¡nderstandìng Brecht

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Introduction ò¸ S:onle¸ .i:ckell vu
¯hat is tpic Theatre` [Iirst versionj :
The Country ¤here it is Ior Lidden to
Conversations ¤ith 5recht :o;
¯hat is tpic Theatre` [Second version | :;
S:udies íor a Theory oí tpic Theatre :¸
Irom the 5recht Commenury :;
^ IamiIy Drama in the tpic Theatre ¸¸
Mention the Proletariat ¸;
Commentaries on Poems Ly 5recht
+
¸
5recht's 7kree¸enn¸ 7ovel ;;
The ^uthor 3 Producer 8;
5iLliographical Iotes :::
Index ::¸
Ícr`!  m t.  ¾c _r8tcÂtÌ U bU b· ÛtcCht
aod Îÿtc mcthuco 1td 1Or thHr kÎod QctmÎääÎOo tO tcgrOduCc thc
Q0cmä Dÿ ÛcttOlt ÛtcCht uw  Îo thÎ8 DOOk.
Jrwumtor´r notr: Î haVc cmmæ thc Ýæc cdÌtÌOo¿ 1 zur 
ÕrrcÁt,  uaoslatcd Ðÿ Vaul Í8Væu [b1aogOí8 ðþn,VatÌ8¿ 1y0))¿
aod UUtäÌatÌOo Ot `¾hat ÎQÌ0 ¯m´¿ Ðÿ Ìarrÿ ÎOho¿ Ìo
Í nm  [¿Ooath8o Lg æd ÎaHOurt ÛmCc _OVæOV0h¿
ÍOodOo aod ÎcW ³Otk¡ 1y)O)¡ 8od Ot `ÅDc ÀuthOt VtOdu0ct´¿ D_
]Oho Ìc¡ Ìo 1JcjÌ Jrw¡  oO. óZ [LOodOo¡ Iy)O)·
ÅoÌcää OthctWÎäc ÌodÌætcd all tOOmOtcä takcn ÛOm thc
LcDnao cdÎtÎOo.
ÚcnjßmÎn hßd Whßt ÎukáC cnormouslÿ
1ðOkcd, ß unÎquc cyc QtOÎsclÿ Íor sÎ_nÎhCðnt
dct8ìÌ¡ Íor thc m8r@nßÌ ... Íor thc ÍmQÎn_În_
ßnd unßoustomcd¡ un9tìO gðttÍOuÌßtìty
WhÎOh docä not ´ht În´ ßnd thcrcÍotc
dæcrcs ß guÎtc sQccßl ßnd ÎnCÎsÎVc ßttcntÎon.
[rx×sx u¡oc×]
ÎÑÏÑÛÜ0ÊÏÎÛÑ
1Îkc %ßyßkoVskÿ ßnd thc ÛussÎßn ÍormßlÎsts¿
ÚrcOÞI ðnd ÚcnjðmÎn Íotm onc oÍ thc Ol8äsÍO lÎtcrßry QßrtncrshÎgs oÍ
thc tcVoÌutÎonary OoOßÌÍäI movcmcnt. ²Þcír wlßuonshÎQ¡
hoWcvct¿
Îs onlÿ noW Omín_ to lÎgÞt, Íor Ît not untìÌ Ihßt UIc mßjorìtÿ
oÍ ÛHjßmìn´s esðÿs on ÚrcOht Wcrc gublìshcd.
¾ææ ÛcnjamÎn ßn Ô ttÎO Î oÍ lcItcts, boH oÍ ß Wcll-
to-do L ]cWÍsh ÍßmìÌÿ În tðQ2. 1n U Ooursc oÍ ÞÎs lÎÍctÎmc,
hc undcrcnt ß Comglæ CÞðn_c, UanäQosÎn_ thc sUuOturcs
ßnd
hßbÎN oÍ hÍs cðtlÍcr mystÎæl tÞou_ht to cntÍOh thc O8tc_oHæ oÍ
%ßmísm.
Ûcn[ðmÎn´s ÍdÎosÿnOtðtìO ßnd dÎhOuÌt æät oÍ mÎnd bÌoOKtd hÎs
Wðy to an ßOßdcmO Ü r. oCÞoÌßsuO ßuthorÎtÎcs rcjcOtcd hÎs doOtoraÍ
Ihæìs [on thc Otí_Îns oÍ Lcrmßn Uð_cdy] Íor ÎnOomgrchcnsÎbÎlÎtÿ.
ÛuI noI onÌÿ thßI: ÚHjßmìn¿ WÎth Oh8t8CtcrÎstÍO ÌßCk oÍ dÎQÌomßOy¡
hßd æm Îssuc Wth ]oh8nnæ NolkcÌt, onc oÍ U:c omOÎßÌ ßæIhctÎ-
OÎßns oÍ Lctmßn ßædcmÎß. Úßttcd Ûom scOurc _cmQÌoÿmcnt¸ hc
D ßn ÎtÎnctanI M oÍ Ìcttcrs¡ ¢QO1cnOÎn_ tÞc ÎntcÌlcOtußl
grolcI8rÍßnÎzßIÎOn hc dæOtÎbcs În ´²hc fuUIor Û ÎtoduOcr´. Îa hc
viii
gained a univetsity post it is dimcuIt to say ho¤ his thought might
have deveIoped. ¯i:h hindsight, many oí his Marxist ideas are
traceaLIe in diEerent íorms to the days Leíore his proíessionaI íate
¾decided. Ho¤ever, ¤hat is certain is that his precrious economic
position sharpened his attraction to Marxism. ^t one point he con-
tempIated joining the Communist Party.
The period ¤as the Iate t¤enties and earIy thirties. ^sya lacs, a
Communist theatricaI producer, ¤hom 5enjamin had met in Capri
in :gzq,introduced him to 5recht ¤hom he visited írequentIy during
the thirties, staying ¤ith him íor Iong periods during the Iatter's
Danish exiIe. Throughout the decade, :gjO to :gjg¸ responding to
the rise and triumph oí íascism, 5enjamin ¤rote the present sketches
and studies. less íortunate than 5recht ¸Iuck ¤as not one oí his stars¡,
5enjamin took his Iiíe in hight írom the Cestapo, ¤hiIe attempting
to cross the Iranco-Spanish Lorder in :gqO.
5enjamin's ¤riting is essayistic, aphoristic, íragmentary. tven his
doctoraI thesis is more a phiIosophicaI meditation than a systematic
exposition and demonstration. ^t 6rst it might seem odd that 5recht
came together ¤ith 5enjamin and not ¤ith someone more poIiticaIIy
committed, Ceorg lukacs, íor instance. 5ut 5recht and lukacs
never sa¤ eye to eye. ¯hereas lukacs ¼hostiIe to the experimen-
uI art oí the t¤entieth century Lecause it Iacked a sense oí totality
and perspective, 5recht shared ¤ith 5enjamin 8 scvenging, magpie
temperament, receptive to the oíten ûagmented nature oí modem
art and Iiterature. 5enjamin ¾ an extravagant coIIector and anti-
quarian, a passionate roamer and oLserver oí cities, ¤ho couId
extract cuIturaI histories írom ¤ayside odds and ends.
The diary extract, 'Conversations ¤ith 5recht', ¤hich concIudes
this voIume, seems to sho¤ 5recht as the giver, 5enjamin the taker,
¤hich ¤as no douLt true psychoIogicaIIy. 5enjamin's oId Zionist
íriend, Cershom SchoIem, ¤rote: '5recht ¤as the harder nature and
made a deep impac: upon the more sensitive 5enjamin ¤ho entireIy
Iacked athIetic quaIities.` InteIIectuaIIy, the reIationship is certainIy
more compIex and t¤o-sided. There are, íor instance, strong indica-
tions that the ideas and impIications oí 'epic theatre' ¤ere common
to them Loth Leíore they met.
7n:room:ion ix
Jhis diary exuact (never intended íor publication) is so vaIuabIe
because it gives the immediate atmosphere oí the two men's con-
versations, their cst oí mind, manner oí speech, íondness íor
image, parabIe, aIIegory, aphorism, aII oí which we 5nd separateIy
in their writings. Yhereas ben|amin was the more meæphoricaI
thinker, írom brecht he Ieamt - what his íormer associates, írom
Gershom SchoIem to J. Y. ^domo, aIways depIored, considered
disastrous- 'crude thinking' (¸la¸es Deoken ), that need íor thought
to simpIi[ itseIí, crystaIIize out into essentiaIs beíore it couId be
made practice.
ben|amin beIonged to a generation oí thinkers who, in the years
|ust preceding the Iirst YorId Yar, rebeIIed against the Iinguistic
barrenness oí German academic discourse. 1n diherent ways these
thinkers sought to vaIidate and discover meaning by revitaIizing
the semantic and metaphorical attributes oí Ianguage itseIí. Marxism
bene5ted írom this generation in the writings oí ben|amin, bIoch,
and ^domo. ^t the same time, IittIe wiII be gained írom these Marx-
isu, ií they are approached with a 'commonsense', materiaIistic
gauge. Here, as íor poetry, one must íoIIow Goethe`s dictum:
Per den Licbter wvercteben
Æucc mLicbterc 1=e ¿Jeo.
[f the poet you'd undersænd,
You must go Into me poet's Iand.]
Yith ben|amin it was the poet, brecht, who was abIe to toughen
the materiaIist sinews oí the critic.
7ke .ooe¬ Soge
Jwo things, essentiaIIy, Iinked brecht and ben|amin: a simiIar
historicaI imagination and a simiIar humanism. like Gramsci they
were distinguished írom the oñciaI Communist movement oí the
thirties by a deep historicI pessimism into which, according to
!omain !oIIand's íormuIa, '¡essimism oí the 1nteIIect, Cptimism
oí the YiII', they pIanted seedIings oí hope, and upon which they
grounded a diaIecticaI unders:anding oí past and íuture. ^s with
X
LtamsCÍ thCÍt QCssÍmÍsm Was shaQCd Oy thC VÍCtOrÌCs O! !asCÌsm.
LCtmany sCCmCd OCnt On Íts thOUsand-yCat CmQÍtC. Ìn addÍtÍOn, thC
dC_CnCtatÍOn O! OOCÍaÌÍsm Ín thC USSB QUCnChCd a hOQCh:Ì attÍtUdC
tO thC QtCsCnt.
¯hC QCssÍmÍsm ¼ sttatC_ÍC¸ dCsÍ_nCd tO Cn_CndCt hOQC¸ nOt !Ot
!OtCsCCaOÌC VÍCtOtÍCs Ot tCVCtsaÌs O! !OttUnC¸ OUt !Ot thC sUt¨ÍVaÌ O!
thC sQCCÍCs as sUCh. ¯hÍs Was nOt yCt IhC nUCÌCat a_C¸ OUt ÛtCCht
sQOKC QtOQhCtÍCÌÌy. `¯hCy´tC QÌannÍn_ !Ot thÌtty thOUsand yCats
ahcad .... ¯hCy´tC OUt tO dCsttOy CVCtythÍn_. LVCty ÌÍVÍn_ CCÌÌ COn-
ttaCts UndCt thCÍt OÌOWs .... ¯hCy CtÍQQÌC thC OaOy Ín thC mOthCt´s
WOmO. Ìn hÍs !r:Cnd, ÛCn¡amÍn dÍsCOVCtCd `a QOWCt that sQtan_ !tOm
thC dCQths O! hÍstOry nO ÌCss dCCQ than thC QOWCt O! thC !asCÍsts´.
ÛtCCht and ÛCn¡amÍn thOU_ht Ín mÍÌÌCnnÍa¸ _COÌO_ÍCaÌÌy, O! nCW
datK and ÍCC a_Cs. ¯hCy dÍsCOVCtCd OQtÍmÍsm Ín mCn´s mOst anCÍCnt
tCaChCts. `¯hC hatd thÍn_ _ÍVCs Way´ Ís IhC maXÍm WmCh ÛtCCht´s
CUstOms OmCÍaÌ CÌÍCÍts !tOm thC LhÍnCsC sa_C Ín thC QOCm `LC_Cnd
O! thC \tÍ_Ín O! thC ÛOOK ¯aO ¯C LhÍn_ On ÌaO ¯2U s ¯ay ÍntO
LXÍÌC´. ¬nd ÛCn¡amÍn COmmCnts. `¯hC QOCm COmCs tO Us at a tÍmC
Whcn sUCh WOtds tÍn_ Ín thC Cats O! mCn ÌÍKC a QtOmÍsC WhÍCh has
nOIhÍn_ tO COnCCdC tO thC QtOmÍsCs O! a NCssÌah. ÍOt thC COntCm-
QOtaty tCadCt, hOWCVCt¸ IhCy COntaÍn nOt OnÌy a QtOmÍsC OUt a ÌCs-
sOn.
` . . . ¯hat yÍCÌdÍn_ WatCt Ín mOtÍOn
LCts thC OCttCt Ín thC Cnd O! _tanÍtC and QOrQhyty.´´
¯O aÌÍ_n OnCscÌ! WÍIh aÌÌ thOsC IhÍn_s WhÍCh¸ ÌÍKC WatCt¸ atC `ÍnCOn-
sQÍc\iOUs and sOOCt and \nCXhaUstÍOÌC WOUÌd tCmÍnd OnC¸ ÛCn¡amÍn
ar_UCd¸ O! thC CaUsC O! thC ÌOsCts and thC OQQtCssCd. Ìn hÍs `OÍxth
¯hCsÍs On thC ÍhÍÌOsOQhy O! ÌÍstOry´ [Ín 7llumino:ions), hC WtOtC.
`\nÌy IhC hÍstOt:an W:ÌÌ haVC IhC _Í!r O! !annÍn_ thC sQatK O! hOQC Ín
thC Qast WhO Ís !rmÌy COnVÍnCCd Ihat even :ke oeoo W¡ÌÌ nOt OC sa!C
!tOm IhC CnCmy Í! hC WÍns. ¬nd thÍs CnCmy has nOt CCasCd tO OC
VÍCtOtÍOUs. ÌÍstOry Was !Ot hÍm an CVCt-QtCsCnt atCna¸ nCVCt [as
WÌth ÌUKaCs] mCtCÌy IhC `QtCCOndÍtÍOns O! thC QtCsCnt´. ¯hC OatIÌCs
O! thC Qast had tO OC !OU_ht and tC!OU_t; Í! nOt IhCy mÍ_ht OC ÌOst
a_aÍn.
7 ntroman X
ÛCn¡amÎn QUts tbÎs tbCsÎs ÎntO QraCOCC În bÎs anaÌysÎs OÍ ÛrCCbt´S
ÌaO Å2U QOCm. ÌCrC tbC `sQarK OÍ bOQC În tbC Qast´ Îs tbat mOmCn~
Ury `ÍrÎCndsbÎQ´ OCtWCCn sa_C 8nd OUstOms OÛCÎaÌ WbÎOb CÌÎCÎts ÌaO
Å2U´s WÎsdOm. OUCb ÍrÎCndÌÎnCss ÍOrms ÛrCCbt´s and ÛCn¡amÎn´S
¯mInÎmUm QrO_rammC OÍ bUmanÎty´; and ÛCn¡amIn COnCÌUdCs bÎs
COmmCnUry WÎtb tbC sa_C-ÌIKC În¡UnCuOn: `NbOCVCr Wants tO maKC
tbC bard tbIn_ _ÎVC Way sbOUÌd mÎss nO OQQOrtUnÎty ÍOr ÍrÎCndÌÎnCss.´
ºt tbC Cnd OÍ tbC `\OnVCrsatIOns´¸ ÛCn¡amÎn QUOtCs a ÛrCCbtÎan
maXÎm¯ `LOn´t statt ÍrOm tbC _OOd OÌd tbÎn_s OUt tbC Oad nCW OnCs·´
ÅbC samC QbrasC OCCUrs În a ÛrCCbt Cssay On ÌUK8Cs¸ WbOm bC
CrItÎCÎ2Cs ÍOr a ÌÎn_CrÎn_ attaCbmCnt tO tbC OÌd mastCrs and tbC ´_OOd
OÌd days´ OÍ OOUr_COÎs OUÌtUrC. ÌUKaCs OQQOsCs tbC QatrÎCÎan ÅbOmaS
%ann tO ÞaÍKa¸ ÎnsCCUrC VÎsÎOnary OÍ dCsQaÎr. Ìn tbC `\OnVCrsatÎOns´
ÛCn¡amÎn and ÛrCCbt tussÌC OVCr Þa!Ka. ÛrCCbt aCCUsCs ÛCn¡amÎn OÍ
QrOÌOn_n_ ÞaÍKa´s OWn sCÌÍ-mysOCatÌOns. `Ct CÌsCWbCrC ÛrCCbt
¾ tO ÎnCÌUdC ÞaÍKa amOn_ tbOsC `dOCUmCnts OÍ dCsQaÎr´ ÍrOm
WbÎCb OOCÎaÌÎst WrÎtCrs may ÌCan OCCUsC OÍ tbCÎr ÎnnOVatÎn_ ÌÎtCrary
tCCbnÎQUCs.
Nbat Îs `Oad´ aOOUt ÞaÍKa Îs tbC dCsQaÎr; Wbat Îs `nCW´ Îs nOt
mCrCÌy tbC tCCbnÎQUC¸ OUt tbC KInds OÍ QCrCCQOOn and UndCrsUndÎn_
tbat ÎnÍOtm Ît. ÛrCCbt dCsCrÎOCs Þ8!Ka´s OUtÌOOK as tbat OÍ `a man
CU_bt UndCr tbC WbCCÌs´¸ OÍ tbC QCtty OOUr_COÎs WbO Îs `OOUnd tO
_Ct Ît În tbC nCCK´. ÛUt tbÎs Îs nOt tbC QCtty OOUgCOÎs WbO tUns tO
ÍasCÎsm¸ tO a ÌCadCr. LVCn ÍrOm UndCr tbc WbCCÌs bC COntÎnUCs tO asK
QUCstÎOns; `bC Îs WÎsC´. Ìt Îs¸ as ÛCn¡amÎn says OÍ ÛrCCbt´s LaÌy Laj
În ¬ Ac's cAc, tbC WÎsdOm OÍ a man `WbO ÌCts tbC COntradÎCtÎOns
OÍ CXIstCnCC CntCr ÎntO tbC OnÌy QÌaCC WbCrC tbCy C¸În tbC Ìast anaÌy-
sÎs¸ OC rCsOÌVCd: tbC ÌÎÍC OÍ a man´. ÞaÍKa´s bCrOCs arC CrUsbCd UndCr
tbC WbCCÌs. `CVCrtbCÌCss¸ tbCy nUmOCr¸ aÌOn_ WÎtb OCbWCyK and
ÌCOQOÌd ÛÌOOm¸ amOn_ tbC QOtCntÎaÌ `WÎsC mCn´ OÍ tbC `Oad nCW´
days. Ìt Îs WÎtb tbCm¸ VÎCtÎms and ÛOtsam OÍ mass sOCÎCty¸ tbat ÛrCCbt
OC_Îns. NbCrC ÌUKaCs bad OCratCd tWCntÎCtb-CCntUry ÌÎtCraturC ÍOr
nOt QrOdUCÎn_ `rOUndCd ObaraCtCrs´¸ ÛrCCbt rC¡OÎnCd tbat dCbUmanÎ2-
atÎOn WOUÌd nOt OC ÌÎÍtCd Oy ÌCaVÎn_ tbC mass¸ OUt Oy OCCOmIn_ Qatt
OÍ Ît. Ìn bÎs bands¸ tbC Þa!KaCsQUC VÎCtÎm¸ tbC anOnymOUs Þ.¸ tbC
QCtty OOUr_COÎs UndCr tbC WbCCÌs¸ OCCOmCs tbC ÛrCCbtÎan Þ.¸ tbC
XÍÍ
Canny ÌCtt ÍCUnCt. OÍmÍÌatÌy¸ ÛCn¡amÍn tCmatKs O! LaÌy Lay. `¬
man´s a man: thÍs Ís nOt !CCÌÍty tO any sÍn_ÌC CssCnCC O! OnC´s OWn¸
OUt a COntÍnUaÌ tCaCÍnCss tO aCmÍt a nCW CssCnCC.´ ÅhC `OaC nCW´
Cays CCsttOy QCtsOnaÌÍty¸ CtCatC anOnymÍty. ÛtCCht anC ÛCn¡amÍn
statt WÍth thC anOnymOUs man anC CnCOUta_C hÍs tCsÍÌÍCnOC¸ sO that
thC `hatC thÍn_´ may _ÍVC Way. ÛUt OCCUsC O! thCÍt !Cat O! a nCW
CatK ?_C¸ thCy thÍnK Ín a QCtsQC0tÍVC WhÍ0h _OC8 DCyOnC thO !m-
mCCÍatC CÌass sttU__ÌC tO CnCOmQass aÌÌ thC sOCÍaÌ sttU__ÌCs O! hUman-
ÍIy¸ WhCtC QUaÌÍtÍCs ÌÍKC CUnnÍn_ anC CnCUtanCC atC mOtC ÍmQOttant
than hCtOÍsm. ÛtCCht´s Ctama anC QOCtty !Otm a hUmanÍst vooemecum
!Ot CatK a_Cs. ÌÍs `hCtOCs´ atC tCsOUtCC!U̸ hUmOtOUs nOOOCÍCs.
E¸ic 7keo:re
LQÍC thCattC :s thC QtOCUCt O! a kisroricol Íma_ÍnaCOn. ÛtCCht´s
`QÌa_ÍatÍsm´¸ hÍs tCWtÍtÍn_ O! OhaKCsQCatC anC NatÌOWC¸ aæ CX-
QCtÍmCnts Ín WhCth0t a hÍstOtÍCaÌ CVCnt anC Íts ÌÍtCtaty ttCatmCnt
mÍ_ht OC maCC tO tUC OUt CÍUCtCntÌy Ot at ÌCast OC VÍCWCC CÍUCtCnt-
Ìy¸ Í! thC QtOCOssCs O! hÍstOty atC tCVaÌUCC. ÛnCht´s Ctama Ís a CC-
ÌÍOCtatC UnsCatÍn_ O! thC sUQtCmaCy O! tta_CCy anC tta_ÍC ÍnCVÍtaOÍ-
ÌÍty. ÌÍs `hÍstOtÍCÌ QCssÍmÍsm´ CUts thC _tOUnC !tOm UnCCt thC ttUÌy
QCssÍmÍstÍC `OQtÍmÍsm´ O! aÌÌ thOsC WhO QÌaCC thCÍt !aÍth Ín hÍstOtÍCaÌ
ÍnCVÍtaOÍÌÍty. LChOÍn_ hÍs OWn `ÅhCsCs On thC ÍhÍÌOsOQhy O! ÌÍs-
tOty´¸ ÛCn¡am!n COmmCnts. `¨Ìt Cn haQQCn thÍs Way¸ OUt Ít C aÌsO
haQQCn QUÍtC a CÍUCtCnt Way´ ¬ that Ís thC !UnCamCntaÌ attÍtUCC O!
OnC WhO WtÍtCs !Ot CQÍC thCattC.´ ÅhC QOssÍOÍÌÍty that hÍstOty mÍ_ht
haVC OCCn CÍUCtCnt WÍÌÌ ÍnsQÍtC a ruo res o¿irur Ín thC mÍnCs O!
QtCsCnt-Cay sQCCtatOts: hÍstOty may nOW OC CÍUCtCnt; Ít Ís Ín yOUt
hanCs¸ CVCn thOU_h thC mCans at yOUt CÍsQOsaÌ atC sÌÍ_ht anC thC
QUaÌÍtÍCs tCQUÍtCC O! yOU atC QCthaQs UnCtamatÍC¸ UntOmantÍC.
ÌCnCC¸ Ín tCCOVCtÍn_ thC Qast¸ thC CQÍC CtamatÍst WÍÌÌ `tCnC tO Cm-
QhasÍ2C nOt thC _tCat CCCÍsÍOns WhÍCh ÌÍC aÌOn_ thC maÍn ÌÍnC O! hÍs-
tOty OUt thC ÍnCOmmCnsUtaOÌC anC thC sÍn_UÌat´.
ÛCn¡amÍn´s CnCOUntCt WÍth ÛtCCht ÌCaCs hÍm¸ Ín `¯hat Ís LQÍC
ÅhCattC:´ [O! WhÍCh thC tWO CXÍstÍn_ VCtsÍOns atC _ÍVCn hCtC]¸ tO
sKCtCh OUt a nCW thCOty O! thC hÍstOty O! Ctama WhÍCh Ís aÌtCaCy
7nrrooucrun XÎÎÎ
sU__CstCd În ÌÎs CarÌÎCr¸ QrC-%atXÎst Urs¸run¿ oes oeurscken 7rouer-
s¸iels. ÜCn¡amÎn saW amnÎty bCtWCCn tÌC aÌÌC_CtÎC Îma_ÎnatÎCn C! tÌC
LCrman barCQUC dtamatÎsts and tÌC artÎstÎC nCCds C! tÌC tWCntÎCtÌ
CCntUry¡ Þrst În tÌC mCÌanCÌCÌy sQÎrÎt C! tÌC !CtmCr¸ WÎtÌ Îts Cm-
bÌCmatÎC bUt ÎnsCrUtabÌC ÎnsÎ_nÎa¸ WÌÎCÌ ÌC rCdÎsCCVCrCd În Ïa!Ka¡
tÌCn În tÌC CC_natC QrÎnCÎQÌC C! mCnm_C WÌÎCÌ ÌC !CUnd În tÌC WCrK
C! ÌÎsCnstCÎn and ÜrCCÌt. %Cnta_C bCCmC !Cr ÌÎm tÌC mCdCt¸ CCn-
sOUCtÎVC¸ aCtÎVC¸ UnmCÌanCÌCÌy !Ctm C! aÌÌC_Cry¸ namCÌy tÌC abÎÌÎty
tC CCnnCCt dÎssÎmÎÌars În sUCÌ a Way 3 tC ´sÌCCK´ QCCQÌC ÎntC nCW
rCCC_nÎtÎCns and UndCtstandÎn_s. ^ _rCat dCaÌ C! ÜCn¡amÎn´s CrÎtÎ-
cWrÎtÎn_ CCnCCCs ÎtsCÌ! WÎtÌ ´sÌCCK´ as tÌC QrÎmary CXQCrÎCnCC C!
dÎsÌCCatÎCn În mCdCt Urban¸ mass¸ ÎndUstrÎaÌ ÌÎ!C. ÌC CCnsÎdCrCd
ÜaUdCÌaÎrC and ÍrCUst¸ !Cr CXamQÌC¸ sCnsÎtÎVC rCaCtCrs tC tÌC nCW
`sÌCCKs´ C! mCdCt ÌÎ!C¸ WÌC at tÌC samC DmC UsCd tÌCÎr art as a
mCans C! sCÌ!-QrCtCCtÎCn. OUCÌ sCÌ!-QrCtCCtÎCn¸ ÌC ar_UCd¸ Îs nC
ÌCn_Cr nCCdCd by tÌC rCVCÌUOCnary artÎst WÌC WCÌCCmCs ´sÌCCK´ WÎtÌ
CrÎOCÌ dÎstanCC¸ WÎtÌ ´ÌCÎ_ÌtCnCd QrCsCnCC C! mÎnd´. ¯ÌUs ÜCn¡amÎn
CamC tC rC_ard mCnta_C¸ Î.C. tÌC abÎÌÎty tC CaQtUrC tÌC ÎnÞnÎtC¸ sUd-
dCn Cr sUbtCttanCan CCnnCCtÎCns C! dÎssÎmÎÌars¸ 3 tÌC ma¡Cr CCn-
stÎtUOVC QrÎnCÎQÌC Cf tÌC artÎstÎC Îma_ÎnatÎCn În tÌC a_C C! tCCÌnCÌC_y.
ÏCr ÛUÎUÌ antCCCdCnts¸ ÌC ÌCCKs baCK bCyCnd LCrman barCQUC
tC tÌCsC !Crms C! drama WÌCrC tÌC mCnta_C QrÎnCÎQÌC Þtst madC Îts
aQQCaranCC. ÌC Þnds Ît WÌCrCVCr a crÎtÎCÌ ÎntCÌÌÎ_CnCC ÎntCrVCnCs tC
CCmmCnt UQCn tÌC rCQrCsCntatÎCn¸ În CtÌCr WCrds WÌCrC tÌC rCQrC-
sCntatÎCn Îs nCVCr CCmQÌCtC În ÎtsCÌl¸ bUt Îs CQCnÌy and CCntÎnUaÌÌy
CCmQarCd WÎtÌ tÌC ÌÎ!C rCQrCsCntCd¡ WÌCrC tÌC aCtCts Can at any
mCmCnt stand CUtsÎdC tÌCmsCÌVCs and sÌCW tÌCmsCÌVCs tC bC
aCtCrs.
LnCC mCrC LÌÎnCsC CUÌtUrC QÌays Îts Qart În tÌC tÌÎnKÎn_ C! tÌC tWC
mCn. ÜCn¡amÎn QCÎnts tC tÌC CUstCm C! LÌÎnCsC tÌCaOC tC `maKC
WÌat Îs sÌCWn Cn tÌC sta_C UnsCnsatÎCnaÌ´ and UndCrÌÎnCs ÜrCCÌt´s
dCbt tC tÌÎs tCCÌnÎQUC, ¯ÌCn¸ VCty CrÎ_ÎnaÌÌy¸ ÌC sKCtCÌCs CUt a byWay
C! ÌUrCQCan tÌCatrC WÌÎC̸ ÌC sU__Csts¸ Ìad aÌWays sCU_Ìt tC Cs-
CQC !rCm tÌC ´CÌCsCd´ drama C! LrCCK tra_Cdy¸ Ìad aÌWays sCU_Ìt
!Cr an Untta_ÎC dtama. ¯ÌC Untra_ÎC drama and tÌC mCnta_C QrÎn-
CÎQÌC WCrC CÌCsCÌy CCnnCCtCd În ÜCnjamÎn´s mÎnd. ¯Ìat byWay ÌCd
XÎV
VÎ8 thc mcOÌcV8! mystcty Q!8y¸ LcC8n O8rOQuc Ot8m8¸ Cctt8În
sCcncs OÍ oh8KcsQc8tc¸ Ì8tt ÛOÍ LOcthc´s Fousr, tO otrÎnOOct_ 8nO
hn8!!y ÛtcCht 8nO `cQÎC thc8ttc´. `1͸ th8t Îs¸ Onc C8n sQc8K OÍ 8 Q8th
8t 8!!¸ t8thct th8n 8n OVct_rOWn st8!KÎn_-tt8CK 8!On_ WhÎCh thc
!c_8Cy OÍ mcOÎcV8! 8nO O8tOQuc Ot8m8 h8s CtcQt OOWn tO us OVct thc
suO!Îmc Out O8ttcn m8ssÎÍ OÍ C!8ssÎCÎsm.´
Ûcnj8mÎn QuOtcs ÍtOm thc c8t!y LuKáCs tO ÍOunO 8 thcOty WhÎCh
æKcs 8n CntÎtc!y OQQOscO OÎtcCtÎOn tO LuKáCs´s OWn suOscQucnt
Oæm8!ut_y. Åhc !8tct LuK8C¸ COnCcCcO WÎth thc `m8În !Înc OÍ
hÎstOry´¸ ttc8tcO ´st8!KÎn_-tt8CKs´ 8s CÎthct nOn-cXÎstcnt Ot unWOtthy
OÍ mcntÎOn. Û8sÎn_ hÎmsc!Í On Îc_c!´s COnCcQt OÍ tt8_cOy¸ hc ctc-
_OtÎzcO thc Or8m8tÎC hctO 8s 8n cXQOnCnt OÍ WÎ!!¸ thc QtOt8_OnÎst
OÍ 8 COnÛÎCt OctWccn !WO mu!¤8!!y cXC!usÎVc cthÎC8! Ocm8nOs. ÅO
crry thtOu_h hÎs WÎ!! 8_8Înst 8!! OOst8C!Cs ¾ thc hctO´s sO!c 8Îm,
hÎs _!Oty 8nO hÎs OcÍc8t. Ûcn¡8mÎn¸ hOWcvct¸ nOtcO: `Ì!8tO¸ LuKáCs
WtOtc 1Wcnty yc8ts 8_O¸ 8!tc8Oy tcCO_nÎzcO thc unOt8m8tÎC n8tutc
OÍ thc hÎ_hcst ÍOtm OÍ m8n¸ thc s8_c. ºnO yct În hÎs OÎ8!O_ucs hc
OtOu_ht hÎm tO thc thtcshO!O OÍ thc st8_c.´ Åh8t Îs¸ WÎth Ì!8tO
Oc_Îns Ûcn¡8mÎn´s 8!tcC8tÍVc hÎstOty OÍ LutOQc8n Or8m8¸ Whctc thc
WÎsc 8nO OÎsQ8ssÎOn8tc m8n Îs hctO. 1nOccO¸ oOCt8tcs 8QQ!8uOcO thc
ncW ´t8tÎOn8!Îst´ Ot8m8 OÍ LutÎQÎOcs¸ WhÎCh COnC!uOcO thc _tc8t
QctÎOO OÍ LtccK tr8_cOy. ºnO Ûcn¡8mÎn COnsÎOctcO ÛtcCht 8 `oOCt8-
tÎC´ Oæm8tÎst. `\nc m8y tC_8tO cQÎC thc8ttc 8s mOtc Ot8m8tÎC th8n
thc OÎ8!O_uc [Ît Îs nOt 8!W8ys): Out cQÎC thc8ttc nccO nOt¸ ÍOt th8t
tæsOn¸ Oc 8ny thc !css QhÎ!OsOQhÎc!.´
1n ÛtcChts tt8nsÍOC8tÎOn¸ thc s8_c¸ ÍtOm L8!y L8y În ¬ .on's
o .on tO ºzO8K În thc Coucosion Ckoß 6i·:le 8nO M8ttÎ În He··
1unrdo, Îs 1hc DWhO h8s suhctcO 8nO tt8Vc!!cO muCh¸ WhO Ch8n_cs
DÎs tO!c tO suÎt hÎs CÎrCumst8nCcs. Îc Îs¸ În Ûcn¡8mÎn´s WOtOs¸ `8n
cmQty st8_c On WhÎCh thc COntt8OÎCtÎOns OÍ Out sOCÎc!y 8 8CtcO
Out´. 1t Îs thtOu_h thÎs `cmQty´¸ ´COnscntÎn_´¸ Q!Î8nt¸ 8O8QæO!c `hctO´
th8t sOmc OÍ thc QtÎnCÎQ!cs OÍ mOnt8_c· Ie·]:emoung [8!Îcn8tÎOn)¸
cXCh8n_În_ tO!Cs 8nO ÎOcntÎtíCs· m8y Ocst Oc cn8CtcO. ouCh 8 OcvÎCc
Îs uscO Oy L!ÎOt În 7Xe ºosre Jono, În thc h_utc OÍ thc hcrm8QhtO-
OÎtc O!ÎnO scct¸ ÅÎtcsÎ8s¸ WhO D8s sccn cvctythÎn_ OcÍOm¸ WhO WÎt-
nCssc 8nO suhcrs cVcrythÎn_ 8_8În. Ûut hc Îs 8 h_utc OÍ nOst8!_Î8¿
7n:roouc:ion xv
a traditionaI stoic sage who speaks the Ianguage oí snobbish irony
and C bequeath nothing to posterity but the primaI syIIabIes oí
the 1ndo-Ïuropean tongue. brecht's sages or 'thinking men' are by
contrast men oí sense and vimIity. GaIy Gay Ieams his Iesson,
masters his situation, and íor aII his adaptabiIity, indeed because oí
it, proves the onIy humane person in the pIay, abIe to show 'íriendIi-
ness' to the man whose identity he aIIowed himseIí to rob. ^zdak,
the rogue, C make justice reign íor a brieí taIismanic hour. GaIiIeo,
though not a man oí the peopIe, but who beIongs with the 'adapt-
abIe' heroes, C¸ in the second version oí the pIay, which ben|a-
min did not Iive to read, make a seIí-critique oí the scientist that
encompasses the history oí proíessionaI men írom the !enaissance
to the present.
1n his metaphysicaIIy probing thought, ben|amin sees brecht's
epic theatre as a íorm not mereIy oí 'Socratic', but oí truIy ¡Iatonic
drama. Jhe aim oí the address, 'Jhe ^uthor as ¡roducer', is to hnd
a poIiticI answer, a poIiticI roIe íor the artist that wouId pIacte
¡Iato's strictures in the Fe¸Ulx. benjamin's historicI imagination
uncovers a path that Ieads írom the diaIogues to epic theatre. 1n his
disquisitions on brecht, benjamin seeks to rescue the artist in ¡Iato,
whom ¡Iato himseIí íeared.
¬r: ono 1oli:ics
1n one respect, by eIiding the poIiticization oí art with the use oí
artistic 'means oí production' or apparatus, benjamin and brecht at
times constricted the reIauonship between poIitics and art. brecht,
in his Iater theory and practice, was abIe to cIariíy this coníusion.
ben|amin died beíore he couId compIeteIy think through a new
materiaIist aesthetics.
brecht's earIier attitudes were shaped by ¡iscator and the !ussian
ex-Iuturists, Iike Jretyakov, íor whom the destruction oí a theatre
oí iIIusion meant a írontaI attack on the bourgeoisie itseIí. StanisIav-
skian reproduction was considered bourgeois as such. Jo be anti-
bourgeois or proIetarian was to show how things worked, whiIe
they were being shown, to 'Iay bare the device' (in the words oí the
XVΠ
ÍUssÎan ÏOrmaÌÎsts). ¬rt sbOUÌO bC COnsÎOCrCO a !Orm O! QrOOUCtÎOn¸ 
nOt  a  mystCry¡  tbC  sta_C  sbOUÌO  aQQCar  ÌÎKC  a  !aCtOry  WÌtb  tbC 
maCbÎnCry tÌÌy CXQOsCO. 
LCrtaÎnÌy  tbC  ÌOrÎC  Or  LOrÎntbÎan  QÎÌÌars  WbÎCb  !rOntCO  tbC 
bOUr_COÎs  banK  sCrVCO  a  rCaCtÎOnary  QUrQOsC.  ÛUt  tbC  mOOCr 
_Ìass-QÌatCO banKs sbOW nOtbÎn_ mOrC O! tbC WOrKÎn_s O! CaQÎtaÌÎsm. 
¬s  an  anaÌO_y  WÎtb  ÛrCCbtÎan  tbCOry¸  tbÎs  WOUÌO  bC  CruOC  anO  Un-
!aÎr¸ !Or¸  as WC baVC  sCCn¸  Ît Was QrCCÎsCÌy tbC UsC  O! mOnta_C  WbÎCb 
COnstruCtCO  tbC  QOÌÎtÎCaÌ  COnnCCtÎOns  tbat  WCrC  nOt  ÎmmCOÎatCÌy 
VÎsÎbÌC.  `CVCrtbCÌCss¸  tbrOU_bOUt  tbC  ÌC!t-WÎn_  aVant-_arOC  µ O! 
tbC  tWCntÎCs  anO  tbÎrtÎCs¸ tbC  bCÌÎC!  QrCOOmÎnatCO  tbat tO  attaCK  anO 
rCQUOÎatC  `ÎÌÌUsÎOnÎsm´  Or  `rCQrOOUCtÎOn´  ÎtsCÌ!  COnstÎtUtCO  a  QrO-
_rCssÎVC  QOÌÎtÎCaÌ  aCt¸  COnstÎtUtCO  :òe Way  În  WbÎCb  QOÌÎtÎCs  COUÌO 
CntCr OÎrCCtÌy ÎntO  art.  ÅbÎs  bCÌÎC!  COntÎnUCs  tO  aÛCCt  aÌÌ  raOÎCÌ  anO 
ÌC!t  tbÎnKÎn_ On aCstbCtÎCs  tOOay. 
ÛCn¡amÎn´s  OCVCÌOQmCnt  UQ  tO  tbÎs  QOÎnt  baO  bCCn  sÎn_uÌar.  ÌC 
bC_an¸  VCry  tyQÎCaÌÌy  !Or  tbC  tÎmC¸  as  an  aCstbCtÎC  QbÎÌOsOQbCr  WbO 
ÌamCntCO  tbC  QassÎn_  O!  OÌO  traOÎtÎOns¸  as  mOOCr  tCCbnOÌO_y  anO 
mass sOCÎCIy tOOk  tbCÎr  QÌaCC.  ÌC Was anytbÎn_  bUt a  rCVOÌUtÎOnary 
aVant-_arOC  tbÎnKCr.  ÌC  Was  aÌWays  aVant-_arOC¸  bUt  În  tbC  sQÎrÎt 
O! an LÌÎOt ¸WÎtb WbOm ÎnOCCO bC sbarCO a _rCat OCaÌ: LÌÎOt´s rCCOVCry 
O!  tbC  mCtaQbysÎCaÌ  QOCts  stCms  !rOm  tbC  samC  rOOts  as  ÛCn¡amÎn´s 
ÎntCrCst  În  \Crman  barOgUC  Orama)¸  anO  as  a  CrÎtÎC  bC  matCbCO  tbC 
assOCÎatÎVC¸  aÌÌC_OrÎCaÌ  QOWCrs  O!  LÌÎOt´s  QOCtry. 
ÛCn¡amÎn´s attÎtUOC  tO  tbC nCWsQaQCr ÎÌÌUstratCs nÎs trtbCr CVOÌU-
tÎOn.  Ïn  `ÅbC  OtOrytCÌÌCr´¸  bÎs  Cssay  On  LCsKOV  ín  7llaino:ions,
ÛCn¡amÎn  COntrasts  tbC  sCÌ!-QrCsCrVÎn_,  sCÌ!-COntaÎnÎn_  QOWCrs  O! 
tbC stOry¸ tbat mCst anCÎCnt bCarCr O! WÎsOOm¸ WÎtb tbC mCrC _ÎVÎn_-
OUt O! În!OrmatÎOn  tbat  Îs ¡cre×cellence tbC  rOÌC  O!  tbC  nCWsQaQCr. 
Ïn  `ÅbC ¬UtbCr as  ÍrOOUCCr´  ¸QaraOOXÎCaÌÌy¸  QrObabÌy  COmQOsCO 
CarÌÎCr tban `ÅbC OtOrytCÌÌCr´) a Cban_C  O! CnOrmOUs sCaÌC Îs CVÌOCnt 
În bÎs tbÎnKÎn_. ¯bC nCWsQaQCr¸ Or at ÌCast tbC COntCmQOrary OOVÎCt 
nCWsQaQCr¸  ÛCn|amÎn  bCrC  OCsCrÎbCs  as  a  `Vast  mCÌtÎn_-OOWn  QrO-
CCss´  WbÎCb `nOt  OnÌy OCstrOys  tbC COnVCntÎOnaÌ sCQaratÌOn bCtWCCn 
_CnrCs¸ bCtWCCn  WrÎtCr anO  QOCt¸ sCbOÌar anO  QOQUÌarÎzCr´ bUt  `gUCs-
tÎOns  CVCn  tbC  sCQaratÎOn  bCtWCCn  aUtbOr  anO  rCaOCr´.  ÅbC  `QÌaCC 
7nrroomrwn XVII 
WbCrC  tbC  WOrO  Is  mOst  OCbasCO  ¬ tbat  Is tO  say¸  tbC  nCWsQaQCr·
bCCOmCs  tbC  VCry  QÌaCC  WbCrC  a  rCsCUC  OQCratIOn  Can  bC  mOUntCO´. 
