Electroencephalogram (EEG): Measuring Brain Waves

Function of EEG
 The EEG uses highly conductive silver electrodes coated with silver-chloride and gold cup electrodes to obtain accurate measures… use impedance device to measure effectiveness, resistance caused by dura mater, cerebrospinal fluid, and skull bone  Monopolar Technique : the use of one active recording electrode placed on area of interest, a reference electrode in an inactive area, and a ground  Bipolar Technique : the use of two active electrodes on areas of interest  Measures brain waves (graphs voltage over time) through electrodes by using the summation of many action potentials sent by neurons in brain. Measured amplitudes are lessened with electrodes on surface of skin compared to electrocorticogram

Sodium-Potassium Pump
 The mechanism within neurons that creates action potentials through the exchange between sodium and potassium ions in and out of the cell  Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) provides energy for proteins to pump 300 sodium ions per second out of the cell while simultaneously pumping 200 potassium ions per second into the cell (concentration gradient)  Thus making the outside of the cell more positively charged and the neuron negatively charged  This rapid ionic movement causes the release of action potentials

History
 Richard Caton (1875) –localization of sensory functions with monkeys and rabbits  Hans Berger (1924) – first EEG recording done on humans - described alpha wave rhythm and its suppression compared to beta waves  - acknowledged “alpha blockade” when subject opens eyes

 William Grey Walter – influenced by Pavlov and Berger, further developed EEG to discover delta waves during sleep (1937) and theta waves (1953)

Alpha Wave
 Characteristics: - frequency: 8-13 Hz -amplitude: 20-60 µV  Easily produced when quietly sitting in relaxed position with eyes closed (few people have trouble producing alpha waves)  Alpha blockade occurs with mental activity -exceptions found by Shaw(1996) in the case of mental arithmetic, archery, and golf putting

Beta Waves  Characteristics: -frequency: 14-30 Hz -amplitude: 2-20 µV  The most common form of brain waves. Are present during mental thought and activity .

and drowsiness  Maulsby (1971) found theta waves with amplitudes of 100µV in babies feeding . pleasure.Theta Waves  Characteristics: -frequency: 4-7Hz -amplitude: 20-100µV  Believed to be more common in children than adults  Walter Study (1952) found these waves to be related to displeasure.

5 Hz -amplitude: 20-200µV  Found during periods of deep sleep in most people  Characterized by very irregular and slow wave patterns  Also useful in detecting tumors and abnormal brain behaviors .Delta Waves  Characteristics: -frequency: .5-3.

Gamma Waves  Characteristics: -frequency: 36-44Hz -amplitude: 3-5µV  Occur with sudden sensory stimuli .

(1948)  Lambda Waves: -amplitude: 20-50µV -last 250 msec. related to response of shifting visual image -triangular in shape  Mu Waves: -frequency: 8-13Hz -sharp peeks with rounded negative portions (7% of population) .Less Common Waves  Kappa Waves: -frequency: 10Hz -occurred in 30% of subjects while thinking in Kennedy et al.

Alternative Neuroimaging Techniques  Positron Emission Technique (PET): . blood flow. derived from magnetic imaging -allows for measurement of blood oxygen concentration. and blood volume in the brain -advantage: compare cross-sections of brain regions simultaneously -disadvantage: findings may be caused by inhibitory neurons  Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (ғMRI): -picture image of anatomical structures.picture image of brain giving information about glucose and oxygen structures in the brain. and blood volume -advantage: see ongoing changes as well as strong spatial resolution. and quick/effective data collection . blood flow.

some currents can only be found magnetically.Alternative Methods (cont)  Biomagnetism: -Measures magnetic activity given off by the brain -Super conductive quantum interfering device (SQUID) -disadvantage: very difficult to pick up these small magnetic measures due to environmental magnetic forces  Magnetoencephalogram (MEG): -similar to EEG in that it combines the activities of millions of neurons -advantages: no reference electrode. scans field patterns of brain allowing for simultaneous area activity -disadvantage: data not as clear and device is very susceptible to noise .

