( n ) e j 2 / N

n =0

Denote WN = e

X (k ) =

N 1

j 2kn / N

n =0

j 2 / N

nk

, then

N 1

x(n)WN nk

n =0

Properties of WN m :

(1) WN 0 = (e j 2 / N )0 = e 0 = 1,

N +m

m

= WN

(2) W N

WN N = e j 2 = 1

WN N + m = (e j 2 / N ) N + m

= (e j 2 / N ) N (e j 2 / N ) m

= 1 (e j 2 / N ) m = WN m

(3) WN N / 2 = e j 2 /( N / 2) / N = e j = 1

WN N / 4 = e j 2 /( N / 4) / N = e j / 2 = j

WN

3N / 4

= e j 2 /(3 N / 4) / N = e j 3 / 2 = j

2. Examples

Example 10-3: Two-Point DFT

1

nk

x(0), x(1): X (k ) = x(n)W2

k = 0,1

n =0

n =0

n =0

1

X (1) = x (n)W2

n =0

n1

= x (n)W2

n =0

= x(0)W2 + x(1)W2

= x(0) + x(1)W2

(1 / 2 ) 2

= x(0) + x(1)(1)

= x(0) x(1)

x(0), x(1), x(2), x(3)

X (k ) =

x(n)W4 nk

k = 0,1 ,2,3,

n =0

Page 10-7

X ( 0) =

Instructor: Zhang

n =0

n =0

3

n

n =0

3

X ( 2) = x(n)W4

2n

n =0

3

X (3) = x( n)W4

3n

n =0

3

= x(0) + jx(1) x ( 2) jx (3)

X (0) =[ x (0) + x ( 2)] +[ x (1) + x (3)]

X ( 2) =[ x (0) + x ( 2)] [ x (1) + x (3)]

X (3) =[ x (0) x ( 2)] + j[ x (1) x (3)]

If we denote z(0) = x(0), z(1) = x(2) => Z(0) = z(0) + z(1) = x(0) + x(2)

Z(1) = z(0) - z(1) = x(0) - x(2)

v(0) = x(1), v(1) = x(3) => V(0) = v(0) + v(1) = x(1) + x(3)

V(1) = v(0) - v(1) = x(1) - x(3)

Four point DFT

Two-point DFT

X(1) = Z(1) + (-j)V(1)

Page 10-8

Instructor: Zhang

X(3) = Z(1) + jV(1)

10-4A Decimation-in-Time FFT Algorithm

x(0), x(1), , x(N-1)

g

(

0

),

g

(

1

),

,

g

(

1)

=>

h(0), h(1),, h( N 1)

2

(( x(1), x(3),, x( N 1))

N = 2m

N

po int s

2

( g ( r ) = x (2r ))

N

odd

po int s

2

(h( r ) = x(2r + 1))

enen

Page 10-9

N 1

X (k ) = x( n)W N

Instructor: Zhang

kn

n =0

N / 2 1

g (r )WN

k (2r )

N / 2 1

h(r )W

r =0

N / 2 1

g (r )WN

r =0

2 kr

+ WN

r =0

WN

2 kr

k ( 2 r +1)

(k = 0,1,..., N 1)

N / 2 1

h(r )W

r =0

2 kr

N

= (e j 2 . / N ) 2 kr = (e j 2 /(. N / 2 ) ) kr = W N

kr

X (k ) =

N / 2 1

g (r )W

r =0

kr

N /2

+WN

N / 2 1

h(r )W

r =0

kr

N /2

= G ( k ) + W N H (k )

( G(k): N/2 point DFT output (even indexed), H(k) : N/2 point DFT

output (odd indexed))

X ( k ) = G ( k ) + WN k H ( k )

G (k ) =

N / 2 1

r =0

H (k ) =

g ( r )WN / 2

N / 2 1

r =0

kr

h ( r )WN / 2 kr =

k = 0,1,..., N 1

N / 2 1

r =0

N / 2 1

r =0

x ( 2r )WN / 2

kr

x ( 2r + 1)WN / 2 kr

How do we obtain G(k), H(k), for k > N/2-1 ?