ÅbC  LbInCsC  WaÌÌ  nCWsQaQCr  O!  tbC  LUÌtUraÌ  ÍCVOÌUtIOn¸  tbC 
QOstCrs¸  InsCrIQtIOns  anO  rOnCOCO sbCCts  O!  tbC ÍarIsIan  ¸anO OtbCr) 
stUOCnts  In  :ç6ö¸  aÌÌ  bCar  ÛCn¡amIn  OUt  anO  mòKC  tbIs  OnCC  mCÌan-
CbOÌy¸  mCtaQbysICaÌ  li::éro:eur IntO  tbC  !OrCmOst rCVOÌUtIOnary  anO 
raOICaÌ  CrItIC  O!  tbC  nInCtCCn-sIXtICs  anO  sCVCntICs.  ÅbC  sQrCaO  O! 
strCCt-tbCatrC¸  a_ItQrOQ¸  `IntCròCuOn´  ÌIKCWIsC  VInOIcatC  ÛCn¡òmIn´s 
anO  ÛrCCbt´s VICWs O! tbC tbCaDC. 1t tbC samC tImC tbCIr CntbUsIasm 
anO raOICÌIsm COnCCaÌ a QOtCntIaÌÌy barm!UÌ OnC-sIOCOnCss. ÅbUs tbC 
VCry  OCmOcratIzatIOn  O! art  by  mCans  O!  tbC  mCOIa  O! rCQrOOUCtIOn 
Is UsCO  tO OUst  anO rC¡CCt  aÌÌ  traOItIOnaÌ  !Orms  O! art  assOCIatCO WItb 
a  OIVIsIOn  O!  QCr!OCCr  anO  aUOICnCC¸  OWnCr  anO  OnÌOOKCr.  ÛCn¡a-
mIn  sImQÌy  IOCntIÍCs  `aUra´¸  tbC  aCstbCtIC  nImbUs  sUrrOUnOIn_  a 
WOrK  O!  art¸  WItb  QrOQCrty¸  anO mCCbanICÌ  rCQrOOUCtIOn  WItb  QrO-
ÌCtarIanIzatIOn.  L!  COUrsC¸  mCCbanICaÌ  rCQrOOUCtIOn  Can  bC  anO  Is 
abUsCO  anO absOrbCO by CaQItaÌIsm¸ anO ÛCn¡amIn ¾ an CarÌy¸  QCr-
CCQtIVC  OIa_nOstICIan  O!  tbIs  Oan_Cr.  1s  a  QrCVCntIVC  ¸Or¸  I!  nCCCs-
sary¸  a  CUrC)  bC  ar_UCO  !Or  tbC  sOCIaÌ  COntrOÌ  O!  tbC  mCOIa.  Ïn  tbIs 
tbCrC  Was  nOtbIn_  nCW.  ¯bat  Was  CbaÌÌCn_In_  Was  tbC  sU__CstIOn 
tbat sUCb sOCIaÌ COntrOÌ WOUÌO CrCatC nCW !Orms O! art, mOrC¸ tbat tbC 
QOÌItICIzatIOn  O!  tbC  mCOIa  Was tbC  samC  as tbC  QOÌItICIzatIOn  O!  art. 
Ïn  OtbCr  WOrOs¸  mCOIa  anO  art  WCrC  IOCntIÍCO.  ÅbC  OÌO  OIstInCtIOn 
bCtWCCn  !Orm  anO  COntCnt  Was  abOÌIsbCO,  !Orm  ItsCÌ!  bCCamC 
QOÌItICaÌ. 
Ûy tbUs  COÌÌaQsIn_ COntCnt IntO !Orm¸  tbC  ran_C O!  !Orms  may  bC 
rCstrICtCO. ÛCCaUsC ÛCn¡amIn Was tbC CbIÌO O! tbC Írst QbasC O! a  nCW 
tCCbnOÌO_ICaÌ Cra¸ WbCn tCCbnIgUCs  ÌIKC QbOtO-mOnta_C baO a  OIrCCt 
QOÌItICaÌ CÛCCt¸ bC sOmCtImCs tCnOCO tO IsOÌatC tCCbnIgUC as QOÌItICaÌÌy 
CÛCCtIVC  In  ItsCÌ!  anO  tO I_nOrC  tbat tbC  QOÌItICIzatIOn  O!  tCCbnOÌO_y 
InVOÌVCs  tbC  rCÌatIOns¸  as WCÌÌ  as  tbC  mCans¸  O!  QrOOUCtIOn. 
1t  tbC  samC  tImC  as  bC  CbamQIOnCO  tbC  `baO  nCW  tbIn_s´¸  ÛCn-
¡amIn´s QbIÌOsOQby  O! bIstOry¸  as WC baVC sCCn¸ rCgUIrCO  a  COnstant 
battÌC  On  bCbaÌ!  O!  tbC  Qast¸  On  bCbaÌ!  O!  Its  VICtIms.  1C  sOU_bt  tO 
sOÌVC  tbIs COntraOICtIOn  WItb tbC  COnCCQt O! ¸eq:¸ei:, [`tbC QrCsCnCC 
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O! tbc nOW´]¸ a DCs:oas, În WbÎcb tÎmc stands stÎ!!¸ Wbctc Qast and
!utUtc cOnVct_c nOt batmOnÎOUs!¸¸ bUt cXQlOsÎVc!¸¸ În tbc Qtcscnt
Înstant.
ÅbÎs cOnccQt O! ¸eç:¸ei:, tO_ctbct WÎtb tbat O! E·mo::ungs:ok:ik
[`tactÎcs O! atttÎtÎOn´]¸ Wctc tbc tWO Îdcas Ot QtcdÎsQOsÎtÎOns tbat
dOmÎnatcd Ùcn¡amÎn´s tbÎnKÎn_ dUtÎn_ bÎs !ast ¸cats. ¸eççei: cn-
taÎ!cd tbc abÎ!Ît¸ tO Întctvcnc În cVcnts¸ Wbctbct as QO!ÎtÎcÎan Ot În-
tc!!cctUa!¸ tO `b!ast OQcn tbc cOntÎnUUm O! bÎstOt¸´ [OÎXtccntb ÅbcsÎs
On tbc ÍbÎ!OsOQb¸ O! 1ÎstOt¸]. Åbc Îdca Îs ÎmQOttant În VÎcW O!
tbc QtO_tcssÎVÎst¸ cVO!UtÎOnÎst¸ dctctmÎnÎst ttadÎtÎOns O! OOcÎa!
1cmOcrac¸ On tbc Onc band¸ Wn¡cb Ùcn¡amÎn cXQ!ÎcÎt!¸ attacKcd
¡n b¡s '¯bcscs On tbc ±bÎ\OsOQb¸ O! ÌÎstOt¸´} and Uc `'tOQÎan´
QOsÎtÎVÎsm and Qta_matÎsm O! tbc OOVÎct !nÎOn Undct Ota!În On tbc
Otbct. |n !ÎnKÎn_ tbc Îdca O! ¸e:¡:¡ei: WÎtb tbc OOcÎa!Îst tcVO!UtÎOnat¸
mOVcmcnt Ùcn¡amÎn ¸O\ns tanKs WÎtb 'tamsC and tbc 1uòcs O\
1|t:cry anJ C/a:: Ccn:cicu:ne:: ¸Onc O! tbc NatX\st tcXts WbÎC mOst
ÎnhUcnccd bÎm).
Åbc Otbct Îdca Ot attÎtUdc¸ E·mo:tungs:ok:ik, Ùtccbt dcsctÎbcd În
a QOcm !U!! O! QcssÎmÎsm Wtìttcn a!tct Ùcn¡amÎn´s dcatb.
trmattungstaktik waÏt, wo m oekagte
×m 3cbacbccb tiqend in dc ri¬baumc 3cbatten.
Ler Feind, dr dick von deinen riìcbe¬ ¡agte
/ätt tick von untereinem nic.\t ermatten.
j¯acucs O! attríuOn arc Wnat ¸OU cnjO¸cd
oìttìn¿ at mc cbcss taDÌc mtbc Qcat ucc´s sbadc.
Åbc cncm¸ WbO dtOVc ¸Ou !tOm ¸OUt bOOKs
¯m nOt b WOm dOWn b¸ tbc ÌìKcs O! us.j
Åbc QbÎ!OsOQb¸ O! E·mo::ung dOmÎnatcs Ùcn¡amÎn´s WtÎtÎn_s On
Ùtccbt¸ tbc bc!Îc! tbat În tbc cnd `tbc batd tbÎn_ _ÎVcs Wa¸´. Åbc dÎa-
!cctÎca! csscncc O! Ùcn¡amÎn´s tbOU_bt !Îcs În tbc QO!atÎt¸ of¡e:¡:¸ei:
and E·mo::ung, tbc `NcssÎanÎc´ ÎntctvcnuOn În¸ and cOnttO! OVct¸
bÎstOr¸ [bOWcVct sma!! tbc QtOQOttÎOns and sbOtt!ÎVcd tbc dUtatÎOn)¸
tbc cXQcctatÎOn¸ cXQtcsscd În tbc !ast `ÅbcsÎs On tbc ÍbÎ!OsOQb¸ O!
1ÎstOt¸´¸ tbat `cVct¸ sccOnd O! tÎmc Was tbc sttaÎ_bt _atc tbtOU_b
WbÎcb tbc NcssÎab mÎ_bt cOmc´¸ and tbc sObct¸ sa_c-!ÎKc¸ QatÎcnt
7 n:roowtion X
WCarÎn_  OOWn  O!  barOnCss.  1t  Was  tbÎs  sCnsC  O!  CXQCCtatÎOn  tbat 
ÛCn¡amÎn´s  !rÍCnO  anO  COntCmQOrary  ÍCst  ÛÌOCb  transÌatCO  ÎntO 
tbC  CtC_Ory  O!  `COnCrCtC  ÍtOQÎa´  Or  tbC  OntOÌO_ÎCaÌ  QrÎnCÎQÌC  O! 
bOQC. 
ÛÌOCb  WrOtC  O!  ÛCn¡amÎn´s  suÎCÎOC  tbat  Ît ¾ `a  KÎnO  O!  QartÎn_ 
WÎtb ÌÎ!C  nOt  sO  unCbaraCtCrÎstÎC  O!  bÎm¸  Î!  OnC  tbÎnKs  O!  8 QbrasC  O! 
bÎs WbÎCb Ï rCCaÌÌ:  `LCast O! aÌÌ bas OnC  QOWCr OVCr a OCaO man´´. Ïn 
a  sÎmÎÌar  VCÎn ÛrCCbt  WrOtC  În  a  sCCOnO  QOCm  On  bÎs  !rÎCnO´s  OCatb: 
Zulet¡t an eine unüoerscbreitbare 6ren¡e getrieben
Hast du, beisst es, eine ãoerscbreitbare :ioerscbritten
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`Ou¸ =C DCat¸ Q888CO OVCt Ü Qa888OÌC OUC.]
ÛCn¡amÍn  COmmÍttCO  suÎCÍOC  at  ÍOrt  ÛOU  On  tbC  ÏranCO-OQanÎsb 
!rOntÎCr¸  În  OCQtCmbCr  ¡¸qO, On  bCarÎn_  tbat  bC  ¾ ÌÎ×CÌy  tO  bC 
banOCO  OVCr  tO  tbC  \CstaQO  tbC  !OÌÌOWÎn_  Oay.  ÛrCCbt  rCmarÌCO¸ 
WbCn  bC  rCCCÎVCO  tbC  nCWs  O!  bÎs  OCatb¸  tbat  tbÎs  Was  tOC  hrst  rCaÌ 
ÌOss tbat ÌÎtÌCr  baO  CausCO  tO  \Crman  ÌÎtCratUrC. 
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IÌC Du8ÌnC88 C! CÌ8_uÌ8Ìn_ ÌI Ì88 QtCV8Ì!CC CVCt ÌI8 QtCQCt tC8!Ì28IÌCn.
Jt8_CCÌC8 8nC CQCt88 _C Cn 8nC Cn DCÌn_ WtÌIICn¸ 8QQ8tCnI!y WÌIÌ 8
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DuI 8uQQ!y U8ICtÌ8! !Ct 8n 8QQ8t8Iu8 WÌÌCÌ Ì8 CD8C!CIC. `JÌÌ8 CCn-
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CnCtUCu8 CCn8CQuCnC8 WÌÌCÌ tCCCÌVC !8t ICC !ÌII!C 8IICnIÌCn. DC-
!ÌCVÌn_ IÌCU8C!VC8 IC DC Ìn QC88C88ÌCn C! 8n 8QQ8t8Iu8 WÌÌCÌ Ìn
" ÛÎDÌÎOgrapDÎcaÌ dcta:Ìs OΠ¬Dcrc tDcsc csSajs ¬crc Drst puDÌ:sDcd arc gívcn 
On  pagc  11¿.
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tCaÌity QCssCssCs !hCm¸ thC_ dC!Cnd an aQQatatus CVCt WhICh thCy nC
ÌCn_Ct haVC CCnttC̸ WhICh Is nC ÌCn_Ct¸ aä thCy stIÌÌ OCÌICVC¸ a
mCans¡o· thC QtCduCCts Out has OCCCmC a mCans tC OC usCd a_aInst
thC QtCduCCts.´ ¯Ith thCsC WCtds ÛtCCht dIsQCÌs thC IÌÌusICn that
thCaUC tCday Is OasCd Cn ÌItCtatutC. Åhat Is ttuC nCIthCt !Ct thC
CCmmCtCIaÌ thCattC nCt !Ct his L¯. |n OCth¸ thC tCXt Is thC sCrVant:
In thC !CtmCt It sCtvCs tC KCCQ thC OusInCss _CIn_¸ In thC ÌattCt tC
Chan_C It. ÎCW Is suCh Chan_C QCssIOÌC: |s thCtC suCh a thIn_ as
dtama !Ct thC QuOÌIC QÌat!Ctm ~ !Ct that Is What thC sta_C has OC-
CCmC - Ct¸ as ÛtCCht says¸ !Ct `QuOÌIC QtCQa_anda InstItUtCs´: ¬nd
I! sC¸ What Is Its natutCr ÅhC CnÌy QCssIOIÌtty C! dCIn_ justICC tC thC
QuOÌIC QÌat!Ctm aQQCatCd tC haVC OCCn !Cund Oy thC ´thCattC C! Cut-
tCnt CVCnts´¸ thC Zei::òeoter, In thC !Ctm C! QCÌItICÌ QÌays. Ûut hCW-
CVCt thIs QCÌItICÌ thCattC !unCtICnCd¸ sCCIaÌÌy It QtCmCtCd thC CCCu-
QatICn Oy thC QtCÌCtattan maäsCs C! thC VCty QCsItICns WhtCh thC
aQQatatus C! thC thCattC had CtCatCd !Ct thC OCut_CCIs maäsCä. ÅhC
!unCtICnaÌ tCÌatICnshIQ OCtWCCn sU_C and QuOÌIC¸ tCXt and QCt!Ctm-
anCC¸ QtCduCCt and aCtCts¸ tCmaInCd aÌmCst unChan_Cd. LQIC thCattC
taKCs as Its startIn_ QCInt thC attCmQt tC InttCduCC D:ndamCntaÌ
Chan_C IntC thCsC tCÌatICnshIQs. 1Ct Its QuOÌIC¸ thC sU_C Is nC ÌCn_Ct
`thC QÌanKs WhICh sI_nI!y thC WCtÌd´ ¸In CthCt WCtds¸ a ma_IO CItCÌC)¸
Out a CCnVCnICnt QuOÌIC CXhIOItICn atCa. 1Ct Its sU_C¸ thC QuOÌIC Is
nC ÌCn_Ct a CCÌÌCCtICn C! hyQnCtIïCd tCst suOjCCts¸ Out an aäsCmOÌy
C! IntCtCstCd QCtsCns WhCsC dCmands It must satIsQ. 1Ct Its tCXt¸ thC
QCt!CtmanCC Is nC ÌCn_Ct a VIttuCsC IntCtQtCtatICn¸ Out Its ti_CtCus
CCnttCÌ. 1Ct Its QCt!CtmanCC¸ thC tCXt Is nC ÌCn_Ct a OaäIs C! that QCt-
!CtmanCC¸ Out a _tId Cn WhICh¸ In thC !Crm C! nCW !CtmuÌatICns¸ thC
_aIns C! that QCt!CtmanCC atC matKCd. 1Ct Itä aCtCt¸ thC QtCduCCt nC
ÌCn_Ct _IVCs hIm InsttuCtICns aOCut CUCCts¸ Out thCsCs !Ct CCmmCnt.
1Ct Its QtCduCCt¸ thC aCtCt Is nC ÌCn_Ct a mImC WhC must Cm-
OCdy a tCÌC¸ Out a !unCtICnaty WhC has tC maKC an InVCntCty
C! It.
LÌCatÌy¸ !unCtICns thus Chan_Cd must OC !CundCd Cn Chan_Cd
CÌCmCnts. ¬ tCCCnt ¸Jçj1) ÛCtÌIn QCt!CtmanCC C! ÛtCCht´s QataOÌC
¬ .on's o .on CUCtCd thC OCst CQQCttunIty tC tCst thIs. ÅhanKs tC
thC CCuta_CCus and IntCÌÌI_Cnt aäsIduIty C! ÏC_aj thC thCattC dItCC-
ºko: u Eçic Tkeo:re? [Firs: versionj
j
IC:¸ IÌÌ8 W88 nCI Cn!y CnC C! IÌC UC8I QnCÌ8C!y 8tuCÌCC Q:CCuCIÍCn8
8CCn Ìn DC:!Ìn !C: yC8:8¡ ÌI ¾ 8!8C 8 UCCC! C! CQÌC IÌC8I:C¸ tÌC Cn!y
CnC 8C !8:. NÌ8I Q:CVCnICC IÌC Q:C!C88ÌCn8Ì C:ÌIÌC8 !:CU :CCC_nÌ2Ìn_
IÌÌ8 !8CI WÌ!! DC 8CCn Ìn CuC CCu:8C. JÌC QuD!ÌC !CunC D:CCÌI8 CCU-
CCy QCt!CCI!y 8CCC88ÌD!C~ CnCC IÌC 8u!I:y 8UC8QÌC:C C! tÌC Fr8I
nÌ_ÌI Ì8C C!C8:CC~WÌIÌCuI ÌC!Q !:CU 8ny Q:C!C88ÌCn8! C:ÌIÌCÌ8U. ÍC:
IÌC CÌmCuÌIÌC8 CnCCunIC:CC Dy CQÌC tÌC8I:C Ìn 8CÌÌCVÌn_ :CCC_nÌIÌCn
8:C¸ 8!IC: 8!!¸ nCIÌÌn_ CIÌC: IÌ8n 8n CXQ:C88ÌCn C! ÌI8 C!C8CnC88 IC :C8!
!Ì!C¸ WÌÌ!C IÌCCty !8n_uÌ8ÌC8 Ìn IÌC D8Dy!CnÌ8n CXÌ!C O! 8 Q:8XÌ8
WÌÌCÌ Ì88 nCIÌÌn_ IC CC WÌIÌ IÌC W8y WC !ÌVC. JÌu8¸ IÌC V8!uC8 C! 8n
CQC:CII8 Dy !C!!8 !CnC IÌCU8C!VC8 UC:C :C8CÌ!y IC CCFnÌIÌCn Ìn IÌC
8QQ:CVCC !8n_u8_C C! 8C8IÌCIÌC8 IÌ8n IÌC8C C! 8 Q!8y Dy D:CCÌI¸
C8QCCÌ8!!y 8ÌnCC 8uCÌ 8 Q!8y¸ Ìn C:CC: ICI8!!y IC CCCÌC8IC :I8C!! IC IÌc
CCn8I:uCIÌCn C! tÌC nCW IÌC8I:C¸ 8!!CW8 ÌI8c!! 8 !:CC Ì8nC WÌIÌ !ÌICt8-
Iu:C.
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U8IC:Ì8! 8nC ÌI8 I88R Ì8 IÌC t8IÌCn8! uIÌ!Ì28IÌCn C! IÌÌ8 U8IC:Ì8!. JÌC
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CQ8QuC 8CIÌCn8. ÍÌ:8I¸ IÌC _C8Iu:C Ì8 !8!8ÌF8D!C Cn!y uQ IC 8 QCÌnI; Ìn
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8CIÌCn¸ IÌC UC:C _C8tu:C8 WC CDI8Ìn. 1CnCC¸ IÌC ÌnICr:uQIÌn_ C!
8CIÌCn Ì8 CnC C! IÌC Q:ÌnCÌQ8Ì CCnCC:n8 C! CQÌC IÌC8I:C. JÌC:CÌn !ÌC8
IÌC !CtU8! 8CÌÌCVCUCnI C! D:CCÌI8 8Cn_8 WÌIÌ IÌCÌ: CtuCC¸ ÌC8:I-
:CnCÌn_ :C!:8Ìn8. NÌIÌCuI 8nIÌCÌQ8IÌn_ IÌC CÌUCu!I 8IuCy¸ yCI IC DC
U8CC¸ C! IÌC D1nCtÌCn C! IÌC ICXI Ìn CQÌC IÌC8I:C¸ WC C8n 8I !C88I 88y
IÌ8I C!ICn ÌI8 U8Ìn D1nCIÌCn Ì8 nCI IC Ì!!u8tt8IC C: 8CV8nCC tÌC 8CIÌCn
DuI¸ Cn IÌC CCnI:8ry¸ IC ÌnIC:tuQI ÌI: nCI Cn!y IÌC 8CIÌCO C! CIÌC:8¸
4
OUt aÌsO IhC aCtÎOn O! OnC´s OWn. Ìt Îs thC rCIardÎn_ gUaÌÎty O! thCsC
ÎntCrrUQtÎOns and thC CQÎsOdÎC gUaÌÎty O! IhÎs !ramÎn_ O! aCtÎOn
WhÎCh aÌÌOWs _CstUtaÌ thCatrC tO OCCOmC CQÎC thCatrC.
·hC jOO O! CQÎC thCatrC¸ Ît has OCCn CXQÌaÎnCd¸ Îs nOt sO mUCh tO
dCVCÌOQ aCtÎOns as tO rCQrCsCnt COndÎuOns. mOst O! IhC sÌO_ans O! thC
dtamatUr_y O! CQÎC thCatrC haVC OCCn Î_nOrCd OUt thÎs OnC has¸ at
ÌCast¸ CrCatCd a mÎsUndCrstandÎn_. ÍCasOn CnOU_h tO taKC Ît UQ.
·hOsC `COndÎtÎOns´ WhÎCh had tO OC rCQrCsCntCd WCrC thOU_ht tO OC
thC CQUÎVaÌCnt O! thC `mÎÌÎCU´¸ Or sOCÎaÌ sCttÎn_¸ O! CarÌÎCr thCOrCtÎ-
CÎans. ·hUs UndCrstOOd¸ thC dCmand mCant nO mOrC than a QÌCa !Or
a rCtUm tO natUraÌÎstÎC drama. `Ct nO OnC C OC naÎVC CnOU_h tO
ChamQÎOn suh a rCtUm. ·hC natUraÌÎstÎC sIa_C Îs În nO scnsC a QUOÌÎC
QÌat!Orm¡ Ît Îs CntÎrCÌy ÎÌÌUsÎOnÎstÎC. Ìts OWn aWarCnCss that Ît Îs thCa-
trC CannOt !CrIÎÌÎzC Ît¡ ÌÎKC CVCry thCatrC O! Un!OÌdÎn_ aCtÎOn¸ Ît mUst
rCQrCss thÎs aWarCnCss sO as tO QUrsUC UndÎstraCtCd ÎIs aÎm O! QOr-
trayÎn_ IhC rCaÌ. ÏQÎC thCatrC¸ Oy COntrast¸ ÎnCCssantÌy dCtÎVCs a ÌÎVCÌy
and QrOdUCtÎVC cOnsC!OUsnCss !rOm IhC !aCt Ihat Ît Îs thCatrC. ·hÎs
COnsCÎOUsnCss CnaOÌCs Ît tO trCat CÌCmCnts O! rCaÌÎty as thOU_h Ît
WCrC sCttÎn_ UQ an CXQCrÎmCnt¸ WÎth IhC `COndÎtÎOns´ at thC Cnd O! thC
CXQCrÎmCnt¸ nOt at thC OC_ÎnnÎn_. ·hUs thCy atC nOt OrOU_ht CÌOsCr
tO thC sQCCtatOr OUt dÎstanCCd !rOm hÎm. NhCn hC rCCO_nÎzCs thCm
as rCaÌ COndÎIÎOns Ît Îs nOt¸ as În naIUraÌÎstÎC thCatrC¸ WIth COmQÌa-
CCnCy¸ OUt WÎth astOnÎshmCnt. ·hÎs astOnÎshmCnt Îs thC mCans WhCrC-
Oy CQÎC thCaUC¸ În a hard¸ QUrC Way¸ rCVÎVCs a OOCratÎC QraXÎs. Ìn OnC
WhO Îs astOnÎshCd¸ ÎntCrCst Îs OOm: ÎntCrCst În Îts QrÎmOrdÎaÌ !Otm.
ÌOthÎn_ Îs mOrC CharaCtCrÎstÎC O! ÛrCCht´s Way O! IhÎnKÎn_ than thC
attCmQt WhÎCh CQÎC thCatrC maKCs tO trans!Otm thÎs QrÎmOrdÎaÌ
ÎntCrCst dÎrCCtÌy ÎntO a tCChnÎCa̸ CXQCrt OnC. LQÎC thCatrC addrCssCs
ÎtsCÌ! tO ÎntCrCstCd QCtsOns `WhO dO nOt thÎnK UnÌCss thCy haVC a
rCasOn tO´. ÛUt Ihat Îs an attÎtUdC aOsOÌUtCÌy sharCd Oy thC massCs.
ÛrCCht´s dÎaÌCCtICaÌ matCr!aÌÎsm assCrts ÎtsCÌ! UnmÎstaKaOÌy În hÎs
CndCaVOUr tO ÎntCrCsI thC massCs În thCatrC as tCChnÎCaÌ CXQCrts¸ OUt
nOt at aÌÌ Oy Way O!`CUÌtUrC´. `Ìn thÎs Way WC COUÌd VCry sOOn haVC a
thCatrC !UÌÌ O! C×QCrts¸ as WC haVC sQOrts stadÎUms !UÌÌ O! CXQCrts.´
LQÎC thCatrC¸ thCn¸ dOCs nOt rCQrOdUCC COndÎtÎOns OUt¸ rathCr¸
rCVCaÌs thCm. ·hÎs UnCOVCtÎn_ O! COndÎtÎOns Îs OrOU_ht aOOUt
ßot is Eçù Tkeotre? [First version] 5
tbrOU_b QrOCCssCs OCÎn_ ÎntCrtUQtCd. º VCty CrUdC ¢QÌC: a
!amÍÌy rOW. ÅbC mOtbCr Ís ¡Ust aOOUt tO QÎCK UQ a QÎÌÌOW tO bUtÌ at
tbC daU_btCr¸ tbC !atbCr Îs OQCnÎn_ a WÎndOW tO CaÌÌ a QOÌÎCCman. ºt
tbÎs mOmCnt a sttan_Cr aQQCats at tbC dOOr. `Å8OÌCaU´¸ as tbCy UsCd
tO say arOUnd :gOO. Ìn OtbCr WOrds. tbC stran_Cr Îs sUddCnÌy COn-
!rOntCd WÎtb CcrtaÎn COndÎtÎOns: tUmQÌCd OCdCÌOtbCs¸ OQCn WÎndOW¸
a dCVastatCd ÎntCtÎOr. ÛUt tbCrC CXÎsts a VÎCW În WbÎCb CVCn tbC mOrC
UsUaÌ sCCnCs O! OOUr_COÎs ÌÎ!C aQQCar ratbCr ÌÎKC tbÎs. ÅbC mOrC !ar-
rCaCbÎn_ tbC dCVastatÎOns O! OUr sOCÍ8Ì OrdCr [tbC mOrC tbCsC dCVas-
t8OOns UndCrmInC OUtsCÌVCs and OUt CaQaCÎty tO rCmaÎn aWarC O!
tbCm)¸ tbC mOrC mar¼d mUst D U dÎsUnCC OCtWCCn tbC sttan_Cr
and tbC CVCnts QOtttayCd. NC KnOW sUCb a stran_Cr !rOm ÛrCCbt´s
Iersucke: a OWaOÎan `1tÎs´¸ a COUntCtQart O! 1ÌyssCs¸ tbC LrCCK
``OOOdy´ WbO VÎsÎts OnC-CyCd ÍOÌyQbCmUs În bÎs CaVC. OÎmÎÌarÌy
ÞCUnCr· tbat Îs tbC stran_Cr´s namC- QCnCtratCs ÎntO tbC CaVC O! tbC
OnC-CyCd mOnstCr WbOsC namC Îs `CÌass sOCÎCty´. ÌÎKC 1ÌyssCs bC Îs
!UÌÌ O! _UÎÌC¸ aCCUstOmCd tO sUÛCrÎn_¸ mUCb-UaVCÌÌCd¡ OOtb mCn arC
WÎsC. º QtaCtÎCÌ rCsÎ_natÎOn WbÎCb bas aÌWays sbUnnCd UtOQÎan
ÎdCaÌÎsm maKCs 1ÌyssCs tbÎnK OnÌy O! rCtUnÎn_ bOmC¡ ÞCUnCr nCVCr
ÌCaVCs tbC tÌrCsbOÌd O! bÎs bOUsC at aÌÌ. ÌC ÌÎKCs tbC trCCs WbÎCb bC
sCCs În tbC yard WbCn bC COmCs OUt O! bÎs !OUttb-ÛOOr tCnCmCnt
Ûat. `Nby dOn´t yOU CVCr _O ÎntO tbC WOOds¸´ asK bÎs !tÎCnds¸ `Î!
yOU ÌIKC trCCs sO mUCbr´ `ÌÎd Ì nOt tCÌÌ yOU¸´ rCQÌÎCs ÌCtt ÞCUnCr¸
`tbat Ì ÌÎKC tbC trCCs În my yard:´ ÅO mOVC tbÎs tbÎnKÎn_ man¸ ÌCrr
ÞCUnCr [WbO¸ ÛrCCbt OnCC sU__CstCd¸ sbOUÌd OC CartÎCd On sta_C
ÌyÎn_ dOWn¸ sO ÌÎttÌC Îs bC dtaWn tbÎtbCr)¸ tO mOVC bÎm tO CXÎstCnCC
UQOn tbC sta_C·tbat Îs tbC aÎm O! tbÎs nCW tbCattC. Ìt WÎÌÌ OC nOtÎCCd¸
nOt WÎtbOUt sUtQtÎsC¸ tbat Îts OrÎ_Îns rCaCb OaCK a VCry ÌOn_ tÎmC. ÍOr
tbC ¼Ct Îs tbat CVCr sÎnCC tbC LrCCKs¸ tbC sCarCb !Or tbC Untra_ÎC bCrO
On tbC LUrOQCan st8_C bas nCVCr CCasCd. ÌCsQÎtC aÌÌ tbC CÌassÎCaÌ
rCVÎVaÌs¸ tbC _rCat dtamatÎsts baVC aÌWays KCQt as !ar aWay as QOssÎOÌC
!rOm tbC aUtbCntÎC LrCCK h_UrC O! tm_Cdy. ÅbÎs Îs nOt tbC QÌaCC tO
traCC tbC Qatb WbÎCb WÎnds tbrOU_b tbC %ÎddÌC º_Cs¸ În ÌrOsWÎtba
and tbC mystCty QÌays¸ Or ÌatCr¸ În LtyQbÎUs¸ ÌCn2 and LraOOC¸ Or
tO sbOW bOW LOCtbC CrOssCd Ît În tbC sCCOnd Fousr. ÛUt WC may say
tbat tbIs Qatb Was a sQCCÎaÌÌy LCtman OnC. Ì!¸ tbat Ís¸ OnC Can sQCaK
Ú
O! a Qath at aÌ̸ tathCt than an OVCt_tOWn staÌKIn_-traCK aÌOn_ WhICh
thC ÌC_aCy O! mCdICVaÌ and OatOQuC dtama has CtCQt dOWn tO us OVCt
thC suOÌImC Out OartCn massI! O! CÌassICIsm. JhIs ttaCK tCaQQCats tO-
day¸ tOu_h and untCndCd as It may OC¸ In thC QÌays C! ÛtCCht. JhC
untta_IC hCtO Is Qatt O! thIs LCtman ttadItIOn. Jhat hIs QatadOXICaÌ
sta_C C.·IstCnCC has tO OC tCdCCmCd Oy Out OWn aCtuaÌ OnC Was tCCO_-
nIzCd at an CatÌy datC¡ nOt¸ O! COutsC¸ Oy thC CrItICs¸ Out Oy thC OCst
COntCmQOtaty thInKCts suCh as LCOt_ LuKöCs and Ítanz ÛOsCn-
zWCI_. ÍÌatO¸ LuKöCs WrOtC tWCnty yCars a_O¸ aÌtCady tCCO_nIzCd
thC undramatIC natutC O! thC hI_hCst !Otm O! man¸ thC sa_C. ¬nd
yCt In hIs dIaÌO_uCs hC OtOu_ht hIm tO thC !htCshOÌd O! thC sta_C.
LnC may tC_ard CQIC thCattC as mOtC dramatIC !han thC dIaÌO_uC
[It Is nOt aÌWays): Out CQIC thCattC nCCd nOt¸ !Ot that tCasOn¸ OC any
thC ÌCss QhIÌOsOQhICaÌ.
JhC !Otms O! CQIC thCattC COttCsQOnd tO thC nCW tCChnICaÌ !Orms -
C:nCma and tadIO. ÌQIC thCattC COrrCsQOnds tO thC mOdCt ÌCVCÌ O!
tCChnOÌO_y. Ìn !Ìm¸ thC thCOry has OCCOmC mOtC and mOtC aCCCQtCd
that thC audICnCC shOuÌd OC aOÌC tO `COmC In´ at any QOInt¸ that COm-
QÌICatCd QÌOt dCVCÌOQmCnts shOuÌd OC aVOIdCd and that CaCh Qa:t¸
OCsIdCs thC VaÌuC It has !Ot thC WhOÌC¸ ëhOuÌd aÌsO QOssCss Its OWn
CQIsOdIC VaÌuC. ÍOt radIO¸ WI!h Its QuOÌIC WhICh Can !æCÌy sWItCh
On Ot OÛ at any mOmCnt¸ thIs OCCOmCs a strICt nCCCssIty. ÌQIC thCaCC
InttOduCCs thC samC QtaCtICC On thC sta_C. ÍOt CQIC thCattC¸ as a
mat!Ct O! QtInCIQÌC¸ !hCtC Is nO suCh thIn_ as a ÌatCCOmCt. JhC ImQÌI-
CatIOns O! thIs su__Cst !hat CQIC thCaCC´s ChaÌÌCn_C tO thC thCa!tC as
a sOCIaÌ InstI!utIOn Is !ar mOtC sCtIOus than any dama_C It may InbICt
On thC thCattc as CntCrUInmCnt Industty. NhCtCas¸ In COarCt¸ thC
OOut_COIsIC mIn_ÌC WIth OOhCmIa and¸ In VarÎC!y¸ thC _aQ OCtWCCn
QCtty and OI_ OOut_COIsIC Is OtId_Cd !Ot thC sQaCC O! an CVCnIn_¸
thC haOI!uÓs O! ÛtCCht´s ¯hCattC¸ WhCtC CI_atCttC smOKC Is Cau_ht In
thC QtOjCCtOt OCam¸ atC QtOÌCtarIan-. ÍOt thCm thCtC Is nOthIn_
stran_C aOOut ÛtCCht´s InsttuC!IOn tO an aCtOt tO QÌay thC ChOOsIn_
O! a WOOdCn ÌC_ Oy thC OC__at In thC Tkree¸em¸ O¸e·o In suCh a Way
that `¡ust !Ot thC saKC O! sCCIn_ thIs QattICuÌat tut QCOQÌC WIÌÌ QÌan
tO tCVIsIt !hC shOW at thC QtCCIsC mOmCnt It OCCuts´. ÌChCt´s OaCK-
ºkor is E¸ic Tkeorre? [Firsr ×crsion] ¿
QtO¿CCtIOns !Ot sUCh `tUCs´ atC !at mOtC !IKC QOstCts than sta_C
dCCOtatIOns. JhC QOstCt Is a COnstItUCnt C!CmCnt O! `HtCtatIzCd´
thCattC. `LItCtatIzIn_ CntaI!s QUnCtUatIn_ ¨tCQtCsCntatIOn´ WÎth ¨!Ot-
mU!atIOn´¡ _IVCs thC thCattC thC QOssIOInty O! maKIn_ COntaCt WÎth
OthCt ínstItUtIOns !Ot IntC!!CCtUa! aCtIVItICs.´" JhCsC InstÎtUtIOns
_mCdIa) CVCn InC!UdC OOOKs. `ÍOOtnOtCs¸ and thC haOIt O! tuDIn_
OaCK In OtdCt tO ChCCK a QOInt¸ nCCd tO OC InttOdUCCd 1ntO Q!ay-
WrÎtIn_ tOO.´
ÛUt What Is It that ÌChCt´s QOstCts adVCttIsC: ÛtCCht WtItCs that
thCy `adOQt an attItUdC tOWatds CVCnts In sUCh a Way that thC tCa!
_!UttOn In Ìaha_Onny sIts In !tOnt O! thC dCQICtCd _!UttOn´. ·Cry
WC!!. NhO Can say that thC aCtCd _!UttOn Is mOtC tCa! than thC dC-
QICtCd OnC: NC Can maKC thC aCtCd OnC sIt In !tOnt O! thC mOtC tCa!
OnC¸ I.C. WC Cn !Ct thC dCQICtCd OnC at thC OaCK OC mOtC tCa! than
thC aCtCd OnC. ÍCthaQs It Is On!y nOW that WC OOtaIn a C!UC tO thC
QOWCtD1! and CUtIOUs CÛCCt O! sCCnCs sU_Cd In thIs Way. OOmC O!
thC Q!ayCts aQQCat as mandatOtICs O! thC !at_Ct !OtCCs WhICh¸ tC-
maÎnIn_ In thC OaCK_tOUnd¸ atC !IKC Í!atO´s ÌdCas In that thCy COn-
stItutC thC IdCa! mOdC! O! thIn_s. ÌChCt´s OaCK-QtOjCCtIOns¸ hOWCVCt¸
atC matCtIa!Ist IdCas; thCy tC!atC tO _CnUInC `COndItIOns´¡ CVCn WhCn
thCy aQQtOxImatC tO aCtUa! CVCnts, thC ttCmU!OUsnCss O! thCIt COn-
tOUts stI!! sU__Csts thC !at _tCatCt and mOtC ÍntÍmatC QtOxImIty !tOm
WhICh thCy haVC OCCn WtCnChCd In OtdCt tO OCCOmC VIsIO!C.
JhC !ItCtarÎzatIOn O! thCattC Oy mCans O! VCtOa! !OrmU!as¸ QOstCts¸
CaQtIOns¸ Is IntCndCd tO¸ and WI!!¸ `maKC What Is shOWn On thC sta_C
UnsCnsatIOna!´. [ÛtCCht Is D1!!y aWatC O! thC COnnCCtIOns OCtWCCn
thCsC mCthOds and CCttaIn QtaCtICCs O! LhInCsC thCattC¸ a COnnCCtIOn
WhICh WC WI!! CInC at sOmC D1tUtC datC.) ÛtCCht _OCs sO!! DtthCt
In thC samC dItCCtIOn Oy asKÎn_ hImsC!! WhCthCt thC CVCnts QOt-
ttayCd Oy thC CQIC aCtOt OU_ht nOt tO OC KnOWn In adVaOCC. `Ìn that
CasC hIstOtICa! CVCnts WOU!d¸ On thC !aCC O! It¸ OC thC mOst sUItaO!C.´
LnC mUst, hOWCVCt¸ CxQCCt thC dtamaUst tO taKC a CCrtaIn amOUnt
O! !ICCnCC In that hC WI!! tCnd tO CmQhasIzC nOt thC _tCat dCCIsIOns
"
Brec/t on T/eatre: T/e Oe×elo
j
menr o]O .esr/et:c, cdÎtcd  and  trans-
Ìatcd  Dj  ]ODn  ¯ÍÌÌctt¸  1ÎÌÌ  and  ¯ang¸  Ìc¬  `OrK¸  tgó¿  QQ. q¿-q [¯ra;s-
ÌatOr´s  nOtc). 
õ
WhICh ÌIC aÌOn_ thC maIn ÌInC O! hIstOty Out thC InCOmmCnsutaOÌC
and thC sIn_uÌat. `Ít Cn haQQCn thIs Way¸ Out It Cn aÌsO haQQCn QuItC
a dIÛCtCnt Way´· that Is thC !undamCnUÌ attItudC O! OnC WhO WtItCs
!Or CQIC thCatrC. 1Is tCÌatIOn tO hIs stOty Is ÌIKC that O! a OaÌÌCt tCaChCt
tO hIs QuQIÌ. ÌIs Þtst aIm Is tO ÌOOsCn hCr jOInts tO thC VCty ÌImIts
O! thC QOssIOÌC. 1C WIÌÌ OC as !at tCmOVCd !rOm hIstOtICaÌ and Qsy-
ChOÌO_ICaÌ CÌIChCs as OtrÎnd¦Cr_ In hIs hIstOrÎCaÌ drama8. ÍOr OtrInd-
OCr_ madC a strOn_Ìy COnsCIOus attCmQt at CQIC¸ untta_IC thCattC.
Ìn thC WOtKs COnCCrCd WIth IndIVIduaÌ ÌIVCs hC stIÌÌ _OCs OaCK tO
thC LhrIstIan sChCma O! thC ÍassIOn, Out In hIs hIstOtICs thC VChC-
mCnCC O! hIs CtItIOaÌ thOu_ht and hIs ItOny WItÌ Its unmasKIn_ CÛCCt
QaVC thC Way !Ot CQIC thCattC. Ìn thIs sCnsC¸ thC LaÌVary QÌay To
Domoscus and thC mOraÌIty QÌay 0us:ovus ¬ool¸kus atC thC tWIn
QOÌCs O! hIs dtamatIC WtItIn_.