The EEG and its Many Applications .

Research and Application Psychological Research  Neurological Research  Medical Research  Educational Research and Application  Therapeutic Application  Occupational Application  .

however. researchers agree that further investigation and ongoing research is necessary. though. As a result of the critiques and of technological advances. In order to the best and most accurate information from EEGs. reliable. and valid. . procedures. measurements. is familiar to any aspect of research in the scientific world. Criticism. and results have become more precise.How Effective is the EEG?     A great deal of controversy has surrounded the use of EEG in tests for such topics as Intelligence and mental performance.

 The EEG has become a widely used and successful research tool  It is a practical candidate that offers valid measurement  It contributes objective information that can be easily viewed and measured  It is a versatile system that allows for a diverse application of the information it provides .

 Hemispheric Asymmetries & Hemispheric Lateralization/ Specialization  Desynchronization .

Psychophysiology: Human Behavior and Physiological Response. Saron.. 1979) (Andreassi. Bennett and Goleman. .“Right and Left Brain” Characteristics  Right Brain:  Spatial processing  Musical tasks  Left Brain:  Verbal processing  Mathematical skills ** Emotions have also been correlated with differential hemispheric processing (Davidson. John L. Schwartz. 2000).

Psychophysiology: Human Behavior and Physiological Response. .. Their hypothesis was confirmed as a result of EEG records that demonstrated that higher levels of complexity produced longer alpha desynchronization periods. (Andreassi. 2000).Stimulus Complexity  An investigation was conducted by Berlyne and McDonnel (1965) in order to study the effects of the complexity of the stimulus/stimuli on the EEG alpha wave. John L.

. (Andreassi. – The results showed that alpha power was greater in the right hemisphere during “rejection.. Greenberg. Deibler. 2000). and O’Hanlon (1974) found that EEG readings demonstrated that suppression of theta activity and rhythm helped to better maintain vigilance while performing tasks. John L. Psychophysiology: Human Behavior and Physiological Response.Tasks of Vigilance and Attention  In order to study attention ability Ray and Cole (1985) investigated participants’ “intake” and “rejection” of stimuli.”  Beatty.

and to study the distinct characteristics of each of them. Research conducted with the use of EEG.Hypnosis. Meditation and Perception Traditionally. has enabled researchers to draw more distinct lines between each of the topics. Imagery. however. the lines between the four greatly related mind states were not very clear. .

(Andreassi. – The results demonstrated a shift “from greater left hemisphere activity. . to right” in “highly hypnotizable” participants.  A related study conducted by DePascalis and Perrone (1996) revealed that participant pain ratings decreased when an analgesic state was suggested during hypnosis – The EEG records showed a decrease in EEG amplitude in the right hemisphere during the above mentioned condition.. and no such shift in “low hypnotizable” participants. Morgan and Lack (1982) conducted a dream task study during hypnosis using EEG. Psychophysiology: Human Behavior and Physiological Response. rather a “modification of the waking state”  MacLeod. 2000).Hypnosis  EEG during hypnosis has contributed to the knowledge that it is not a stage of deep sleep. John L.

Morris.Imagery  Gale. 2000).  Williamson and Kaufman (1989) later integrated the Magnetoencephalograpy (MEG) “to study suppression of alpha activity in the visual cortex during mental imagery. . while the occipital area was recorded using EEG. John L.” (Andreassi.. Lucas and Richardson conducted a study in 1972 in which imagery was measured on a “vividness” scale. Psychophysiology: Human Behavior and Physiological Response. – The results of the EEG showed a definite decrease in Alpha activity during all but one of the imagery tasks.

and Cunis (1977) were collected and based on EEG information. A total of six of the participants from the group fell asleep. – The EEG readings from the meditating group demonstrated stable alpha and theta activity. revealed K-complexes and sleep spindles. .Meditation  Results from a study conducted by Elson. 2000). and none fell asleep. on the other hand. Psychophysiology: Human Behavior and Physiological Response. John L. Hauri. – The EEG records from the non-meditating group. (Andreassi..