G(k) = G(N/2+k)

k <= N/2-1

H(k) = H(N/2+k)

k <= N/2-1

Page 10-10

Future Decimation

g(0), g(1), , g(N/2-1)

h(0), h(1), , h(N/2-1)

N

g (0), g ( 2), , g (

2)

2

N

ge(0), ge(1),...ge(

1)

4

N

g (1), g (3), , g (

1)

2

N

go(0), go(1),...go(

1)

4

Instructor: Zhang

G(k)

H(k)

G (k ) =

N / 2 1

g (r )W

r =0

N / 4 1

ge(m)W

km

( N / 4)

m =0

+W( N / 2 )

kr

( N / 2)

N / 4 1

go(m)W

m =0

km

( N / 4)

= GE ( k ) +W( N / 2 ) Go( k )

even indexed g

(N/4 point)

odd indexed g

(N/4 point)

WN / 2 k = WN 2 k ?

Page 10-11

Instructor: Zhang

WN / 2 k = ( e j 2 /( N / 2 ) ) k

= ( e j 2 2 / N ) k = ( e j 2 / N ) 2 k

= WN 2 k

=> G ( k ) = GE ( k ) + WN 2 k Go( k )

Similarly,

H ( k ) = HE ( k ) + WN 2 k Ho(k )

even indexed

h (N/4 point)

odd indexed

h (N/4 point)

For 8 point

g ( 0)

x ( 0)

ge( 0)

g (1)

x ( 2)

go (0)

g ( 2)

x ( 4)

ge(1)

g ( 3)

x ( 6)

go(1)

h ( 0)

x (1)

he( 0)

h (1)

x ( 3)

ho(0)

h ( 2)

x (5)

he(1)

h ( 3)

x ( 7)

ho(1)

Page 10-12

Instructor: Zhang

x(0), x(1), , x(N-1)

N 1

X ( k ) = x ( n)W N

N = 2m

nk

n =0

N / 2 1

x(n)W N

nk

n =0

N 1

x(n)W

n =N / 2

nk

N

Page 10-13

Instructor: Zhang

X (k ) =

N / 2 1

n =0

N / 2 1

n =0

x ( n )WN nk +

x ( n )WN nk +

N / 2 1

m =0

N / 2 1

m =0

x ( N / 2 + m )WN ( N / 2 + m ) k

N

x ( N / 2 + m )WN mkWN 2 k

WN 2 = 1 WN 2 k = ( 1) k

X (k ) =

N / 2 1

n =0

N / 2 1

n =0

x ( n )WN nk +

N / 2 1

m =0

( 1) k x ( N / 2 + m )WN mk

[ x ( n ) + ( 1) k x ( N / 2 + n )]WN nk

k : even (k = 2r ) X (k ) = X (2r ) =

N / 2 1

[ x(n) + x( N / 2 + n)]W

n =0

WN

N/2 point DFT

2 rn

= (e

j 2 / N

X ( k ) = X ( 2r ) =

) 2 rn = (e j 2 /( N / 2 ) ) rn = W N / 2

N / 2 1

x(n) + x( N / 2 + n)]W

[

n =0

N / 2 1

Y (r) =

n =0

k : odd k = 2r + 1

X (k ) = X ( 2r + 1)

=

[ x(n) x( N / 2 + n)]W

Z (r ) =

n ( 2 r +1)

x( n) x( N / 2 + n)]W W

[

z (n)W

2 rn

N

N / 2 1

z (n)W

z (n)W

n =0

2 rn

N

z (n)

N / 2 1

n =0

N / 2 1

Z (r )

N / 2 1

n =0

rn

N /2

y (n)

N / 2 1

n =0

rn

y ( n )WN / 2 rn

n =0

2 rn

N

rn

N /2

rn

N /2

N

po int

2

DFT

of

z (0), ,

z(

N

1)