Ì! WC adOQt thC OQtIC WhICh WC haVC ¡ust OutÌInCd¸ WC Cn sCC thC
QrOduCtIVC dIChOtOmy OCtWCCn ÛrCCht and thC sO-OaÌÌCd Zei:-
oromo:ik, a dICÌOtOmy WhICh hC ttICs tO OVCrCOmC In hIs Jekr-
s::icke [dIdaCtIC QÌays¡. JhCsC QÌays atC thC nCCCssaty dCtOut VIa CQIC
thCattC WhICh tÌC QÌay WIth a thCsIs must taKC. JhC QÌays O! a JOÌÌCt
Ot a LamQC¡ dO nOt taKC thIs dCtOut, CXaCtÌy ÌIKC thC WOtKs O! LCr-
man QsCudO-CÌassICIsm¸ thCy `aWatd QrImaCy tO thC IdCa¸ and aÌÌ thC
tImC maKC thC sQCCtatOt dCsIrC a sQCCIÞC aIm¸ CrCatIn_¸ as It WCrC¸ an
CVCt-InCrCasIn_ dCmand !Or thC suQQÌy´. OuCh WrItCrs attaCK thC
COndItIOns In WhICh WC ÌIVC !rOm tÌC OutsIdC¡ ÛrCCht ÌCts thC COn-
dItIOns sQCaK !Ot thCmsCÌVCs¸ sO that thCy COn!tOnt CaCh OthCr dIa-
ÌCCtICaÌÌy. JhCIt VatIOus CÌCmCnts atC QÌayCd OÛ ÌO_ICÌÌy a_aInst OnC
a!:OthCr. JhC dOCKCt LaÌy Lay In ÛtCCht´s ¬ Aon's o Aon Is ÌIKC
an CmQty sta_C On WhICh thC COnttadICtIOns O! Our sOCICty atC aCtCd
Out. ÍOÌÌOWIn_ ÛtCCht´s ÌInC O! thOu_ht OnC mI_ht attIVC at thC QrO-
QOsItIOn that It Is thC WIsC man WhO Is thC QCt!CCt sta_C !Ot suCh a
dIaÌCCtIC. Ìn any CasC LaÌy Lay Is a WIsC man. ÌC InttOduCCs hImsCÌ!
as a dOCKCt `WÌO dOCsn´t dtInK¸ smOKCs VCty ÌIttÌC and hasn´t any
QassIOns tO sQCaK O!´. 1C Is nOt tCmQtCd Oy thC OÛCt O! sCX WIth thC
WIdOW WhOsC OasKCt hC has CattICd. `JO OC !tanK¸ Ì´d tCaÌÌy ÌIKC tO
Ouy sOmC Þsh.´ `Ct hC Is InttOduCCd as a man `WhO Can´t say nO´. ¬nd
thIs tOO Is WIsC¸ !Ot hC ÌCts thC COnttadICtIOns O! CXIstCnCC CntCt IntO
ßZot is E¸ù Tkeot·e? [Fi·st ve·sion]
¸
tÌC OnÌy Q!aCC WÌCrC UCy C¸ ¡n UC Ìast anaÌys¡s¸ OC rCsOÌVCd: tÌC
!¡!C O! a man. Ln!y tÌC ´COnsCnt¡n_´ man Ìas any CÌanCC O! CÌan_¡n_
tÌC WOrÌd.
1nd sO ¡t ÌaQQCns tÌat tÌC W¡sC QrO!Ctar¡an LaÌy Lay, tÌC man
WÌO KCCQs Ì¡msCÌ! tO ÌImsC!!¸ a_rCCs tO jO¡n tÌC OCrsCrK ranKs O! tÌC
Ûr¡LsÌ CO!On¡a! army¸ tÌCrCOy COnsCnt¡n_ tO tÌC dCn¡a! O! Ì¡s OWn
W¡sdOm. 1 mOmCnt a_O ÌC WCnt OUt O! Ì¡s !rOnt dOOr¸ sCnt Oy Ì¡s
WÎ!C On an Crrand tO OUy sOmC h sÌ. ^OW ÌC mCCts tÌrCC sOÌd¡Crs O!
tÌC 1n_ÌO-Índ¡an army WÌO ÌaVC !Ost a !OUttÌ WÌ¡!C !OOt¡n_ a Qa_O-
da. ¯ÌC tÌrCC O! tÌCm ÌaVC tÌC¡r OWn rCasOns !Or hnd¡n_ a rCQÌaCC-
mCnt !Or tÌC m¡ss¡n_ man as sOOn as QOssÎOÌC. La!y Lay ¡s tÌC man
WÌO cn´t say nO. ÌC !OÌ!OWs tÌC tÌrCC sO!d¡Crs W¡tÌOUt KnOW¡n_
WÌat ¡s ¡n stOrC !Or Ì¡m. LnC Oy OnC ÌC adOQts tÌOU_Ìts¸ atOtUdCs¸
ÌaO¡ts sUCh as a sOÌd¡Cr ¡n ¾mUst QOssCss¡ WÌCn ÌC ¡s COmQÌCtCÌy
rC-CQU¡QQCd, ÌC WOn´t CVCn rCCO_n¡2C Ì¡s OWn W¡!C WÌCn sÌC CVCn-
tUaÌ!y sUCCCCds ¡n ttaCK¡n_ Ì¡m dOWn. Í¡naÌ!y ÌC OCCOmCs tÌC mUCÌ-
!CarCd COnQUCrOr O! tÌC ¯ÎOCtan mOUnta¡n strOn_ÌOÌd O! bO aÌ
1OÌOWt. 1 man´s a man¸ sO a dOCKCr ¡s a mCrCCnary. ÌC W¡ÌÌ trCat
Ì¡s sC!!-COnd¡t¡On as mCrCCnary nO d¡UCrCntÌy !rOm tÌC Way ÌC
trCatCd Ì¡s dOCKCrÌOOd. 1 man´s a man. tÌ¡s ¡s nOt !dCÌ¡ty tO any
s¡n_ÌC CssCnCC O! OnC´s OWn¸ OUt a COntInUaÌ rCad¡nCss tO adm¡t a nCW
CssCnCC.
ÌCVC: _ÍVC yOU: CXaCt namC, WÌat´s thC QOÍntr
NhCn yOU namC yOU:8CÌ! yOU aÌVay8 namC anOthC:.
lOn´t OC 8O ÌOUd tn 8tatÍn_ yOU: OQtntOn. 1O:_Ct tt. Nhat
W tt a_aÍn¸ thC OQtntOn yOU hC!dr
lO nOt :CmCmOC: thÍn_8 ÎO: ÍOn_C: than thCy !a8t.
ÍQ¡C tÌCatrC Casts dOUOts UQOn tÌC nOt¡On tÌat tÌCaOC ¡s CntCrta¡n-
mCnt. Jt sÌaKCs tÌC sOC¡aÌ Va!¡d¡ty O! tÌCatrC-as-CntCrta¡nmCnt Oy
rOOO¡n_ ¡t O! ¡ts h:nCt¡On W¡tÌ¡n tÌC CaQ¡taÌ¡st systCm. 1t aÌsO tÌ:Cat-
Cns tÌC QrIV¡ÌC_Cs O! tÌC Cr¡t¡Cs. ¯ÌCsC Qr¡V¡!C_Cs arC OasCd On tÌC
tCCÌn¡CaÌ CXQCrt¡sC WÌ¡CÌ CnaO!Cs tÌC Cr¡t¡C tO maKC CCrta¡n OOsCtVa-
t¡Ons aOOUt QrOdUCt¡Ons and QCr!OrmanCCs. ¯ÌC Cr¡tCr¡a ÌC aQQÌ¡Cs
¡n maK¡n_ Ì¡s OOsCtVat¡Ons arC On!y VCty rarCÌy W¡tÌ¡n Ì¡s OWn COn-
trOÌ; ÌC sCÌdOm WOrr¡Cs aOOUt tÌ¡s¸ OUt rCÌ¡Cs UQOn `tÌCatrC aCstÌCt¡Cs´
:c
În thC dCtaÎÌs O! WhÎCh nOOOdy Îs QartÎCUÌatÌy ÎntCtCstCd. Ì!¸ hOWCVCt¸
thC aCsthCtÎC O! thC thCattC CCasCs tO tCmaÎn În thC OaCK_tOUnd¸ Î! Îts
!OtUm Îs thC aUdÎCnCC and Îts CtÎtCtÎOn Îs nO ÌOn_Ct thC CnCCt tC_Îs-
tCtCd Oy thC nCtVOUs systCms O! sÎn_ÌC ÎndÎVÎdUaÌs OUt thC dC_tCC tO
WhÎCh thC mass O¡ sQCCtatOts OCCOmCs a COhCtCnt WhOÌC¸ thCn thC
CtÎtÎC as hC Îs COnstÎtUtCd tOday Îs nO ÌOn_Ct ahCad O! that mass OUt
aCtUaÌÌy bnds hÎmsCÌ! !at OChÎnd Ît. ·hC mOmCnt WhCn thC mass
OC_Îns tO dÎnCtCntÎatC ÎtsCÌ! În dÎsCUssÎOn and tCsQOnsÎOÌC dCCÎsÎOns¸
Ot În attCmQts tO dÎsCOVCt WCÌÌ-!OUndCd attÎtUdCs O! Îts OWn¸ thC
mOmCnt thC !aÌsC and dCCCQtÎVC tOtaÌÎty CaÌÌCd `aUdÎCnCC´ OC_Îns tO
dÎsÎntC_tatC and thCtC Îs nCW sQaCC !Ot thC !OtmatÎOn O! sCQatatC
QattÎCs WÎthÎn Ît · sCQatatC QattÎCs COttCsQOndÎn_ tO COndÎtÎOns as
thCy tCaÌÌy atC· at that mOmCnt thC CtÎtÎC sUnCts thC dOUOÌC mÎs-
!OttUnC O! sCCÎn_ hÎs natUtC as a_Cnt tCVCaÌCd and¸ at thC samC tÎmC¸
dCVaÌUCd. OÎmQÌy Oy thC !aCt O! aQQCaÌÎn_ tO an `aUdÎCnCC´ · WhÎCh
COntÎnUCs tO CXÎst În Îts OÌd¸ OQagUC !Otm OnÌy !Ot thC thCattC¸ OUt
ChataCtCtÎstÎOÌÌy¸ nO ÌOn_Ct !Ot bÌm·thC CtÎtÎC OCCOmCs¸ WhCthCt hC
mCans tO Ot nOt¸ thC adVOCatC O! What thC anCÎCnts UsCd tO OÌÌ
`thCatrOCratÎa´: thC UsC O! thCattC tO dOmÎnatC thC massCs Oy manÎQU-
ÌatÎn_ thCÎt tCbCXCs and sCnsatÎOns·thC CXaCt OQQOsÎtC O! tCsQOnsÎOÌC
COÌÌCCtÎVCs !tCCÌy ChOOsÎn_ thCÎr QOsÎtÎOns. ·hC `ÎnnOVatÎOns´ WhÎCh
sUCh aUdÎCnCCs WÎÌÌ dCmand atC CXCÌUsÎVCÌy COnCCHCd WÎth What Îs
tCaÌÎzaOÌC WÎthÎn CXÎstÎn_ sOCÎCty¸ and atC thUs thC OQQOsÎtC O! `tCnO-
VatÎOns´. LQÎC thCattC attaCKs thC OasÎC VÎCW that att may dO nO mOtC
than ÌÎ_htÌy tOUCh UQOn CXQCrÎCnCC· thC VÎCW WhÎCh _tants OnÌy tO
×ÎtsCh thC tÎ_ht V CnCOmQass thC WhOÌC tan_C O! CXQCtÎCnCC¸ and
thCn OnÌy !Ot thC ÌOWCt CÌassCs O! sOCÎCty. ·hÎs attaCK UQOn thC OasÎs
Îs at thC samC tÎmC an assaUÌt UQOn thC CtÎtÎC´ QrÎVÎÌC_Cs. ¬nd thÎs thC
CrÎtÎCs haVC sCnsCd¡ În thC dCOatC OVCt CQÎC thCattC thCy mUst OC COn-
sÎdCtCd an ÎntCtCstCd Qatty.
ÌatUtaÌÌy¸ sUCh `sCÌ!-COnttOÌ´ O! thC sta_C COUnts On thCtC OCÎn_
aCtOts WhOsC ÎdCa O! thC aUdÎCnCC Îs CssCntÎaÌÌy dÎnCtCnt !tOm thC
anÎmaÌ-tamCt´s VÎCW O! thC OCasts WhO ÎnhaOÎt Ds Ca_C: aCtOts !Ot
WhOm CnCCt Îs nOt an Cnd OUt a mCans. ·hC ÍUssÎan QtOdUCCt
mCyCthOÌd Was tCCCntÌy asKCd În ÛCtÌÎn What În hÎs OQÎnÎOn dÎs-
tÎn_UÎshCd hÎs aCtOrs !tOm thOsC O! NCstCH LUtOQC. ÌC tCQÌÎCd:
ºkor u E¸ic Tkcorre? [Firsr version¡ : :
´²VO tUn_s. Ì¡rst¸ tDC¸ tD¡nK¡ sCCOnd¸ tDC¸ dO nOt tD¡nK ¡dC8!¡st¡C-
8!!¸ Dut m8tCr¡8!¡st¡C!!¸.´ ²DC V¡CV tD8t tDC st8_C ¡s 8 mOr8! ¡nst¡-
tut¡On ¡s ¡ust¡DCd On!¸ ¡n rC!8t¡On tO 8 tDC8trC tD8t dOCs nOt mCrC!¸
U8nsm:t KnOV!Cd_C Dut 8Ctu8!!¸ Cn_CndCr8 ¡t. 1n CQ¡C tDC8trC tDC
8CtOr´s tr8În¡n_ COns¡sts ¡n 8Ct¡n_ ¡n suCD 8 V8¸ tD8t DC ¡s OrÎCntCd
tOV8rds KnOV!Cd_C; 8nd tD¡s KnOV!Cd_C¸ ¡n D¸dCtCrm¡nCs nOt On!¸
tDC COntCnt Dut 8!sO tDC rem¸í, Q8usCs 8nd strCssC8 O! D¡s VDO!C QCr-
!Orm8nCC. ²D¡s sDOu!d nOt¸ DOVCVCr¸ DundCr8tOOd ¡n tDC sCnsC O!
8 st¸!C. 1n tDC QrO_r8mmC nOtCs tO ¬ .c's o .c VC rC8d: ´1n
CQ¡C tDC8trC tDC 8CtOr D8s sCVCr8! DnCt¡Ons¸ 8nd 8CCOrd¡n_ tO tDC
Q8rt¡Cu!8r !unCt¡On DC ¡s !u!B!!¡n_¸ tDC st¸!C O! D¡s 8Ct¡n_ V¡!! CD8n_C.´
²D¡s Q!ur8!¡t¸ O! QOss¡D¡!¡t¡Cs ¡s COntrO!!Cd D¸ 8 d¡8!CCt¡C tO VD¡c 8!!
st¸!¡st¡C COns¡dCr8t¡Ons D8VC tO DOV. ´²DC 8CtOr must sDOV 8n
CVCnt¸ 8nd DC must sDOV D¡msC!!. ÌC n8tur8!!¸ sDOVs tDC CVCnt D¸
sDOV¡n_ D¡msC!!¸ 8nd DC sDOVs D¡msC!! D¸ sDOV!n_ tDC CVCnt. ´!-
tDOu_D tDCsC tVO t8sKs CO:nC¡dC¸ UC¸ must nOt CO¡nC¡dC tO suCD 8
QO¡nt tD8t tDC COntr8st _d!ÛCrCnCC) DCtVCCn tDCm d¡s8QQC8rs.´
`²O m8KC _CsturCs QuOt8D!C´ ¡s tDC 8CtOr´s mOst ¡mQOrt8nt 8CD¡CVC-
mCnt¡ DC must DC 8D!C tO sQ8CC D¡s _CsturCs 8s tDC COmQOs¡tOr QrO-
duCCs sQ8CCd tyQC. ´²DC CQ¡C Q!8¸ ¡s 8 cOnstrUCt¡On tD8t must DC
V¡CVCd r8t¡On8!!¸ 8nd ¡n VD¡CD U¡n_s must DC rCCO_n¡7Cd; tDCrC!OrC
tDC V8¸ ¡t ¡s QrCsCntCd must _O D8!!-V8¸ tO mCCt suCD V¡CVÎn_.´ ²DC
suQrCmC t8sK O! 8n CQ¡C QrOduCt¡On ¡s U _¡VC CXQrCss¡On tO tDC rC!8-
t¡OnsD¡Q DCtVCCn tDC 8Ct!On DC¡n_ st8_CO 8nd CVCr¸tD¡n_ tD8t ¡s ¡n-
VO!VCd ¡n tDC 8Ct O! sU_¡n_ ¸er se. ²DC _CnCr8! CduC8t¡On8! 8QQrO8CD
O! N8:¡sm ¡s dCtCrm¡nCd D¸ tDC d¡8ÌCCt¡c 8t VOrK DCtWCCn tDC 8tO-
tudC O! tC8CD!n_ 8nd tD8t O! !C8O¡n_. sOmCtD¡n_ s¡m¡!8r OCCurs ¡n
CQ¡C tDC8trC V¡tD tDC COnst8nt d¡8ÌCCtÎC DCtWCCn tDC 8Ct¡On VD¡CD ¡s
sDOVn On tDC st8_C 8nd tDC 8tt¡tudC O! sDOV¡n_ 8n 8Ct¡On On tDC
st8_C. ²DC Drst CODdmCnt O! CQ¡C tDC8trC u tD8t ´tDC OnC VDO
sDOVs´ ~tD8t ¡s¸ UC 8CtOr ~ `sD8!! DC sDOVn´. OOmC V¡!! QCrD8Qs Dnd
tD8t suCD 8 !Ormu!8t¡On ¡s rCm¡n¡sCCnt O! ²¡CCK´s O!d `dr8m8tur_¸
O! rC!CX¡On´. ²O sDOV VD¸ tD¡s V¡CV ¡s m¡st8KCn VOu!d DC tO COn-
struCt 8 sQ¡r8! st8¡rC8sC tO C!¡mD tO tDC r¡__¡n_-!O!t O! ÛrCCDt¡8n
tDCOr¸. 1t sDOu!d suUCC DCrC tO m8KC ¡ust OnC QO¡nt: !Or 8!! ¡ts sK¡!!s
O! rCICX¡On¸ tDC ÍOm8nt¡C st8_C nCVCr suCCCCdCd ¡n dO¡n_ ¡ust¡CC tO
IC
tÌC UndamCnta! d¡aÌCCt¡Ca! rCÌat¡OnsÌ¡Q OC!WCCn tÌCOry and QraX¡s¡
¡ts strU__ÌC tO 8CÌ¡CVC tÌ¡s ¾¸ ¡n ¡ts Way¸ 8s Va¡n as tÌat O! IÌC
Zei::keo:e· tOday.
Í!¸ tÌCn¸ tÌC aCtOr On tÌC OÌd sta_C sOmCt¡mCs !OUnd Ì¡msCÌ!¸ as
`COmCd¡an´¸ rUOO¡n_ sÌOUÌdCrs WItÌ tÌC Qr¡Cst¸ m CQ¡C !ÌCatrC ÌC
h nds Ì¡msCÌ! OCs¡dC tÌC QÌ¡ÌOsOQÌCr. Ì¡s _Cs!UrC dCmOnstratCs tÌC
sOC¡aÌ s¡_n¡hCanCC and aQQÌ¡qO¡Ì¡ty O! d¡aÌCCt¡Cs. Ít tCsts COnd¡t¡Ons
On mCn. ¯ÌC d¡mCUÌt¡Cs WÌ¡CÌ a QrOdUCCr mCCts ¡n rCÌCars¡n_ a QÌay
CannOt OC rCsOÌVCd W¡tÌOUt COnCrCtC UndCrstand¡n_ O! tÌC OOdy O!
sOC¡Cty. ÛUt tÌC d¡aÌCCt¡C WÌ¡CÌ CQ¡C tÌCatrC sCts OUt tO QrCsCnt ¡s nOt
dCQCndCnt On a sCQUCnCC O! sCCnCs ¡n t¡mC¡ ratÌCr¸ ¡t dCCÌarCs ¡t8CÌ!
¡n tÌOsC _CstUraÌ CÌCmCnts tÌat !Orm tÌC Oas¡s O! CaCÌ sCQUCnCC ¡n
t¡mC. ¸¯ÌCsC _CstUraÌ CÌCmCnU arC nOt CÌCmCntaÌ ¡n tÌC str¡Ct sCnsC O!
tÌC WOrd OUt OnÌy ¡nasmUCÌ as tÌCy arC s¡mQÌCr tÌan tÌC sCQUCnCCs
OasCd UQOn tÌCm.) ¯ÌC tÌ¡n_ tÌat ¡s rCVCaÌCd as tÌOU_Ì Oy Ì¡_ÌU¡n_
¡n !ÌC `COnd¡t¡On´ rCQrCsCntCd On tÌC sæ_C ¬ as a COQy O! ÌUman
_CstUrCs, aCt¡Ons and WOrds - ¡s an ¡mmanCntÌy d¡a!CCt¡CaÌ att¡tUdC.
¯ÌC COnd¡t¡OnS WÌ¡CÌ CQ¡C tÌCatrC rCVCaÌs ¡s tÌC d¡a!CCt¡C at a stand-
st¡ÌÌ. ÍOr jUst a8¸ ¡n ÌC_C̸ tÌC sCQUCnCC O! t¡mC ¡s nOt tÌC mOtÌCr O!
tÌC d¡aÌCCt¡C Out OnÌy tÌC mCd¡Um ¡n WÌ¡CÌ tÌC d¡aÌCCt¡C man¡!Cst>
¡tsCÌ!¸ sO ¡n CQ:C tÌCatrC tÌC d¡aÌCCt¡C ¡s nOt OOC O! tÌC COntrad¡Ct¡On
OCtWCCn sUCCCss¡VC sætCmCnts Or Ways O! OCÌaV¡n_¸ OUt O! tÌC _Cs-
tUrC ¡tsCÌ!.
¯W¡CC LaÌy Lay ¡s sUmmOnCd tO a WaÌ̸ tÌC Ur8t OmC tO CÌan_C
Ì¡s CÌOtÌCs, tÌC sCCOnd tImC tO OC sÌOt¡ ¡n OOtÌ CasCs IÌC sUmmOn-
¡n_ _CstUrC ¡s tÌC samC. ÌC Ì¡msCÌ! UsCs anOtÌCr _CstUrC tWICC. tÌC
Urst t¡mC tO rCnOUnCC tÌC UsÌ ÌC WantCd tO OUy¸ tÌC sCCOnd t¡mC tO
aCCCQt tÌC CÌCQÌant. ¯Ì¡s ¡s tÌC K¡nd O! d¡sCOVCry tÌat W¡ÌÌ sat¡sj tÌC
¡ntCrCst O! tÌC aUd¡CnCC WÌO !rCQUCnt CQ¡C tÌCatrC¡ ¡t ¡s W¡tÌ d¡sCOVCr-
¡Cs Ì¡KC tÌCsC tÌat tÌCy W¡ÌÌ _Ct tÌC¡r mOnCy´s WOrtÌ. ¯ÌC aUtÌOr¸ WÌCn
d¡sCUss¡n_ WÌat d¡stIn_U¡sÌCs tÌC CQ¡C tÌCatrC !rOm tÌC Ord¡nary
tÌCaDC O! CntCrta¡nmCnt as 8 mOrC sCr¡OUs art !Orm¸ ¡s r¡_Ìt tO QO¡nt
OUt. `NÌCn WC CaÌÌ tÌC OtÌCr tÌCatrC¸ tÌC OnC IÌat ¡s ÌOst¡ÌC tO Us¸
mCrCÌy CuÌ¡nary WC CrCatC tÌC ¡mQrCss¡On tÌat ¡n OUr tÌC8UC WC arC
a_a¡nst aÌÌ !Un¸ as tÌOU_Ì WC COUÌd nOt ¡ma_¡nC ÌCaC¡n_ Or OC¡n_
taU_Ìt OtÌCr IÌan as an ¡ntCnsCÌy UnQÌCasUr8OÌC QrOCCss. LnC ¡s O!tCn
ºòo: is E¸ic Tòeo:·e? [Fi·s: ve·sion| :
j
CDÌ¡_Cd tC ?CaKCn CnC´s C?n QCs¡t¡Cn ¡n CrdCr tC Þ_Dt an CQQCnCnt¸
and tC rCD CnC´s CausC C! ¡ts DrCadtD and V8Ì¡d¡t¸ !Cr tnC saKC C! ¡m-
mCd¡atC adVanU_C. ÅDus rCduCCd QurC̸ tC Þ_Dt¡n_ !Crm¸ tDC CausC
ma¸ ?¡n¸ Dut ¡t CannCt rCQÌaCC ?Dat ¡t Das dC!CatCd. `Ct tDC aCt C!
rCCC_n¡Z¡n_ C! ?D¡CD ?C sQCa ¡s ¡tsCÌ! a QÌCasuraDÌC aCt. ÅDC s¡mQÌC
!aCt tDat man C DC rCCC_n¡ZCd ¡n a CCrta¡n ?a¸ CrCatCs a sCnsC C!
trÌumQD¸ and tDC !aCt¸ tCC¸ tDat DC Can nCVCr DC rCCC_n¡ZCd CCmQÌCtC-
̸¸ nCVCr CnCC and !Cr aÌ̸ tDat DC ¡s nCt sC Cas¡Ì¸ CxDaust¡DÌC¸ tDat DC
DCÌds and CCnCCaÌs sC man¸ QCss¡D¡¡¡t¡Cs ?¡tD¡n D¡msCÌ! ¸DCnCC D¡s
CaQaC¡t¸ !Cr dCVCÌCQmCnt)¸ ¡s a QÌCasur8DÌC rCCC_n¡t¡Cn. ÅDat man
Can DC CDan_Cd D¸ D¡s surrCund¡n_s and Can D¡msCÌ! CDan_C tDC
surrCund¡n_ ?CrÌd¸ ¡.C. Cn trCat ¡t ?¡tD CCnsCQuCnCC¸ aÌÌ tD¡s QrC-
duCCs !CCÌ¡n_s C! QÌCasurC. ÏCt¸ C! CCursC¸ ¡! man ¡s V¡C?Cd as sCmC-
tD¡n_ mCCDan¡C̸ sCmCtD¡n_ tDat C8n DC Qut ¡ntC a sÌCt¸ sCmCtD¡n_
ÌaCK¡n_ rCs¡stanCC¸ as DaQQCns tCda¸ undCr tDC ?C¡_Dt C! CCrta¡n
sCC¡aÌ CCnd¡t¡Cns. ¬stCn¡sDmCnt¸ ?D¡CD must DCrC DC ¡nsCrtCd ¡ntC
tDC ¬r¡stCtCÌ¡an !Crmu¡8 !Cr tDC ChCCts C! tra_Cd¸¸ sDCuÌd DC CCn-
s¡dCrCd Cnt¡rC̸ as a CaQaC¡t¸. Ït Ç DC ÌC8Cd.´
ÅDC damm¡n_ C! tDC strCam C! rCaÌ Ì¡!C¸ tDC mCmCnt ?DCn ¡ts ÍC?
CCmCs tC a sUndst¡Ì¡¸ maKCs ¡tsCÌ! !CÌt as rCÍuX: tD¡s rCÍu ¡s astCn¡sD-
mCnt. ÅDC d¡aÌCCt¡C at a standsCÌÌ ¡s ¡ts rCaÌ CD¡CCt. Ït ¡s tDC rCÇK !rCm
?D¡CD ?C _8ZC dC?n ¡ntC tDat strCam C! tDÌn_s ?D¡CD¸ ¡n tDC C¡t¸ C!
]CDCC `tDat´s aÌ?a¸s !uÌÌ and ?DCrC nCDCd¸ sta¸s´¸ tDC¸ DaVC a sCn_
aDCut:
VC8t nOt Cn ÚC ¬aVC ¬DíCn brCaKs a_aínst jOU: ÎOOI¸
bO \On_ Û ít stands mÚC ¬atCr¸ nC¬ ¬aVCs ¬IDrCaK a_aÍn>t Ít.
Ûut ¡! tDC strCam C! tD¡n_s DrCaKs a_a¡nst tD¡s rCCK C! astCn¡sDmCnt¸
tDCn tDCrC ¡s nC d¡UCrCnCC DCt?CCn a Duman Ì¡!C and a ?Crd. Ïn CQ¡C
tDCatrC DCtD arC Cn̸ tDC CrCst C! tDC ?aVC. ÍQ¡C tDCatrC maKCs ¡¡!C
sQurt uQ D¡_D !rCm tDC DCd C! t¡mC and¸ !Cr an ¡nstant¸ DCVCr ¡r¡-
dCsCCnt ¡n CmQt¸ sQaCC. ÅDCn ¡t QuU ¡t DaCK tC DCd.
WhåÏ Îö
LFÎÜ
ÏhLåÏÑLr
SECOIT NEBSIOI
7 Tke Fel±eo ¬uoiene
´ÌOtDID_ I8 DOtC QÌC888Dt tD8D tO ÌIC OD 8 8OL
tC8OID_ 8 DOVCÌ´¸ WtOtC ODC OÍ UC CQIC 8utDOt8 OÍ tDC Ì88t CCDtutj.
±DC tCD8tK 8u__C8t8 tDC OC_tCC OÍ tCÌ8X8tIOD WDICD 8 D8rr8tIVC WOtK
C8D _IVC tO It8 tC8OCt. ÌÍ WC ID8_IDC 8 QCt8OD 8ttCDOID_ 8 Or8D8tIC
8QCCt8CÌC WC tCDO tO VI8u8ÌIZC tDC OQQO8ItC. NC 8CC 8ODCODC WDO¸
WItD CVCtj DDtC OÍ DI8 DCID_¸ I8 IDtCDtÌj ÍOÌÌOWID_ 8 QtOCC88. ±DC
CODCCQt OÍ CQIC tDC8ttC ¸OCVCÌOQCO Dj DtCCDt¸ tDC tDCOtCt\CI8D OÍ
DI8 OWD QOCtIC Qt8X:8¸ IDQÌIC8¸ 8DOVC 8Ì̸ tD8t tDC 8uOICDCC WDICD
tDI8 tDCttC OC8ItC8 tO 8ttr8Ct I8 8 tCÌ8XCO ODC¸ ÍOÌÌOWID_ tDC QÌ8j ID 8
tCÌ8XCO D8DDCt. ±ruC¸ 8uCD 8D 8uOICDCC WIÌÌ 8ÌW8j8 OCCut 88 8 COÌ-
ÌCCtIVC¸ uDÌIKC tDC tC8OCt OÍ 8 DOVCÌ 8ÌODC WItD DI8 tCXt. ÍuttDCt-
DOtC¸ ID DO8t C88C8 tDI8 8uOICDCC ~ 8_8ID¸ 88 8 COÌÌCCtIVC ~ WIÌÌ
QuICKÌj ÍCCÌ IDQCÌÌCO tO t8KC uQ 8D 8ttItuOC tOW8tO8 WD8t It 8CC8. Dut
tDI8 8ttItuOC¸ DtCCDt tDIDK8¸ 8DOuÌO DC 8 COD8IOCtCO 8DO tDCtCÍOtC 8
tCÌ8XCO ODC ~ID 8DOtt¸ It 8DOuÌO DC tDC 8tt:tuOC OÍ 8D IDtCtC8tCO Q8ttj.
¬ OOuDÌC OD]CCt I8 QtOVIOCO ÍOt tDC 8uOICDCC´8 IDtCtC8t. ÍIt8t¸ tDC
CVCDt8 8DOV¤ OD 8t8_C¸ tDC8C Du8t DC OÍ 8uCD 8 KIDO tD8t tDCj D8j¸
8t CCtt8ID OCCI8IVC QOIDt8¸ DC CDCCKCO Dj tDC 8uOICDCC 8_8ID8t It8 OWD
:c 
CXQCr¡CnCC. OCCOnd¸ tBC QrOduCt¡On¡ tB:s must DC transQarCnt as tO
¡ts art¡st¡C armaturC. ÇOuCB transQarCnC¸ :s tBC CXaCt OQQOs¡tC Ot
`s¡mQ¡¡C:t¸¸ :t QrCsuQQOsCs _Cnu¡nC art¡st¡C ¡ntC¡¡¡_CnCC and sK¡¡¡ :n
tBC QrOduCCr.) LQ¡C tBCatrC addrCssCs ¡tsC¡t tO ¡ntCrCstCd Qart¡Cs `VBO
dO nOt tB¡nK un¡Css tBC¸ BaVC a rCasOn tO´. ÛrCCBt ¡s COntant¡¸ aVarC
Ot tBC massCs¸ VBOsC COnd:t¡OnCd usC Ot tBC taCu¡t¸ Ot tBOu_Bt :s
surC¡¸ COVCrCd D¸ tB¡s tOtmu¡a. Ï¡s CUOrt tO maKC tBC aud¡CnCC :n-
tCrCstCd ¡n tBC tBCattC as CXQCtt8 ~ nOt at a¡¡ tOr CuÌtUra¡ rCasOns ~ :s
an CXQrCss¡On Ot B¡s QO¡:t¡Ca¡ QurQOsC.
77 Tke Folle (S:or¸)
LQ:C tBCatrC sCts Out `tO maKC VBat :s sBOVn On tBC sU_C unsCnsa-
t:Ona¡´. ÏCnCC an O¡d stOt¸ V:¡¡ OttCn DC Ot mOrC usC U ¡t tBan a nCV
OnC. ÛrCCBt Bas COns¡dCrCd tBC QuCst¡On VBCtBCr tBC CVCnt8 sBOVn
:n CQ:C tBCattC Ou_Bt nOt tO DC a¡rCad¸ KnOVn. ÅBC rC¡at:OnsB:Q Ot
CQ¡C tBCatrC tO ¡ts stOr¸¸ BC sa¸s¸ :s ¡¡KC tBat Ot a Da¡¡Ct tCaCBCr tO B¡s
QuQ¡¡¸ B¡s Utst tasK ¡s tO ¡OOsCn BCr jO¡nts a8 tat as tBC¸ V¡¡¡ _O.
ÇLB:nCsC tBCatrc QrOCCCds :n QrCC¡sC¡¸ tB:s Va¸. Ìn `ÅBC ÏOuttB ·a¡¡
Ot LB¡na´" ÛrCCUt Bas CXQ¡a¡nCd B¡s dCDt tO tB¡s tBCatrC.) Ìt tBCattC ¡s
tO sBOV CVCnt8 tBat arC a¡tCad¸ KnOVn¸ `tBCn B:stOr¡C¡ CVCnts VOu¡d
DC¸ On tBC taCC Ot :t¸ tBC mOst su¡taD¡C´. ÅBC CQ:C `sttCtCB¡n_´ Ot tBCsC
CVCnts D¸ tBC mCtBOd Ot aCt¡n_¸ D¸ QOstCrs and D¸ CQt:Ons a¡ms at
CXOrC¡Z¡n_ tBC¡r sCnsat¡Ona¡:sm.
ÅBus¸ :n B¡8 ¡atCst Q¡a¸ ÛrCCBt taKCs tOr B:s suD]CCt tUC ¡:tC Ot
La¡¡¡CO. ÏC rCQrCsCnts La¡¡¡CO Urst and tOrCmOst as a _tCat tCaCBCr.
La¡¡¡CO nOt On¡¸ tCaCDs tBC nCV QB¸s¡Cs¸ BC a¡sO tCaCBCs :t ¡n a nCV
Va¸. ÅBC sC¡Cnt¡UC CXQCt:mCnt ¡s¸ :n B¡s Bands¸ nO ¡On_Cr a COnQuCst
On¡¸ Ot sC¡CnCC Dut a¡sO Ot QCd8_O_¸. ÅBC ma¡n CmQBas¡s Ot tBC Q¡a¸
¡s nOt On La¡¡¡CO´s rCCantat:On. ÍatBCr¸ tBC rCa¡¡¸ CQ:C QrOCC8s sBOu¡d
DC sOu_Bt :n tBC CaQt¡On tO tBC QCnu¡t:matC sCCnC. `16jj~JÓq2. ta
Qr:sOnCr Ot tUC ÌnQu¡s¡UOn¸ La¡:¡CO COnt¡nuCs B:s sC:Cnt¡hC VOrK unt¡¡
B¡s dCatB. ÏC suCCCCds ¡n smu__¡:n_ B¡s Qr¡nC¡Qa¡ VOrKs Out Ot
Ìta¡¸.´
LQ¡C tBC8UC and Ua_¡C tBCatrC BaVC a VCr¸ d:UCrCnt K:nd Ot a¡\¡-
" Z¸c and Zeners Toda¸, VOÌ. `¯¸ 1g_ó¸ nO.  ó- 
ºkor u E¸ic Tkeor·e? [Secono ve·sion¡ t¿
aDCC ?¡tD tDC Qass¡D_ O! t¡mC. ÛCCausC tDC susQCDsC CODCC:s ÌCss
tDC CDd¡D_ tDaD tDC sCQa:atC CVCDts¸ CQ¡C tDCattC CD sQaD VC:¸ CX-
tCDs¡VC QC:¡Ods O! t¡mC. [·D¡s ¼ ODCC CQuaÌ̸ t:uC O! tDC m¸stC:¸
QÌa¸. ·DC d:amatu:_¸ O! Oeçus O: Tke ºilo Duck ¡s at tDC OQQO-
s¡tC QOÌC tO tDat O! CQ¡C tDCat:C.)
777 Tke Unr·o¿ic He·o
1D Í:CDCD CÌass¡cÌ tDCat:C tDC:C usCd tO D a sQaCC ÌC!t amOD_ tDC
aCtO:s !O: sQCCtatO:s O! D¡_D :aDK¸ ?DOsC a:mCDa¡:s stOOd uQOD tDC
OQCD sta_C. NC tDÌnK tD¡s Out O! QÌaCC. ·DC DOt¡OD O! ´tDC d:amat¡C´¸
?D¡CD ¡s Ou: aCCCQtCd DODOD O! tDC tDCat:C¸ ?OuÌd maKC ¡t aQQCat
CQuaÌ̸ Out O! QÌaCC ¡! aD ¡mQattíaÌ tDÌ:d Qa:I¸ ?C:C assOC¡atCd¸ as
´tDC tD¡DK¡D_ maD´¸ ?ítD tDC CVCDts sDO?D OD sta_C. `Ct sOmCtD¡D_
Ì¡KC tD¡s Das O!tCD OCC:tCd tO Û:CCDt. NC ma¸ _O !u:tDC: aDd sa¸
tDat Û:CCDt Das attCmQtCd tO ma×C tDC tD¡DK¡D_ maD¸ O: ¡DdCCd tDC
?ÌsC maD¸ ¡DtO aD aCtuaÌ dtamat¡C DC:O. ¬Dd ¡t ¡s !:Om tD¡s QO¡Dt O!
V¡C? tDat D¡s tDCat:C ma¸ DC dCbDCd as CQ¡C. ·DC attCmQt ¡s Cat:¡Cd
D1ttDCst ¡D tDC CDa:aCtC: O! La̸ La¸ tDC QaCKC:. La̸ La¸¸ tDC DC:O
O! tDC QÌa¸ ¬ Aon's o Aon, ¡s D¡msCÌ!Ì¡KC aD CmQt¸ sta_C OD ?D¡CD
tDC CODt:ad¡Ct¡ODs O! Ou: sOC¡Ct¸ a:C aCtCd Out. ÍOÌÌ O?¡D_ Û:CcDt´s
Ì¡DC O! tDOu_Dt¸ ODC m¡_Dt CVCD a:t¡VC at tDC Q:OQOs¡t¡OD tDat ¡t ¡s
tDC ?¡sC maD ?DO¸ ¡D tD¡s sCDsC¸ ¡s tDC QC:!CCt CmQt¸ sta_C. 1D aD¸
CasC La̸ La¸ ¡s a ?¡sC maD. ·DC uDd:amat¡C Datu:C O! tDC D¡_DCst
!O:m O! maD ¬tDC sa_C ¬¾CÌCa:̸ :CCO_D¡2Cd D¸ ÍÌatO a VC:¸ ÌOD_
t¡mC a_O. 1D D¡s d¡aÌO_uCs DC tOOK tDC sa_C U tDC VC:¸ tD:CsDOÌd O!
dmma ¬ ¡D tDC 1koeoo, tO UC tD:CsDOÌd O! tDC Qass¡OD QÌa¸. ·DC
mCd¡CVaÌ LD:¡st ?DO¸ as ?C KDO? !:Om UC Ìa:̸ ÍatDC:s¸ aÌsO
:CQ:CsCDtCd tDC sa_C¸ ¡s tDC uDt:a_¡C DC:O ¸o· e×celunce. Ûut ¡D tDC
sCCuÌa: dtama O! tDC NCst¸ tOO¸ tDC sCa:CD !O: tDC uDt:a_¡C DC:O Ìs
DCVC: CCasCd. L!tCD ¡D COD!¡Ct ?¡tD ¡ts tDCO:Ct¡C¡aDs¸ suCD d:ama Das
dCV¡atCd t¡mC aDd a_a¡D¸ aÌV¸s ¡D DC? ?a¸s¸ !:Om tDC autDCDt¡C
!O:m O! I:a_Cd¸ ¬ tDat ¡s¸ !:Om L:CCK t:a_Cd¸. ·D¡s ¡mQO:taDt Dut
Dad̸ ma:×Cd :Oad [?D¡CD ma¸ sC:vC DC:C as tDC ¡ma_C O! a I:ad¡-
t¡OD) U¸ ¡D tDC N¡ddÌC ¬_Cs¸ V¡a 1:Os?¡tDa aDd tDC N¸stC:¡Cs¡ ¡D
tDC a_C O! tDC Da:OQuC¸ V¡a Lt¸QD¡us aDd LaÌdC:OD. LatC: ?C bDd ¡t
:8
¡n ÏCnZ and LraDDC¸ and Þna¡¡¸ ¡n OD¡ndDCr_. ODaCsQCar¡an sCCnCs
stand 8s mCnumCnts at ¡ts Cd_C¸ and LCCtDC CrCssCd ¡t ¡n tDC sCCCnd
Qart C! Fous:. Ït ¡s a ÍurCQCan rCad¸ Dut ¡t ¡s a LCrman CnC tCC. Ï!¸
tDat ¡s¸ CnC Can sQCaK C! a rCad ratDCr tDan a sta¡K¡n_-QatD a¡Cn_
?D¡CD \DC ¡C_aC¸ C! mCd¡CVa¡ and DarCQuC dr8ma D8s CrCQt dC?n tC
us. ÅD¡s sta¡KÎn_-QatD¸ rCu_D and CVCr_rC?n tDCu_D ¡t ma¸ DC¸
¡s V¡s¡D¡C a_a¡n tCda¸ ¡n tDC Q¡a¸s C! ÛrCCDt.
