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Yeast Lab Report: Are Yeasts Alive?

Team member names: Jamie Mancuso, Heather Gorisek, Anna Kate Souther

ABSTRACT:
We started out making a variety of testing tubes. Two of the tubes had just water and yeast, while the other two tubes had water, yeast, and sugar. When we put the yeast (and in the other two, sugar), we then added hot water to each of the tubes, then put a balloon over the tops of the tubes to measure the reaction. Then, we timed how long it would take for the balloons to blow up, if they did react to the sugar. We discovered that the two test tubes, with any kind of sugar or sugar product (brown sugar, artificial sugar, or honey/molasses), the yeast does react and then over time creates a gas that blows up the balloon.

Problem: -Does yeast react to sugar and make a gas?

Research: The classification of yeast is as follows: Eukaryota Fungi Ascomycota Saccharomycetes Saccharomycetales Saccharomycetaceae Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Yeast has an enclosed nucleus with a double DNA strand and multiple organelles. Yeast is also non- vascular and heterophic, with cell walls similar to that of a plant but made of chitin instead of cellulose. Yeasts function in baking is the breaking down of fermentable sugars in dough causing the production of carbon dioxide. The evolution of carbon dioxide causes the dough to expand as it is trapped in the protein matrix in the dough. Yeast can reproduce both sexually and asexually, sexual spores are called Ascus and asexual spores are called Conidia. Asexual spores are located externally. Yeast has both a metabolism and fermentative pathway in respiration (pumping molecules in and out of the cell). Yeast is most commonly used in baking bread. Our bodies break

down bread as sugar and it is made into immediate energy. In our lab, we used yeast and different sugars to try to cause a reaction between the two. Yeast reacted with the sugars and produced carbon dioxide, which caused the balloons to inflate.

Hypothesis: If sugar, water, and yeast are put in a test tube(test tube #1), and
another test tube is filled with just yeast and water(test tube #2), then in the test tube #1, the yeast will react with the sugar, and carbon dioxide will expand the balloon, while the test tube #2 will do nothing.

Procedure: 1. Add yeast to all four test tubes 2. Add sugar to only two of the test tubes 3. Add hot water to all four test tubes 4. Put balloons over all four test tubes 5. Time how long it takes to blow up the balloons, and which tubes actually do have a reaction(the balloon expanding). 6. Record results. 7. Share and re-test

Data Table:

0 4 8 12 16 20 minutes minutes minutes minutes minutes minutes Test Tube #1 (sugar, yeast, & water) Test Tube #2 (sugar, yeast, & water Test Tube #3 (yeast & water) Test Tube #4 (yeast & water)
Nothing was happening. The balloon was a little blown up. The balloon was a little blown up. The balloon was blown up. The balloon was blown up. The balloon was blown up.

Nothing was happening.

The balloon was a little blown up.

The balloon was growing.

The balloon was still blowing up.

The balloon is blown up.

The balloon was blown up.

Nothing was happening.

Nothing was happening.

Still nothing was happening to the balloon. Still nothing was happening to the balloon.

Nothing was happening.

Still nothing was happening.

Nothing ever happened to this test tube. Nothing ever happened to this test tube.

Nothing was happening.

Nothing was happening.

Nothing was happening.

Still nothing was happening.

Results: When the sugar reacted with the yeast in the water it began to rise. This reaction is called Fermentation.The yeasts ate the sugars to get energy to aide in this. This caused the yeast to rise and push up the carbon dioxide up into the balloon because there was no where else for it to go. In test tubes 1 and 2 that is what happened, the longer it sat in the test tube the more the yeast and sugar mix rose. The more the mix

rose the bigger the balloon got, and the more Carbon Dioxide was going into the balloon. In test tubes 3 and 4 the yeast couldnt react with anything because of the lack of some sort of sugar. This just meant the yeast didnt rise, so the carbon dioxide was able to stay where it was. Because the yeast didnt rise the balloon didnt rise. The balloon didnt rise because the carbon dioxide wasnt getting pushed up into it, because the yeast wasnt rising for that to happen.

Conclusion: (answers down below) -Summarization: When we added the water and sugar to the yeast, there was a gas reaction. How? When the sugar was added with the yeast and hot water, the sugar added in an extra material that caused the yeast to react. Technically, it caused the yeast to rise, as it does when baking bread. -Hypothesis: If hot water is added to test tubes that had both yeast AND sugar, there will be a reaction that blows up the balloon. When we made this hypothesis, we thought of rising bread, how it is heated up in the oven, and then rises into a loaf of bread. The bread is made with sugar, yeast and flour. We thought since this happened, there should be a reaction to the balloons. We believed that the yeast would create a gas of some sort and fill the balloon. Our hypothesis was correct in that the

balloon filled when the vial was filled with warm water, yeast, and sugar. -Possible Errors: Some things that we could have seen over or missed was: Expired products, different water temperatures and different measurements of products. Next we should share the data we retrieved from our experiment and re-test this hypothesis to possibly make it a theory.