Sensation. . Perception and EEG  Studies have indicated that our perception and sensations may have substantial effects on mood and emotional states.

. Psychophysiology: Human Behavior and Physiological Response. (Andreassi.  EEG records showed that sound sensitivity was lower during periods of alpha activity than during non-alpha activity. such as chocolate. and was able to report a variety of effects. were linked to extremely low theta levels and received the highest participant ratings for relaxing effects and pleasantness…revealing the capability of odors to change EEG activity. 2000).. – The results of his own carefully controlled experiments supported a correlation between odor and EEG activity. John L. **Real food odors. conducting two of his own studies. – He believed that previous investigations produced different results due to a difference in EEG recording. In 1998 Martin evaluated previous information about the effect of odor on EEG and mood.

conductors’. to offering information and insight that has helped to improve pilots’. It has demonstrated its versatility and usefulness in the many diverse areas that it has been utilized. From therapeutic endeavors.The Awesome EEG  It is plain to see that EEG has offered a number of great advances in research. . and drivers’ vigilance performance. as well as strengthening the base of general knowledge in a way that has helped to improve our everyday lives . and enhancing educational efforts.

Conditioning of The EEG & Sleep and The EEG .

Conditioning of the EEG .

-The UR (unconditioned response) is a natural alpha blocking process.  In EEG experiments that involve conditioning: -alpha blocking occurs with respect to the CS after many pairing of a CS and US.Classical Conditioning (EEG):  Pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli to warrant a conditioned response.  EEG recordings found changes in neural activity with the presence of CS (Condition stimulus). . -Classical conditioning Is usually done with the participant being asleep.

CS  US  UR }Natural alpha blocking . } The new CS creates the same CR as the previous CS. finally… US  CR CS  CR } The US has now been shaped to create the CS. . the CS alone cannot (light) (tone) (no response) sustain alpha blocking after several pairings… CS  US  UR (light) (tone) CS  US  UR blocking W/ (light) (tone) CS  US  UR (light) (tone) }Trying to sustain CS alpha multiple pairings of US. The new CS can now generate alpha blocking on its own.

 Studies w/ operant conditioning shows results of other disorders being alleviated (biofeedback).E. Migraines  Studies are being done to see if people can control which brain waves they can produce (alpha and theta) with the onset of a signal or tone.Operant Conditioning (EEG) Can it be done?  Done while participant is awake. I. and their progress.  All in all.  Most people could not produce alpha and theta waves on command w/o the signal or tone being given  Researches tried to alter mood with alpha waves as well.  Studies include work with people suffering from seizures (epileptics). operant conditioning of EEG has been deemed possible .

.”  Controls: .“Experimenters’ expectations were found to influence EEG alpha measures in the direction of the expectation.Non-contingent stimuli (operant conditioning):  Expectancy effects: .”  Biasing effects: .Controls are effective and necessary in non-contingent stimulation studies in operant conditioning studies.“Subjects who were led to believe that they enhanced alpha were actually able to control alpha better than those who believed they suppressed alpha. A. increase in alpha could be due to randomness or non-contingent stimuli.

Sleep and The EEG .

Better understanding in studies involving A. . Well-Being .Takes many nights to conduct a full study . Behavior C. Human performance B.Sleep and EEG:  Sleep studies are very hard to conduct.Patience is a must both participants and experimenters  Benefits of sleep studies: .

Sleep and EEG cont’d:  Sleep studies began in the 1800’s  1930’s EEG recording machines began to make an appearance.  Today’s sleep laboratories have many different kinds of physiological machines and recorders such as:  EEG  EOG (electroculogram)  EMG (electromyogram)  Rectal temperature  Respiration (Any measurements made by these machines are calledPolysomnograms) .