1l 7ke 1n:erru¡tions
ÛrCC!t CQQCsCs D¡s CQ¡C UCatrC \C t!C UCaDC ?D:CD :S dram8t:C :n
tDC narrC? sCnsC and ?DCsC tDCCr¸ ¾ !Crmu¡atCd D¸ ¬rÎstCt\C.
ÅD¡s ¡s ?D¸ ÛrCCDt ¡ntrCduCCs tDC dramatur_¸ C! D¡s tDCatrC as a
`nCn-¬r¡stCtC¡¡an´ CnC¸ just as Í¡Cmann ¡ntrCduCCd a nCn-ÍuC¡¡dCan
_CCmCtr¸. ÅD¡s ana¡C_¸ sDCu¡d maKC ¡t C¡Car tDat ?Dat ?C DaVC
DCrC ¡s nCt a CCmQCt¡t¡VC rC¡at¡CnsD¡Q DCt?CCn tDC !Crms C! drama ¡n
QuCst¡Cn. Í¡Cmann rCDsCd tDC aX¡Cm C! Qar8¡¡C¡s¡ ?Dat ÛrCCDt rCDsCs
¡s ¬r¡stCtC¡¡an C8tDars¡s¸ tDC Qur_¡n_ C! tDC CmCt¡Cns tDrCu_D ¡dCnt¡-
ÞC8t¡Cn ?¡tD tDC dCst¡n¸ ?D¡CD ru¡Cs tDC DCrC´s ¡¡!C.
ÅDC rC¡a ×Cd ¡ntCrCst C! tDC aud¡CnCC !Cr ?D¡CD tDC QrCduCt¡Cns C!
CQ¡C tDCatrC arC ¡ntCndCd ¡s duC¸ QrCC¡sC¡¸¸ tC tDC !aCt tDat Qr8Ct¡Ca¡¡¸
nC aQQCa¡ ¡s madC tC tDC sQCCtatCr´s C8QaC¡t¸ !Cr CmQatD¸. ÅDC art
C! CQ¡C tDCatrC CCns¡sts ¡n arCus¡n_ astCn¡sDmCnt ratDCr tDan Cm-
QatD¸. ÅC Qut ¡t as !Crmu¡a¸ ¡nstCad C! ¡dCnO!¸¡n_ ¡tsC¡! ?¡tD tDC
DCrC¸ tDC aud¡CnCC ¡s C¡¡Cd uQCn tC ¡CaC tC DC astCn¡sDCd at tDC
C¡rCumstanCCs ?¡tD¡n ?D¡CD DC Das D¡s DC¡n_.
ÅDC \8sK C! CQ¡C tDCatrC¸ ÛrCCDt DC¡¡CVCs¸ ¡s nCt sC muCD tC dC-
VC¡CQ aCt¡Cns 8s tC rCQrCsCnt CCndÎt¡Cns. Ûut `rCQrCsCnt´ dCCs nCt
DCrC s¡_n¡] `rCQrCduCC´ ¡n tDC sCnsC usCd D¸ tDC tDCCrCOC¡ans C!
Ïatura¡¡sm. ÍatDCr¸ tDC Þrst QC¡nt at ¡ssuC ¡s tC uover tDCsC CCn-
d¡t¡Cns. ¸LnC CCu¡d ¡ust as ?C¡¡ sa¸: tC moke :kem s:ron¿e [ver[rem-
den]=) ÅD¡s unCCVCr:n_ ¸maK¡n_ stran_C¸ Cr a¡¡Cnat¡n_) C! CCnd¡OCns
¡s DrCu_Dt aDCut D¸ QrCCCssCs DC¡n_ ¡ntCrruQtCd. ÅaKC tDC CrudCst
CXamQ¡C: a !am¡¡¸ rC?. OuddCn¡¸ a stran_Cr CCmCs ¡ntC ÛC rCCm.
ÅDC ?¡!C ¡s ¡ust aDCut tC Q¡CK uQ a DrCnZC statUCttC and tDrC? ¡t at
tDC dau_DtCr¸ tDC !atDCr ¡s CQCn¡n_ tDC ?¡ndC? tC C8¡¡ a QC¡¡CCman.
ßkat is Z¸ic Tkeatre? [Seccnd versicn ¡ I_
Pt tD¡s mOmCnt tÌC stran_Cr aQQCars at tÌC dOOr. `ÅaDÌCau´¸ as tÌCj
usCd tO saj arOund :QO. ÅDat ¡s tO saj¸ tÌC sCan_Cr ¡s COnIrOntCd
V¡tD a CCrta¡n sCt OI COnd¡t¡Ons: trOuDÌCd IaCCs¸ OQCn V¡ndOV¸ a
dCVastatCd ¡ntCr¡Or. ÅDCrC CX¡sts anOtÌCr QO¡nt OI V¡CV IrOm VD¡CD
tÌC mOrC usuaÌ sCCnCs OI DOur_CO¡s ¡¡IC dO nOt ÌOOK sO VCrj d¡UCrCnt
IrOm tD¡s.
l Tke Quctaòle 6esture
`¹DC CDCCt OI c8CD 8cLtcLCc¸ rCads OnC OI ÜrCCDt´s dramatur_¡CaÌ
C\C8C\C QOcU8¸ ¯ 8t\C\Q8\cC 8LC tcVc8icC. ÍLC Uc UOUcLt
W8s 8Lt\C\Q8tcC VDCn tDc CtOWC WOuÌC i8¸ UC 8cLtcLCcs DQOL t1c
sCa¡Cs.´ 1n sDOrt¸ tÌC aCt¡On ¾¡ntCrruQtCd. NC maj _O IurtÌCr DCrC
and rCCaÌ¡ tÌat ¡ntCrruQt¡On ¡s OnC OI tÌC IundamCntaÌ mCtÌOds OI aÌÌ
IOrm-_¡V¡n_. 1t rCaCDCs Iar DCjOnd tDC dOma¡n OI 3. 1t 1s¸ tO mCn-
t¡On ¡ust OnC OI ¡ts asQCCts¸ tÌC Or¡_¡n OI tDC QuOtat¡On. _uOt¡n_ a
tCXt ¡mQÌ¡Cs ¡ntCrruQt¡n_ ¡U COntCXt. 1t V¡ÌÌ rCad¡Ìj DC undCrstOOd¸
t0CrCIOrC¸ Uat CQ¡C tDCatrC¸ V0¡CD dCQCnds On ¡ntCrruQt¡On¸ ¡s QuOt-
aDÌC ¡n a VCrj sQCC¡DC sCnsC. ÅDat ¡ts tCXts arC QuOtaDÌC VOuÌd DC
nOtD¡n_ VCrj sQCC¡aÌ. Üut tÌC _CsturCs usCd ¡n tDC QrOCCss OI aCt¡n_
arC anOt0Cr mattCr.
`NaK¡n_ _Cst0rCs Q0OUDÌC´ ¡s OnC OI t0C CssCnt¡aÌ aCÌ¡CVCmCnts OI
CQ¡C tDCatrC. ÅDC aCtOr must DC aDÌC tO sQaCC D¡s _CsturCs as tÌC COm-
QOs¡tOr QrOduCCs sQaCCd tjQC. ÅD¡s CUCCt Can DC aCD¡CVCd¸ IOr ¡nst-
anCC¸ Dj tÌC aCtOr On sta_C QuOt¡n_ a _CsturC OI D¡s OVn. ÅD0s ¡n
Ha¸_ Znd VC sCC tDat LarOÌa ÌCDCr¸ ¡n tÌC rOÌC OI a OaÌVat¡On
Prmj sCr_Cant, aItCr s¡n_¡n_ ¡n a sCamCn´s taVCt ¡n OrdCr tO maKC
COnVCrts tÌCrC and CDOOs¡n_ a sOn_ mOrC aQQrOQr¡atC tO suCD a
QÌaCC tDan ¡t VOuÌd DaVC DCCn tO a CDurC̸ Das tO QuOtC tD¡s sOn_ and
tDC _CsturCs V¡tD VD¡CD sDC san_ ¡t ¡n IrOnt OI tDC OaÌVat¡On Prmj
LOunC¡Ì. Lr¸ ¡n Tke 3easures Taken, a _rOuQ OI LOmmun¡sts DaVC
tO aCCOunt DCIOrC a Vartj C¡DunaÌ IOr an aCt¡On tDCj DaVC taCn
a_a¡nst anOtÌCr COmradC. 1n dO¡n_ sO tÌCj nOt OnÌj rCQCat tÌC CVCnt
Dut aÌsO rCQrOduCC UC _CsturCs madC Dj tÌC OtDCr COmradC. NDat
¡n CQ¡C tÌCatrC as a VDOÌC ¡s an art¡st¡C mCtÌOd OI tÌC suDt!Cst סnd ¡s¸
¡n tDC Jekrstück ¿d¡daCt¡C QÌaj}¸ Qut tO ¡mmCd¡atC d¡daCt¡C usC. Pt aÌÌ
CO
cvcnrs, cpic tLcarrc is, 5¸ dc6nirion, gcsturaI. Ior rLc morc otrcn
¤c inrcrrupr somconc in proccss ot acrion, rLc morc gcsrurcs ¤c
o5rain.
I7 Tke Diooc:ic 1lo¸
tpic rLcatrc is aI¤a¸s inrcndcd tor rLc acrors quirc as mucL as tor rLc
8Q0ctöIOt8. ´00 0$80nIÍöÌ t0ö8On ¤L¸ :Lc didacric pIa¡ taIIs ÎntO a
carcgor¸ ot irs o¤n is rLar, tLrougL rLc cxccprionaI ausrcrir¸ ot irs
appararus, ir taciIirarcs and cncouragcs rLc inrcrcLangca5iIit¸ ot
acrors and audicncc, audicncc and acrors. tvcr¸ spccraror C 5c-
comc onc ot rLc acrors. ^nd, ot coursc, pIa¸ing a 'reacLcr' is casicr
rLan pIa¸ing a 'Lero'.
In rLc 6rsr vcrsion ot Tke Fù¿kr o] rke Jmder¿ks, ¤Lich ¾
pu5IisLcd in a magazinc, tLc aviaror sriII appcarcd as Lcro. JLc pIa¸
¾ dcviscd tor Lis gIori6carion. JLc sccond vcrsion - and rLis is
LigLI¸ rcvcIaror¸ -o¤cs irs cxisrcncc ro a scIt-corrccrion ot brccLr's.
¯Lar immcnsc cnrLusiasm s¤cpr rLc t¤o conrincnrs immcdiarcI¸
atrcr Lind5crgL's ßigLr! Ycr rLc scnsarion soon 6zzIcd our. In Tke
Fli¿kr o]rke Jinder¿ks brccLr cndcavours ro 5rcak do¤n rLc spcc-
rrum ot rLc 'cvcnr' in ordcr ro cxuacr tLc coIours ot 'cxpcricncc':
tLc cxpcricncc ¤hicL C onI¸ 5c dra¤n trom Lind5crgL's ¤ork
¸Lis ßigLr), and ¤LicL brccLr mcans ro givc 5ack ro 'rLc Lind5crgLs'
¸rLc ¤orkcrs).
J. t. La¤rcnce, tLc aurLor ot Tke Seven 1iùors o] ºùoom¸ ¤rorc
ro !o5crt Gravcs upon ]oining mc !o¸aI ^ir Iorcc tLar rhc srcp Lc
Lad rakcn ¤as tor a man ot roda¸ ¤Lar cnrcring a monasrcr¸ Lad
5ccn tor a man in rLc MiddIc ^gcs. In tLis starcmcnr ¤c rccognizc
rLc samc t¸pc ot rcnsion ¤LicL is cLaracrcrisric ot Tke Fli¿kr o] rke
Jmole·¿ks and ot :Lc Iarcr didacric pIa¸s. ^ monasuc rigour is
appIicd ro rI.c Icaning ot a modcn rccLniquc -in rLc onc csc tLar
ot h¸ing, in tLc orLcr rLar ot rLc cIass srruggIc. JLis sccond appIi-
carion is carricd rLrougL mosr tLorougLI¸ in Tke Aorker. ^ sociaI
drama ¾a 5oId cLoicc tor rch:sing rLc cñccts ot cmparL¸ ro ¤LicL
modcn audicnces arc so accusromcd. brccLr is a¤arc ot rLis¡ Lc
cxprcsscs ir in an cpisroIar¸ pocm ¤LicL Lc addrcsscd ro rLc ¤ork-
ßkar is Z¸ù Tkearre? [Second versionj 2í
crs' rLcarrc in ^c¤ Yorx on rLc occsion ot irs producrion ot rLc
pIa¸, in rLc toIIo¤ing rcrms: 'Man¸ asxcd us: ¤iII rLc ¤orxcr undcr-
srand ¸ou: ¯iII Lc agrcc ro do ¤irLour rLc usuaI drug ot passivc
idcnri6carion ¤irL orLcr mcn's rcvoIrs, orLcr mcn's vicrorics: ¯iII
Lc givc up rLc iIIusion ¤LicL cxcircs Lim tor r¤o Lours and rLcn
Icavcs Lim morc rircd rLan cvcr, hIIcd onI¸ ¤írL vaguc mcmorícs
and vagucr Lopcs:'
I7 Tke ×cror
tpic rLcarrc procccds 5¸ hrs and srarrs, in a manncr compara5Ic ro
rLc imagcs on a 6Im srrip. Irs 5asic torm is rLar ot rLc torccmI im-
pacr on onc anorLcr ot scpararc, sLarpI¸ disrincr siruarions in rLc
pIa¸. JLc songs, rLc caprions, rLc gcsruraI convcnrions dißcrcnriarc
rLc sccncs. ^s a rcsuIr, InrcrvaIs occur ¤LicL rcnd ro dcsrro¸ íIIu-
sion. JLcsc InrcrvaIs paraI¸sc rLc audicncc's rcadIncss tor cmparL¸.
JLcir purposc is ro cna5Ic rLc spccuror ro adopr a criricaI arurudc
¸ro¤ards rLc rcprcscnrcd 5cLaviour ot rLc pIa¸'s cLaracrcrs and ro-
¤ards rLc ¤a¸ in ¤LicL rLis 5cLaviour is rcprcscnrcd). So tar as rLc
manncr ot rcprcscnrarion is conccucd, rLc rasx ot rLc acror in cpic
rLcarrc is ro sLo¤, 5¸ Lis acring, rLar Lc is xccping a cooI Lcad. Jo
Lim, roo, cmparL¸ is otIirrIc usc. Ior rLis ¤a¸ ot acring, rLc 'acrors'
ot dramaric rLcarrc arc nor aI¤a¸s and nor compIcrcI¸ prcparcd.
b¸ imagining ¤Lar ir mcans ro 'pIa¸ ar acring' ¤c ma¸ comc cIoscsr
ro undcrsmnding ¤Lar cpic rLcarrc is aII a5our.
brccLr sa¸s: ´JLc acror musr sLo¤ an cvcnr, and Lc musr sLo¤
LimscI: Hc naruraII¸ sLo¤s rLc cvcnr 5¸ sLo¤ing LimscIt¡ and Lc
sLo¤s LimscIt 5¸ sLo¤ing rLc cvcnr. ^IrLougL rLcc coincidc, rLc¸
musr nor coincidc in sucL a ¤a¸ rLar rLc diñcrcncc 5crwccn rLc r¤o
rasxs is Iosr.' In orLcr ¤ords, rLc acror musr rcscrvc rLc rigLr ro acr
sxíImII¸ our ot cLaracrcr. Hc musr 5c trcc, ar rLc rigLr momcnr, ro
acr LimscIt rLinxing ¸a5our Lis parr). Ir ¤ouId 5c a misraxc, ar sucL
momcnrs, ro dra¤ a paraIIcI ¤irL !omanric iron¸ as pracriscd, tor
cxampIc, 5¸Jiccxin Puss m Boors. JLis Las no didacric purposc; in
rLc hnaI anaI¸sís, aII ir dcmonsrrarcs is rLc pnIIosopLicI sopLisrica-
rion ot rLc aurLor, ¤Lo, ¤LiIc ¤riring Lis pIa¸s, aI¤a¸s Las ar rLc
2C
DaCK O! D¡s m¡nd IDC nOI¡On IDaI IDC ?Or¡d ma¸¸ a!ICr a¡¡¸ DC ¡usI a
s!a_C.
1I ¡s QrCC¡sC¡¸ IDC mannCr O! aCI¡n_ ?D¡CD¸ ¡n CQ¡C IDCaOC¸ C
Casua¡¡¸ rCVCa¡ IDC CXICnI IO ?D¡C arI¡sI¡C ¡nICrCsI Ìs DCrC ÌdCnIÌCa¡
?¡ID QO¡ÌI¡Ca¡ ¡nICrCsI. ¾C nCCd On¡¸ ID¡nK O! ÛrCCDI´s C¸C¡C Terror
ono Aùer¸ o] :ke Tkiro Feick. ÏI ¡s Cas¸ IO sCC IDaI IDC tasK O! aCIÌn_
an OO man Or a mCmDCr O! IDC ÍCOQ¡C´s LOurIs mCans sOmCtD¡n_
!undamCnta¡¡¸ d¡UCrCnI IO a LCrman aCIOr ¡n CX¡¡C !rOm ?DaI tDC
IasK¸ sa¸¸ O! aCIÌn_ NO¡¡ÒrC´s ÏOn ]uan ?Ou¡d mCan IO a sO¡¡d !am¡¡¸
man. ÍOr IDC !OrmCr¸ CmQaID¸ Can sCarCC¡¸ DC rCCOmmCndCd as a
suÌtaD¡C mCtDOd¸ !Or IDCrC Can DC nO CmQatD¸ ?¡ID !DC murdCrCrs
O! OnC´s !C¡¡O?-Þ_DICrs. OuCD CasCs Ca¡¡ !Or a nC? mCIDOd ?DCrCD¸
IDC aCIOr d¡sIanCCs D¡msC¡! !rOm D¡s rO¡C. ÅDC rCsu!I COu¡d DC CXIra-
Ord¡nar:¡¸ suCCCssD¡¸ and IDC mCIDOd ?Ou¡d DC IDC CQÌC OnC.
I71I Tkeo:re on :ke 1ullic 1lo;]orm
ÅDC COnCCr O! IDC CQ¡C IDCatrC Can DC dCUnCd mOrC rCad¡¡¸ ¡n ICOs
O! IDC sIa_C IDan ¡n ICrms O! a nC? K¡nd O! drama. ÍQ¡C tDCaIrC IaKCs
aCCOunI O! a CÌrCumsIanCC ?DÌCD Das rCCC¡VCd IOO ¡ÌII¡C aIICnIÌOn¸
and ?D¡CD COu¡d DC dCsCr:DCd as IDC Þ¡¡¡n_-¡n O! IDC OrCDCsOa Q¡I.
ÅDC aD¸ss ?DÌCD sCQaraICs IDC aCIOrs !rOm IDC aud¡CnCC ¡¡KC IDC dCad
!rOm IDC ¡¡V¡n_¸ IDC aD¸ss ?DOsC s¡¡CnCC DC¡_DICns tDC suD¡¡mC Ìn
drama and ?DOsC rCsOnanCC DC¡_DICns IDC ¡nIOX¡CaI¡On O! OQCra -
tD¡s aD¸ss ?D¡CD, O! a¡¡ tDC C¡CmCnIs O! IDC sIa_C¸ DCars mOsI ¡ndC¡ÌD¡¸
IDC IraCCs O! ¡Is saCra¡ Or¡_:ns¸ Das ¡nCrCas¡n_¡¸ ¡OsI ¡Is s¡_n¡ÞCanCC.
ÅDC sIa_C ¡s sIÌ¡¡ C¡CVa!Cd. ÛuI ÌI nO ¡On_Cr r¡sCs !rOm an ¡mmCasur-
aD¡C dCQID: ¡I Das DCCOmC a QuD¡¡C Q¡aI!Orm. ÅDC d¡daCI¡C Q¡a¸ and
CQ¡C IDCaIrC sCI OuI IO OCCuQ¸ tDÌs Q¡aI!Orm.
öÏ0ÛÎLö
ÎÛÑ
å ÏhLÛÑT
ÛÎ
LFÎÜ
ÏhLåÏÑL
ÌQÎC IDCaDC Îs _CsIura¡. bDÎCI¡¸ sQCaRÎn_¸ IDC _Cs-
IurC Îs IDC maICrÍa¡ anO CQÎC IDCaDC ÎIs QraCIÎCaÌ uOÌÎZaIÎCn. 1! VC
aCCCQI tDÎs IDCn IVC QuCsIÎCns CCmC IC DanO. ÍÎrsI¸ !rCm VDCrC
OCCs CQÎC IDCaIrC CDIaÎn ÎIs _CsIurCs: bCCCnO¸ VDaI OC VC unOCr-
sIanO D¸ IDC `uIÎÌÍZaIÎCn´ C! _CsturCs: ÅDC IDÎrO Qu0IÎCn VDÎCD
VCu¡O IDCn !CÌÌCV Îs: NDaI mCIDCOs OCCs IDC CQÎC IDCaCC usC În ÎIs
IrCaDCnI anO CrÎIÎQuC C! _CsIurCs:
1n ansVCr IC IDC hrsI QuCsIÎCn: IDC _CsIurCs arC !Cund În rCaÌÎt¸.
NCrC QrCCÍsC¡¸ ~ anO IDÎs Îs an ÎmQCrIanI !aCI VCr¸ C¡CsC¡¸ rCÌaICO IC
IDC naIurC C! tDCaIrC ~ IDC¸ arC !CunO Cn̸ În IDC rCaÌÎI¸ C! ICOa¸.
buQQCsC tDaI sCmCCnC VrÎICs a DÎsICrÎCa¡ Q¡a¸: VC maÎntaÎn IDaI DC
VÎ¡Ì suCCCCO În DÎs IasR Cn̸ IC IDC CXICnI IDaI DC Îs aDÌC IC CCCrOÎ-
naIC QasI CVCnIs¸ În a mCanÎn_!¡ anO ÎnICÌ¡Î_ÎDÌC Va¸¸ VÎtD _CsIurCs
a man mÎ_DI maRC ICOa¸. ÍrCm IDÎs sIÎQuÌatÎCn CCrIaÎn ÎnsÎ_DIs ÎnIC
tDC QCssÎDÎÌÎtICs anO ÌImÎIaIÎCns C! DÎsICrÎCa¡ Orama mÎ_DI !CÌÌCV. 1n
tDC nrsI Q¡aCC¸ ÎmÎIaICO _CsturCs arC VCrUÌCss unÌCss IDC QCÎnI IC DC
maOC Îs¸ QrCCÎsC¡¸¸ tDC _CsIuraÌ QrCCCss C! ÎmÎIatÎCn. ¬¡sC¸ tDC _CsturC
O!¸ sa¸¸ a QCQC as DC CrCVns LDarÌCma_nC¸ Cr C! LDar¡Cma_nC
as hC tCCCIVCs thC CtCWn¸ Can nC !Cn_Ct CCCUt tCday CXCCQt as
ImItatICn. ÎCnCC thC taW matCtIa! C! CQIC thCattC Is CXC!UsIVC!y
thC _CstUtC as It CCCUts tCday ¬ thC _CstUtC CIthCt C! an aCtICn Ct C!
thC ImItatICn C1 an aCtICn.
Ìn ansWCt tC thC sCCCnd gUCstICn: thC _CstUtC has tWC adVanta_Cs
CVCt thC hI_h!y dCCCQtIVC statCmCnts and assCttICns nCtma!!y madC
Oy QCCQ!C¸ and CVCt thCIt m8Dy-!ayCtCd and CQagUC aCtICns. 1Itst¸
thC _CstUtC Is !a!sIUaO!C Cn!y UQ tC a QCInt; and thC mCtC InCCn-
sQICUCUs It Is¸ thC mCtC haOItUa!!y It Is tCQCatCd¸ thC mCtC dImCU!t
It Is tC !a!sIj. bCCCnd!y¸ Un!IRC QCCQ!C´s aCtICns and CndCaVCUts¸
It has a dcnaO!C OC_Inn:n_ and a dCLnaO!C Cnd. ÌndCCd¸ thIs stt:Ct¸
!tamC-!IRC¸ CnC!CsCd natUtC C! CaCh mCmCnt C! an attItUdC WhICh¸
a!tCt a!!¸ Is as a WhC!C In a statC C! !IVIn_ LUX¸ Is CnC C! thC OasIC dIa-
!CCtICa! ChataCtCtIstICs C! thC _CstUtC. ÅhIs !Cads tC an ImQCttant
CCnC!UsICn: thC mCtC !tCgUCnt!y WC IntCttUQt sCmCCnC Cn_a_Cd In
an aCtICn¸ thC mCtC _CstUtCs WC COtaIn. ÎCnCC¸ thC IntCttUQtIn_ C!
aCtICn Is CnC C! thC QtInCIQa! CCnCCrs C! CQIC thCaCC. Ìt Is hCtC that
thC ImQCttanCC C! thC sCn_s !Ct thC `CCCnCmy´ C! thC dtama as a
WhC!C tCsIdCs. ¯IthCUt antICIQatIn_ thC dImCU!t stUdy¸ yCt tC OC
madC¸ C! thC !UnCtICn C! thC tCXt In CQIC thCattC¸ WC C at !Cast say
that C!tCn Its maIn !UnCtICn Is nCt tC I!!UsttatC Ct adVanCC thC aCtICn
OUt¸ Cn thC CCDttaty¸ tC IntCttUQt It: nCt Cn!y thC aCtICn C! CthCts¸
OUt a!sC CnC´s OWn. ÌnCIdCnta!!y¸ It Is thC tCtatdIn_ gUa!Ity C! thCsC
IntCttUQtICns and thC CQIsCdIC gUa!Ity C! thIs !tamIn_ C! aCtICn
WhICh a!!CW _CstUta! thCattC tC OCCCmC CQIC thCattC.
¬ QCssIO!C äUOjCCt !Ct IutthCt dIsCUssICn mI_ht OC thC Way In
WhICh thC taW matCtIa! [thC _CstUtC) thUs QtCQatCd Is QtCCCssCd Cn
thC sta_C. ¬CtICn and tCXt sCtvC hCtC as nCthIn_ mCtC than VatIaO!C
C!CmCnts In an CXQCtImCnt. ÛUt WhCtC dCCs thC tCsU!t C! thC CXQCtt-
mCnt QCInt:
ÅhC ansWCt tC thC sCCCnd gUCstICn¸ QUt In thIs Way¸ CannCt OC
sCQatatCd !tCm thC QtCO!Cm C! thC t0Itd: What atC thC mCthCds UsCd
In QtCCCssIn_ _CstUtCs:' ÅhCsC gUCstICns tCVCa! thC ttUC dIa!CCtIC C!
" Ïn tDc Ot:g:naÌ tjpcsC:pt¸  tDc  ÎOÌÌO¬:ng  passagc appcats  :n  manusc::pt În 
tDc  marg:n  ad¡O:n:ng  tD:s  pa:agrapD:  ´¯Dc  gcstutc  dcmOnsDatcs  tDc  sOc:aÌ 
s:gn:ncancc  and  appÌ:caDÎÌ:tj  OI  d:aÌcct:cs·  1t  tcsts  rcÌat:Ons  On  mcn.  ¯Dc 
Studies[r a Tkeo_ o¡Z¸tc Tkeatre ?ó
CQ¡C t!CattC. NC s!a¡¡ Cn¡¸ QC¡nt !CtC tC a !CV C! Íts Das:C CCnCCQts.
1Ct a statt¸ t!C !C¡¡CVÍn_ tC¡atÍCns!¡Qs atC dÍa¡CCtÍCa¡: t!at C! t!C
_CstutC tC t!C s¡tuat¡Cn¸ and více versa, t!at C! t!C aCtCt tC t!C
C!ataCtCt tCQtCCntCd¸ and vtce versa, t!at C! t!C att!tudC C! t!C aCtCt¸
as dCtCtm¡nCd D¸ t!C aut!Ct¡t¸ C! t!C tCXt¸ tC t!C CtÍt¡CaÌ att¡tudC C!
t!C aud¡CnCC¸ and vice versa, t!at C! t!C sQCC:bC aCt:Cn tCQtCsCntCd
tC t!C aCt¡Cn ¡mQ¡¡Cd ¡n an¸ t!Catt¡CÌ tCQtCsCntat¡Cn. ¯!¡s ¡¡st ¡s
suUC¡Cnt tC s!CV t!at aÌ¡ t!C d¡a¡CCt¡Ca¡ mCmCnts atC suDCtdÍnatCd
!CtC tC t!C suQtCmC d¡a¡CCt¡C ¬nCV tCd¡sCCVCtCd a!tCt DCÍn_ !Ct_Ct-
tCn !Ct a ¡Cn_ t¡mC ¬ namC¡¸¸ t!C d:a¡CCtÍC DCtVCCn tCCC_nÍtÍCn and
CduCt¡Cn. ¬¡¡ t!C tCCC_nÍt:Cns aC!¡CVCd D¸ CQÍC t!CaC !aVC a d¡tCCt-
¡¸ CduCtÍVC CÛCCt; at t!C samC t¡mC¸ t!C CduCt¡VC CÛCCt C! CQ¡C
t!CattC ís !mmCd¡atC¡¸ ttans¡atCd ¡ntC tCCC_n¡t¡Cns ¬ t!Cu_! t!C
sQCCuC tCCC_n¡t¡Cns C! aCtCts and aud¡CnCC ma¸ VC¡¡ DC d¡ÛCtCnt
!tCm CnC anCt!Ct.
prOducuOn  dÎUcuÌDcS  VDÎcD  tDc  prOduccr  mccU  VDÎÌc  tcDcars:ng  tDc  pÌaj 
0annOt  ~ cvcn  ÎΠtDcj  OrÎgÎnatc În tDc ScatcD ÎOr ¨cÛcct¯  ~ Dc Scpatatcd  anj 
ÌOngcr ÍtOm cOnCctc  ÎnSÎgDtS  ÎntO  tDc ÌÍÎc OΠSOcÎctj. 
ÎÑÛM
ÏhL
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ÜÛMMLÑÏåÑT
ÙCrt ÙrCCDt :s 8 d:DCuÌt QDCnOmCnOn. ÌC rCLIsCs
tO m8KC `IrCC´ usC OI D:s _rC8t Ì:tCr8rj _IIts. 1nd tDCrC :s nOt OnC OI
tDC _:DCs ÌCVCÌÌCd 8_8:nst D:s stjÌC OI Ì:tCr8rj 8Ct:V:tj ~ QÌ8_:8rIst¸
trOuDÌC-m8KCr¸ s8DOtCur ~ tD8t DC VOuÌd nOt CÌ8Im 8s 8 COmQÌÍmCnt
tO D:s unÌ:tCr8rj¸ 8nOnjmOus¸ 8nd jCt nOt:CC8DÌC 8CtIV:tj 8s CduC8tOr¸
tD:nKCr¸ Or_8nIzCr¸ QOÌ:t:c:8n 8nd tDC8UIC8Ì QrOduCCr. În 8nj c8sC DC
:s unguCst:On8DÌj tDC OnÌj Vr:tCr Vr:t:n_ In LCrm8nj tOd8j VDO
8sKs D:msCÌI VDCrC DC Ou_Dt tO 8QQÌj D:s t8ÌCnt¸ VDO 8QQÌ:Cs It OnÌj
VDCrC DC :s COnV:nCCd OI tDC nCCd tO dO sO¸ 8nd VDO 8Dst8Íns On
CVCrj OtDCr OCC8s:On. ²DC Vr:t:n_s 8ssCmDÌCd undCr tDC t:tÌC Ier-
sucke L¬j 8rC sucD QO:nts OI 8QQÌ:c8COn OI D:s t8ÌCnt. ²DC nCV tD:n_
DCrC :s tD8t tDCsC QO:nts CmCr_C :n tDC:r DÌÌ :mQOrt8nCC¡ tD8t tDC
8utDOr¸ IOr tDC:r s8KC¸ UC tCmQOr8rj ÌC8VC OI D:s oeuvre 8nd¸ ÌIKC
8n Cn_:nCCr sUrtIn_ tO dr:ÌÌ IOr O:Ì :n tDC dCsCrt¸ t8KCs uQ D:s 8Ct:V:tj
8t QrCC:sCÌj C8ÌCuÌ8tCd QÌ8CCs :n tDC dCsCrt OI COntCmQOr8£j Ì:IC. ÌCrC
tDCsC QO:nU 8rC s:tu8tCd :n tDC tDC8trC¸ tDC 8nCCdOtC¸ 8nd r8d:O¡
OtDCrs VIÌÌ DC t8CKÌCd 8t 8 Ì8tCr st8_C. `²DC QuDÌ:c8COn OI tDC Ier-
sucke,' tDC 8utDOr DC_:ns¸ `m8rKs 8 QO:nt 8t VD:CD CC£t8:n VOrKs 8rC

nCt sC muC! mCant tC tCQtCsCnt ¡nd¡V¡dua¡ CXQCt¡CnCCs [¡.C. tC !aVC
t!C C!ataCtCt C! Ln¡s!Cd VCtRs) as t!C¸ atC a¡mCd at us¡n_ [and ttans-
!Ctm¡n_) CCtta¡n CX¡st¡n_ ¡nst¡tutCs and ¡nst¡tut¡Cns.´ N!at ¡s QtC-
QCsCd !CtC ¡s nOt tCnCVat¡Cn¸ Dut ¡nnCVat¡Cn. ÌCtC ¡¡tCtatutC nC
¡Cn_Ct ttusts an¸ !CC¡¡n_ C! t!C aut!Ct´s V!¡C! !as nCt¸ ¡n t!C dCs¡tC
tC C!an_C t!C VCt¡d¸ aÌ¡¡Cd ¡tsC¡! V¡t! sCDCt ¡ntC¡¡¡_CnCC. ÌCtC
¡¡tCtatutC RnCVs t!at t!C Cn¡¸ C!anCC ¡C!t tC ¡t ¡s tC DCCCmC a D¸-
QtCduCt ¡n t!C D¡_!¡¸ tamIhCd QtCCCss C! C!an_¡n_ man´s VCt¡d.
Iersucke :¬j ¡s SuC! a D¸-QtCduCt¸ and an ¡nCst¡maD¡C CnC; Dut t!C
Qt¡nC¡Qa¡ QtCduCt ¡s a nCV att¡tudC. L¡C!tCnDCt_ sa¡d. `Ìt ¡s nCt VÌat a
man ¡s CCnV¡nCCd C! t!at mattCts¸ Dut V!at !¡s CCnV¡Ct¡Cns maRC C!
!¡m.´ ¯!¡s t!¡n_ t!at a man´s CCnV¡Ct¡Cns maRC C! !¡m ÛtCC!t Ca¡¡s
`att¡tudC´. `¯!C sCCCnd Iersuck, S:or:es oòou: Herr Xeuoer,' sa¸s t!C
aut!Ct¸ `tCQtCsCnts an attCmQt tC maRC _CstutCs QuCtaD¡C.´ ¬n¸CnC
V!C tCads t!CsC stCt¡Cs V¡¡¡ sCC t!at t!C _CstutCs QuCtCd atC t!CsC C!
QCVCtt¸¸ ¡_nCtanCC and ¡mQCtCnCC. ¯!C ¡nnCVat¡Cns ¡nttCduCCd -
QatCnts¸ sC tC sQCaR ¬atC Cn¡¸ sma¡¡ CnCs. ÌCtt ÏCunCt¸ a QtC¡Ctat¡an¸
¡s ¡n s!atQ CCnUast tC t!C ¡dCaÌ QtC¡Ctat¡an C! t!C Q!¡¡ant!tCQ¡sts.
!C ¡s nCt ¡ntCt¡Ct¡ZCd. ÌC CXQCCts t!C aDC¡¡t¡Cn C! m¡sCt¸ tC att¡VC
Cn¡¸ D¸ t!C ¡C_¡Ca¡ dCVC¡CQmCnt C! t!C att¡tudC V!¡C! QCVCtt¸ !CtCCs
uQCn !¡m. ÌCtt ÏCunCt´ s att¡tudC ¡s nCt t!C Cn¡¸ CnC t!at ¡s QuCtaD¡C¡
t!C samC aQQ¡¡CS tC t!C d¡sC¡Q¡Cs ¡n ?/e 7k: o¡:ke Jmder¿ks and
¡¡RCV¡sC tC 1 atZCt t!C C_C¡st. Ìn CaC! CasC V!at ¡s QuCtaD¡C ¡s nCt ¡ust
t!C att¡tudC Dut a¡sC t!C VCtds V!¡C! aCCCmQan¸ ¡t. ¯!CsC VCtds¸
¡¡RC _CstutCs¸ must DC QtaCt¡sCd¸ V!¡C! ¡s tC sa¸ Ltst nCuCCd and
¡atCt undCtstCCd. ¯!C¸ !aVC t!C¡t QCda_C_¡Ca¡ CÛCCt htst¸ t!C¡t
QC¡¡t¡Ca¡ CÛCCt sCCCnd and t!C¡t QCCt¡C CÛCCt ¡ast C! a¡¡. ¯!C QutQCsC
C! t!C CCmmCntat¸ !tCm V!¡C! a samQ¡C ¡s tCQtCduCCd DC¡CV ¡s tC
adVanCC t!C QCda_C_¡Ca¡ CÛCCt as muC! as QCss¡D¡C and tC tCtatd t!C
QCCt¡C CnC.
1
LCaVC yOut QO8I.
¯DC VtCIOttC8 DaVC OCCn _atnCd.
¯DC dC!CaI8 DaVC OCCn _atnCd: ´¯DC dC!CaI8 DaVC OCCn _atnCd . . . ´:
ÌOV ÌCaVC jOut QO8I.
1Ìun_C DaCK ÍnIO tUC dCQID8¸
COnQuCtOt.
]uD:Ìat:On CntCt8 VDCtC tUC
h_DIÍn_ VS
Î nO ÌOn_Ct IDCtC.
Na:I !Ot tDC CrÍC8 O! dC!CaI VDCtC
tUCj atC ÌOUdC8I:
1n tDC dCQU8.
L0VC jOut OÌd QO8I.
N:!UdtaV jOUt VOÍCC¸ OtaIOt.
`Our namC Í8 V:QCd OU UC IaDÌCI8.
`OUr OtdCt8
JrC nOI ODCjCd. J\\OV
`CV n8mC8 IO aQQCar On !DC
taDÌCI8 and
ÌCV OtdCt8 IO DC Crt:Cd OUt.
[`OU VDO nO ÌOn_Ct CO¯d
lO nOI :nCIC IO OÍ8ODCdÍCnCC!)
LCaVC jOut OÌd QO8I.
`OU VCtC nOI uQ IO ÍI.
`Ou dÍd nOI Dt:n_ :I OD
ÌOV jOU DaVC Dad C.×QCtÍCnCC
and a:C uQ IO ÍI
ÌOV jOU C 8UtI:
7rom rke Breckr Commenrar¸ ?§
ÌC88 Dj DÍm¸ 1a!ZCt¸ tUan !Ot D:m.
¯UC V:CIOt WU8I nOI aÌÌOV IDC dC-
!CaICd IDC CXQCtÍCnCC O! dC!CaI. 1C
mu8I 8naICD ID:8¸ IOO; DC mu8I
8DatC dC!CaI V:ID IDC dC!CaICd. ¯DCn
DC V:\\ DaVC DCCOmC ma8ICt O! !DC
8ÍIuaUOn.
`1ÌUn_C DaCR . . .´: `ÌO _ÌOrj IO !DC
VÍCtOt¸ nO Q:tj !Ot !DC dC!CaICd.´
1ORc:VOtY Ín8C\QI\On On 3 VOOd-
Cn QÌaIC¸ bOVÍCI VU88Ía.
`J\ÌOV . . .´: ÎCtC a Dat8UnC88
DOtdCr:n_ On CrUC!!j :8 QCtmCaICd
V:ID COutIC8j. ¯DC COutIC8j Í8 QCt-
8Ua8:VC DCC8u8C OnC 8Cn8C8 VDj ÍI :8
IDCtC. JI Í8 UCtC IO :nduCC IDC VCaR-
CSI and mO8I VOttDÌC88 CtCa!UtC ¸IO
QUI :I QuÍIC 8ÍmQÌj¸ man, :n VDOm
VC tCCO_n:ZC Out8C!VC8j IO QCt-
!O:m tDC _tCaIC8I and mO8I ÍmQOt-
I8nI aCI\On O! aÌ\. JI :8 IDC COU:IC8j
ÍnDCtCnI :n IDC aCI O! 8Cnd\n_ a tOQC
!Ot a ncr¤rrr¸ 8n aCI VDO8C VOtd-
ÌC88nC88 8IÍ!Ì ÌCaVC8 tOOm !Ot Q:!j.
`ÌOV jOU Can 8Ia:I . . . ´: ¯DC `8IatI´
icaVc jOut QO8t.
`Ou VDO tuÌcd OVct m:n:8D:c8
otORc jOut OVcn.
`Ou VDO Dad nO Umc tO æt
\OOR jOut8cÌÎ 8Omc 8OuQ.
`Ou aDOut VDOm muCD :8 Vt:ttcn
otudj tDc 1Ü\.
%aRc a 8ta) at OnCc¯
²aRc uQ jOut ncV QO8t.
Lnc VDO :8 Dcatcn dOc8 nOt
c8CaQc
¯:8dOm.
ÌOÌd On t:_Dt and 8:nRÌ Üc aÎta:dÌ
LO On¸ 8¡nRÌ 1t tDc DOttOm
²Dc Ìc88On aVa:t8 jOu-
`Ou VDO Vctc a8Rcd tOO manj
Quc8UOn8
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²caCD:n_ OÎ tDc ma88c8.
² aI.c uQ jOut ncV QO8t.
:8 d:aÌcCt¡CaÌÌj madc ncV. Ìt dOc8
nOt man:Îc8t :t8cÌÎ U a ÎtCD Dc_:n-
n:n_ Dut :n a CC8auOn. ²Dc aCuOn:
²Dc man mu8t ÌcaVc D:8 QO8t. 1n-
Vatd Dc_:nn:n_ ¯ Cæ8:n_ tO dO an
OutVatd tD:n_.
´`Ou VDO tuÌcd . . . ´. tD:8 :8 tO cm-
QDa8:Zc tDc ÎOtCc8 VD:CD tDc oOV:ct
QtaCt:Cc OÎ mOV:n_ ODC:aÌ8 tOund
tDc Vat:Ou8 m:n:8D:c8 tcÌca8c8 :n
tDc Qct8On COnCcOcd. ²Dc COm-
mand `otatt aÌÌ OVct a_a:n´ mcan8¸
:n d:aÌcCt:CÌ tctm8. :)  Ìc¸ ÎOt
jOu RnOV nOtD:n_¸ z] OCCuQj
jOut8cÌÎ V¡tD ÎundamcnUÌ8¸ ÎOt
jOu DaVc _tOVn V:8c cnOu_D
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tcÌ:cVcd OÎ jOut QO8t. ²aRc :t ca8j
nOV 8O tDat jOu Can _ct 8ttOn_ct¸
jOu DaVc Uc Umc ÎOt :t.