2

Page 10-14

Instructor: Zhang

two point DFTs

Consider N/2 point DFT

y(0), y(1), , y(N/2-1)

Y (k ) =

N / 2 1

n =0

N / 4 1

n =0

y ( n )WN / 2 rn

[ y ( n ) + ( 1) k y ( N / 4 + n )]WN / 2 nk

k : even k = 2 r

Y (k ) = Y (2r ) =

N / 4 1

n =0

Y 1( r ) =

N / 4 1

n =0

[

y (n )+ y

( N / 4

n

)]WN / 2 nk

+

y1( n )

y1( n )WN / 4 nk N / 4

po int

DFt

Page 10-15

Instructor: Zhang

k : odd k = 2 r + 1

Y ( k ) = Y ( 2 r + 1) =

N / 4 1

n =0

Y 2( r ) =

N / 4 1

n =0

[ y ( n ) x ( N / 4 + n )]WN / 2 n WN / 2 2 rn

y 2( n )WN / 4 rn N / 4

y 2( n )

po int

DFT

10-4 C Computation

N point DFT : 4N(N-1) real multiplications

4N(N-1) real additions

N point FFT : 2Nlog2N real multiplications

(N = 2m)

3Nlog2N real additions

Computation ration

Page 10-16

FFT ' s

DFT ' s

Instructor: Zhang

computations

5 log2 N

=

computations 8( N 1)

N =212 =4096

5 12

= 0.18%

8 4095

Assumptions

(1)

x(n )

X (k )

and

y(n)

Y (k )

( n = 0,..., N 1)

( k = 0,..., N 1)

(3) Subscript e:

Subscript o:

N1

if N even

2

N if N odd

2

Page 10-17

Instructor: Zhang

N1

if N even

2

N if N odd

2

N = 10, xe(n)

x(4) = x(5)

x(3) = x(6)

N 1

= 4.5 x(2) = x(7)

2

x(1) = x(8)

x(0) = x(9)

N = 9, xe(n)

x(4) = x(5)

x(3) = x(6)

N

= 4.5 x(2) = x(7)

2

x(1) = x(8)

x(0) = x(9)

(4) Any real sequence can be expressed in terms of its even and odd parts

according to

x ( n ) = xe ( n ) + xo ( n )

1

1

= [ x ( n ) + x ( N n )] + [ x ( n ) x ( N n )]

2

2

even

odd

Question 1: x(n) = 1/2[ ] +1/2 [ ] ?

Question 2: x(n) + x(N-n) even ?

x(n) - x(N-n) odd ?

Yes!

Consider n = 2

x(2) + x(9-2) = x(2) + x(7)

Page 10-18

is

Instructor: Zhang

4.5 - (7-4.5) = 9-7 = 2

x(2) + x(7) = x(7) + x(2) ?

Yes! => x(n) + x(N-n) even

Is x(2) - x(7) = - [x(7) + x(2)] ?

Yes! => x(n) - x(N-n) odd

(5) subscript r : xr(n)

a real sequence

subscript i : xi(n)

Imaginary part of a complex sequence

x

(

n

)

X

(

k

)

(6)

left

right side:

side:

DFT

sequence

(7) sequences are assumed periodically repeated if necessary

Properties

1. Linearity :

2. Time Shift:

Ax ( n ) + By ( n ) AX ( k ) + BX ( k )

x ( n m) X ( k )e j 2km / N = X ( k )WN k m

3. Frequency Shift:

4. Duality :

why?

x ( n )e j 2km / N X ( k m )

N 1 x ( n) X ( k )

X (k ) =

DFT ( X ( n )) =

N 1

x (m)e j 2mk / N

m =0

N 1

X (n )e j 2nk / N

n =0

DFT of x(m)

Page 10-19

Instructor: Zhang

x ( n ) = x ( N n )