 The K-complex occurs randomly in stage 2 and stage 3  The K complex is like an awaken state of mind in that is associated with a response to a stimulus that one would experience while awake. low/high voltage waves and high amplitude delta waves or slow waves (2 Hz or less).Sleep and EEG cont’d:  Different stages of sleep and their respective brain waves:  Stage 1: Low voltage random EEG activity (2-7 Hz)  Stage 2: Irregular EEG pattern/negative-positive spikes (12. but not including REM or stages that may contain REM.to 14.  Stage 3: Alternative fast activity.Hz) • Also characterized with sleep spindle and K-complexes that could occur every few seconds.” low v voltage activity. .  Stage 4: Delta waves  Stage REM (Rapid eye Movement): “episodic rapid eye movements.  Stage NREM: All stage combined.

EEG and Dreaming:  REM was discovered in 1953 by Aserinsky and Kleitman.  NREM dreams are described as being less active and less vivid  Therefore. there are both qualitative and quantitative differences when discussing REM and NREM sleep.  REM was observed as fast eye movements that moved in many directions while a person was asleep.  Studies showed that people remember dreams 75% (60-90%) more when waken during REM sleep.  REM varied in amplitude and lasted 1 second or less. . If not woken during REM sleep dreams are only remembered 7% of the time.

Dream Studies:  The first dream studies were interested in:  Changing dream content  Drugs and their effects on dreaming  Pre-sleep stimulation and dreaming  Dream content with respect to patients that had different psychiatric disorders .

” and emotional dreams.  Questions the relationship between REM alpha waves and Lucidity .  Ongoing lucid studies are being conducted to see if lucid content come from prelucid dreaming.  Meaning one could shape what they dreamed in choosing what they would dream about.  Come to the realization that one is dreaming  High amplitude EEG alpha waves.  Higher in the beginning of REM. and lower in end of REM.  Higher amplitude waves are also characterized of “bizarre.REM Dreaming:  Most early research was concerned with lucidity of REM Dreaming.

Deep sleep and Responsiveness:  Light sleep (stages 1&2)  Deep sleep (stages 3&4)  Sleep is cyclical  Meaning that one will usually go from light sleep to deep sleep back to light sleep again. .  The whole cycle take about 1 and ½ hours (90 min. due to light sleep occurring more towards the end of a sleep cycle.)  Stage 3 and 4 are hard to obtain.

EEG brain waves in the Sleep Cycle: .

.Sounds and sleep:  Studies found it was more difficult to wake up a person during latter stages of sleep. even with very loud sounds.  They found People in stage 1 sleep were more likely to turn off the aversive stimulus quicker than all other stages.  Researchers also found that meaningful stimuli awakened people quicker than non-meaningful stimuli.  Fire alarm study:  Researchers looked at how long it would take for someone in a certain stage of sleep to turn off the aversive stimulus (Alarm).

permanent): . . Cook.Work and Exercise and how it effects sleep EEG: (Kripke.Stage 1 sleep in hospital employees was generally longer than typical stage 1 sleep in normal sleepers.Duration of each stage of sleep was usually shorter. . . and more stable sleep patterns. and Lewis 1976 ) Work (hospital employees): . Work (night shift.Hospital employees experience a reversal in the sleepwakefulness cycle (biological effects).Have better body temperature regulation.

Work schedule and sleep cont’d:  Hospital workers actually fall asleep if put on a rotating schedule (10pm – 6am)  Sleep during daytime hours takes longer. .  Daytime sleepers (permanent night shift workers) have reduced REM sleep. than nighttime hours.

people that exercise do not experience longer durations of sleep in stages 3 and 4 or SWS (Brownman and Tepas. and Horvath found that exercising to the point of exhaustion increased slow-wave sleep. • However.  Therefore daytime activity can increase stage 3 and 4 sleep/SWS as long as it is intense in duration. 1976).  Afternoon exercises produce increased slow-wave sleep/stages 3 and 4.  Exercise conditions do not help one to fall asleep easier. 1976). but decreased REM.Exercise and Sleep EEG: Horne and porter (1975)  There are differences between afternoon and morning exercise. . (85 minutes bike ride)  Same amount of exercise in morning had no effects.  Stages 3 and 4 are known and “restore and repair” stages. Bevier. • Bunnel.  Relaxation techniques help people to fall asleep easier (Brownman and Tepas.