´LO On¸ 8:nRÌ´¯ ÍaOct mu8t Dnd a
ÎOOtDOÌd :n D:8 DOQcÌc88nc88. 1
ÎOOtDOÌd¸ nOt DOQc. \On8OÌat:On
Da8 nOtD:n_ tO dO V:tD DOQc. 1nd
ÜtcCDt ODct8 D:m COn8OÌaUOn¯ a
man Can Ì:Vc :n DOQcÌc88nc88 :Î Dc
RnOV8 DOV Dc _Ot Uctc. Ìc C
Ì:Vc m :t DcCu8c D:8 DOQcÌc88 Ì:Îc
:8 tDcn OÎ :mQOttanCc. ²O 8:nR tO
tDc DOttOm Dctc mcan8 aÌVaj8. tO
_ct tO tDc DOttOm OÎ tD:n_8.
z
²Dc t8DÌc uDnÍ8Dcd¸ C8tQcntct.
rüOV J tO æKc :t 8V8j.
OtOQ QÌ8n:n_ :t nOV
Íc8Vc OD Q8:nt:n_ :t
OQc8K nc:tDct VcÌÌ nOt :ÌÌ Ot :t:
¯c´ÌÌ æKc Ít 3Ít Í8.
¯c nccd :t.
Ï8nd :t OVct.
³Ou D8Vc hn:8Dcd¸ 8t8tc8m8n.
²Dc Ot8tc D nOt Dt¡:8Dcd.
rÌÌOV u8 tO CD8n_c :t
²O 8u:t tDc COndÍUOn8 Ot \:tc.
rÌÌOV u8 tO Dc 8t8tc8mcn¸
8t8tc8m8n.
Ûc8nc8tD jOut Ì8V8 8t8nd8 jOut
n8mc.
ÏOt_ct tDc n8mc
1c8QcCt jOut Ì8V8¸ Ìc_Í8Ì8tOt.
OuDU:t tO Otdct¸ m8n Ot Otdct.
²Dc Ot8tc nO ÌOn_ct nccd8 jOu
Ï8nd :t OVct.
7rom tke Breckt commentar¸
Û
í
`L8tQcntct = . .´: ¯ CtQcntct Vc
D8Vc tO :m8_:nc Dctc U8n cCCcnt::C
VDO :8 ncVct 88D8hcd V:tD m
`VOtK´¸ VDO CnOt m8Kc uQ D:8
m:nd tO \ct :t Out Ot D:8 D8nd8. 1t
VtÍtct8 8tc ¼Ín_ tcmQOt8tj Ìc8Vc
Ot tDc:t oeuvre ¸8cc 8DOVc)¸ tDcn
8t8tc8mcn¸ tOO¸ 8tc cxQcCtcd tO 8DOV
tDc 88mc 8tDtudc. ÛtcCDt tcÌÌ8 tDcm:
`³Ou 8tc 8m8tcut Ct8tt8mcn¸ jOu
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dO tOt u8.´ ÏccQ D8td Dj D8td
tc8Ì:tj: tD8t :8 tDc Otdct Ot tDc d8j.
ÏOVcttj¸ 8O tDc Dc8rct8 Ot KnOV-
Ìcd_c tc8CD¸ :8 8 m:m:Ctj VD:CD
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ÛtCC!t !as sa¡d C! LCmmun¡sm t!at ¡t ¡s `t!C m¡dd¡C
tCtm´. `LCmmun¡sm ¡s nCt tad¡Ca¡. Ìt ¡s CaQ¡ta¡¡sm t!at ¡s tad¡Ca¡.´
ÌCV tad¡Ca¡ ¡t ¡s Can DC tCCC_n:ZCd¸ amCn_ Ct!Ct t!¡n_s¸ ¡n ¡ts att¡-
tudC tCVatds t!C !am¡¡¸. Ìt ¡ns¡sts uQCn t!C !am¡¡¸ at an¸ Qt¡CC¸ CVCn
V!CtC an¸ ¡ntCns¡!Cat¡Cn C! !am¡¡¸ ¡¡!C Can Cn¡¸ a__taVatC t!C su!-
!Ct¡n_ a¡tCad¸ CausCd D¸ CCnd¡t¡Cns uttCt¡¸ unVCtt!¸ C! !uman
DC¡n_s. LCmmun¡sm ¡s nCt tad¡Ca¡. ¯!CtC!CtC ¡t !as nC ¡ntCnt¡Cn
s¡mQ¡¸ tC aDC¡¡s! !am¡¡¸ tC¡at¡Cns. Ìt mCtC¡¸ tCsts t!Cm tC dCtCtm¡nC
t!C¡t CaQaC¡t¸ !Ct C!an_C. Ìt asRs ¡tsC¡! Can t!C !am¡¡¸ DC d¡smant¡Cd
sC t!at ¡ts CCmQCnCnts ma¸ DC sCC¡a¡¡¸ tC!unCt¡CnCd: ¯!CsC CCm-
QCnCnts atC nCt sC muC! t!C mCmDCts C! t!C !am¡¡¸ t!CmsC¡VCs 3
t!C¡t tC¡at¡Cns!¡Qs V¡t! CnC anCt!Ct. L! t!CsC¸ ¡t ¡s C¡Cat t!at nCnC ¡s
mCtC ¡mQCttant t!an t!C tC¡at¡Cns!¡Q DCtVCCn mCt!Ct and C!¡¡d.
1utt!CtmCtC¸ t!C mCt!Ct¸ amCn_ a¡¡ !am¡¡¸ mCmDCts¸ ¡s t!C mCst
unCQu¡VCCa¡¡¸ dCtCtm¡nCd as tC !Ct sCC¡a¡ !unCt¡Cn: s!C QtCduCCs t!C
nCXt _CnCtat¡Cn. ¯!C QuCst¡Cn ta¡sCd D¸ ÛtCC!t´s Q¡a¸ ¡s: C t!¡s
sCC¡a¡ !unCt¡Cn DCCCmC a tCVC¡ut¡Cnar¸ CnC¸ and !CV: Ìn a CaQ¡ta¡¡st
¯ \D  tDc  OccaS:OD  OΠ tDc  ¬OrÌd  prcm:crc  OΠ ÛrccDt´s  Tbe ^orber.
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CCOnOm¡C s¸stCm¸ tBC mOtC d¡tCCt!¸ a QCtsOn ¡s Cn_a_Cd ¡n QtOdUC-
t¡On tC!at¡Ons¸ tBC mOtC BC Ot sBC ¡s suDjCCt tO CXQ!O¡Ut¡On. !ndCt
tBC COnd¡t¡Ons O! tOda¸¸ tBC !am¡!¸ ¡s an Ot_an¡Zat¡On !Ot tBC CXQ!O¡t-
at¡On O! tBC VOman as mOtBCt. ÏC!a_Ca `!assOVa¸ `V¡dOV O! a VOtK-
Ct and mOtBCt O! a VOtKCt´¸ ¡s tBCtC!OtC sOmCOnC VBO ¡s dOUD!¸
CXQ!O¡tCd: Utst¸ as a mCmDCt O! tBC VOtK¡n_ C!ass¸ and sCCOnd¸ as a
VOman and mOtBCt. ÅBC dOUD!¸ CXQ!O¡tCd CB¡!dDCatCt tCQtCsCnts
tBC CXQ!O¡tCd QCOQ!C ¡n tBC¡t mOst CXDCmC OQQtCss¡On. Ï! tBC mOtBCts
atC tCVO!Ut¡On¡ZCd¸ tBCtC ¡s nOtB¡n_ !C!t tO tCVO!UtIOn¡ZC.
ÛtCCBt´s sUDjCCt ¡s a sOC¡O!O_¡Ca! CXQCt¡mCnt COnCCC¡n_ tBC tCVO-
!Ut¡On¡Z¡n_ O! a mOtBCt. ÅB¡s CXQ!a¡ns a nUmDCt O! s¡mQ!¡BCat¡Ons
VB¡CB atC nOt O! an a_¡tat¡OnaÌ DUt O! a COnsttuCt¡VC K¡nd. `N¡dOV
O! a VOtKCt¸ mOtBCt O! a VOtKCt´ ¬ tBCtC¡n !¡Cs tBC Btst s¡mQ!¡UCa-
t¡On. ÏC!a_Ca `!assOVa ¡s tBC mOtBCt O! On!¸ OnC VOtKCt¸ and !Ot
tB¡s tCasOn sBC sOmCVBat COnttad¡Cts tBC OtI_na! mCan¡n_ O! tBC
VOtd `QtO!Ctat¡an VOman´ _roles mCans dCsCCndants]. ÅB¡s mOtBCt
Bas On!¸ OnC sOn. ÅBC OnC ¡s CnOU_B. ÍOt ¡t tuns OUt tBat V¡tB tB¡s
OnC !CVCt sBC COQCtatC tBC mCCBan¡sm VB¡CB CBannC!s BCt matCt-
na! CnCt_¡Cs tOVatds tBC Cnt¡tC VOtK¡n_ C!ass. ÌCt Btst dUt¸ ¡s tO
COOK. ÏtOdUCCt O! a man¸ sBC DCCOmCs tBC tCQtOdUCCt O! B¡s VOtK-
¡n_ sttCn_tB. ÛUt tBCtC ¡s nO !On_Ct CnOU_B tO Cat !Ot sUCB tCQtOdUC-
t¡On. ÅBC sOn !OOKs V¡tB COntCmQt at tBC !OOd sBC QUts ¡n !tOnt O!
B¡m. ÌOV Cas¡!¸ tB¡s !OOK C VOund tBC mOtBCt. OBC CannOt BC!Q
BCtsC!! DCCaUsC sBC dOCs nOt ¸Ct KnOV tBat `tBC dCCIs¡On aDOUt tBC
mCat !aCK¡n_ ¡n tBC K¡tCBCn ¡s nOt taKCn ¡n tBC K¡tCBCn´. ÅB¡s¸ Ot
sOmCtB¡n_ !¡KC ¡t¸ ¡s sUtC!¸ Vt¡ttCn ¡n tBC !CaÛCts sBC _OCs OUt tO
d¡stt¡DUtC. ÌOt ¡n OtdCt tO BC!Q LOmmUn¡sm¸ DUt U BC!Q BCt sOn
VBO Bas tO d¡stt¡DUtC tBCm. ÅB¡s ¡s BOV BCt VOtK !Ot tBC Ïatt¸
DC_¡ns. 1nd ¡n tB¡s Va¸ sBC Dans!Otms tBC anta_On¡sm VB¡CB
tBtCatCnCd tO dCVC!OQ DCtVCCn BCtsC!! and BCt sOn ¡ntO an an-
ta_On¡sm a_¡nst tBC CnCm¸ O! UCm DOtB. ÅB¡s Un¡gUC att¡tUdC O!
tBC mOtBCt¸ tB¡s UsC!U! BC!Q!U!nCss VB¡CB¸ as ¡t VCtC¸ tCs¡dCs ¡n tBC
!O!ds O! an¸ mOtBCt´s sK¡tt¸ aCgU¡tCs nOV tBC sOC¡a! d¡mCns¡On [as
sO!¡dat¡t¸ O! tBC OQQtCssCd] VB¡CB ¡t On!¸ QOssCssCd DC!OtC ¡n an
an¡ma! sCnsC. ÅBC tOad VB¡CB tBC mOtBCt ttaVC!s ¡s tBat !tOm tBC
btst K¡nd O! BC!Q tO tBC U!t¡matC¸ tBC sO!¡dat¡t¸ O! tBC VOtK¡n_ C!ass.
× Fo¸ 7rama in rke Z¸ic Tbeatre
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Ïcr sQccCh IC Lc mCIhcrs VhC gucuc uQ IC hand ¡n thc¡r CCQQcr
K¡IChcn-Varc ¡s nCI a QaC¡ÞsI Cnc¡ ¡I ¡s a rcVC!uI¡Cnar¸ cXhCrIaI¡Cn
IC Ihc Ch¡!dDcarcrs VhC¸ D¸ DcIra¸¡n_ Ihc Causc C! Ihc VcaK¸ a!sC
Dctra¸ Ihc Causc C! Ihc¡t CVn ¸Cun_¸ Ihc¡r Ch¡!drcn. ¬nd sC Vc scc
IhaI thc mCIhcr´s Va¸ IC Ihc ÌarI¸ sIarIs hrsI V¡th hc!Q¸ and CCmcs
IC IhcCr¸ Cn!¸ a!IcrVards. Jh¡s ¡s thc scCCnd CCnsItuCI¡Vc s¡mQ!¡h-
CaI¡Cn. Jhc QurQCsc C! Ihcsc s¡mQ!mCaI¡Cns ¡s IC undcr!¡nc Ihc s¡m-
Q!¡C¡t¸ C! thc !cssCns Vh¡Ch Ihc¸ IcaCh. 1I ¡s ¡n Ihc naturc C! cQ¡C
IhcaIrc IC rcQ!aCc Ihc und¡a!cCI¡Ca! CQQCs¡I¡Cn DctVccn thc !Crm and
CCnIcnI C! CCnsC¡Cusncss {Vh¡C mcans IhaI a CharaCIcr Can Cn!¸
rc!cr IC h¡s CVn aCI¡Cns D¸ rcUcX¡Cns] D¸ Ihc d¡a!cCI¡Ca! Cnc Dc-
tVccn IhcCr¸ and QraX¡s {Vh¡Ch mcans !haI an¸ aCI¡Cn IhaI maKcs a
DrcaKIhrCu_h CQcns uQ a C!carcr V¡cV C! IhcCt¸]. LQ¡C IhcaItc¸
Ihcrc!Crc¸ ¡s Ihc IhcaIrc C! Ihc hcrC VhC ¡s DcaIcn. ¬ hcrO VhC ¡s nCI
DcaIcn ncVcr maKcs a Ih¡nKcr. OQarc Ihc rCd 8nd sQC¡! thc hcrC¸ IC
mCd¡Q Cnc C! Cur !Crc!aIhcrs´ Qcda_C_¡Ca! maX¡ms.
JC CCns¡dcr nCV Ihc `!cssCns´¸ Ihc CCnC!us¡Cns¸ V¡Ih Vh¡Ch !hc
mCIhcr CCCuQ¡cs hcrsc!! durÎn_ hcr IÎmcs C! dc!caI Cr C! VaíIÎn_ [!Cr
cQ¡C Ihca!rc Ihcrc ¡s nC d¡ÛcrcnCc Dc!wccn thc !VC¡: Ihc¸ arc !¡Kc
CCmmcnIar¡cs Cn hcr CVn att¡!udc¸ and Ihc sQcC¡a! Ih¡n_ aDCuI Ihcm
¡s IhaI shc s¡n_s thcm. Ohc s¡n_s. NhaI arc Ihc CDjcCI¡Cns IC LCm-
mun¡sm: Ohc s¡n_s: ̺ar¸ VCman C! s|X!¸. Ohc s¡n_s. În Ìra¡sc C!
Ihc Jh¡rd Lausc. ¬nd shc s¡n_s !hcsc sCn_s as a mCthcr. !Cr Ihc¸
arc !u!!aD¡cs. Ìu!!aD¡cs !Cr LCmmun¡sm¸ Vh¡Ch ¡s sma!! and VcaK
DuI ¡rrcs¡sI¡D!¸ _:CV¡n_. Jh¡s LCmmun¡sm shc has IaKcn unIC hcr-
sc!! as a mCIhcr. 1I DcCCmcs C!car ICC !haI shc ¡s !CVcd D¸ LCm-
mun¡sm as Cn!¸ a mC!hcr ¡s !CVcd. shc ¡s !CVcd nCI !Cr thc saKc C! hcr
Dcaut¸ Cr hcr !amc Cr hcr cXCc!!cnCc¸ DuI 3thc ¡ncXhausI¡D!c sCurCc
C!hc!Q; shc rcQrcscnIs hc!Q aI ¡Is sCurCc¸ Vhcrc ¡I ¡s sI¡!! Qurc-UCV¡n_¸
Vhcrc ¡I ¡s sI¡!! QraCI¡C! and nCI !a!sc¸ !rCm Vhcrc ¡I Can sI¡!! Dc
Channc!!cd V¡thCuI rcscrVaI¡Cn IC thaI Vh¡Ch¸ VÎthCuI rcsctVaUCn¸
nccds hc!Q: namc!¸¸ LCmmun¡sm. Jhc mCthcr ¡s QraX¡8 ¡nCaraIc.
Nc scc th¡s Vhcn 8hc m8Kcs Ica¸ and Vc sc0 ¡I Vhcn shc VraQs uQ Ihc
Q¡cs¸ Vhcn shc ¡s V¡s¡IÎn_ hcr sCn ¡n QrÎsCn Vc scc IhaI cVcr¸ s¡n_!c
!h¡n_ sh8 dCcs V¡Ih hcr hands scrVcs LCmmun¡sm; and Vhcn shc ¡s
h¡I D¸ sICncs and thc QC!¡Ccmcn sIt¡Kc hcr V¡Ih Ihc¡r rÎbc-DuIIs¸
VC sCC tBat VBCnCVCt a Band ¡s ta¡sCd a_a¡nst BCt ¡t ¡s ¡n Va¡n.
ÅBC mOtBCt ¡s QtaX¡s ¡nCaCatC. ÅB¡s mCans tBat VC sBa!! nOt Und
CntBUs¡asm ¡n BCt DUt tC!¡aD¡!¡t¸. `Ct sBC VOU!d nOt DC tC!¡aD!C ¡! sBC
Bad nOt¸ at Utst¸ ta¡sCd ODjCCt¡Ons a_a¡nst LOmmUn¡sm. ÛUt ¬ and
tB¡s ¡s tBC dCC¡s¡VC !aCt¬BCt ODjCCt¡Ons VCtC nOt tBOsC O! an ¡ntCtCs-
tCd Qatt¸ DUt tBOsC O! COmmOn sCnsC. `Ìt´s nCCCssaty¸ tBCtC!OtC ¡t
¡sn´t dan_CtOUs´ ¬ sBC´!! nCVCt aCCCQt statCmCnu !¡KC tBat. 1nd sBC
Bas jUst as !¡tt!C UsC !Ot UtOQ¡as. `ÌOCs Nt OURB!¡nOV OVn B¡s ÍC-
tOt¸ Ot dOCs BC DOt* NC!!¸ tBCn l´ `OU Can CXQ!a¡n tO BCt¸ BOVCVCt¸
tBat B¡s OVnCtsB¡Q O! tBC !aCtOt¸ ¡s a !¡m¡tCd OnC. 1nd sO¸ stCQ D¸
stCQ¸ sBC uaVC!s a!On_ tBC QatB O! Otd¡nat¸ COmmOn sCnsC. ~ `Ì!
¸OU´VC a d¡sa_tCCmCnt V¡tB Nt OURB!¡nOV¸ VBat Bas tBat _Ot tO dO
V¡tB tBC QO!¡CC*´ ÅB¡s stCQ-D¸-stCQ adVanCC c! Otd¡nat¸ COmmOn
sCnsC¸ tBC OQQOs¡tC O! tad¡Ca!¡sm¸ !Cads tBC mOtBCt tO tBC BCad O! tBC
Na¸ Ìa¸ dCmOnsttat¡On¸ VBCtC sBC ¡s DCatCn dOVn.
OO mUCB nOV !Ot tBC mOtBCt. Ìt ¡s t¡mC tO tuO tBC taD!Cs and asK:
¡! tBC mOtBCt !Cads¸ VBat ¡s BaQQCn¡n_ tO tBC sOn* Ìt ¡s tBC sOn¸ a!tCt
a!!¸ VBO tCads DOOKs and QtCQatCs B¡msC!! !Ot !CadCtsB¡Q. ÅBCtC atC
!OUt O! tBCm: mOtBCt and sOn¸ tBCOt¸ and Qta X¡s¸ and tBC¸ tC_tOUQ
tBCmsC!VCs¸ tBC¸ Q!a¸ a _amC O! CBan_C and CBan_C aDOUt. \nCC
tBC Ct¡t¡Ca! mOmCnt att¡VCs VBCn Otd¡nat¸ COmmOn sCnsC DCCOmCs
tBC !CadCt¸ tBCOt¸ ¡s On!¸ jUst _OOd CnOU_B tO dO tBC BOUsCVOtK.
ÅBC sOn mUst CUt DtCad VB¡!C tBC mOtBCt¸ VBO ¡s ¡!!¡tCtatC¸ VOtKs
tBC Qt¡nt¡n_-QtCss; tBC nCCCss¡t¸ O! !¡!C nO !On_Ct cta!O_UCs QCOQ!C
aCCOtd¡n_ tO tBC¡t sCX; ¡n tBC VOtKCt´s tOOm a sQaCC ¡s madC DCtVCCn
tBC K¡tCBCn tan_C and tBC DCd !Ot a D!aCKDOatd. NBCn tBC OtatC ¡s
tUtnCd UQs¡dC dOVn !Ot tBC saKC O! a KOQCCK¸ mUCB V¡!! CBan_C V¡tB-
¡n tBC !am¡!¸¸ !OO¸ and at tBat mOmCnt tBC Q!aCC O! tBC Dt¡dC¸ VBO
QCtsOn¡bCs tBC ¡dCa!s O! tBC H1tUtC¸ V¡!! DC UKCn D¸ tBC mOtBCt VBO¸
V¡tB a!! BCt !Ott¸ ¸Cats´ C¿Ct¡CnCC¸ V¡!! COmtm NatX and |Cn¡n. ÅBC
d:a!CCt¡C Bas nO nCCd O! a !at d¡stanCC sBtOUdCd ¡n m¡sts: ¡t ¡s at BOmC
V¡tB¡n tBC !OUt VaÌ!s O! Q:aX¡s¸ and ¡t stands On tBC tBtCsBO!d O! tBC
mOmCnt tO sQCaK tBC C!Os¡n_ VOtds O! tBC Q!a¸: `1nd ¨ÌCVCt¯
DCCOmCs: ¨ÛC!OtC tBC day ¡s OUtÌ´´
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\n!¸ QO!¡t¡Ca! dtama C DC tBC QtOQCt COnCCn
O! tBCattC ¡n Cm¡_tat¡On. NOst O! tBC Q!a¸s VB¡CB atttaCtCd a QO!¡t¡Ca!
aUd¡CnCC tCn Ot D!tCCn ¸Cats a_O BaVC s¡nCC DCCn OVCttaKCn D¸ CVCnts.
ÅBC tBCattC O! Cm¡_tat¡On mUst statt a_a¡n at tBC DC_¡nn¡n_; nOt ]Ust
¡ts sU_C¸ DUt aÌsO ¡ts Q!a¸s mUst DC DU¡!t anCV.
Ìt ¾ a sCnsC O! tB¡s B¡stOt¡c! s¡Dat¡On VB¡CB Un¡tCd tBC aUd¡-
CnCC at tBC Ïat¡s QtCm¡CtC O! Qatts O! a nCV dtama C¸C!C D¸ ÛtCCBt.
ÅBC aUd¡CnCC ¾ tCCO_n¡Z¡n_ ¡tsC!! !Ot tBC Btst t¡mC 3 a dtamat¡C
aUd¡CnCC. ÅaK¡n_ aCCOUnt O! tB¡s nCV aUd¡CnCC and tB¡s nCV s¡Da-
UOn O! tBC tBCattC¸ ÛtCCBt ¡nttOdUCCs a nCV dtamat¡C !Otm. ÌC ¡s an
CXQCtt ¡n !tCsB statts. Ìn tBC ¸Cats DCtVCCn :gzO and :gjOBC nCVCt
t¡tCd O! tCst¡n_ B¡s dtamas a_a¡nst tBC CXamQ!C O! COntCmQOtat¸
B¡stOt¸. Ìn dO¡n_ sO BC tt¡Cd OUt nUmCtOUs !Otms O! tBCaDC and tBC
mOst Vat¡Cd t¸QCs O! QUD!¡C. ÌC VOtKCd !Ot tBC tBCattC O! tnC QUD!¡C
Q!at!Otm as VC!! 3 !Ot OQCta; BC CXB¡D¡tCd B¡s QtOdUCts DC!OtC tBC
QtO!Ctat¡at O! ÛCt!¡n 3 VC!! as tBC DOUt_CO¡s aVant-_atdC O! tnC
NCst.
ÅBUs¸ !¡KC nO OnC C!sC¸ ÛtCCt stattCd at tBC DC_¡nn¡n_ a_a¡n and
¯ \n  tDc  ¬OrÌd  ptcm:crc  Ot c:_Dt Onc-8ct QÍ8j8  Dj  ÛtccDt. 
a_a¡n. ¬nO !!¡s¸ ¡nC¡OCntaÌ̸¸ ¡s !!C O¡sOn_u¡s!¡n_ matR C! !!C
O¡aÌCCt¡C¡an. ÇÅ!CtC ¡s a O¡aÌCCt¡C¡an !¡OOCn ¡n CVCr¸ mastCt C! an art.}
%aRC CCrta¡n¸ sa¸s L¡OC¸ !!at t!C ¡mQCtus ¸Cu !aVC CnCC aC!¡CVCO
nCVCt DCnCDts ¸Cut suDsCquCnt WCtR. ÛtCC!t !as QtCCCCOCO ¡n aCCCtO-
anCC W¡t! t!¡s maX¡m ¬anO Qart¡CuÌat̸ ¡n t!C nCW QÌa¸s ¡ntCnOCO !Ct
t!C t!CattC C! Cm¡_rat¡Cn.
ÅC sum uQ Dr¡Cp¸: !!C `attCmQts´ (Iersucke) C! t!C CarÌ¡Ct ¸Cats
¸¡CÌOCO¸ ¡n t!C CnO¸ a O¡st¡nCt anO WCÌÌ-!CunOCO sUnOatO C! ÛtCC!t-
¡an t!CattC. Ìt OCsCrÎDCO ¡tsCÌ! as CQ¡C¸ anO¸ D¸ t!¡s OCsCrÎQ!ÎCn¸ sCt
¡tsCÌ! uQ ¡n CQQCs¡t¡Cn tC t!C OramaUC t!CatrC W!CsC t!CCr¸ ¾Drst
!CrmuÌatCO D¸ ¬t¡stCtÌC. Å!at ¡s W!¸ ÛtCC!t ¡nttCOuCCO !¡s !!CCr¸
as `nCn-¬r¡stCtCÌ¡an´¸ just as Í¡Cmann CnCC ¡nUCOuCCO a `nCn-
ÏuCÌ¡OCan´ _CCmCD¸. Í¡Cmann tC¡CCtCO t!C aX¡Cm C! QaraÌÌCÌs¡ W!at
Was tC¡CCtCO ¡n tC¡s nCW Orama Was !!C ¬r¡stCtCÌ¡an `Cat!ats¡s´¸ !!C
Qut_¡n_ C! t!C CmCt¡Cns t!tCu_! ¡OCn!¡DCat¡Cn W¡!! t!C !CtC´s
tutDuÌCnt OCst¡n¸. a OCst¡n¸ maOC !utDuÌCnt D¸ !!C mCVCmCnt C! a
WaVC W!¡C! sWCCQs t!C auO¡CnCC aÌCn_ WÎt! ¡t. [Å!C !amCus _0Íi-
¸e:eio ¡s !!C CtCst C! !!C WaVC W!¡C!¸ DtCaR¡n_¸ tCÌÌs !CrWarO tC t!C
CnO.}
ÏQ¡C t!CattC¸ D¸ CCnttast¸ aOVanCCs D¸ Dts anO stat!s¸ Ì¡RC t!C
¡ma_Cs Cn a ÞÌm str¡Q. Ìts Das¡C !Crm ¡s t!at C! t!C !CtCCU1Ì ¡mQaCt Cn
CnC anCt!Ct C! sCQaratC¸ O¡st¡nCt s¡!Ua!¡Cns În t!C QÌa¸. Å!C sCn_s¸
!!C CaQt¡Cns ¡nCÌuOCO ¡n !!C s!a_C OCCCt¸ !!C _Cs!ur8Ì CCnVCnt¡Cns C!
t!C aCtCrs¸ sCrVC tC sCQaratC CaC! s¡!uaUCn. Å!us O¡stanCCs arC CtCatCO
CVCt¸W!CtC W!¡C! arC, Cn tCC W!CÌC, OCtt¡mCntaÌ tC ¡ÌÌus¡Cn amCn_
t!C auO¡CnCC. Å!CsC O¡stanCCs atC mCant tC maRC t!C auOÎCnCC aOCQt
a Ct¡t¡CaÌ att¡!uOC¸ tC maRC ¡t t!¡nR. ÇÌn a s¡m¡Ìat Wa¸ t!C 1tCnC!
C!ass¡CaÌ sta_C maOC tCCm amCn_ ¡ts aCtCrs !Ct QCrsCns C! !¡_! ranR¸
W!CsC arm-C!a¡ts WCtC QÌaCCO uQCn t!C CQCn sta_C.}
ÏQ¡C !!CattC CVCtt!tCW CCtta¡n CrUC¡aÌ QCs¡t¡CDs C! DCur_CC¡s
tCCattC D¸ QtCOuCt¡Cns W!¡C! WCtC suQCr¡Ct ¡n mCt!CO aDO QtC-
C¡s¡Cn tC QtCOuCt¡Cns C! t!C DCut_CC¡s t!CaDC. Ûut !!C V¡CtCr¡Cs ¡t
WCn WCtC oo koc CnCs. Å!C CQ¡C st8_C Was nCt ¸Ct sC Drm̸ CstaD-
Ì¡s!CO¸ anO t!C C¡tCÌC C! t!CsC U8¡nCO !C aCt uQCn ¡t nCt ¸Ct sC Ìar_C¸
t!at ¡t CCuÌO DC Du¡Ìt uQ anCW ¡n Cm¡_tat¡Cn. ÍCCC_n¡t¡Cn C! t!¡s !aCt
Ì¡Cs at t!C tCCt C! ÛtCC!t´s nCW WCtR.
Tke 6ouo:r¸ ×kere i: is Foròiooeo . + #

Terror ooo .iser¸ o] :ke Tkiro Feick Îs a CyCÌC ÍOtmCd OÍ tWCnty-
sCVCn OnC-aCt QÌays COnsttUCtCd aCCOtdÎn_ tO thC QtCCCQts OÍ u8dÎ-
tÎOnaÌ dtamatUt_y. OOmCtÎmCs thC dtamaCC CÌCmCnt OÌaZCs OUt ÌÎKC a
ma_nCsÎUm ÛatC at thC Cnd OÍ an aQQatCntÌy ÎdyÌÌÎC dCVCÌOQmCnt.
[¯hOsC WhO COmC În at thC KÎtChCn dOOt atC thC ¯ÎntCt ¬Îd" QCOQÌC
WÎth
a saCK OÍ QOUtOCs ÍOt thC ÌÎttÌC hOUsChOÌd; thOsC WhO WaÌK OUt
atC stOtm ttOOQCts ÌCadÎn_ OCtWCCn thCm thC daU_htCt OÍ thC ÍamÎÌy¸
WhOm thCy haVC attCstCd.) \thCt Qatts OÍ thC CyCÌC haVC ÍUÌÌy
dCVCÌOQCd dItÎC QÌOts [C._. În Tke 6kolk 6ross a WOtKCt uICKs a
stOtm-ttOOQCt ÎntO tCVCaÌÎn_ OnC OÍ thC mCthOds WhÎCh thC LCsta-
QO´s aCCOmQÌÎCCs UsC În U_htÎn_ thC UndC_tOUnd). OOmCCmCs Ît Îs
thC tCnsÎOn OÍ a COnttadÎCCOn În sOCIaÌ tCÌaCOns WhÎCh¸ 8ÌmOst WÎth-
OUt ttansQOsÎtÎOn¸ Îs tCVCaÌCd dtamaCCaÌÌy On thC sta_C. [¯WO
QtÎsOnCts taKÎn_ CXCtCÎsC În thC QtÎsOn-yaU UndCt thC CyCs OÍ thC
WatdCt WhÎsQCt amOn_ thCmsCÌVCs¡ OOth atC OaKCts¸ OnC Îs În _aOÌ
OCCaUsC hC dÎd nOt QUt any Otan În hÎs OtCad¸ thC OthCt Was attCstCd
a yCat ÌatCt OCCUsC hC dÎd.)
¯hCsC 8nd OthCt QÌays WCtC QCtÍOtmCd ÍOt thC htst tÎmC În O. ¯h.
ÍUdOW´s WCÌÌ thOU_ht-OUt QtOdUCtÎOn On 21 Nay )g_8 OCÍOtC an
aUdÎCnCC WhÎCh ÍOÌÌOWCd thCm WÎth QassÎOnatC ÎntCtCst. ¬t Ìast¸ aÍtCt
UVC yCats OÍ CXÎÌC¸ thC sQCCÎaÌ QOÌÎtIC8Ì CXQCtÎCnCC WhÎCh UnÎtCs thÎs
QUOÌÎC ÍOUnd CXQtCssÎOn On a thCattC sta_C. OtCm OQÎt8¸ Ìans ¬Ìt-
mann¸ L0ntCt 1UsChÎn¸ LtÎCh OChOCnÌanK¸ aCtOts WhO UntÎÌ thCn had
nOt aÌWays OCCn aOÌC tO tCÌCasC thCÎt Í1ÌÌ QOtCntÎaÌ WhCn QCtÍOtmÎn_
În ÎndÎVÎdUaÌ nUmOCts În QOÌÎtÎCaÌ CaOatCt¸ nOW sUCCCCdCd În QÌayÎn_
OU thCÎt taÌCnts a_aÎnst OnC anOthCt¸ and thCy shOWCd t¢ What _OOd
UsC thCy had QUt thC CXQCtÎCnCC WhÎCh mOst OÍ thCm had aCQUÎtCd
nÎnC mOnths CatÌÎCt În ÛtCCht´s Senoro 6orror's Fqes.
ÌCÌCnC ¯CÎ_CÌ dÎd ¡UstÎCC tO thC tt8dÎCOn WhÎCh¸ În sQÎtC OÍ CVCty-
thÎn_¸ has sUtvÎVCd ÍtOm ÛtCCht´s C8tÌÎCt WOtK În thÎs nCW KÎnd OÍ
thCattC. OhC maÎnt8ÎnCd thC KÎnd OÍ LUtOQCan aUthOtIty CstaOÌÎshCd
În thC CatÌÎCt ÛtCChtÎan thCauC. ¯C WOUÌd haVC _ÎVCn a _tCat dCaÌ
tO sCC hCt În thC Ìast QÌay OÍ thC CyCÌC¸ Fe¸reooa, In WhÎCh¸ as a
QtOÌCtatÎan WOman [a Qatt tCmÎnÎsCCnt OÍ hCt UnÍOt_Ctt8OÌC tOÌC În
¯ ß:nter/:g. a  SpurÎOuS  cDar:tj  campaÎgn  mOuntcd  Dj  tDc  ÌazΠ Vartj  tO 
ÎngraDatc  ÎucÌΠVÎtD tDc VOrKcrS  {¯ranSÌatOr´S  nOtc)· 
7ke .Yotker), shC CmOOdÎCs thC sQÎrÎt O! thC UndCr_rOUnd strU__ÌC În
tÎmCs O! QCrsCCUtÎOn.
·hC CyCÌC rCQrCsCnts !Or thC thCatrC O! \Crman CmÎ_ratÎOn a QOÌÎ-
tÎCaÌ and artÎstÎC OQQOrtUnÎty WhÎCh QaÌQaOÌy dCmOnstratCs¸ !Or thC
Drst tÎmC¸ thC nCCCssÎty !Or that thCatrC. ·hC tWO CÌCmCnts¸ QOÌÎtÎCaÌ
and artÎstÎC¸ hCrC mCr_C ÎntO OnC. 1t Îs Casy tO sCC that tO QÌay a stOrm-
trOOQCr Or a mCmOCr O! thC `QCOQÌC´s COUrts´ Îs a VC:y dÎUCrCnt tasK
!Or a rC!u_CC aCtOr than Ît Îs¸ say¸ !Or a _OOd-hCartCd aCtOr tO QÌay
1a_O. !Or thC !OrmCr¸ CmQathy Îs nO mOrC sUÎtaOÌC than Ît WOUÌd OC
!Or a QOÌÎtÎCaÌ D_htCr tO ÎdCntÎ!y hÎmsCÌ! WÎth hÎs COmradCs´ mUrdCrCr.
¬ dÎUCrCnt mOdC O! aCtÎn_ ~ thC QÎC mOdC¸ tO OC QÌaÎn· may Dnd a
nCW jUstÎÞCatÎOn hCrC and aChÎCVC a nCW KÎnd O! sUCCCss.
·hC CyCÌC ~and hCrC a_aÎn Îts CQÎC gUaÌÎty Îs aQQarCnt¸ thOU_h În a
dÎUCrCnt !O:m - Can aQQCaÌ tO a rCadÎn_ QUOÌÎC as mUCh as tO thCatrC
aUdÎCnCCs. ¬s ÌOn_ as thC COndÎtÎOns WhÎCh ÛrCCht dCQÎCts UQOn thC
sta_C QrCVaÎ̸ Ît Îs UnÌÎKCÌy that tDC mCans WÎÌÌ OC aVaÎÌaOÌC !Or QrO-
dUCÎn_ mOrC tDan a !aÎrÌy ÌÎmÎtCd sCÌCCtÎOn !rOm thC CyCÌC. OUCh a
sCÌCCtÎOn Îs OQCn tO CrÎtÎCaÌ OOjCCtÎOns¸ and thÎs _OCs !Or thC ÌarÎs
QrOdUCtÎOn. ÌOt aÌÌ thC sQCCtatOrs WCrC aOÌC tO _rasQ What a rCadCr
WOUÌd rCCO_nÎzC as thC dCtCrmÎnÎn_ thCsÎs O! aÌÌ thCsC shOrt QÌays.
·hC thCsÎs Can OC sUmmCd UQ În a sCntCnCC !rOm Ía!Ka´s QrOQhCtÎC
7rial. `·hC ÌÎC Îs trans!OrmCd ÎntO a WOrÌd OrdCr.´
LaCh O! thCsC shOrt QÌays dCmOnstratCs OnC thÎn_: hOW ÎnCÌUCtaOÌy
thC ruÌC O! tCrrOr WhÎCh QaradCs OC!OrC thC natÎOns as thC ·hÎrd
ÍCÎCh maKCs aÌÌ rCÌatÎOnshÎQs OCtWCCn hUman OCÎn_s sUOjCCt tO thC
ÌaW O! thC ÌÎC. ¬ dCCÌaratÎOn UndCr Oath OC!OrC a COUrt O! ÌaW Îs a ÌÎC
(Je¿al 7mdin¿), a sCÎCnCC WhOsC tCaChÎn_s may nOt OC aQQÌÎCd În
QraCtÎCC Îs a ÌÎC (Occu¸ational 7tsease), What Îs shOUtCd !rOm thC
rOO!tOQs Îs a ÌÎC (Fe[erendum) and What Îs WhÎsQCrCd În a dyÎn_ man´s
Ca:s Îs stÎÌÌ a ÌÎC (7ke Sermon on tke 3ount). ¬ ÌÎC Îs OrUtaÌÌy ÎnjCCtCd
ÎntO What hUsOand and WÎ!C haVC tO say tO OnC anOthCr În thC Ìast
Înstants O! thCÎr ÌÎ!C tO_CthCr (7ke ¸e×isk ßi[e), a ÌÎC Îs thC masK
WhÎCh QÎty hC:sCÌ! QUts On WhCn shC stÎÌÌ darCs tO _ÎVC a sÎ_n O! ÌÎ!C
(!n tke Ser×ice o¡ tke Peo¸le). NC arC În thC COUntry WhCrC thC namC
O! tDC QrOÌCtarÎat may nOt OC mCntÎOnCd. ÛrCCht shOWs Us hOW
thÎn_s haVC COm0 tO sUCh a Qass În that COUntry that a QCasant Can-
Tke Countr¸ ×kere it t: 7oròidden + . · qI
nOt  CVCn  any  ÌOn_Cr  !CCO  bIs  DCasts  WItbOut  CnOan_CrIn_  `statC 
sCCurIty´  (Tke 7crmer 7eeds kts So×).
ÅbC  trutb¸  WbICb  WIÌÌ  OnC  Oay  COnsumC  tbIs  OtatC  anO  Its  OrOCr 
ÌIKC  a  QurI¿In_ ÍrC¸  Is  tOOay  OnÌy  a  !CCDÌC  sQarK.  Ìt  Is  !annCO Dy tbC 
WOrKCr  WbO¸  In  !rOnt O! tbC  mICrOQbOnC¸  sbOWs  uQ  !Or  tbC  ÌICs  tbat 
tbCy  arC tbC WOrOs  bC Is DCIn_ !OrCCO tO sQCaK,  It Is KCQt  aÌIVC  Dy  tbC 
sIÌCnCC  O! tbOsC  WbO  CannOt¸  CXCCQt  WItb  tbC  _rCatCst  CIrCumsQCC-
tIcn¸  mCCt  tbCIr  COmraOC  WbO  bas  suÛCrCO  martyrOOm,  WbIÌst  tbC 
rC!CrCnOum ÌCaLCt WbOsC CntIrC tCXt Is `Ì\´ Is nOtbIn_ OtbCr tban tbat 
tIny  _ÌOWIn_  sQarK  ItsCÌ!. 
Ìt Is tO DC bOQCO tbat tbC CyCÌC WÌÌÌ sOOn DC aVaIÌaDÌC In  DOOK  !Orm 
ÏOr tbC sta_C It OÛCrs an CntIrC rCQCrtOIrC. ÏOr tbC rCaOCr It Is a Orama 
suCb  0s  Ìraus  CrCatCO  Ìn  bÌs  Jcst 7c¸s o¡ 3cnkmd. Ït  Is  OnÌy  tbIs 
KInO  O!  Orama  WbÌCb  C QCrbaQs  COntaÌn  tbC  stIÌÌ  _ÌOWÌn_  rCaÌIty 
O! tbC  QrCsCnt  mOmCnt  anO  Carry  It  OOWn  tO  QOstCrIty  ÌIKC  a  tCsta-
mCnt  O! IrOn. 