=

e

1

N

N 1

X (k )e j 2k ( N n ) / N

k =0

j 2k ( N n ) / N

x ( n ) =

1

N

= e j 2kN / N e j 2kn / N

N 1

X (k )e j 2kn / N

k =0

DFT ( N 1 X ( n )) =

1

N

N 1

X (n )e j 2nk / N

= x ( k )

n =0

5. Circular convolution

N 1

m =0

6. Multiplication

x ( n) y ( n) N

N 1

new sequence

z ( n) = x( n) y ( n)

circular convolution

X (m)Y (k m) = N 1 X (k )Y (k )

m =0

7. Parsevals Theorem

N 1

N 1

n =0

k =0

| x(n) |2 = N 1 | X (k ) | 2

8. Transforms of even real functions:

x er ( n) X er ( k )

9. Transform of odd real functions:

x or ( n) jX oi (k )

10. z(n) = x(n) + jy(n)

z(n) Z(k) = X(k) + jY(k)

Example 10-7

z (n) = x( n) + jy (n) = e jn / 2

= cos( n / 2) + j sin( n / 2)

n = 0,1,2,3

Page 10-20

Instructor: Zhang

X(1) = [x(0) - x(2)] + (-j)[x(1) - x(3)]

X(2) = [x(0) + x(2)] - [x(1) + x(3)]

X(3) = [x(0) - x(2)] + j[x(1) - x(3)]

For x(n) = cos(n / 2) =>

x(0) = 1 x (1) = 0 x (2) = 1 x (3) = 0

X (0) = 1

X (1) = 2

X (2) = 0

X (3) = 2

Y (0) = 1 Y (1) = j 2

Y ( 2) = 0

Y (3) = j 2

Z ( 0) = 0

Z (1) = 2 j 2

Z ( 2) = 0

Z (3) = 2 + j 2

Example 10-8

DFT of x(n) = (n) :

N 1

X (k ) = ( n)W N

nk

= 1 k = 0,1,..., N 1

n =0

Time-shift property

N 1

DFT [ x(n n0 )] = (n n0 )W N

nk

n=0

= WN 0 = e j 2kn0 / N

Example 10-9: Circular Convolution

n k

x1 (n) = 1 x2 (n) = 1 0 n N 1

N 1

m =0

Page 10-21

X 1 (k ) = X 2 (k ) =

=

N1

WN

nk

n= 0

Instructor: Zhang

N1

N1

x1(n)WN = x2 (n)WN nk

nk

n= 0

n= 0

k= 0

N

=

0

k 0

N2

X 3 (k ) = X 1 (k ) X 2 (k ) =

0

x3c ( n) =

=

1

N

1

N

k= 0

k 0

N 1

x3 (k )e j 2nk / N

k =0

N 1

N 2 (k )e j 2nk / N

k =0

N 1

= N e j 2nk / N = Ne j 2nk / N = N

k =0

x3c ( n) = N

1. Filtering

x(0), , x(N-1) FFT (DFT) =>

X(0), , X(1), , X(N-1)

X(k): Line spectrum at k =

2kt 2k

=

T

N

(1 =

2

T

t =

T

)

N

Inverse DFT:

N 1

x(n) = X (k )e j 2nk / N

k =0

N0

x(n) = X (k )e j 2nk / N

k =0

Example 10-10

2N 0

have been filtered!

N

Page 10-22

x( n) = cos

n

4

1 =

Instructor: Zhang

n

2

+ cos

2 2

( )

8 N

2 =(

0n7

2

4

)2= =

N

8 2

X (0),

X (1),

X ( 2),

X (7 )

non zero

non zero

2. Spectrum Analyzers

Analog oscilloscopes => time-domain display

Spectrum Analyzers: Data Storage, FFT

3. Energy Spectral Density

x(0), , x(N-1): its energy definition

E=

N 1

| x(n) |2

n =0

Parsevals Theorem

E=

N 1

| x ( k ) |2

N

k =0

Page 10-23

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