1975)  Total sleep deprivation  missing one or more sleep periods  Partial sleep Deprivation  missing a section of the sleep cycle  Differential Sleep Deprivation  Wakening a person during different random points in a sleep cycle based on EEG signs of particular stage .Sleep Deprivation:  Three different kinds: (Naitoh.

Total Sleep Deprivation: (Woodward and Nelson. 1974)  Studied army men who experienced 2 sleep cycles lost  Effects:  Memory impairment (short term memory)  Increased irritableness  Attention deficits (micro lapses)  Lack of motivation  EEG showed an increase in slow wave sleep in recovery .

 REM decreased by 25%  Vigilance decreased as experiment progressed. 1974)  Done over a 60 day periods consisting of 5 ½ hours of sleep each night.Partial Sleep Deprivation: (Webb & Agnew.  Experienced an increase in Stage 2 and 4 sleep.  Conclusion for partial sleep deprivation:  6 hours is needed to be vigilant  Major behavioral differences will occur (see above) .

 Concluded that Stage 4 has more importance than REM sleep due to sleep loss. 1975) (Moses.  REM/Stage 4 study -2 nights vs. Johnson. Total REM sleep -3 nights:  Needed more arousals than second experiment to keep them from entering stage 4 sleep. .  One study looked at deprivation of REM/Stage 4 sleep deprivation and total REM sleep deprivation.Differential Sleep Deprivation: Naitoh and Lubin.

but none exists.  People that have insomnia (elderly men and women)/misperception etc.  An ideal machine would measure finger muscle depression . experimental difficulties:  Alpha waves vary person to person. makes it hard to locate in stage 1 sleep  K-complexes and sleep spindles are giveaways of a person being “asleep”  People don’t respond to certain tones during certain stages of sleep.  Insomnia causes SWS abnormalities  Researchers would like a behavioral measure as an additional indicator of a person being asleep.Hearing tests should be down to rule out this confounding variable. difficulties with EEG wave location.  People might not hear the tone (hearing impaired).Sleep onset.

 More studies must be done to confirm this. experimental difficulties cont’d:  EEG and thermoregulartory system patterns. difficulties with EEG wave location. signifies SWS is sustained.Sleep onset.  Shows that drop in rectal temperature. .

Insomnia  Biological effects on sleep .  Discovery of REM made it possible for further investigations into sleep studies and various parts of sleep.  Selective deprivation vs.  The strength of a stimulus has an impact on the outcome of a study.Summary of EEG:  Conditioning exercises prove that Alpha wave control may be possible.  Learning may occur during stage 1 & 2 of sleep when material is meaningful  Dreams vary in content and emotions  Daytime sleep differs from nighttime sleep on a number of levels  Confounding variables are important in eliminating before conduction an EEG study.

html . J. 2006. Psychophysiology: Human Behavior & Physiological Response (4th ed. publishers.com/Remedies/Sleep/sleep_stages-14NREM.compuserve. (1998-1999). October 11). from http://holisticonline. from http://ourworld. The Electro-Physiology Of Sleep.References:  Andreassi. Retrieved September 10th. Retrieved September 9th. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.com. 2006. World Wide Web.) Mahwah. The different stages of sleep [Chart]. L. (2000).htm  (1996.com/homepages/dreamthemes/ a ge31.  Sleep Holsitconline.

References cont’d:  Cell Biology. September 9).nurseminerva. September 10). (2006.org/wiki/Hans_berger . Retrieved September 9th. from http://en. Electroencephalography [Chart]. World Wide Web. (2005. Retrieved September 9.uk/cell. 2006. from http://www. Hans Berger. 2006.wikipedia. Retrieved September 8th. World Wide Web. from http://en.org/wiki/Electroencephalogram  Wikipedia.wikipedia. 2006. January 11). (2006.html  Wikipedia. Cell Biology.co.

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