ÜÛMMLÑÏåÑÎLö
ÛÑ
FÛLMö
öT
öÑLÜhÏ
Ìt :s a KLOVL !aCt tDat a COmmCLtatj :s sOmCID:L_
O:UCtCLt !tOm a CatCUlÌÌj VC:_DCO aQQtCC:at:OL aQQOtt:OL:L_ Ì:_Dt
aLO sDaOC. JDC COmmCLtatj QtOCCCOs !tOm tDC CÌass:C LaIutC O! :ts
tCXt aLO DCLCC¸ as :t VCtC¸ !tOm a QtC]uO_CmCLt. Ìt :s !u:IDCt O:st:L-
_u:sDCO !tOm aL aQQtCC:at:OL Dj tDC !aCI IDat :t :s COLCCDCO sOÌCÌj
V:ID IDC DCauIj aLO tDC QOs:t:VC COLtCLt O! :ts tCXt. ºLO :t :s a VCtj
O:aÌCCt:CÌ statC O! aUa:ts VD:CD CLÌ:sts tD:s atCDa:C !Otm¸ IDC COm-
mCLtatj ¬VD:CD¸ a!tCt aÌ̸ :s aL autDOt:tat:VC !Otm ~ :n IDC sCtV:CC
O! a QOCCj VD:CD :s LOt :L tDC ÌCast atCDa:C aLO VD:CD DOÌOÌj CDaÌ-
ÌCL_Cs VDat u tCCO_L:zCO as auIDOt:UI:VC tOOaj.
OuCD a sUtC O! aUa:ts CO:LC:OCs V:tD OLC CLV:sa_CO :L aL OÌO
maX:m O! O:aÌCCt:Cs: UC sutmOuLt:L_ O! O:UCuÌt:Cs Dj tDC:t aCCumu-
ÌaI:OL. JDC O:UCuÌIj tO DC sutmOuLtCO DCtC COLs:sts :L tCaO:L_ Ìjt:C
QOCCj tOOaj at aÌÌ. ouQQOs:L_¸ tDCL¸ tDat OLC C:Cs tO mCCt tD:s O:U-
CuÌIj Dj tCaO:L_ tDC tCXt CXaCIÌj as tDOu_D :t VCtC aL aÌtCaOj CsIaD-
Ì:sDCO OLC¸ DCaVj V:tD a COntCLt O! :OCas ~:L sDOtI¸ a CÌass:CaÌ tCXt¯
ºLO suQQOs:L_ ¬ :! OLC UC tDC DuÌÌ Dj tDC DODs¸ aLO :! OLC DCats
:L m:LO IDC sQCC:aÌ C:tCumsULCC COttCsQOLO:L_ CXaCtÌj tO tDC
~~
d¡mCuÌtj O! tCad¡n_ Ìjt¡C QOCDj tOdaj¸ namCÌj¸ tDC d¡UCuÌtj O!
Vt¡t¡n_ Ìjt¡C QCCttj tOdaj - suQQOs¡n_ tDat¸ VDCn VC maRC Out
actCmQt tO tCad a Ìjt¡CaÌ tCXt as tDOu_D ¡t VCtC a CÌass¡CaÌ OnC¸ VC
CDOOsC a COÌÌCCt¡On O! l¸ric ×erse ×ritten todc¸:
1! anjtD¡n_ Can CnCOuta_C tD¡s attCmQt¸ ¡t ¡s tDC tCCO_n¡t¡On LOm
VD¡CD cDC COuta_C O! dCsQa¡t ¡s _CnCtaÌÌj dtaVn tOdaj: IDC tCCO_n¡-
t¡On tDat tOmOttOV maj Dt¡n_ d¡sastCts O! suCD COÌOssa¡ dImCns¡Ons
tDat VC Can ¡ma_¡nC OutsCÌVCs sCQatatCd !tOm tDC tCXts and QtOduCts
O! jCstCtdaj as tDOu_D Dj CCntut¡Cs. _ÅDC COmmCntatj VD¡CD tOdaj
st¡ÌÌ !ts tDC tCXt tOO t¡_ÌtÌj maj DaVC ÌOOsCnCd ¡ntO CÌass¡C !OÌds tO-
mOttOV. ·DCtC tOdaj ¡ts QtCC¡s¡On maj sD¡RC OnC as aÌmOst unsCCm-
Ìj¸ tOmOttOV mjstCtj maj DaVC tC-CstaDÌ¡sDCd ¡tsCÌ!.)
ÍCtDaQs tDC COmmCnUtj VD¡CD !OÌÌOVs VIÌÌ atOusC ¡ntCtCst ¡n
anOtDCt Vaj tOO. ÍCOQÌC !Ot VDOm LOmmun¡sm aQQCats tO DCat tDC
st¡_ma O! OnCs¡dCdnCss maj DaVC a sutQt¡sC ¡n stOtC !Ot UCm ¡! tDCj
sIudj CÌOsCÌj a COÌÌCCt¡On O! VCtsC suCD as DtCCDt´s. ÅDC sutQt¡sC V¡ÌÌ
O! COutsC DC ÌOst ¡! VC ¡ns¡st On sCC¡n_ OnÌj IDC `dCVC¡OQmCnt´ VD¡CD
DtCCDt´s VCtsC Das undCt_OnC !tOm IDC Hcus¸ostille tO tDC Svend-
òor¿ Poems. ÅDC asOC¡aÌ aII¡tUdC O! IDC Hcus¸ostille ¡s It8ns!OtmCd¸
¡n IDC Svendòor¿ Poems, ¡ntO a sOC¡aÌ att¡IudC. Dut IDat ¡s nOt CXaCIÌj
a COnVCts¡On. 1t ¡s nOt a mattCt O! COns¡_n¡n_ tO tDC LamCs VDat OnCC
Vas VOtsD¡QQCd. 1t ¡s nCCCssatj tO QO¡nt Out VDat IDC d¡ÛCtCnt COÌ-
ÌCCt¡Ons O! VCtsC DaVC ¡n COmmOn. 1mOn_ tDC¡t muÌt¡QÌC att¡cudCs
tDCtC ¡s OnC jCu V¡ÌÌ nCVCt !nd: tDat ¡s tDC unQOÌ¡t¡C8̸ nOn-sOC¡a¡ OnC.
1t ¡s tDC COmmCnUtj´s QutQOsC tO Q¡nQO¡nt UC QOÌ¡t¡C¡ COntCnU O!
Qassa_Cs CDOSCn QtCC¡sCÌj DCCausC tDCj atC QutCÌj Ìjt¡CaÌ.
On tke ÏausQOsUÌÌC ('Housekold 3essen¿er')
1t _OCs V¡tDOut saj¡n_ tDat tDC t¡IÌC `ÏOusCDOÌd NCssCn_Ct´ ¡s ¡tOn¡C.
1ts mCssa_C dOCs nOt COmC dOVn uOm o¡na¡ Ot !tOm IDC LOsQCÌs.
ÅDC sOutCC O! ¡ts ¡nsQ¡tat¡On ¡s DOut_CO¡s sOC¡CIj. ÅDC ÌCssOns VD¡CD
tDC CatC!UÌ tCadCt dW !tOm ¡t d¡ÛCt as V¡dCÌj as QOss¡DÌC !tOm UC
ÌCssOns VD:CD ¡t QutQOtts OstCns¡DÌj tO tCaCD. ÅDC Hcus¸ostille ¡s
CCnCCDCd VIID IDC !OtmCt CatC_Otj O! ÌCssOns aÌOnC. 1! anatCDj
¡s IDC ttuC ÌaV O! DOugCO¡s Ì¡!C¸ sO tCasOns IDC QOCt¸ tDCn ÌCt ¡t at ÌCast
ccmmenraríes cn Pcems q Breckt
~~
DC CaÌÌCO Dj ÍIs QrOQCr namC. ÌOnC O! IDC QOCI¡C !Orms VÍID VD:CD
IDC DOur_CO¡s¡C CmDCÌÌ¡sDCs ÍIs CX¡sICnCC ¡s tOO saCrCO !Or tDC QOCI
IO usC :n C¿Os¡n_ tDC naturC O! DOur_CO¡s ruÌC. ÅDC CDOraÌC VDÍCD
COUCs tDC COn_rC_aLOn¸ IDC !OÌR-sOn_ VDÍCD ¡s !CO as a sOQ IO tDC
QCOQÌC¸ IDC QaIr:OIÍC DaÌÌaO IDat aCCOmQan¡Cs IDC sOÌOÍCr IO IDC
sÌau_DICr¸ IDC ÌOVC-sOn_ tDaI QurvCjs tDC CDCaQCsI COnsOÌaIÍOn ¬ aÌÌ
O! tDCsC rCCC¡VC DCrC a nCV COnICnI¸ Ín tDaI IDC ¡rrCsQOnsÍDÌC anO
asOCÍaÌ man sQCaRs O! IDCsC tDÍn_s ¸LOO¸ QCOQÌC¸ DOmCÌanO anO
Dr¡OC) Ín tDC Vaj tDCj sDOuÌO DC sQORCn O! Ín !rOnt O! ÍrrCsQOnsÍDÌC
anO asOCÍaÌ mCn: VÍtDOuI anj !aÌsC Or IruC sDamC.
On tke NaDa_Onnj oOn_s"
Î7½7¹LTT` ÛLT¹ TL= 1
¯DOcVct 8tajcd ¡n %aDa_Onnj
Ìad tO DaVc ¤Vc dO\\at8 a daj
1nd ¡Î Dc \¡Vcd :t uQ mOtc tDan tDc OtDct8
Ìc nccdcd 8Omc cXtta majDc
Üut :n tDO8c daj8 tDcj a\\ 8ujcd.
²Dcj ÌO8t c¡tDct Vaj
Üut tDcj _Ot 8OmctDín_ Out OÎ ¡t.
1
\n 8ca and On \and
ÍVctjDOdj´8 _ctt:n_ 8Rtnncd
²Dat´8 VDj cVctjDOdj jOu Cn 5
18 8cÌÌ:n_ m8R:n
ÍOt 8R:n8 atc VOttD dO !!t8 anjVaj.
¯DOcVct 8tajcd m%aDa_Onnj
Ìad tO DaVc DVc dOÌ\at8 a daj¸ ctC.
¯ \nlc8 OtDctV¡8c :nd¡ctcd¸ tDc uan8latiOn8 O! Vct8c ín tDí8 VOlumc arc
ptO8c Onc8 madc D¸ tDc ttan8latOt. LtDct8 atc tcptOduccd !tOm a ptOjcctcd
VOIumc O! ÜtccDt´8 Vct8c :n Dn8lauOn D¸ cOuttc8¸ O! Ú cdítOt¸ |ODn
¯u U {¯tæ8IatOt´8 nOtc]
1
\n 8Ca and On Ìand
oaÌC8 OÍ ÍtC8D 8K:n8 atC DOOm:n_
`Ou´VC a¡Ì _Ot tDC :tCD
Üut VDO´8 _O:n_ tO Qaj ÍOt tDC DOOZC:
ÌOt 8K:n8 atC CDCaQ and VD:8Kj´8 dCat.
NDOCVCt 8tajCd :n NaDa_Onnj
Íad tO DaVC hVC dOÌÌat8 a daj, CtC.

\n 8Ca and On Ìand
²DC manj m:Ì¡8 OÍ LOd _t:nd 8ÌOV
Pnd tDat´8 VDj CVCtjOnC jOu Can 8CC
18 8CÌÌ:n_ D:8 8K:n
1Ot tDCj´tC ÍOnd OÍ Ì:V:n_ D:_ Dut tDCj dOn´t uk Qaj:n_ Ca8D.
¯CVCt 8taj8 :n D:8 DO¡C
ÌOC8n´t nCCd hVC dOÌÌat8 a daj
Pnd :Í DC´8 _Ot a V:ÍC
ÍC dOC8n´t nCCd anjtD:n_ cO majDC.
Üut tOdaj UCj´tC aÌÌ 8:tt:n_ t:_Dt
Ín LOd'8 OVn CDCaQ 8aÌOOn
²DCj V:n C:tDCt Vaj
Pnd tDCj´tC _Ctt:n_ nOtD:n_ Out OÍ :I.
W7½7¹LTT` ÛLT¹ TL.

\nC _tCj mOt:n_
Í:_Dt :n tDC m:ddÌC OÍ tDC VD:8Kj
LOd CC tO NaDa_Onnj
LOd CC tO NaDa_Onnj.
Í:_Dt :n tDC m:ddÌC OÍ tDC VD:8Kj
NC nOt:CCd LOd :n NaDa_Onnj.
1
NDj dO jOu 8OaK uQ Ì:KC 8QOn_C8
Nj _OOd VDCat DatVC8t jCat Dj jCat:
comenraríes on Poems ò¸ Bre¬r
~7
`Ou nCVCt CxQCCtCd UC tO COUC
Üut nOV Í´U DCtC, D CVCtjtDÎn_ tCadj:
²DC UCn OÍ NaDa_Onnj ÌOOkCd at CaCD OtDCt.
`C8, 8aÎd tDC UCn OÍ NaDa_Onnj.
\nC _tCj UOtÎn_
ÍÎ_Dt În tDC UÎddÌC OÍ tDC VDÎ8kj, CtC.
¯
ÌO jOu Ìau_D On 1tÎdaj nÎ_Dt8:
Í 8aV Natj ¯CCUan În tDC O8tanCC
oVÎUUÎn_ ÌÎKC a CO8D, duUD, În tDC 8aÌt 8Ca.
LCntÌCUCn, 8DC´ÌÌ DC dtj nO UOtC.
²DC UCn OÍ NaDa_Onnj ¡OOKCd at CaCD OtnCt.
`C8¸ 8aÎd tDC UCn OÍ NaDa_Onnj.
\nC _tCj UOtÎn_
ÍÎ_Dt În tDC UÎddÌC OÍ tDC VDÎ8Kj, CtC.
J
ÌO jOu tCCO_nÎZC tDC8C DuÌÌCt8:
¯æ Ît jOu VDO htCd at Uj _OOd UÎ88ÎOnatj:
PU Í _OÎn_ tO ÌÎVC VÎtD jOu În DCaVCn:
AÍ _OÎn_ tO _aZC uQOn jOut _tCj dtunKatd8´ DaÎt:
²DC UCn OÍ NaDa_Onnj ÌOOkCd at CaCD OtDCt.
`C8, 8aÎd tDC UCn OÍ NaDa_Onnj.
\nC _tCj UOtÎn_
ÍÎ_t În tDC UÎddÌC OÍ tDC VDÎ8Kj, CtC.
PÌÌ OÍ jOu atC _OÎn_ tO DCÌÌ Í
1ut jOut NÎt_ÎnÎa CÎ_at8 aVajÍ
\h tO DCÌÌ, tDC ¡Ot OÍ jOu,
ÜÌaCk DCÌÌ´8 jOut ÌOtÌ
²DC UCn OÍ NaDa_Onnj ¡OOKCd at CaCD OtDCt.
`C8, 8aÎd tDC UCn OÍ NaDa_Onnj.
\nC _tCj UOtÎn_
ÍÎ_Dt În tDC UÎddÌC OÍ tDC VDÎ8kj
4
`Ou CD uQ :n NaDa_Onnj
`Ou CD uQ În NaDa_Onnj.
Í:_Dt În tDC m:dd¡C OÍ tDC VD:8Kj
`Ou ¡aj dOVn tDC ¡aV :n NaDa_OnnjÍ
7
ÌODOdj mO\CÍ
1VCtjOnC OD 8tt:KC!
`Ou VOn´t Ota_ u8 tO DC¡¡ Dj Out !a¡t:
For ×e've lee- i- ke!! c!! c!o-¿.
²DC mCn OÍ NaDa_Onnj ¡OOkCd at LOd.
ÌO, 8a:d tDC mCn OÍ NaDa_Onnj.
Å!C `mCn C! %8!8_Cnn¸´ 8rC 8 D8nO C! CCCCntr¡Cs. \n̸ mCn 8rC
CCCCntr¡C. \n̸ QCrsCns CnOCWCO D¸ n8!urC W!U m8ÌC QCtCnC¸ C8n
DC usCO tC OCmOnstr8tC W¡t!Cut Ì¡m¡t8t¡Cn t!C OC_rCC tC W!¡C! t!C
n8tutBÌ rC!CXCs C! !um8n DC¡n_s !8VC DCCn DÌuntCO D¸ t!C¡r CX¡stCnCC
¡n t!C sCC¡Ct¸ C! tCO8¸. Å!C CCCCnu¡C ¡s nCt!¡n_ Ct!Cr t!8n t!C 8VCr-
8_C m8n¸ QÌ8¸CO Cut. ÛrCC!t !8s CCmD¡nCO sCVCr8Ì ¡ntC 8 D8nO. Å!C¡r
rC8Ct¡Cns 8rC t!C mCst DÌurrCO QCss¡DÌC¸ 8nO CVCn t!CsC t!C¸ CCn̸
QrCOuCC 8s 8 CCÌÌCCt¡VC. Ìn CrOCr tC DC 8DÌC tC rC8Ct 8t 8ÌÌ !!C¸ !8VC tC
!CCÌ t!CmsCÌVCs 8 `CCmQ8Ct m8ss´ ~ 8nO ¡n t!¡s tCC t!C¸ 8rC t!C ¡m8_C
C! t!C 8VCr8_C m8n¸ 8Ì¡8s QCtt¸ DCur_CC¡s. Å!C `mCn C!%8!8_Cnn¸´
ÌCCK 8t CnC 8nCt!Cr DC!CrC t!C¸ s8¸ 8n¸t!¡n_. Å!C rCsQCnsC W!¡C!
t!C¸ t!Cn Dr¡n_ Cut Ì¡Cs 8ÌCn_ t!C Ì¡nC C! ÌC8st rCs¡st8nCC. Å!C `mCn
C! %a!8_Cnn¸´ CCnDnC !!CmsCÌVCs tC s8¸¡n_ `¸Cs´ tC CVCr¸t!¡n_
LCO tCÌÌs t!Cm¸ tC CVCr¸ quCst¡Cn LCO Quts tC t!Cm 8nO CVCr¸
OCm8nO !C m8KCs uQCn t!Cm. OuC!¸ 8CCCrO¡n_ tC ÛrCC!t¸ must DC
!!C n8turC C! 8 CCÌÌCCt!VC t!8t 8CCCQts LCO. ¬nO t!!s LCO tCC ¡s
!¡msCÌ! 8 rCOuCCO CnC. Å!C WCrOs
ße noticed 6od
¡n t!C rC!r8¡n C! OCn_ ÌC. j ¡mQ̸ ¡t¸ 8nO ¡ts Ì8st VCrsC CCnÞrms ¡t.
Å!C Drst 8ssCnt ¡s _¡VCn tC t!C st8tCmCnt.
You never e׸ected me to come.
commentaries on 7oems ò¸Breckt
~5
1t !s C!Cat¸ BOVCVCt¸ tBat tBC D!UntCd tCaCt!Ons O! tBC mCn O! Nana-
_Onn¸ atC nOt sBatQCnCd CVCn D¸ tBC sUtQt!sC CUCCt. 1n a s!m!!at
Va¸¸ !atCt On¸ tBC¸ sCCm tO tB!nK tBat tnC!t C!a!m tO CntCt BCaVCn !s
!n nO Va¸ VCaKCnCd D¸ tBC !aCt tBat tBC¸ BaVC UtCd at tBC m!ss!On-
at¸. ÅBC !OUttB VCtsC tCVCa!s tBat LOd´s V!CV !s d!UCtCnt:
O_` to kell, tke lot o[ ¸ou/
ÌCtC !s tBC B!n_C¸ dtamatUt_!Ca!!¸ sQCaK!n_ tBC ¡ert¡eteta, O! tBC
QOCm. 1n !ssU!n_ B!s COmmand LOd Bas madC a D!UndCt. ÅO mCasUtC
!ts CXtCnt !t !s nCCCssat¸ tO V!sUa!!ZC tBC !OCa!!t¸ a !!tt!C mOtC C!Cat!¸.
1t !s dCUnCd !n tBC Una! VCtsC O! OOn_ ÌO. ?. 1n !aCt¸ V!tB tBC !ma_C
O! tB!s dCUn!t!On O! a Q!aCC¸ tBC QOCt addtCssCs B!s CQOCB.
But toda¸ tke¸`re all sttttn¿ tt¿kt
7n 6od's o×n ckea¡ saloon.
ÅBC adjCCt!VC `CBCaQ´ COnta!ns a _OOd dCa! O! mCan!n_ (Transla-
tor' s note. tnC LCtman VOtd òdb¿ mCans `!a!t´ Ot `jUst´ as VC!! as
`CBCaQ´; tBC VCtD òtllt¿en mCans `tO sanCt!On´ Ot `tO aQQtOVC´]. NB¸
!s tBC sa!OOn CBCaQ: 1t !s CBCaQ DCCaUsC tBC QCO¡!C !n !t atC LOd´s
_UCsts at a CBCaQ Qt!CC. 1t !s CBCaQ (òtllt¿) DCCaUsC tBC QCOQ!C aQQtOVC
(òtllt¿en) CVCt¸tB!n_ tnat !s !n !t. 1t !s CBCaQ [!a!t] DCCaUsC !t !s !a!t
tBat QCOQ!C sBOU!d CntCt !t. LOd´s OVn CBCaQ sa!OOn !s BC!!. ÅBC C-
QtCss!On Bas tBC tCtsC gUa!!t¸ O! CCtta!n dtaV!n_s D¸ tBC !nsanC. 1t !s
jUst !!KC tB!s¸ as a CBCaQ sa!OOn¸ tBat tBC man !n tBC sttCCt [OnCC BC
Bas _OnC mad] ma¸ VC!! Q!CtUtC tBC !!tt!C Q!Ot O! BCaVCn VB!CB !s
aCCCss!D!C tO B!m. [1DtaBam à Oanta L!ata m!_Bt BaVC sQOKCn O!
`LOd´s CBCaQ sa!OOn´.] ÛUt LOd !n B!s OVn CBCaQ sa!OOn Bas madC
B!msC!! CBCaQ V!tB tnC BaD!tUcs. Ì!s tBtCat O! sCnd!n_ tBCm tO BC!!
Bas nO mOtC Va!UC tBan a QUD!!Can´s tBtCat tO tBtOV B!s CUstOmCts
OUt !ntO tBC sttCCt.
ÅBC `mCn O! NaBa_Onn¸´ BaVC tCa!!ZCd tB!s. ÌOt CVCn tBC¸ atC sO
Dta!n!Css as tO DC !mQtCssCd D¸ tBC tBtCat O! DC!n_ sCnt tO BC!!.
ÅBC anatCB¸ O! DOUt_CO!s sOC!Ct¸ !s an !n!Cna! OnC. ÍOt BUman
DC!n_s VBO BaVC DCCn CaU_Bt UQ !n !t¸ sOmCtB!n_ tnat U!!s tBCm V!tB
_tCatCt BOttOt tBan tB!s sOC!Ct¸ s!mQ!¸ CannOt CX!st.
5c 
You ×on't dca¿ u to kell ò¸ our kair:
7or ×e've oeen tn kell aü alon¿.
sajs tDc tD¡td NaDa_Onnj sOn_. ·Dc OnÌj d¡UctcnCc DctVccn DcÌÌ
and tD¡s sOC¡aÌ Otdct ¡s tDat ¡n tDc Qcttj DOut_cO¡s ¸tDc cCCcntt¡C) tDctc
¡s nO t¡_¡d d¡st¡nCt¡On DctVccn D¡s OVn QOOt sOuÌ and tDc LcV¡Ì.
On rke ¸oem `1_a¡nst LcCcQt¡On´
7¹7ÏTÛ¯ ÍÝLݱ¯Ì LT
LCt tDCm nOt dCCCÎVC jOu
¯DCtC :8 nO tCtut:n_ DOmC.
²DC daj Î8 nCatÌj OVCt
¯nc n:_Dt V:nd makC8 jOu 8DíVCt
²OmOttOV VÎÌÌ nOt COmC.
LCt tDCm nOt m:8ÌCad jOu
NÎtD VanÎtj and VOC.
LuÌQ ÌÎÍC V:tD ut_Cnt _tCCd¡ jOu
`I! hnd nOtDÎn_ CÌ8C tO ÍCCd jOu
NDCn OnCC jOu ÌCt Ît _O.
LCt tDCm nOt DCat jOu Ctj:n_
`Ou DaVC 8O Ì:ttÌC tÎmC.
ÌCCaj Î8 ÍOt ÇC dj:n_
L:ÍC´8 C\Îmax nOV ís Ûj:n_
1t VíÌ\ nOt 8taj tDC 8amC.
LCt tDCm nOt dCÍCat jOu
Lt smpc jOu 3 tDCj Vant.
ÌO tCttOt8 nOV Can tCaCD jOu
`Ou´ÌÌ d:C Ì:kC anj CtCatutC
Pnd nOtDÎn_ Va:t8 DCjOnd.
tranlated q jobn Pillett
ÅDc QOct _tcV uQ ¡n a suDutD V¡tD a QtcdOm¡nantÌj LatDOÌ¡C
QOQuÌat¡On; Dut tDc Qcttj-DOut_cO¡s cÌcmcnt tDctc Vas aÌtcadj
DcCOm¡n_ m¡Xcd V¡tD VOtRcts !tOm tDc Ìat_c !aCtOt¡cs On tDc Out-
Commen:aries on 7oems ò¸ Brecb: 5:
sR¡rts C! IDC IC¬n. ÅD¡s CXQÌa¡ns tDC aII¡IuOC anO VCCaDuÌar¸ C! tÌC
QCCm `¬_a¡nsI ÎCCCQI¡Cn´. ÅDC QCCQÌC DaVC DCCn ¬arCO D¸ IDC
CÌCr_¸ a_a¡nsI ICmQIaI¡Cns !Cr ¬D¡CD IDC¸ ¬¡ÌÌ DaVC IC Qa¸ OCar̸ ¡n
a sCCCnO Ì¡!C a!ICr OCaID. ÅDC QCCI ¬ars IDCm a_a¡nsI ICmQIaI¡Cns
anO OCCCQI¡Cns !Cr ¬D¡CD IDC¸ musI Qa¸ OCar̸ ¡n IDÎs Ì¡!C DCrC Cn
CartD. ÌC CCnICsts tDC CX¡sICnCC C! anCIDCr Ì¡!C. Ì¡s ¬8¡n_ ¡s _¡VCn
nC ÌCss sCÌCmn̸ IDan tDaI C! IDC CÌCr_¸¡ D¡s assuranCCs arC CQuaÌ̸
aQCO¡CI¡C. L¡RC tDC CÌCr_¸¸ DC CmQÌC¸s tDC CCnCCQI C! `OCCCQI¡Cn´ (Cr
`ICmQIaI¡Cn´] aDsCÌuIC̸¸ ¬¡IDCuI aOjunCI; DC IaRCs CVCr IDC¡r CO¡!¸-
¡n_ aCCCnIs. ÅDC CÌCVaICO ICnC C! IDC QCCm ma¸ sCOuCC tDC rCaOCr
¡nIC _ÌCss¡n_ CVCr CCræ¡n Qassa_Cs ¬D¡cD ÌCnO IDCmsCÌVCs IC O¡ÛCrCnI
¡nICrQrCIaI¡Cns anO CCnIa¡n a R¡nO C! D¡OOCn DCauI¸.
7bece ts no cetucnin¿ bome.
Í¡rsI ¡nICrQrCIaI¡Cn: ÌCI IDCm nCI OCCC¡VC ¸Cu ¡nIC DCÌ¡CV¡n_ IDaI
IDCrC ¡s a rCIun DCmC. OCCCnO ¡nICrQrCIaI¡Cn: IaRC CarC nCI IC maRC
an¸ m¡sIaRCs¸ !Cr ¸Cu Cn̸ Ì¡VC CnCC.
7be da¸ t near( over (ÅransÌaICr´s nCIC: IDC Ì¡ICraÌ
rCnOCr¡n_ C! tDC LCrman Ì¡nC¸ 7er 7a¿ stebt in den 7:icen, ¡s: `ÅDC
Oa¸ sIanOs ¡n tDC OCCr´].
Í¡rsI ¡nICrQrCIaI¡Cn: IDC Oa¸ ¡s rCaO¸ IC _C¸ ¡I ¡s OCQarI¡n_. OCCCnO
¡nICrQrCIaI¡Cn: IDC Oa¸ ¡s aI ¡Is DC¡_DI (¸CI¸ CVCn sC¸ ¸Cu Can aÌrCaO¸
!CCÌ IDC DrCaID C! IDC n¡_DI ¬¡nO].
7omorro× ×ill not come.
Í¡rsI ¡nICrQrCtaI¡Cn: tDCrC ¬¡ÌÌ nCI DC anCtÌCr Oa¸. OCCCnO ¡nICr-
QrCIaI¡Cn: IDCrC ¬¡ÌÌ nCI DC anCIDCr mCr¡n_ (7ranslatoc's note. IDC
LCrman 3oc¿en mCans DCID `ICmCrrC¬´ anO `:DCr¡n_´¸ C!. IDC
Ìn_Ì¡sD `mCrrC¬´]. ÅDC n¡_DI Das IDC ÌasI ¬CrO.
7as Jeoen ×enij tst (ÅransÌaICr´s nCIC: ID¡s Ì¡nC¸
IDC sCCCnO C! IDC sCCCnO VCrsC¸ ¡s ÌCsI ¡n tDC aDCVC 1ransÌaI¡Cn¸ IC
aÌÌC¬ IDC rD¸mC `¬CC - _C´. ÅDC Ì¡ICraÌ mCan¡n_ ¡s: `1¡!C ¡s a smaÌÌ
tD¡n_.´].
Ïn tDC Ï¡CQCnDCuCt Qt¡VatC CO¡DCn tD¡s 1¡nC tCaO 7a¸ Jeòen ×enq
isr [`tDat Ì¡!C ¡s a smaÌÌ tD!n_´). ¯D¡s VCts¡Cn O¡UCts !tCm tDC ÌatCt¸
QuDÌ!C CnC ¡n tVC tCsQCCts. ¯DC Btst O¡UCtCnCC ¡s tDat tDC CatÌ¡Ct
VCts¡Cn CXtCnOs anO OCUnCs tDC Utst Ì¡nC C! tD¡s VCtsC [`ÏCt tDCm nCt
OCCC¡VC ¸Cu´) D¸ sQCÌÌ¡n_ Cut tDC tDCs¡s C! tDC OCCC¡VCts¸ ¡.C. tDat Ì¡!C
¡s a smaÌÌ tD¡n_. ¯DC sCCCnO O¡UCtCnCC ¡s tC D sCCn ¡n tDC !aCt tDat
tDC Ì¡nC `Ï¡!C ¡s a smaÌÌ tD¡n_´ CXQtCssCs tDC VtCtCDCOnCss C!Ì¡!C ¡n an
¡nCCmQataDÌC Va¸ anO tDus unOCtÌ¡nCs tDC CXDCttat¡Cn nCt tC DC
at_uCO Cut C! an¸ C! ¡t.
!r ×ill nor sra¸ rke same [¯tansÌatCt´s nCtC: tDC
Ì¡tCtaÌ mCan¡n_ C! tDC LCtman¸ 7s sreor ni¬r meor beretr, ¡s. `Ït stanOs
tCaO¸ nC mCtC.´).
1¡tst ¡ntCtQtCæt¡Cn: `Ït stanOs tCaO¸ no more'. tD¡s aOOs nCtD¡n_
tC tDC QtCCCO!n_ 1¡nC¸ `Ï¡!C´s CÌ¡maX ¡s nCV D¸¡n_´. OCCCnO ¡ntCtQtCta-
t!Cn¯ `Ït stanOs read¸ nC mCtC´: ¸Cu DaVC aÌtCaO¸ DaÌ!-m¡ssCO tD¡s¸
¸Cut _tCatCst CDanCC. `Cut Ì¡!C stanOs tCaO¸ !Ct ¸Cu nC mCtC¡ ¡t Das
aÌtCaO¸ DC_un¸ Das aÌtCaO¸ DCCn staRCO ¡n tDC _amC.
¯DC QCCm !CtCCs us tC DC sDaRCn¸ Ct sDattCtCO, D¸ tDC sDCttnCss C!
Cut Ì¡!C. \nC VCuÌO OC VCÌÌ tC QCnOCt tDC !aCt tDat tDC LCtman VCtO
ers¬ürre¬ [`tC sDaRC´) CCnCCaÌs ¡n ¡t tDC VCtO scurrer [`sQatsC´).
NDCtC sCmCtD¡n_ CCÌÌaQsCs¸ tDCtC atC DCunO tC DC DCÌCs anO _aQs.
¬na̸s¡s sDCVs tDat ¡n tD¡s QCCm tDCtC atC numCtCus Qassa_Cs VDCtC
tDC VCtOs CCmD¡nC Dut ÌCCsC̸ anO unstCaO!̸ tC ¸¡CÌO a mCan¡n_.
¯D¡s ¡ntCns¡UCs tDC QCCm´s sDattCt¡n_ CUCCt.
On rke ¸oem `\! tDC O¡nnCts ¡n 1CÌÌ´
L± TH£ 5111£B5 1U H£L1
1
¯DC 8:nnCt8 :n DCÌÌ
1ty DOttCt tDan jOu mn
but ¡Í jOu ¤CCQ ÍOt OnC
¯DC tCat Ía1Ì8 _CntÌj On DÎ8 DCad.
6omenrories on Poems [ Breck:
~
ó
¯
²DCj VDO Du tDC DÌaCKC8t
LCt nO tCat8 DOm anj OnC
\n tDC:t daj Oh tDCj _O Out
²O DC_ ÍOt a tCat.
¿
²DCj 8tand tDCtC :nV:8:DÌC.
²DC V:nd _OC8 tDtOu_D tDC:t DOd:C8
²DC 8un 8D:nC8 tDtOu_D tDCm.
²DCj CannOt DC 8CCn.
4
ÍCtC COmC Out N\1ÌÌCtC:8Ctt
ÍC d:Cd :n PmCt:C
Í:8 Dt:dC dOC8n´t KnOV :t jCt
²Dat´8 VDj VatCt tDCtC :8 nOnC.
]
Pnd DCtC :8 Ïa8Qat ÌCDCt
ÍC COmC8 a8 8OOn a8 tDC 8un DtCaK8 tDtOu_D
Pnd nODOdj¸ LOd KnOV8 VDj¸
1VCt 8DCd8 a tCat ÍOt Dtm.
6
²DCn COmC8 LCOt_C 1ÍanZC¡t
P mO8t unDaQQj H
Í:8 :dCa Va8 tDat
ÍC d:d nOt mattCt.
¸
Pnd 8VCCt Nat:C tDCtC
oDC tOttCd aVaj :n DO8Q:ta\
Pnd nCVCt _Ct8 a V.
oDC CatCd tOO Ì:tt¡C aDOut :t aÌÌ.
ö
1nd tDCtC :n tDC Ì:_Dt 8tand8 ÜCtt ÜtCCDt
\VCt tDCtC Dj a dO_-8tOnC.
ÍC _Ct8 nO VatCt DCCJu8C CVCtjOnC tD:nK8
ÍC´8 _OnC tO DCaVCn.
Q
`Ct DC´8 Du::n_ nOV :n DCÌÌ
NCCQ mj DtOtDCt8 VCCQ
\t CVCtj oundaj aÍtCtnOOn
ÍC mu8t 8tand tDCtC Dj D:8 dO_-8tOnC.
ÅC¡s QOCm sCOWs W¡tC startÌ¡n_ CÌar¡t¸ tCC _rCat O¡stanCC !rOm
WC¡CC tCC QOCt O! tCC HousekoH 3essen¿er Cas traVCÌÌCO. ÌOW¸
CaV¡n_ COmC sO !ar¸ CC rCaCCCs CasuaÌ̸ !Or tCC nCarCst tCín_ at CanO.
ÅCC nCarCst tC¡n_ at CanO ¡s ÛaVar¡an !OÌR-ÌOrC. ÅCC QOCm Ì¡sts !r¡CnOs
¡n CCÌÌ-ÞrC ¡n tCC samC Wa¸ as a sCr¡nC at tCC rOaOs¡OC ma¸ COmmCnO
tCOsC WCO O¡CO W:tCOut rCCC¡V¡n_ tCC Ìast saCramCnts tO tCC Qra¸Crs
O! QassCrs-D¸. ·Ct tCC QOCm WC¡CC at Þrst _ÌanCC aQQCars sO narrOW̸
COnLnCO COmCs¸ ¡n rCaÌ¡t¸¸ !rOm VCr¸ !ar aWa¸. Ìts QCO¡_rCC ¡s tCat
O! tCC ÌamCnt¸ WC¡CC Was OnC O! tCC ma¡Or !Orms O! mCO¡CVaÌ Ì¡tCra-
turC. \nC COuÌO sa¸ tCat ¡t _OCs DaCR tO tCC anC¡Cnt ÌamCnt ¡n OrOCr tO
ÌamCnt sOmCtC¡n_ VCr¸ mOOCrn. tCC !aCt tCat CVCn ÌamCntat¡On Cas
DCCOmC a tC¡n_ O! tCC Qast.
Here comes our 3ülleretert
He died in ×mericc
H:s bride doesn´t kno× it ¸et
7kct`s ×k¸ ×cter tkere is none.
ÅruC¸ tCC QOCm OOCs nOt QrOQCr̸ ÌamCnt tC¡s tCarÌCssnCss. ÌOr
Can OnC QrOQCr̸ assumC tCat %ÍiÌÌCrC¡sCrt ¡s OCaO¸ s¡nCC¸ aCCOrO¡n_
tO tCC autCOr´s `¡nstruCt¡Ons´¸ tC¡s sCCt¡On O! tCC DOOR ¡s OCO¡CatCO
tO C¡m ¬ nOt tO C¡s mCmOr¸.
ÅCC sCr¡nC WC¡CC ¡s Qut CCrC DCars ¡ma_Cs O! tCC !r¡CnOs ¡n CCÌÌ-
ÞrC WCO arC mCnt¡OnCO D¸ namC; Dut at tCC samC t¡mC [tC¡s Can DC
OOnC ¡n a QOCm} ¡t aOOrCssCs tCCm as QassCrs-D¸ ¡n OrOCr tO rCm¡nO
6ommeo:ories oo Poems ò¸ Breckr
55 
tDCm tDat tDC¸ cn CXQCCt nC ¡ntCtCCss¡Cn. ¯DC QCCt Catt¡Cs tDÍs Cut
VÍtD QCtÎCCt CCmQCsutC. Ûut at tDC CnO D¡s CCmQCsutC ÎaÍÌs D¡m.
1C CCmCs tC sQCaR CÎ D¡s CVn QCCt sCu̸ ÎCtÌCr Ì¡RC nC CtDCt. Ït
stanOs ¡n tDC Ì¡_Dt anO¸ VDat ¡s mCtC¸ Cn a OunOa¸ aÎtCrCCn anO D¸
a OC_-stCnC. ]ust VDat tDat ¡s CnC OCCs nCt Qu¡tC RnCV¸ QCtDaQs a
stCnC a_a¡nst VD¡CD OC_s maRC VatCt. 1Ct tDís sÍnnCt´s sCu̸ tDat
VCuÌO DC sCmCtD¡n_ 8 Îam¡Ì¡at as a OamQ QatCD Cn tDC VaÌÌ CÎ D¡s
CCÌÌ ís ÎCt a QtísCnCt. ¯¡tD tDC QCCt D¡msCÌÎ tDC jCRC COmCs tC an
CnO¸ anO DaV¡n_ sDCVn sC muCD ¡IsCÌCnCC DC DC_s ~ ¡nsOÌCnt̸¸ Ít ¡s
ttuC ~ ÎCt tCats.
Oo :ke ¸oem `\Î ÍCCt Û.Û.´
LÏ JLLÏ B. B.
1¸ ÜcttOÌt ÜtcCDt¸ COmc Out OÎ tDc DÌaCR ÎOtc8U.
%j mOtDct DtOu_Dt mc tO tDc Ct¡c8 c8tÌj On
18 1 Ìaj ¡n Dct DOdj. 1nd tDc C¡ÌÌ OÎ tDc ÎOtc8t
¯¡ÌÌ tcma¡n V¡tD mc t¡ÌÌ mj Ì¡Îc ¡8 dOnc.
1n tDc a8QDaÌt C¡tj 1 8 at DOmc. ÍtOm Uc Dt8t
ouQQÌ¡cd V¡tD ÍXttcmc \nCuOn D QÌcntj:
¯¡tD QaQct8. ²ODaCCO. 1nd Dtandj.
%:8ttu8tÎuÌ and :dÌc¸ and uÌDmatcÌj nOt d:8COntcntcd.
1 8 QOÌ:tc tO QcOQÌc. 1 Vcat
1 Datd Dat mOtdct tO ÌOOR Ì¡Rc tDc OtDct8.
1 8§. VDat Cut¡Ou8-8mcÌÌ¡n_ an¡maÌ8¸
²Dcn 1 up: 1´m Onc mj8c\Ρ 8O VDj DOtDct:
1n mj cmQtj tOCR¡n_-CDa¡t8 DcÎOtc ÌunCcOn
1 QÌaCc Onc Ot tVO VOmcn 1´Vc mj cjc On¸
1nd 1 ÌOOR Ucm OVct C8tcÌ¢8Ìj and tcÌÌ tDcm.
Ìctc jOu´Vc a man jOu Can´t tcÌj On.
²OVatd8 cVcn¡n_ 1 _ct 8Omc mcn tO_ctDct¸
¯c 8tatt addtc88:n_ caCD OtDct a8 `_cntÌcmcn´.
²Dg Qut tDc¡t Îcct uQ On mj taDÌc8
oaj¡n_: 1t´ÌÌ VOtR Out aÌÌ t¡_Dt. 1 dOn´t a8R. ¯Dcn:
3c 
²O¬atd8 mOr:n_ :n tDc _tc¸ ¡:_Dt tDc Q:ncttcc8 8!and Q:88:n_.
Jnd tDc Vctm:n :n tDcm - D:td8 ¬ Dc_:n tO 8CtccCD.
JOOut tDat DOut 1´m cmQt¸:n_ m¸ _¡a88 :n tDc C:t¸ and tDtO¬:n_
My C:_atct!c-Dutt a¬a¸¡ and dtOQ tc8t¡c88¡¸ tO 8¡ccQ.
J maKc8D:!t taCc¸ ¬c Camc and 8ctt¡cd
1n DOu8c8 tDat ¬ctc 8uQQO8cd tO ¡a8t
[¯hus WC DuIÌt thC taÌÌ COntaInCrs On Manhattan 1S¡3Pd
Jnd tDc 8¡cndct an!cnnac On ¬D:CD tDc Jt¡ant:C tc8t8).
N:¡¡ 8utV:Vc O! tDc8c C:t:c8 ¬Dat ¬cnt tD:Ou_D tDcm: tDc ¬:nd !
²Dc DanQUctct :8 _¡ad tO cmQt¸ tDc man8:On.
Nc :ca¡:Zc tDat ¬c atc Qutc¡¸ QtOV:8:Ona¡
Jnd a!tct D8 ?¯:¡¡ COmc ¬ nOtD:n_ ¬OttD mcnDOn.
1n tDc cattDQuaKc8 tDat atc tO !O¡¡O¬ 1 _tcat¡¸ DOQc
1 8Dan´t _rO¬ tOO cmD:ttctcd tO QuU at m¸ C:_at
1¸ ÜcttO¡t ÛtcCDt¸ adt:!t :n tDc a8QDa¡t C:t:c8
LOn_ a_O¸ :n m¸ mO!Dct¸ !tOm ¬Dctc !Dc D¡aCK !Otc8t8 atc.
:ra-s!a:ed _ joò- h:1!e::
7, Berrolr Breckr, come our o¡rke olack [oresrs.
3¸ morker orou¿kr me ro rke ctrtes ear( on
×s 7 la¸ tn ker bod¸. ×nd rke cktll o¡ rke [oresr
ßtlI rematn ×trk me rtll m¸ l¸je ts done.
Ìn thC !OrCsts It Is COÌd¸ It CannOt OC any COÌdCr In thC CItICs. ¬Ì-
rCady In h¡s mOthCr´s OOdy thC QOCt Was as COÌd as In thC asQhaÌt
CItICs In WhICh hC Was tO ÌIVC.
×oour rkar kour 7'm em¸¸tn¿ m¸ ¿lass tn rke ct¸ and
7kro×tn¿ m¸ c:¿arerre-ourr a×a¸, and dro¸ resrless( ro slee¸.
ÍCrhaQs nOt thC Ìast th¡n_ WhICh QrOVOKCs thIs rCstÌCssnCss Is thC
thOU_ht O! sÌCCQ ItsCÌ!¸ OOdy-rCÌaXIn_, tCst-_IVIn_ sÌCCQ. NIÌÌ It dCaÌ
mOrC KIndÌy WIth thC sÌCCQCr than thC mOthCr´s WOmO dCa!t WIth thC
UnOOD: ÍrOOaOÌy nOt. ÌOthIn_ maKCs sÌCCQ sO UnQUICt as thC !Car
O! WaKIn_.
(7kus ×e outlr rke rall conratners on 3a-karran 7sland
×nd rke slender a-rennae on ×ktck rke ×:lanrtc resrs).
6ommeorories oo Poems ò¸ Breckr
5; 
·BC antCnnaC {aCt¡aÌs] VB¡CB `suQQOtt´ {Ot Cn tCtta¡n] tBC PtÌant¡C
dO nOt¸ VC maj DC sutC¸ CntCtta:n ¡t V¡tB mus¡C Ot taÌK Dut V:tB sBOtt
and ÌOn_ VaVCs¸ V:tB tBC mOÌCCuÌat QtOCCssCs VB¡CB atC tBC QBjs¡CaÌ
CX:stCnCC O! tad¡O. 1n tB¡s Ì¡nC tBC ut:Ì¡Zat¡On O! tCCBn¡CÌ mCd¡a Dj
mOdCr man ¡s d¡sm:ssCd V¡tB a sBtu_ O! tBC sBOuÌdCts.
ºill survive o] rkese ciries ×kor ×eor rkrou¿k rkem· rke ×ioo!
1! tBC V¡nd tBat VCnt tBtOu_B tBCm sutV¡VCs tBCsC Ct¡Cs¸ ¡t V¡ÌÌ
nO ÌOn_Ct DC tBC OÌd V¡nd tBat KnCV nOtB¡n_ O! C¡t¡Cs. ·BC C¡t¡Cs
V:tB tBC¡t asQBaÌt¸ V¡tB tBC¡t sttCCts and manj V¡ndOVs V¡Ì̸ VBCn
dCsttOjCd and d¡s¡ntC_tatCd¸ dVCÌÌ ¡n tBC V¡nd.
Tke òooçuerer is ¿loo ro em¸¿ rke moosioo.
·BC DanQuCtCt BCtC tCQtCsCnts tBC dCsttOjCt. Íat¡n_ ¡s nOt OnÌj
!CCd¡n_ OnCsCÌ!¸ ¡t ¡s aÌsO d¡__¡n_ OnC´s tCCtB ¡ntO sOmCtB¡n_ and
dCsttOj:n_ ¡t. ·BC VOtÌd ¡s ¡mmCnsCÌj s¡mQÌ¡OCd ¡! VC tCst ¡t¸ nOt sO
muCB !Ot ¡ts CnjOjaD¡Ì¡tj {Cd¡D¡Ì¡tj]¸ as !Ot ÎU dCsttUCt¡D¡Ì¡tj. LC-
sttuCCD¡Ì¡tj ¡s tBC DOnd tBat un:tCs ¡n BatmOnj CVCtjtB¡n_ tBat CX:sts.
·BC s¡_Bt O! tB¡s BatmOnj UÌÌs tBC QOCt V¡tB jOj. ÎC ¡s tBC DaLQuCtCt
V¡tB tBC ¡tOn ]aVs VBO CmQt¡Cs tBC VOtÌd´s mans¡On.
ºe reoli¸e rkor ×e ore ¸ure¸ ¸rovisioool
¬oo o¸er us ×ill come - oorkm¿ ×orrk meorioo.
Iorlãu¸¿e, `QtOV¡s¡OnaÌ´ ~ QCtBaQs tBCj m:_Bt DC Iorlãu¡r, `QtC-
CutsOts´¡ Dut BOV C tBCj DC¸ s:nCC nOtB:n_ VOttB mCnt¡On¡n_ V:ÌÌ
COmC aDCt tBCm: 1t ¡s nOt Cnt:tCÌj tBC¡t LuÌt ¡! tBCj _O dOVn ¡n
B¡stOtj V¡tBOut _ÌOtj. {·BC QOCm `·O Out OuCCCssOts´¸ Vt:ttCn tCn
jCats ÌatCt¸ taKCs uQ a s¡m¡Ìat tBOu_Bt.]
!, Berrolr Breckr, oor(ft m rke os¸kolr ciries
Joq qo, io pmorker, ¸rom ×kere rke òlock ]oresrs ore.
·BC Q¡Ì¡n_-uQ O! QtCQOs¡t:Ons O! QÌaCC ~tBtCC ¡n tVO Ì¡nCs ~ must
QtOduCC an unCOmmOnÌj d¡stUtD¡n_ CÛCCt. ·BC stta__Ì¡n_ t¡mC
CÌausC ´ÌOn_ a_O´ (Troosloror's oore. ¡n tBC LCtman U¡s CÌausC COmCs
at tBC Cnd O! tBC Ìast Ì¡nC] Bas dOuDtÌCss m¡ssCd ¡ts COnnCCt¡On V¡tB
tBC QtCsCnt and sO tC¡n!OtCCs an ¡mQtCss¡On O! QOVCtÌCssnCss¸ O!
58 
aDandOnmCnt. ÅBC QOCt sQCaKs as !!¸ a!tCad¸ !n B!s mOtBCt´s VOmD¸
BC Bad DCCn CXQOsCd tO CVCt¸ V!nd.
NBOCVCt tCads tB!s QOCm Bas Va!KCd tBtOU_B tBC QOCt as tBtOU_B
a _atC UQOn VB!CB¸ !n VCatBCt-VOC !CttCts¸ a Û. Û. Can DC dCC!QBCtCd.
ÅBC QOCt Vants tO Ba!t tBC tCadCt On B!s Va¸ as !!tt!C as a _atC Vants
tO Ba!t tBC QassCt-D¸. ÅBC atCBVa¸ ¾¸ QCtBaQs¸ DU!!t CCntUt!Cs a_O:
!t st!!! stands DCcUsC !t stOOd !n nO OnC´s Va¸. Ì!BC stands !n nO OnC´s
Va¸¸ Û. Û. V!!! dO jUstICC tO B!s n!CKnamC (¸oor Û. Û.]. ÌOtB!n_ VOttB
mCnt!On!n_ Can BaQQCn !n tBC !!!C O! sOmCOnC VBO stands !n nO
OnC´s Wa¸ and VBO nO !On_Ct mattCts ¬ Un!Css !t DC tBC dCC!s!On tO
QUt OnCsC!! !n QCOQ!C´s Va¸ and tO maKC sUtC tBat OnC dOCs mattCt.
ÅBC !atCt C¸C!Cs O! QOCms DCat VItnCss tO jUst sUCB a dCC!s!On. ÅBC!t
CaUsC !s tBC C!ass sttU__!C. ÅBC DCst dC!CndCt O! a CaUsC !s OnC VBO
Bas madC a statt D¸ !Ctt!n_ _O O! B!msC!!.
On rke OtUd!Cs
ÅBCsC Srudies atC nOt sO mUCB tBC QtOdUCts O! IndUstt!OUs ZCa! as O!
an orium cum di¿nirare. OOmCt!mCs an Cn_taVCt´s Band¸ sCatCC!¸
mOV!n_¸ WÌÌ dtaV Ot dOOd!C !ma_Cs at tBC Cd_C O! tBC Q!atC; !n tBC
samC Va¸ !ma_Cs !tOm Cat!!Ct tImCs atC BCtC tCCOtdCd !n tBC mat_!n
O! ÛtCCBt´s VOtK. Ìt BaQQCns tO tBC QOCt tBat¸ !OOK!n_ UQ !tOm B!s
VOtK¸ BC ma¸ _!anCC aCtOss tBC QtCsCnt !ntO tBC Qast. `ÍOt tBC COm-
QaCt _at!ands O! tBC sOnnCt¡NCaVC tBCmsC!VCs as tBOU_B O! tBC!t
OVn aCCOtd !n m¸ Bands¡NB!!st m¸ C¸Cs _taZC !n tBC d!stanCC¸´ sa¸s
NÖt!KC. 1 CasUa! _!anCC !ntO tBC d!stanCC¸ VBOsC Und!n_s atC Cn-
C!OsCd !n tBC stt!CtCst QOCt!C !Otm.
1mOn_ tBC !atCt QOCt!C VOtKs¸ tBC S:udtes atC CsQCC!a!!¸ aK!n tO
tBC Housc'oH 3essen¿er. ÅBC Housekold 3essen¿er OD¡CCts tO mUCB
O! OUt mOta!!t¸; !t Bas tCsCtVat!Ons tC_atd!n_ a nUmDCt O! ttad!-
t!Ona! COmmandmCnts. Ìt Bas nOt tBC tCmOtCst !ntCnt!On¸ BOVCVCt¸
O!CXQ!!C!t!¸ stat!n_ UCsC tCsCtvat!Ons. Ìt Dt!n_s tBCm OUt !n tBC !Otm
O! Vat!ants¸ QtCC!sC!¸¸ O! tBC mOta! att!tUdC and _CstUtCs VBOsC
CUstOmat¸ !Otm !t COns!dCts tO DC nO !On_Ct gU!tC Utt!n_. Ìn tBC
S:udies ÛtCCBt ttCats a nUmDCt O!!!tCtat¸ dOCUmCnts and VOtKs !n a
s!m!!at sQ!t!t. ÍC Bas tCsCtVat!Ons aDOUt tBCm. ÛUt D¸ ttans!at!n_
ccmmenraries on 7oems ò¸ Breckr
5p 
tUC8C tC8C:V8!!OD8 !D!O 8ODDC! !OtD UC Qu!8 !UCD !O !UC !C8t. ²U8!
!UC¸ 8u:V!VC !U!8 !:C8!DCD! QtOVC8 tUC!t V8Ì!O!!¸.
iD !UC Srudies tC8C:VC !8 D!XCO 9!!U 8 CCt!8!D 8DOuD! O! tCVCtCDCC.
²UC uDtC8C:VCO !t!Du!C¸ 9U!CU COttC8QODO8 !O 8 D8tD8t:8D COD!CDQt
O! CuÌ!utC¸ U88 D8OC tOOD !Ot 8 !tJDutC !uÌÌ O! tC8CtV8!!OD8.
On rke 18DODOOK !Ot \!!¸-O9CÌÌCt8
¯Í± ÏÌÏÛ¯ JL±Î ÏÏLÎ ¯Í± Hodook¡or Cip-d»ellerc
1att !tOm jOut Ù:Cnd8 at thC 8tat:On
ÍntCt thC C:tj :n thC mOt:n_ V:th jOut COat DuttOnCd uQ
LOOK !Ot a tOOm¸ and VhCn jOut !::Cnd KnOCK8:
lO nOt¸ Oh dO nOt¸ OQCn thC dOOt
Üut
LOVC: jOut UaCK8.
i! jOu mCCt jOut QatCnt8 :n ÎamDut_ Ot CÌ8CVhCtC
¸ 1a88 thCm Ì:KC 8ttan_C:8¸ CD thC COtCt¸ dOn´t tCCO_n:ZC thCm
1uÌÌ thC hat thCj _aVC jOu OVCt jOut !aCC¸ and
lO nOt¸ Oh dO nOt¸ 8hOV jOut !aCC
Üut
LOVCt jOut t:aCK8.
Íat thC mCat that´8 thCtC. lOn´t 8t:nt jOut8CÌ!.
LO :ntO anj hOu8C VhCn :t ta:n8 and 8:t On anj Cha:t thaI´8 :n :t
Üut dOn´t 8:t ÌOn_. Jnd dOn´t !Ot_Ct jOut hat.
1 tCÌÌ jOu:
LOVCt jOut UaCK8.
NhatCVCt jOu 8aj¸ dOn´t 8aj :t tV:CC
1! jOu hnd jOut :dCa8 :n anjOnC CÌ8C¸ d:8OVn thCm.
¯hC man VhO ha8n´t 8:_nCd anjU:n_¸ VhO ha8 ÌC!t nO Q:CtutC
NhO Va8 nOt thCtC¸ VhO 8a:d nOth:n_:
ÎOV Can thCj CtCh h:m:
LOVCt jOut t:aCK8.
bCC VhCn jOu COmC tO th:nK O! d¸n_
¯hat nO _:aVC8tOnC 8tand8 and DCt:aj8 VhCtC jOu Ì:C
N:th a CÌCat :n8C::Qt:On tO dCnOunCC jOu
Jnd tDc ¸ca: O! ¸Our dcatD tO _:Vc ¸Ou a¬a¸.
LnCc a_a:n.
LOVct ¸Ou: !:aCK8.
¸¯Da! :s ¬Dat !Dc¸ tau_D! mc).
translated q Frank jellínek
1:DOÌO Z9C:_ U88 QO:D!CO Ou! !U8! !U:8 8CQuCDCC O! QOCD8 U88
8CQu::CO 8 DC9 DC8D:D_ !D :cCCD! ¸C8:8¸ !! :CQ:C8CD!8 !UC C!!¸ 88 !UC
:C!u_CC CXQC:!CDCC8 !! !D 8 !O:C:_D COuD!:¸. ²U8! !8 CO::CC!. Du! ODC
8UOuÌO DO! !O:_C! !U8! !UC D8D 9UO !_U!8 !O: !UC CXQÌO:!CO CÌ888 !8
8 :C!u_CC :D U!8 O9D COuD!:¸. ÍO: !UC :D!CÌÌ!_CD! \ODDuD:8!¸ !UC
!D8Ì DVC ¸C8:8 O! U:8 QOÌ!!!C8Ì 9O:K :D !UC ·C:D8: ÌCQuDÌ:C 8!_D!-
ÍCO 8 C:¸Q!O-CD!_:8!:OD. D:CCU! CXQC:!CDCCO !UO8C ¸C8:8 88 8uCU.
²U!8 D8¸ U8VC Q:OV!OCO !UC !DDCO!8!C OCC88:OD !O: !UC 9:\!!D_ O!
!U!8 C¸CÌC O! QOCD8. \:¸Q!O-CD:_:8!!OD 988 8 Q:CÌ!D!D8:¸ !O:D O!
8C!u8Ì CD!_r8!!OD¡ :! 988 8Ì8O 8 Q:CÌ!D:D8:¸ !O:D O! uDOC:_:OuDO
QOÌ:!:C8Ì 8C!:V:!¸.
cover ¸our tracks
1 Q:CCCQ! !O: !UC uDOC:_:OuDO QOÌ:!!C8Ì 9O:KC:
![¸ou ¸nd ¸our ideas in an¸one else, dtso×n tkem.
J Cu:!Ou8 Q:CCCQ! !O: !UC !D!CÌÌCC!u8Ì O! t
9
z8¸ 8 Cr¸8!8Ì-CÌC8: ODC
!O: !UC !D!CÌÌCC!u8Ì _ODC uDOC:_:OuDO.
See ×ken ¸ou come to rkink o[d¸i_
Tkar no ¿ravestone stands and betra¸s ×kere ¸ou lie
¬!U!8 Q:CCCQ! 8ÌODC COuÌO DC COD8:OC:CO Ou! O! O8!C¡ !UC uDOC:_:OuDO
QOÌ:!:C8Ì 9O:KC:8 U8VC DCCD :CÌ!CVCO O! !U:8 9O:r¸ D¸ 1!!ÌC: 8DO U!8
!Uu_8.
1D !U!8 U8DODOOK !UC C:!¸ !8 8CCD 88 !UC 8:CD8 O! !UC 8!ru__ÌC !O:
CX!8!CDCC 8DO O! !UC CÌ888 8!ru__ÌC. ²UC V:8:OD O! !UC ODC :8 r8!UC:
8D8:CU:8!!C 8DO U88 Ì:DK8 9!!U !UC Housekold 3essen¿er, !UC V:8!OD
O! !UC 8CCODO :8 :CVOÌu!:OD8:¸ 8DO QO!D!8 !Orw8:O !O UC ´²U:CC
OOÌO!C:5¸ !!8 5uCCC88O:. 1D C8CU C88C ODC !U!D_ tCD8:D8 uDCU8D_CO.
6ommen:ories on 1oems ò¸ Breck: Ó
í
C!!!C8 8:C D8!!ÌCÍCÌO8. \DC C8DDO! !D8_!DC 8D OD8C:VC: ÌC88 8CD8!!IVC
!O !ÌC DC8u!!C8 O! Ì8DO8C8QC !Ì8D !ÌC 8!:8!C_!C8Ì̸ !:8!DCO OD8C:VC:
O! 8 D8!!ÌC. \DC C8DDO! !D8_!DC 8D OD8C:VC: 8u:VC¸!D_ !ÌC CÌ8:D8
O! 8 C!!¸ ~ !!8 DuÌ!!!ud O! ÌOu8C8¸ !ÌC D:C8!Ì-!8K!D_ 8QCCO O! !!8
!:8DC¸ !!8 CD!C:!8IDDCD!8 ~ DO:C uD!CCÌ!D_̸ tÌ8D D:CCÌ!. ²Ì!8 Ì8CK
O! !CCÌ!D_ !O: !ÌC C!!¸ OCCO:¸ CODD!DCO 9!!Ì 8D C. ×!:CDC 8CD8!D!Ì!!¸
!O: !ÌC CI!¸-O9CÌÌC:8 8QCC!8Ì 98¸8 O! :C8C!!OD¸ O!8!!D_u!8ÌC8 D:CCÌ!´8
C¸CÌC !:OD 8ÌÌ D!_-C!!¸ QOC!:¸ !Ì8! Q:CCCOC8 !!. ·8Ì! ·Ì!!D8D !D-
!OX!C8!CO Ì!D8CÌ! 9!!Ì !ÌC ÌuD8D D888C8¸ O! !ÌC8C !ÌC:C !8 DO DCD-
!!OD !D D:CCÌt. D8uOCÌ8!:C QC:CC!VCO !ÌC !:8!Ì!¸ 8! !ÌC ÌC8:! O! Ì8:!8¸
!D !ÌC Ì8:!8!8D8 ÌC QC:CC!VCO OD̸ 9Ì8! !Ì8! !:8!Ì!¸ Ì8O OODC !O !ÌCD.
`C:Ì8C:CD 8!!CDQ!CO 8D 8QO!ÌCO8!8 O! C!!!C8. ²O LCO:_ 1C¸D !ÌC¸
8QQC8:CO !uÌÌ O! QO:!CD!8 O! !ÌC C8!88!:OQÌC8 9Ì!CÌ !Ì:C8!CDCO !ÌCD.
iDQO:!8D! D!_-C!t¸ QOC!:¸ _CDC:8Ì̸ ÌCD Ou! !ÌC C!!¸-O9CÌÌC:. 1C
D8¸ D !ÌC:C !D iCÌDC] Du! !D !Ì!8 C88C !ÌC 8OD!Xtu:C O! QC!!¸-
DOu:_CO!8 !ÌÌu8!OD8 Q:OVCO !8!8Ì !O QOC!!C 8uCCC88. D:CCÌ! !8 Q:OD8D̸
!ÌC Í:8! !DQO:!8D! QOC! 9ÌO Ì88 8ODC!Ì!D_ !O 88¸ 8DOu! u:D8D D8D.
On tke :kiro ¸oem ]tom :ke 18DODOOK !O: \!!¸-i9CÌÌC:8
Nc  dO  nOt ¬ant tO  IcaVc jOur nOusc 
Nc  dO  nOt ¬ant  tO  smasn  tnc  stOVc 
Nc ¬ant tO  Qut  tnc  QOt  On !DC stOVc. 
1Ousc¸  stOVc  and  QOt  can  staj 
¬nd  jOu  must Vanìsn  Iìkc  smOkc  ìn  tnc  skj 
Nnìcn  nODOdj  nOIds  Dack. 
i! jOu  ¬ant  tO  cIìn_  tO  us  ¬c´II  _O  a¬aj 
i!  jOur  ¬Oman  ¬ccQs  ¬c´¡¡  Qut  Our  nats  OVcr  Our  Ùccs 
Üut  ¬On  Úcj  cOmc  !Or  jOu  ¬c  sna¡¡  QOìnt 
¬nd  snaII  saj: ¯nat must Dc  nìm. 
Nc  dOn´t  knO¬ ¬nat´s tO  cOmc,  and naVc nOtnìn_ bcttcr 
Üut ¬C ¬ant nO  mOrc  O! jOu. 
1ntìI jOu´Vc  _Onc 
Lct us dra¬ tnc  curtaíns  tO  snut  Out  tOmOrrO¬. 
¯nc  cìtìcs arc  aIIO¬cd tO  cnan_c 
Üut  jOu  arc  nOt aIIO¬cd  tO  cnan_c. 
Nc  snaII  ar_uc  ¬m tnc stOncs 
Üut  jOu  VC snaII  II
¯Ou  must  nO: IìVc 
NnatcVcr  Iìcs ¬c  arc  !Orccd  tO  bc\:cVc 
¯Ou  must  nOt  naVc  bccn. 
[¯nat  ìs nO¬  ¬c  sQca&  tO  Our  !atncrs.) 
t·an.!a:eá b_F-ank ¡e!ünek
ÅnC CXQU!s¡On O! ]CVs !tOm LCtman¸ ¼ [Unt¡! tnC QO_tOms O!
IQ¿ö] Catt¡CO OUt ¡n tnC sQ¡t¡t OCsCt¡DCO ¡n tn¡s QOCm. ÅnC ]CVs VCtC
nOt mUtOCtCO ¡mmCO¡atC!¸, VnCtCVCt tnC¸ naQQCnCO tO DC !OUnO.
ÎatnCt¸ tnC¸ VCtC OCa!t V¡tn ¡n aCCOtOanCC V¡tn tn¡s Qt¡nC¡Q!C.
ºe oo no: ×on: :o smosk :ke s:ove
ºe ×on: :o ¸u: :ke ¸on on :ke s:ove.
House, s:ove ono ¸o: con s:o¸
¬no ¸ou mus: vonisk . . .
ÛtCCnt´s QOCm ¡s ¡!!Um¡nat¡n_ !Ot tnC tCaOCt O! tOOa¸. Ìt snOVs
VCt¸ C!Cat!¸ Vn¸ Ìa!¡Ona! OOC¡a!¡sm nCCOs ant¡-sCm!t!sm. Ìt nCCOs ¡t
as a QatOO¸. ÅnC att¡tUOC Vn¡Cn tnC tU!Cts att¡LC¡a!!¸ QtOVORC vis-à-
vis tnC ]CVs ¡s QtCC¡sC!¸ tnC OnC Vn¡Cn VOU!O DC natUta! ¡n tnC OQ-
QtCssCO C!ass vis-à-vis tnC tU!Cts. ÅnC ]CV ~Ì¡t!Ct OtOa¡ns ¬sna!! DC
ttCatCO as tnC _tCat CXQ!O¡tCt OU_nt tO naVC DCCn ttCatCO. 1nO jUst
DCCaUsC tn¡s ttCatmCnt O! tnC ]CV ¡s nOt tCa!!¸ ¡n C8Cst¸ DCCaUsC ¡t ¡s
tnC O¡stOttCO m¡ttOt-¡ma_C O! a _CnU¡nC tCVO!Ut¡Onat¸ aCt¡On¸ ¡t
¡nC!UOCs an aOm¡XtUtC O! saO¡sm. ÅnC QatOO¸ CannOt OO V¡tnOUt
saO¡sm. ÅnC QUtQOsC O! tn¡s QatOO¸ ¡s tO maRC a mOCRCt¸ O! tnC n¡s-
!Ot¡Ca! QtOQOs¡t¡On tnat tnC CxQtOQt¡atOts sna!! DC CXQtOQt¡atCO.
On :ke n:n:k ¸oem ¸om :ke ÌanODOOR !Ot L!t¸-ÌVC!!Cts
±L!Ï ÎÎ`̯7¯Î LÎÕ ¯L 7 Î7Î 7¯ Îα±±¥±J¯ ¯ÎαÛ
±ÏLÎ ÎÌ ±±±¥±Î¯ _¸\7ϯ±ÏÕ
¯ncrcs  a nOmc  !Or  yOu  ncrc 
¯ncrc´s  rOOm  !Or  _Our  tnÎn_s. 
6ommen:ories on 1oems ò¸Breck: 6_
NOVc  tDc  tunìtutc  aDOut  tO  su:t  jOutscI! 
¯c¡¡  us  ¬Dat  jOu  nccd 
1crc  ìs  tDc kcj 
Otaj Dctc. 
¯Dctc´s  a  Qat¡cut  !Ot  us  a¡¡ 
¬nd  !Ot  jOu  a tOOm  ¬ìtD  a Dcd 
¯Ou can ¬Otk ¬ìtD  us  ìn tDc jatd 
¯Ou  DaVc  jOut  O¬n  Q¡atc 
Otaj  ¬ìtD  us. 
1ctc´s  ¬Dctc  jOu´rc  tO  s¡ccQ 
¯Dc  sDccts  atc  stì¡¡  c¡can 
¯Dcj´Vc  On¡j  Dccn  s¡cQt  :n  Oncc. 
i! jOu´tc  !ussj 
1ìnsc  jOut  tìn  sQOOn  ìn  tDc  Duckct  tDctc 
it´¡¡  Dc  3 _OOd  as  nc¬ 
¯Ou´tc  ¬cIcOmc  tO  staj  ¬ìtD  us
¯Dat´s  tDc  tOOm 
1utrj  uQ¸  Or jOu  can a¡sO  staj 
¯Dc  nì_Dt,  Dut  tDat  cOsts  cXtta. 
i  sDan´t  dìstutD  jOu 
Üj  tDc ¬aj¸  i´m  nOt  m  .
¯Ou´¡¡  Dc  3¬c¡¡  On Dcrc  as anj¬Dctc  c¡sc 
OO jOu  mì_Dt as  ¬c¡I  staj. 
translated q Fran/ ¸ellinek
²ÌC Honoòook [r 6i¸-D×ellers Q:OV:OC8¸ 89C Ì8VC 8Ì:C8O_ 88:O¸
ODjCC! ÌC88OD8 :D uDOC:_:OuDO 8C!:V:!_ 8DO CD:_:8!:OD. ²ÌC D:D!Ì
QOCD :8 CODCCFCO 9:!Ì 8 8OCÍ8Ì Q:OCC88 9ÌÍCÌ uDOC:_:OuDO QOÌÍ!ÍC8Ì
9O:KC:8 89CÌÌ 8CD:_:8D!8 Ì8VC !O 8Ì8:C 9J!Ì !ÌO8C 9ÌO 8uCCuDD
!O CXQÌO:!8!:OD 9J!ÌOu! 8!:u__ÌC. ²ÌC QOCD :ÌÌu8!:8!C8 9:!Ì 8 !C9
CCODOD:C8Ì 8!:OKC8 9Ì8! :DQOVC::8ÌDCD! :D 8 Ì8:_C C:!_ DC8D8. 1!
!ÌC 88DC !:DC :! 8ÌCO8 Ì:_Ì! uQOD !ÌC D:8! QOCD O! !ÌC C_CÌC.
Í8CÌ O! !ÌC ´ÍOu: iDV:!8!ÍOD8 !O 8 Ì8D 8! iÍUC:CD! ²:DC8 \:OD
i:UC:CD! _u8:!C:8´ CD8DÌC8 u8 !O :CCO_D:ZC !ÌC D8D´8 Q8:!:CuÌ8:
CCODOD:C 8:!u8!:OD. !C _C!8 8!C8O:Ì_ QOO:C:. ²ÌC QCOQÌC 9ÌO OUC:
!O Qu! Ì:D uQ !8KC !Ì:8 88 88:O¸ !ÌC_ 8ÌÌO9 Ì:D Q:O_:C88:VCÌ_ ÌC88
t¡_Dt tC ÌCaVC an¸ ttaCRs. ¯DC Utst t!mC tDC¸ st¡ÌÌ t8RC nCt¡CC CÎ D¡s
DCÌCn_¡n_s. \n tDC sCCCnO CCCas¡Cn Cn̸ a QÌatC CÎ D¡s CVn ¡s mCn-
t¡CnCO¸ anO tD¡s ¡s DatO̸ Ì¡RC̸ tC DC a QÌatC DC Das DtCu_Dt V¡tD
D¡m. ¯DC ÌCO_Ct´s ÌaDCut QCVCt ¡s aÌtCaO¸ DC¡n_ O¡sQCsCO CÎ D¸ tDC
Ì8nOÌCtO [``Cu Can VCtR V¡tD us ¡n tDC ¸atO´). ¯DC man VDC
aQQCats ¡n tDC tD¡tO VCtsC ¡s QtCDaD̸ Cnt¡tC̸ unCmQÌC¸CO. ¯DC
Qt¡VatC sQDCtC CÎ D¡s Ì¡ÎC ¡s s¸mDCÌ¡CaÌ̸ tCQtCsCntCO D¸ tDC aCt CÎ
VasD¡n_ a t!n sQCCn. ¯DC ÎCuttD ¡nV¡tat¡Cn ¡s ÎtCm a QtCst¡tutC tC a
CustCmCt VDC ¡s CDV¡Cus̸ QCCt. ÌCt ¡s tDCtC an¸ ÌCn_Ct an¸ QuCs-
t¡Cn CÎ Outat¡Cn. Ìt ¡s a ÌCO_¡n_ ÎCt CnC n¡_Dt at mCst¸ anO tDC tt8CRs
VD¡CD tDC man aOOtCssCO ma¸ ÌCaVC DCD¡nO atC DCst unmCnt¡CnCO.
1Ct tDC tCaOCt CÎ tDC n¡ntD QCCm¸ tDC QtCCCQt CÎ tDC Utst ~ `LCVCt
¸Cut UaCRs´ ~ ¡s suQQÌCmCntCO D¸ tDC aOjunCt: `tatDCt tDan DaVC
sCmCCnC CÌsC CCVCt tDCm´.
¯DC Ît¡CnO̸ ¡nO¡UCtCnCC VD¡CD ¡s CCmmCn tC aÌÌ ÎCut ¡nV¡taOCns
¡s VCttD¸ CÎ nCtC. Û¸ tDC ÎaCt tDat tDC DatsDnCss CÎ tDC CUCt ÌCaVCs
tCCm ÎCt suCD Îr¡CnOÌ¡nCss VC tCCC_n¡zC tDat sCC¡aÌ CCnO¡t¡Cns CCn-
ÎtCnt man ÎtCm Cuts¡OC, as sCmCtD¡n_ aÌ¡Cn tC D¡m. ¯DC Ît¡CnO!¡nCss
V¡tD VD¡CD tDC¡r VCtO¡Ct ¡s CCmmun¡CatCO tC D¡m D¸ D¡s ÎCÌÌCV mCn
sDCVs tDat tDC¸ OC nCt ÎCCÌ ¡OCnt¡BCO V¡tD tDCsC CCnO¡t¡Cns. ¯DC
man aOOtCssCO aQQCats tC aCCCQt VDat DC ¡s tCÌO: Ì¡RCV¡sC¸ tDCsC VDC
aOOtCss D¡m DaVC CCmC tC tCtms V!tD tDC CCnO¡t¡Cns CÎÌ¡ÎC. ¯DC ¡n-
Duman¡t¸ tC VD¡CD tDC¸ atC CCnOCmnCO Das nCt DCCn aDÌC tC taRC
ÎtCm tDCm a CCtta¡n CCuttCs¸ CÎ tDC DCatt. ¯D¡s ma¸ sCrVC as ¡Lst¡-
BCat¡Cn ÎCt DCQC Ct OCsQa!t. ¯DC QCCt OCCs nCt CXQtCss an¸ V¡CVs Cn
tD¡s sCCtC.
On tke OVCnODCt_ ÍCCms co on tb LCtman N8 Ít¡mCt
1
¯nc  ¬Orkcrs  crj  Out !Or  Drcad 
¯nc  mcrcnants crj  Out !Or markcts. 
¯nc  uncmQÍOjcd ¬crc  nun_rj.  ¯nc  cmQÍOjcd 
¬rc nun_rj  nO¬. 
¯nc  nands  tnat Íaj  !OÍdcd  arc  Dusj  a_aÎn: 
¯ncy arc  makìn_  sncÍÍs. 
trdn:Ídtcd g 1. 1. 1c_:
6ommentories on 1oems l¸ Breck: c5 
J_
it  Îs  n:_nt.  ¯nc  marrÎcd  cOuQ¡cs 
LÎc  În tncÎr  Dcds.  ¯nc  jOun_  ¬Omcn 
NΡ¡  Dcar  OrQnans. 
translated q 1ee ra×andall
¹
]
¯nOsc  at  tnc  tOQ  saj: 
it  !cads  tO  _!Orj. 
¯nOsc  dO¬n  Dc!O¬  saj: 
it  ¡cads  tO  tnc  _raVc. 
translated q Carol 3te»art and ¸obn Ptlle:t
1 ö
Ñncn Î t  cOmcs  tO marcnÎn_  manj  dO  nOt  knO¬ 
¯nat  tncÎr  cncmj  Îs  marcnÎn_ at  tncÎr ncad. 
¯nc VO:cc ¬nÎcn  _ÎVcs  tncm  tncÎr  Ordcrs 
is tnc  cncmj´s VO:cc  and 
¯nc  man  ¬nO  sQcaks  O! tnc  cncmj 
is tnc  cncmj nÎmsc¡!. 
translated q Carol 3te»art and ¸obn Ptllett
·ÌC ºor 1rimer ¡s Vt¡ttCn ¡n `ÌaQ¡datj´ stjÌC. ·ÌC VOtd COmCs
!tOm tÌC Lat¡n lo¸is, `stOnC´¸ and dCsCt¡DCs tÌC stjÌC VÌ¡CÌ Vas dC-
VCÌOQCd !Ot ÌOman ¡nsCt¡Qt¡Ons. Ìts mOst ¡mQOttant CÌataCtCt¡st¡C
Vas DtCV¡tj. ·Ì¡s Vas COnd¡t¡OnCd¸ ntst¸ Dj tÌC CDOtt tCQu¡tCd tO
CÌ¡sCÌ tÌC VOtds ¡n stOnC; sCCOnd¸ Dj tÌC tCaÌ¡Zat¡On tÌat !Ot OnC VÌO
sQCaKs tO a suCCCss¡On O! _CnCtat¡Ons ¡t ¡s sCCmÌj tO DC Dt¡C!.
Ì! stOnC ¬ tÌC natutaÌ COnd¡t¡On O!ÌaQ¡datj stjÌC ¬ ¡s nO ÌOn_Ct tÌC
matCt¡aÌ O! tÌCsC QOCms¸ VÌat Ìas taKCn ¡ts QÌaCC: NÌat just¡hCs
tÌC¡t ¡nsCt¡Qt¡On stjÌC: \nC O! tÌCm Ì¡nts at an ansVCt. Ìt tCads:
Ln tnc  VaII Vas cna¡kcd: 
¯ncj  ¬ant  ¹»
¯nc  man  ¬nO  ¬rOtc  Ît 
tas aIrcadj  !a¡¡cn. 
translated q Carol 3te»art and jobn Ptllett
ÚÚ
²UC Í:8! Ì!DC O! !U!8 QOCD COuÌO DC QÌ8CCO 8t !UC UC8O O! C8CU O!
!UC ºor 1rimer QOCD8. ²UC8C !D8Cr:Q!!OD8 8:C DO!¸ Ì!KC !UO8C O! !UC
ÌOD8D8¸ !D!CDOCO !O: 8!ODC Du!¸ Ì!KC tUO8C O! uDOC:_:OuDO !_U!C:8¸
!O: !CDCC8.
1CCO:O!D_̸¸ !UC CU8r8C!C: O! !UC ºor 1rimer D8¸ DC 8CCD !D 8
uDÍQuC COD!r8O!C!!OD: !UC8C 9O:O8¸ 9UO8C QOC!!C !O:D !DQÌ!C8 !U8!
!UC¸ 8:C DC8D! !O 8urV!VC !UC !O:!UCOD!D_ CDO O! !UC 9O:ÌO¸ COD-
!8!D !UC _C8!urC O! 8 8ÌO_8D 8C:89ÌCO !D U88!C OD 8 QÌ8DK !CDCC D¸ 8
D8D DC!D_ Qu:8uCO. iD !U!8 COD!:8O!C!!OD Ì!C8 !UC CX!:8O:O!D8:¸ 8:!!8-
!!C 8CU!CVCDCD! O! !UC8C 8CD!CDCC8 COD8!ruC!CO Ou! O! Q:!D!!!VC
9O:O8. ²UC QOC! CDOO98 9!!U !UC 1Or8!!8D oere ¸erennis 9U8! 8
Q:OÌC!8r:8D¸ CXQO8CO !O !UC :8!D 8DO !UC 8_CD!8 O! tUC LC8!8QO¸ U88
8Cr89ÌCO 9Í!U CU8JJ uQOD 8 98ÌÌ.
On :ke ¸oem ´²UC \U!ÌO ·UO i!OD´! ·8D! !O ·88U
³
¯Í± LÍÎ1Î ¯ÍL ÎÏ ÎÎ ¯ ¯7ί ¯L ¯JÛÍ
lncc  tncrc  ¬as  a cnΡd 
NnO  dÎdn´t ¬ant  tO  ¬asn. 
¬nd  ¬ncn  tnc¸´d  _Ot  Um  ¬asncd 
1c´d  O nÎs  !acc  În  asn. 
¯nc  Ïaísct camc  tO  cI¡ 
\Q  scVcn  m_nts  OÍ staÎts. 
NOtnct  IOO&cd  !Ot a tO¬c¡ 
¯O  c¡can  nÎs  !acc  and  naÎr. 
¯ncrc ¬as  nO  ta_  aDOut. 
¯nc ¬nO¡c VÎsít W¬tcc&cd. 
¯nc  ÏaÎscr ¬cnt  a¬a¸. 
Nnat  cOu¡d  tnc  cnΡd  cXQcct: 
tranclated q ×nna Boctock c7e:er 1ei
²UC QOC! 8!OC8 9!tU !UC CU!ÌO 9UO O!OD´! 98D! !O 988U. 1C 8u_-
_C8!8 !U8! !UC C:82!C8! C!:CuD8UDCC8 9OuÌO U8VC !O COD8Q!:C !O: !UC
CU!ÌO !O 8uUC: 8D¸ :C8Ì U8:D 88 8 :C8uÌ! O! !!8 uD988UCO CODO!!!OD.
6ommen:ories on 1oems [ Sreck: c

ÌOI On!¸ :s ÍI mOsI UnUsUa! !Ot Inc Ía:sct IO Iakc Inc ItOUO!c IO
C!:mO scVcn Þ:_nIs O! sIa:ts: OUI¸ as :! InaI Vctcn´I cnOU_n¸ nc nas IO
CnOOsc IO V:s:I a nOUscnO!d :n Vn:Cn cVcn a ta_ CannOI Oc !OUnd.
Ånc !ta_mcnIcd d:CI:On O! Inc QOcm :mQ!:cs InaI sUCn a COnCaIcna-
I:On O! aCC:dcnIs nas sOmcIn:n_ dtcam!¡kc aOOUI :I.
ÍctnaQs Vc m:_nI Ca!! IO m:nd anOInct QatI:san Ot dc!cndct O!
UnVasncd Cn:!dtcn: ÏOUt:ct¸ VnOsc Qna!ansIct¸ Vas nOI On!¸ a
sOC:a!:sI UIOQ:a OUI a!sO a Qcda_O_:Ca! Onc. ÏOUt:ct d:V:dcs Inc
Cn:!dtcn O! Inc Qna!anstct¸ :nIO IVO majOt _tOUQs: Inc ¸e:i:es lonoes
and Inc ¸e:i:es /:roes. Ånc ¸e:i:es lonoes OCCUQ¸ Incmsc!Vcs V:In
_atdcn:n_ and OInct Q!casanI Iasks. Ånc ¸e:i:es koroes naVc IO Qct-
!Otm Inc d:tI:csI dUI:cs. Ånc CnO:Cc OcIVccn Inc IVO _tOUQs :s OQcn
IO cVct¸ Cn:!d. ÅnOsc VnO OQIcd !Ot Inc ¸e:i:es broes Vctc Inc mOsI
nOnOUtcd. ÌO VOtk COU!d Oc UndctIakcn :n Inc Qna!ansIct¸ V:InOUI
Inc:t BtsI naV:n_ Inc:t sa¸ aOOUI :I¡ CtUc!I¸ IO an:ma!s Vas sUO¡cCI IO
Inc:t ¡Ut:sd:CI:On; Inc¸ nad dVat! QOn:cs On Vn:Cn IDc¸ _a!!OQcd
IntOU_n Inc Qna!ansIct¸¸ and Vncn Inc¸ asscmO!cd !Ot VOtk Inc
s:_na! Vas _:Vcn O¸ an cat-snaIIct:n_ d:n O! ItUmQcIs¸ sIcam-
Vn:sI!cs¸ CnUtCn Oc!!s and dtUms. Ìn Inc Cn:!dtcn O! Inc ¸e:i:es koroes
ÏOUt:ct saV !OUt _tcaI Qass:Ons aI VOtk: attO_anCc¸ snamc!cssncss
and :nsUOOtd:naI:On¡ OUI Inc mOsI :mQOtIanI O! a!! Was Inc !OUtIn:
le ¿oâ: d lc sole:ê, a IasIc !Ot d:tI.
Ånc tcadct In:nks a_a:n O! Inc Cn:!d VnO VOU!d nOI Vasn and
VOndcts: QctnaQs :I On!¸ tuOs :Is !aCc :n asn OcCaUsc sOC:cI¸ nas
!a:!cd IO Cnannc! :Is Qass:On !Ot d:tI IOVatds a _OOd and Usc!U!
QUtQOsc: ÏctnaQs :I On!¸ VanIs IO sIand :n sOC:cI¸´s Va¸ !:kc a
sIumO!:n_-O!OCk¸ sO as IO :ssUc a m¸sIct:OUs X:n_ ¬ !¡kc Inc
!:II!c nUnCnOaCk :n Inc Lctman nUtsct¸ sOn_¸ VnO UQscIs cVct¸
Otdct!¸ nOUscnO!d: Ì! Ï OUt:ct :s t:_nI¸ Incn Inc Cn:!d VOU!d sUtc!¸
nOI naVc m¡sscd a _tcaI dca! O¸ !aì!:n_ IO mccI Inc Ía:sct. ¬  Ía:sct
VnO On!¸ VanIs IO scc C!can Cn:!dtcn dOcsn´I amOUnI IO mUCn mOtc
Inan Inc sIuQ:d sUO¡cCIs On VnOm nc COmcs IO Ca!!.
c8 
On :òe ¸oem `¯DC ÍÌum ¯tCC´
¯Í± V1!Î ¯Ï±±
²DC p¡um DC :n tDC _atd´8 8O 8ma¡¡
1t D8td¡_ 8CCm8 a UCC at a¡¡
`Ct tDCtC :t :8¸ ta:¡Cd tOund
²O KCCQ :t 88!C and 8Ound.
²DC QOOt tDín_ can´t _tO¬ an_ mO:C
¯DOu_D :! :t cOu¡d :t ¬Ou¡d !Ot 8u:C.
²DC:C´8 nOtD:n_ tO DC dOnC
1t _Ct8 tOO ¡:tt¡C 8un.
²DC Q¡um OO nCVCï DCat8 a Q¡um
OO :t´8 nOt C88_ tO DC¡:CVC.
1t´8 a Q¡um Oc a¡¡ tDC 8amC
`Ou tC¡¡ :t O_ tDC ¡Ca!.
rrdnldrcd g Ldrcl Orcwdrr
¯DC Va¸ !n VD!CD ÌanOsCaQC CCmCs !ntC tDC Vat!Cus C¸CÌCs !n
ÛtCCDt´s DCCR C×CmQÌ!UCs tDC !nnCt un!t¸ C! tD!s ̸t!C QCCtt¸ anO¸ at
tDC samC t!mC¸ !ts VCaÌtD C! QCtsQCCt!VCs. ÏtDC HouseòoH .essen¿er,
ÌanOscQC CCCuts aDCVC aÌÌ !n tDC !Ctm C! a sR¸ tDat Das DCCn Qut!UCO¸
as tDCu_D VasDCO CÌCan¸ uQCn VD!CD OCÌ!CatC CÌCuOs aQQCat !tCm
t!mC tC t!mC anO DCnCatD VD!CD VC_Ctat!Cn CutÌ!nCO V!tD a DatO
QCnC¡Ì ma¸ p ¯¡s¡DÌC. i Son¿s 1oems Còoruses nCtD!n_ !s ÌC!t C!
ÌanOsCaQC¡ !t !s CCVCtCO D¸ tDC `V!ntt¸ snCVstCtm´ tDat sVCCQs
tDtCu_D tD¡s C¸CÌC C! QCCms. i tDC Svenolor¿ 1oems !t !s _Ì!mQsCO
nCV anO a_a!n¸ t!m!O anO QaÌC: sC QaÌC tDat tDC QCsts `Qut uQ !n tDC
¸atO !Ct tDC CD:ÌOtCn´s sV!n_´ aÌtCaO¸ CCunt as Qatt C! !t.
¯DC ÌanOsCaQC C! tDC Svenolor¿ 1oems tCsCmDÌCs tDC CnC QtC!CttCO
D¸ 1Ctt ÏCunCt ¡n a stCt¸ D¸ ÛtCCDt. 1t¡CnOs DaVC DCatO D¡m sa¸
tDat DC !s !CnO C! tDC ttCC tDat !s Vast!n_ aVa¸ :n tDC ¸atO C! tDC
tCnCmCnt DCusC ¡n VD¡CD DC Ì!VCs. ¯DC¸ :nV¡tC D!m tC CCmC V!tD
tDCm tC tDC VCCOs¸ anO atC sutQt!sCO DCCausC 1Ctt ÏCunCt OCCÌ¡nCs
tC OC sC. L!O ¸Cu nCt sa¸ tDat ¸Cu Ì¡RC ttCCs: 1Ctt ÏCunCt tCQÌ¡Cs:
`Ì sa!O Ì Ì!RCO tDC ttCC in m¸ ¸oro.' ¯D!s ttCC ma¸ VCÌÌ DC ¡OCnt!CaÌ
6ommenrories on 1oems ò¸ Breckr c¿ 
V:tB tBC CnC VB¡CB¸ ¡n tBC HousekoH .essen¿er, _CCs Dj tBC namC C!
0reen.* ·BC QCCt BCnCuts ¡t Dj addtCss¡n_ ¡t ¡n tBC mCr¡n_¸ as
!CÌÌCVs.
1t c´t naVc Dccn  a trìbín_  tnín_  tO  _rO¬  sO  nì_n 
Üct¬ccn  tnc nOuscs 
¯O  _rO¬  sO  ní_n¸  Ltccn¸  Úat  Úc 
OtOrm Vísítcd jOu as ìt díd Iast  ní_nt: 
·B¡s ttCC¸ LtCCn¸ VB¡CB CÛCts ¡ts ttCC-tCQ tC tBC stCtm¸ st¡ÌÌ
DCÌCn_s tC a `BCtC¡C ÌandsCaQC´. {·BC QCCt¸ BCVCVCt¸ d¡stanCCs B¡m-
sCÌ! !tCm tB¡s ÌandsCaQC Dj addtCss¡n_ tBC ttCC !CrmaÌÌj as Sie.) ¬s
tBC jCats Qass¸ ÛtCCBt´s Ìjt¡CaÌ CjC turs tC tBat asQCCt C! tBC ttCC
VB¡CB tCsCmDÌCs tBC Buman DC¡n_s VBCsC V¡ndCVs !aCC tBC jatd ¡n
VB¡CB ¡t stands. tBC mCd¡CCtC and tBC stuntCd. ¬ ttCC tBat nC ÌCn_Ct
Bas anjtB¡n_ BCtC¡C aDCut ¡t aQQCats ¡n tBC Svenoòor¿ 1oems as a
QÌum ttCC. ¬ ta¡Ì¡n_ Bas tC QtCtCCt ¡t !tCm DC¡n_ K¡CKCd CtCCKCd. 1t
DCats nC QÌums.
Tke ¸lum rree never òeors o ¸lum
So ir's nor ea¸ ro òelieve.
7r is o ¸lum rree oll rke some
You rell ir ò¸ rke leo[
[·BC ¡ntCraÌ tBjmC ¡n tBC Dtst Ì¡nC [oen 1¸oumenòoum ¿louò:
mon ikm koum | tCndCts tBC Ìast VCtd C! tBC tB¡td Ì¡nC [ 1¡oumen-
òoum | unsu¡taDÌC !Ct D1rtBCt tBjm¡n_¡ ¡t ¡nd¡CatCs tBat !Ct tBC
QÌum ttCC¸ aÌtBCu_B ¡t Bas sCatCCÌj DC_un tC _tCV¸ Ì¡!C ¡s aÌtCadj
CVCt.]
·Bat ¡s VBat tBC trCC ¡n tBC jatd VB¡CB ÎCtr ÌCunCt Vas !Cnd C!
ÌCCKs Ì¡KC. ·BC CnÌj ttaCCs ¡t sCÌÌ DCats C! ÌandsCaQC and CVCtjtB¡n_
tBat ¡t CnCC CÛCtCd tC a Ìjt:C QCCt ¡s a s¡n_ÌC ÌCa!. VCtBaQs¸ tCC¸ CnC
Bas tC DC a _tCat Ìjt¡C QCCt tCdaj ¡n CtdCt nCt tC tCaCB Cut !Ct mCtC.
" 1n  Lng!isn  Dtnc origina!  {¯rans!ator´s  notc). 
¿o
On ròe `Lc_cnd O! Inc \tÍ_Ín O! Inc ÜOOK ÅaO Åc LnÍn_ On LaO
ÅZU´s Na¸ ÍnIO LXÍ!c´
ϱL±ÎÎ L± ¯Í± LÏÌ LÌ Î L± ¯Í± 1LLÞ ¯7L ¯± LÍÌ ÎL
¹
LT 17L ¯Z! Õ ¯7` Ì T¯L ±?Ì1±
·DCn DC Vas sCVCn!¸ and _tOVÎn_ ÍtaΡ
ÅDc !CacDCt aÍ!Ct aÌ¡ ÍC¡! tDC nCCd ÍOt QCacC
ÍOt OncC a_aÎn În !DC cOun!t¸ ZÎndnCss dÎd nO! QtCVaÎÌ
Jnd ma¡ÎcC OncC a_aÎn Vas On !DC ÎnctCasC.
oO DC !ÎCd DÎs sDOC-¡acC.
¯
Jnd DC QacKCd CVCt¸ nCcCssat¸ !DÎn_.
ÎO! mucD. Ûu! tDÎs and tDa! În!O DÎs DundÌC sQCd.
oO !DC QÎQC !Da! DC smOKCd CVCt¸ CVCnÎn_¸
Jnd !DC s¡CndCt DOOK tDa! DC a¡Va¸s tCad.
J¡sO a taUOn OÍ VD:!C Dttad.

·as _¡ad OncC mOtC OÍ tDC Va¡¡C¸¸ and Qu! Î! Ou! OÍ m:nd
·DCn !OVatds tDC mOun!aÎns DC DC_an !O !tacK.
Jnd DÎs OX Vas _Ìad OÍ a¡¡ !DC nCV _tass Î! cOuld Dnd¸
LDCVÎn_¸ as Î! cattÎCd !DC O¡d man On Î!s DacK.
ÍOt DC Vas nO! !DC Dutt¸În_ KÎnd.
+
Ûu! DCÍOtC tDC ÍOuttD da¸´s tOcK¸ !:aVC¡¡În_ Vas dOnC¸
J cus!Oms man În!C:QOsCd DÎs autDOtÎt¸.
`Ï¡CasC dCc¡atC ¸Out Va¡uaD¡Cs Í´ ¬ `ÎOnC.´
Jnd !DC DO¸ VDO ¡Cd !DC Ox saÎd: `J !CacDCt¸ ¸Ou sCC.´
´D.s mC! !OC cOn!În_Cnc¸.
6ommenrories on 1oems ò¸ Breckr ¿t
)
Ûut tDc man¸ cDcctÍu\¸ and sDucK D¸ a suddcn nOt:On¸
·cnt On tO asK. `·DO d:scOVctcd sOmctDÎn_¸ ¸Ou´d sa¸:´
ÅDc DO¸ tcQ¡Îcd: `ÅDat ¸Îc¡dÎn_ Vatct În mOtÎOn
Lcts !Dc Dcttct U !Dc cnd OÍ _tanÎtc and QOtQD¸t¸.
`Ou _ct mc. tDc Datd tDÎn_ _ÎVcs Va¸.´
6
ÅO ¡Osc nO mOtc tÎmc În tDc ÍaΡÎn_ ¡Î_Dt
ÅDc DO¸ dtOVc On tDc Ox¸ and tDc tDtcc Dad Qasscd
ÛcDÎnd a D¡acK ocOtcD Dt¸ and Vctc Out OÍ sÎ_Dt
·Dcn Out man¸ jctKcd ÎntO acDOn at ¡ast¸
`c¡Ìcd Out. `Îc¸ tDctc¸ stOQÍ ÎOt sO ÍastÍ
¸
·Dat´s tDÎs aDOut Vatct¸ O¡d man¸ !Da!´s sO sQccÎa¡:´
ÅDc O¡d man stOQQcd: `LOcs Ît Întctcst ¸Ou:´
oaÎd tDc OtDct. `1´m On\¸ a custOms Omca¡¸
Ûut VDO _cts tDc Dcttct OÍ VDOm¸ tDat Întctcsts mc tOO.
1Í ¸Ou KnOV and can tc¡¡ mc¸ dOÍ
ö
·tÎtc Ît dOVn ÍOt mc. LÎctatc Ît tO !DÎs DO¸.
`Ou dOn´t taKc tDÎn_s \ÎKc tDat VÎ!D ¸Ou. ÎaVc a catc.
LÍ QaQct and ÎnK Vc´Vc a cOQÎOus suQQ¡¸.
Jnd !Dctc´s a DÎtc ÍOt ¸Ou tOO. 1 ¡ÎVc În tDctc.
·c¡¡¸ dO ¸Ou ca¡¡ tDat ÍaÎt:´
9
LVct D:s sDOu¡dct tDc O¡d sa_c nOV
L¡anccd at !Dc H« ÏatcDcd cOat. ÎcVct OVncd a sDOc.
Lnc dccQ Vt:nKÌc DÎs DtOV.
LD¸ tDÎs Vas nO VÎctOt. oO mucD Dc ì·. ¯t\cV.
1O Dc mutmutcd. ``Ou tOO:´
1C
ÅO tcjcct a cOuttcOus su__cstÎOn
ÅDc O¡d man¸ Ît sccmcd¸ Vas tOO O¡d.
_C
ÍOt Dc saÎd a¡Oud: `ÅDOsc VDO asx a Qucst\On
Lcsc:Vc an ansVC:.´ oaÎd tDc DO¸: `Jnd Ît´s tutÎn_ cO¡d.´
`·c´Ìl sta¸ tDcn. ÎO¡d Ì´
1 J
Jnd tDc sa_c dÎsmOuntcd¸ DaVÎn_ madc DÎs cDOÎcc.
ÍO: scVcn da¸s tDc tVO OÍ tDcm VtOtc On.
·Dc custOms man D:Ou_Dt tDCm ÍOOd ¸and a¡¡ tDat tÎmc ¡OVctcd
DÎs VOÎcc
NDcn Dc sVO:c at tDc smu__¡cts and tDOsc On tDc :un].
·Dcn tDc VO:R Vas dOnc.

Jnd Onc mOtnÎn_ tDc DO¸ cOu¡d Qtcscnt tO
ÅDc custOms man cÎ_Dt¸-Onc maXms cOmQ¡ctcd¸
Jnd¸ tDanxÎn_ DÎm ÍO: DÎs _ÎÍt OÍ a sma¡¡ mcmcntO¸
·O tDc tOcY¸ Dacx¸ :Ound tDat Ut¸ tDc¸ tct:catcd.
1a:c QO¡Îtcncss¸ ¸Ou´¡¡ _tant. Lan ¸Ou Dcat ìt
J¿
Ûut nOt tO tDat V\sc man alOnc Ou: Qta\sc L duc
·DOsc namc adOts tDc DOOx 1do 1c Ln:n_.
ÍOt tDc VÎsc man´s V\sdOm must Dc dta__cd Out OÍ DÎm tOO.
oO tDc custOms man a¡sO dcsctVcs Ou: tDanxs ÍOt tDc tDÎn_.
Îc dÎd tDC c¡ÎcÎtÎn_.
trdnÍdrcd b_À:cnml 1dmbur_cr
Ånc QOcm OUcts an OCCas¡On IO d:sCUss Inc sQcC:a! tO!c Vn:Cn 1nc
QUa!:I¸ O! !t:cnd!:ncss Q!a¸s :n Inc aUInOt´s :ma_:naI:On. ÜtcCnI
a!!OCaIcs an :mQOtIanI Q!aCc IO In:s QUa!:I¸. Ì! Vc V¡sUa!¡Zc Inc !c_cnd
nc :s Ic!!:n_¸ Vc scc¸ On Onc s:dc¸ Inc V:sdOm O! LaO ÅZU ¸VnO¸ O¸
Inc Va¸¸ :s nOI tc!cttcd IO O¸ namc) ¬ a V¡sdOm !Ot Vn:Cn nc :s
aOOUI IO Qa¸ V:In cX:!c ¬ and¸ On Inc OInct s:dc¸ Inc CUsIOms OU-
C:a!´s dcs:tc !Ot knOV!cd_c¸ !Ot Vn:Cn aI Inc cnd Vc atc _taIc!U!
OcCaUsc :I cX1taCIcd Inc V:sc man´s V¡sdOm !tOm n:m. ÜUI In¡s
VOU!d ncVct naVc naQQcncd V:InOUI a In:td !aCIOt¸ and In:s !aCIOt
:s¸ienoliness. ÌI m¡_nI Oc UnItUc IO sa¸ InaI !t:cnd!¡ncss :s Inc aCIUa!
6ommentories on 1oems ò¸ Breckt
;( 
CCntCnt C! tBC DCCK¸ Too Te 6km¿, Dut ¡t VCu!d DC CnCtC!j ttUC tC
saj tBat¸ aCCCtd¡n_ tC tBC !C_Cnd¸ V¡tBCut tBC sQ¡t¡t C! !t¡Cnd!¡nCss
tBC DCCK VCu!d nCVCt BaVC DCCn BandCd dCVn tC us. PDCut tB¡s
!t¡Cnd!¡nCss tBC QCCm Bas muCB tC tCÌÌ us.
Í¡tst C! a!!: !t¡Cnd!¡nCss ¡s nCt d¡sQCnsCd V¡tBCut duC !CtCtBCu_Bt.
Over kis skouloer tke olo so¿e no×
0lonceo ot tke mon. 1otckeo coot. 7ever o×neo o skoe.
LCt tBC tCQuCst DC as CCuttCCus as ¡t maj¸ LaC ¯Zu Otst assutCs
B¡msC!! tBat tBC man VBC maKCs ¡t ¡s Cnt¡t!Cd tC dC sC.
OCCCnd!j¸ !t¡Cnd!¡nCss dCCs nCt CCns¡st ¡n dC¡n_ sma!! tB¡n_s
Casua!!j¸ Dut ¡n dC¡n_ tBC VCtj _tCatCst tB¡n_s as tBCu_B tBCj VCtC
tBC sma!!Cst. \nCC LaC ¯Zu Bas asCCtta¡nCd U CustCms CmC¡a!´s
t¡_Bt tC asK¸ BC Q!aCCs tBC ncXt !CV dajs ¬tBCsC VCt!d-B¡stCt¡C dajs
dut:n_ VB¡CB¸ tC Q!CasC tBC CtBCt man¸ BC ¡ntCttUQts B¡s ]CutCj -
undCt tBC mCttC¯
' ºe'll sto¸ tken. Holc/'
¯B¡td!j¸ VC !Cat aDCut !t¡Cnd!¡nCss tBat ¡t dCCs nCt aDC!¡sB tBC
d¡stanCC DCtVCCn Buman DC¡n_s Dut Dt¡n_s tBat d¡stanCC tC !¡!C. P!tCt
tBC V¡sC man Bas dCnC suCB a _tCat tB¡n_ [r tBC CustCms CUC¡a!¸
BC Bas !¡tt!C mCtC tC dC ×itk B¡m¸ and ¡t ¡s nCt BC Dut tBC DCj VBC
Bands CVCt tBC C¡_Btj-CnC maX¡ms.
`¯BC C!ass¡Cs¸´ an C!d LB¡nCsC QB¡!CsCQBCt Bas sa¡d¸ `!¡VCd ¡n tBC
datKCst and D!CCd¡Cst t:m0 and VCtC tBC !t¡Cnd!¡Cst and mCst CBCCt-
U1! QCCQ!C tBat BaVC CVCt DCCn sCCn.´ ¯BC LaC ¯Zu C! tB¡s !C_Cnd
sCCms tC sQtCad CBCCtUÌnCss VBCtCVCt BC _CCs. Ρs CX¸ undCtCttCd
Dj tBC C!d man´s VC¡_Bt Cn B¡s DaCK¸ ¡s _!ad C! a!! tBC _tCCn _tass ¡t
Can Dnd. Ρs DCj ¡s CBCCtU1! VBCn¸ ¡n CtdCt tC CXQ!a¡n LaC ¯Zu´s
QCVCttj¸ BC Quts ¡n dtj!j: ´P tCaCBCt¸ jCu sCC.´ ¯BC CustCms CmC¡a!
Dj B¡s tCÌÌ-_atC ¡s ¡n a CBCCtU! mCCd¸ and ¡t ¡s tB¡s CBCCtU!nCss t0at
¡nsQ¡tCs B:m 91tB tBC BaQQj ¡dCa C! asK¡n_ !Ct tBC tcsu!ts C! LaC
¯Zu´s tCsCatCB. Í¡na!!j¸ BCV CCu!d tBC sa_C nCt DC CBCCtU1! B¡msC!!:
Pt UC Otst tut¡n_ C! tBC tCad BC Qut Cut C! B¡s m¡nd tBC Va!!Cj
VB¡CB Cn!j a mCmCnt DC!CtC Bad madC B¡m _!ad. NBat VCu!d B¡s
V¡sdCm DC VCttB ¡! BC CCu!d nCt a!sC !Ct_Ct B¡s anX¡Ctj aDCut tBC
UtutC a!mCst as sCCn as BC !C!t ¡t:
¯~
iD !ÌC Housekolo .essen¿e· D:CCÌ! 9tO!C 8 D8ÌÌ8O 8DOu! !ÌC !::CDO-
Ì:DC88C8 O! !ÌC 9O:ÌO. ²ÌC¸ 8:C !Ì:CC :D DuDDC:. !ÌC DO!ÌC: Qu!8 D8Q-
K:D8 OD !ÌC CÌ:ÌO¸ !ÌC !8!ÌC: !8KC8 !ÌC DO¸ D¸ !ÌC Ì8DO¸ QCOQÌC !Ì:O9
Ì8DOU1Ì8 O! C8:!Ì OD !ÌC D8D´8 _:8VC. 1DO !Ì8! :8 CDOu_Ì. ÍO: 8! !ÌC
CDO O! !ÌC QOCD :! :8 88:O¯
¬lmos: eve·¸one kos loveo :ke ×o·H
ºken ke ·eceives :×o kono]uls o]eo·:k.
²ÌC D8D:!C8!8!:OD8 O! !ÌC !::CDOÌ:DC88 O! !ÌC 9O:ÌO 8:C !O DC !OuDO
8t tÌC Ì8:OC8! DODCD!8 O! CX:8!CDCC: 8! D::!̸ 8! !ÌC Í:8! 8!CQ :D!O Ì:!C
8DO 8! !ÌC Ì88! ODC¸ 9Ì:CÌ ÌC8O8 Ou! O! Ì:!C. ²Ì8! :8 !ÌC D:D:DuD
Q:O_:8DDC O! ÌuD8D:t¸. i! :CCu:8 :D !ÌC L8O ²Zu QOCD :D tÌC !OtD
O! !ÌC D8X:D:
'You ¿e: me: de ko·o :kin¿ ¿ives ×o¸.'
²ÌC QOCD CODC8 !O u8 8! 8 !:Dc 9ÌCD 8uCÌ 9O:O8 ::D_ :D tÌC C8:8
O! DCD Ì:KC 8 Q:OD:8C 9Ì:CÌ Ì88 DO!Ì:D_ !O CODCCOC !O !ÌC Q:OD:8C8
O! 8 ÌC88:8Ì. ÍO: !ÌC COD!CDQO:8:¸ :C8OC:¸ ÌO9CVC:¸ !ÌC¸ COD!8:D
DO! OD̸ 8 Q:OD:8C Du! 8Ì8O 8 ÌC88OD.
' . . . Tko: ¸ieloin¿ ×o:e· in mo:ion
0e:s :ke le::e· in :ke eno o]¿·oni:e ono ¸o·¸k¸·¸.'
²ÌC ÌC88OD O: 8OV:CC ÌC:C :8 DCVC: !O !O:_C! 8DOu! !ÌC :DCOD8!8DC¸
8DO CÌ8D_C8D:Ì:!¸ O! !Ì:D_8¸ 8DO !O 8Ì:_D ODC8CÌ! 9:!Ì !ÌO8C !Ì:D_8
9Ì:CÌ 8:C :DCOD8Q:CuOu8 8DO 8ODC: 8DO :DCXÌ8u8!:DÌC¸ Ì:KC 98!C:.
²ÌC D8!C::8Ì:8! O:8ÌCC!:C:8D 9:ÌÌ DC :CD:DOCO O! !ÌC C8u8C O! !ÌC
OQQ:C88CO. Çi! :8 8D :DCOD8Q:CuOu8 !Ì:D_ !O: !ÌC tuÌC:8¸ 8 8ODC: ODC
!O: !ÌC OQQ:C88CO 8DO¸ :D :!8 COD8CQuCDCC8¸ !ÌC DO8! :DCXÌ8u8!:DÌC O!
8ÌÌ.) L88!̸¸ 8Q8:! !:OD !ÌC Q:OD:8C 8DO !ÌC !ÌCOt¸¸ !ÌC:C :8 8 DO:8Ì
:D !ÌC QOCD. ·ÌOCVC: 98D!8 !O D8KC !ÌC Ì8:O !Ì:D_ _:VC 98¸
8ÌOuÌO D:88 DO OQQO:!uD:!¸ !O: !t!CDOÌ:DC88.
öÑLÜhÏ´ö
ÏhÑLLFLÑÑT
ÑÛ¥LL
Ei¿k: Yeo·s
ÜcIVccn Inc Tk·ee¸eoo¸ O¸e·o and Inc Tkree¸eoo¸
7ovel !:cs an :nIctva! O! c:_nI ¸cats. Ånc ncV VOtk dcVc!OQcd OUI
O! Inc O!d. ÜUI In:s d:d nOI naQQcn :n Inc COmQ!cX Va¸ :n Vn:Cn Onc
_cncta!!¸ :ma_:ncs Inc matUtÍn_ O! a VOtk O! 3. Åncsc ¸cats Vctc
QO!:I:Ca!!¸ dcCÍs:Vc. Ånc aUtnOt nas ass:m:!aIcd Inc:t !cssOns¡ nc nas
Ca!!cd tnc m:sdccds InaI Vctc QctQcItaIcd dUt:n_ tnOsc ¸cats O¸ Inc:t
ItUc namc¸ and !:I a Cnd!c !Ot tnc:t V:CCms. Ìc nas Vt:IIcn a saI:t:-
Ca! nOVc! O! majOt Ca!:Otc.
ÅO Vt:Ic tn:s OOOk nc nas Oc_Un a_a:n aI tnc Oc_:nn:n_. L:II!c
tcma:ns O! Inc OQcta´s Oas:C c!cmcnIs Ot O! :Is Q!OI. \n͸ tnc CcnIta!
CnataCIcts atc st:!! tnc samc. 1Ot :I ¾ Inc¸ VnO¸ Oc!Otc OUt c¸cs¸
Oc_an IO _tOV dUt:n_ tnOsc ¸cats and VnO sO OtUIa!!¸ C!a:mcd Inc
sQaCc ncCcssat¸ !Ot Inc:t _tOVIn. Nncn tnc Tkree¸eon¸ O¸e·o BtsI
aQQcatcd UQOn tnc Lctman sæ_c¸ tnc _an_sIct Vas sI:!! a sItan_ct
tnctc. Ìn Inc mcanI:mc¸ nc nas madc n:msc!! aI nOmc and nas madc
OatOat:I¸ a Va¸ O! !:!c. 1Ot tnc dtasI:C¸ cXCcmc QUa!:I¸ Vn:Cn¸ aI tnc
Vct¸ Oc_Ínn:n_ O! CaQ:Ia!:sm¸ CnataCIct:Zcs Inc m:sct¸ O! Inc cX-
Q!O:Icd¸ OcCOmcs man:!csI :n Inc cX¯Q!O:Icts On!¸ aI a !aIc sIa_c.
ÛrcCht ¡s CCnCc:cd V¡th DCth cXQÌC¡tcd and cXQÌC¡tcrs; that ¡s Vh¸
hc tcÌcsCCQcs d¡Ûcrcnt h¡stCr¡CaÌ Qcr¡Cds tC_cthcr and Quts h¡s _an_-
stcr t¸Qcs dCVn ¡n a ÌCndCn Vh¡Ch has thc rh¸thm and CutVard ÌCCK
C! 1¡CKcns¡an t:mcs. Åhc CCnd¡t¡Cns C! Qr¡Vatc Ì!!c arc thc CÌd Cncs¸
thCsc C! thc CÌass stru__Ìc DcÌCn_ tC Cur CVn t¡mc. Åhcsc ÌCndCncrs
dC nCt haVc thc tcÌcQhCnc¸ Dut thc¡r QCÌ¡Cc ¡s aÌrcad¸ cgu¡QQcd V¡th
tanKs. Åhc ÌCndCn C! tCda¸ ~ ¡t has Dccn sa¡d ~ dcmCnstratcs that
¡t ¡s _CCd !Cr CaQ¡taÌ¡sm tC Qrcscrvc a Ccrta¡n DaCKVardncss. ÛrcCht
has tuCcd th¡s C¡rCumstanCc tC adVanta_c. Ïc QcCQÌcs thc stuÛ¸
CmCcs¸ danK Dath¡n_ cstaDÌ¡shmcnts and !C__¸ strccts V¡th t¸Qcs
VhCsc manncrs arc C!tcn CÌd-!ash¡Cncd¸ Dut VhCsc QrCCccd¡n_s
arc aÌVa¸s mCOcC. OuCh d¡sQÌaCcmcnts DcÌCn_ tC thc CQt¡C C! thc
sat¡rc. ÛrcCht undcrÌ¡ncs thcm V¡th thc Ì¡CcnCcs hc taKcs V¡th
ÌCndCn´s tCQC_raQh¸. Åhc DchaV¡Cur C! h¡s CharaCtcrs¸ VhCm hc
has draVn !rCm Ì¡!c¸ ¡s ¬ thc sat¡r¡st ma¸ sa¸ tC h¡mscÌ! ¬ !ar mCrc
¡nCrcd¡DÌc than an¸ ÛrCDd¡n_na_ Cr ÌCndCn Vh!Ch hc ma¸ haVc
CCnstruCtcd ¡ns:dc h¡s hcad.
Olo ¬cçuoio:ooces
ÅhCsc CharaCtcrs¸ thcn¸ aQQcarcd ancV Dc!Crc thc¡r authCr. Åhcrc
¡s ÌcaChum¸ VhC aÌVa¸s KccQs h¡s hat Cn DcCausc thcrc ¡s nC rCC!
Vh¡Ch hc dCcs nCt cXQcCt tC CCÌÌaQsc CVcr h¡s hcad. Ïc has nc_ÌcCtcd
h¡s ¡nstrumcnt shCQ !Cr thc saKc C! a Vart¡mc dcaÌ !nVCÌV¡n_ trans-
QCrt sh¡Qs¸ Vhcrc h¡s arm¸ C! Dc__ars DcCCmc usc!u̸ at Cr¡t¡CaÌ
mCmcnts¸ as an `cXC¡tcd CrCVd´. Åhc sh¡Qs arc tC Dc uscd as trCCQ
transQCrts ¡n thc ÛCcr Nar. Ûc¡n_ rCttcn¸ thc¸ _C dCVn V¡th aÌÌ
hands nCt !ar !rCm thc Åhamcs cstuar¸. ÌcaChu¸ VhC ¡ns¡sts Cn
attcnd¡n_ thc mcmCr¡aÌ scrV¡Cc !Cr thc drCVncd sa¡ÌCrs¸ hcars¸ tC-
_cthcr V¡th man¸ Cthcrs ¡nCÌud¡n_ a Ccrta¡n ÏcVKCCmDc¸¸ a D¡shCQ
QrcaCh¡n_ a scrCCn Cn thc D¡DÌ¡CaÌ rcCCmmcndat¡Cn tC QraCt¡sc usur¸
V¡th thc taÌcnts {Cr QCunds] Cnc has rcCc¡Vcd ¡n trust. Û¸ th¡s t¡mc
ÌcaChum has aÌrcad¸ ¡nsurcd h¡mscÌ! a_a¡nst an¸ scr¡Cus CCnscgucn-
Ccs C! thc dcaÌ D¸ cÌ¡m¡nat¡n_ h¡s Dus¡ncss assCC!atc. Ûut hc has nCt
CCmm¡ttcd thc murdcr h¡mscÌ!. Ï!s dau_htcr¸ `thc ÌcaCh´¸ Ì¡KcV¡sc
DcCCmcs ¡nVCÌVcd !n Cr¡m¡naÌ aÛa¡rs¸ Dut Cn̸ C! a K¡nd su!taDÌc !Cr
B·eck:'s ÅntccQcnn¸ ÌOVc! ¸¸
a !ad¸¸ :.c. a Casc O! aOOt!:On and Onc O! adU!Ict¸. Nc atC :nItOdUCcd
IO tDc dOCIOt snc nas CnOscn IO Qct!Otm Inc OQctaI:On¸ and Vc ncat
!tOm n:s !:Qs a d:sCOUtsc Vn:Cn :s a COUnIctQatI IO InaI dc!:Vctcd
O¸ Inc O:snOQ.
Ìn Inc Tk·ee¸eoo¸ O¸e·a Inc nctO¸ NaCncaIn¸ nad nOI ¸cI _Onc
mUCn Oc¸Ond Inc ¸cats O! n:s aQQtcnI:Ccsn:Q. Ånc nOVc! tcCaQ:IU-
!aIcs InOsc ¸cats On!¸ Ot:cL¸¡ :I tcsQcCIs InaI `scm:-datKncss Vn:Cn
OOsCUtcs VnO!c sct:cs O! ¸cats . . . jand] maKcs Inc O:O_taQn:cs O!
OUt _tcaI OUs:nCssmCn sO QOOt :n maIct:8!´;' :I OUcts nO OQ:n:On On
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UndctstCCd nCV !at OaCk ¡n n¡stCt¸ _C tnc ttaCcs C! tnc Ct¡mcs C!
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!tOm n¡m. Ìc V¡!! tc!Usc IO maKc an¸ dcmands `DcCaUsc InaI VOU!d
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IUn¡I¸ IO Iakc Inc CcnItc O! Inc sIa_c. ¬nd nc ¡s 8 d¡UctcnI man ¡n
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:nV:tat:Cn tC tnc tcadct tC aOandCn :!!Us:Cn Cncc :n a Vn:¡c. ÌCtn:n_
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!cssCn !Ct Us. \nc C! tncsc !Ctms :s tnc QtCVctO¸ and tnc QtCVctO :s a
scnCC! C! ctUdc tn:nk:n_. `Ìas Nt Nacncatn _Ct Nat¸ oaV¸ct Cn
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tDat tDc ¬Cunds atc tDctc¸ Dccausc tDc¸ tDcmsc¡Vcs DaVc dca¡t tDcm. ¯Dcn
a man dCcs Dus¡ncss¸ ¡sn´t tDctc anCtDct man sCmc¬Dctc c¡sc ¬DC ¡s Dc¡n_
tu¡ncd: ¯Dcn a man suQQCtts D¡s !am¡¡¸¸ atcn´t CtDct !am:¡¡cs Dc¡n_ !Ctccd
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Inc Oc_:nn:n_s C! Inc OCUt_cC:s cta naVc OcCCUc !Ct Inc cnItc-
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IC QtC_tcss:Vc !CrUs C! InCU_nI as UUCn as IC UCdcn !CrUs C!
ItansQCtI. ¯nc _cnI!cUcn :n Inc 7òree¸enn¸ 7ovel dC nCI naVc
UCICt Cats¸ :I :s IrUc¸ OUI Inc¸ atc d:a!cCI:C:ans IC a Uan. ÍcaCnUU¸
!Ct cXaUQ!c¸ sa¸s IC n:Usc!! InaI UUtdctcts atc QUn:sncd. `ÜUI a
nCn-UUtdctct :s a!sC QUn:sncd -and !at UCtc Ictt:O!¸ . . . . ¬n cX:sI-
cnCc :n Inc s!UUs¸ sUCn as Ï and U¸ !aU:!¸ Vctc IntcaIcncd V:In¸ : s
nCIn:n_ !css Inan :UQt:sCnUcnI. ¯naI :s a !:!c scnIcnCc!´
¯nc dcIcCI:Vc nCVc! Vn:Cn :n :Is cat!¸ da¸s ¸:n ÍCsIC¸cVsk¸) d:d
sC UUCn IC adVanCc Qs¸CnC!C_¸¸ nas nCV¸ aI Inc nc:_nI CÍ :Is dcVc!-
CQUcnI¸ OcCCUc an :nsIruUcnI C! sCC:a! Ct:I:C:sU. Ï! ÜtcCnI´s OCCK
cXQ!C:ts Inc _cntc UCtc cXnaUsI:Vc!¸ Inan ÍCsIC¸cVsk¸¸ Cnc C! Inc
S·eck:'s JhrccQcnn¸ ÏCVcÌ 8

rcasCns ¡s that ¡n ÛrcCht´s DCCK ¬a8 ¡n rcaÌ Ì¡!c ¬thc Cr¡m¡naÌ maKcs
h¡s Ì¡V¡n_ V¡th¡n sCC¡ct¸¸ and sCC¡ct¸ ¬ as ¡n rcaÌ Ì¡!c ¬ taKcs ¡ts shatc
C! thc sQC¡Ìs. 1CstC¸cVsK¸ Vas CCnCcrcd V¡th Qs¸ChCÌC_¸¡ hc
rcVcaÌcd tnc Cr¡m¡naÌ Ìatcnt În man. ÛrcCht ¡s CCnCcrcd V¡th QCÌ¡-
t¡Cs; hc rcVcaÌs thc Cr¡mc Ìatcnt ¡n Dus¡ncss.
¬CCCrd¡n_ tC thc ruÌcs C! thc dctcCt¡Vc nCVc̸ DCur_cC¡s Ìc_aÌ¡t¸
and Cr¡mc arc tVC CQQCs¡tcs. ÛrcCht´sQrCCcdurc CCns¡sts ¡n rcta¡n¡n_
tnc h¡_n̸ dcVcÌCQcd tcChn¡Quc C! tnc dctcCt¡Vc nCVcÌ Dut aDandCn-
¡n_ ¡ts ru!cs. 7kis dctcCt¡Vc nCVcÌ dcQ¡Cts thc CDjcCt¡Vc truth aDCut thc
rcÌat¡Cnsh¡Q DctVccn DCur_cC¡s Ìc_aÌ¡t¸ and Cr¡mc¸ thc Ìattcr Dc¡n_
shCVn as a sQcC¡aÌ Casc C! cXQÌC¡tat¡Cn sanCt¡Cncd D¸ tnc !Crmcr.
OCmct¡mcs Cnc sÌ¡dcs cas¡Ì¸ ¡ntC thc Ctncr. Jhc thCu_ht!uÌ ÌcaChum
CDsctVcs `hCV thc mCst CCmQÌ¡Catcd Dus¡ncss ¡s C!tcn Qut t¡_ht D¸
thc s¡mQÌcst a_c-CÌd mcthCds . . . . ¬ÌÌ th¡s Dus¡ncss Dc_an V¡th
CCntraCts and _CVcrmcnt stamQs¸ and at thc cnd Vc had tC rcsCtt
tC murdcrl ÏCV Ï hatc murdcrl . . . ¬nd tC th¡nK that Vc Vcrc Cn̸
dC¡n_ Dus¡ncss tC_cthcr¦´
Ït ¡s QD¡tc naturaÌ that ¡n th¡s DCrdcrÌ¡nc Casc C! a dctcCt¡Vc nCVc!
thctc ¡s nC QÌaCc !Cr a dctcCt¡Vc. Jhc rCÌc C! a_cnt C! thc ÌaV aÌÌCttcd
tC thc dctcCt¡Vc undcr thc tuÌcs C! thc _amc ¡s hcrc IaKcn CVcr D¸
LCmQct¡t¡Cn. Nhat taKcs QÌaCc DctVccn %aChcath and ÌcaChum ¡s
a stru__Ìc DctVccn r¡VaÌ _an_s¸ and thc haQQ¸ cnd ¡s a _cntÌcmcn´s
a_rccmcnt Vh¡Ch !CtmaÌ̸ aQQCtt¡Cns tC caCh h¡s sharc C! thc
DCCt¸.
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Ìc_aÌ CCnCcQts. Jhc¡r human CCntcnt cmcr_cs !rCm undcr thcm
naKcd¸ as ¡t V¡ÌÌ _C dCVn tC QCstcr¡t¸. Ïn!Cttunatc̸¸ ¡t has a dc-
human¡Zcd ÌCCK. Ûut that ¡s nCt thc sat¡r¡st´s !auÌt. JC Ìa¸ Darc h¡s
!cÌÌCV C¡t¡Zcn ¡s h¡s tasK. Ïc ma¸ cQu¡Q h¡m V¡th ncV CÌCtncs ¬ ma¸
rcQrcscnt D¡m¸ Ì¡Kc Lcrvantcs¸ ¡n tnc !Crm C! thc dC_ Ûcr_anZa¸ Ì¡Kc
OV¡!t ¡n thc cQu¡nc !Crm C! thc ÏCu¸hnhnms Cr¸ Ì¡Kc ÏCÛmann¸
¡n thc !Ctm C! a Cat ¬ ¸ct at hcart hc ¡s CCnCcrcd Cn̸ V¡th d¡sQÌa¸-
¡n_ thc QcrsCna_c ¡n a s¡n_Ìc QCsturc: stand¡n_ naKcd amCn_ h¡s
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I!C C!8I8FCC V!!C! _tC8I Vt!ICt8 _CFCt8!!¸¸ 8FC _tC8I 88I!t!8I8 !F
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1I !88 8!V8¸8 DCCF I!!8 C!8!8FCC I!8I QC8ICt!I¸ m8KC8 !I8 CVF V!CF
!I C8!!8 8F 8uI!Ot `C!888!C´. NC m8¸ 8uQQC8C I!8I QC8ICt!!¸ V!!Ì C88!!¸
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ouvrie·e, en leur ¡::on: ¸reno·e conscience
oe l`ioen:i:é oe leurs oémorcòes s¸iri:uelles e:
oe leurs conoi:ions oe ¸roouc:eur.
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nc dcn¡cs IncU Inc r:_nI IO dVcÌÌ Incrc:n. ÏIaIO nad a n¡_n OQ¡n¡On
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tnc saUc cUQnas¡s; IOda¸¸ nOVcVcr¸ ¡I arIscs OnCc UOrc. '!COursc
¡I OnI¸ scÌdOU ar¡scs ¡n In¡s[rm. DuI aÌÌ O! ¸Ou arc UOrc Or Ìcss
COnVcrsanI V¡In ¡I ¡n a d¡UcrcnI !OrU¸ tnaI O!tnc gucst:On O! tnc
Vr¡Icr´s auIOnOU¸: n¡s !rccdOU IO Vr¡Ic jusI VnaI nc QÌcascs. ·Ou
arc nOI ¡nCÌ¡ncd IO _mnI n¡U In¡s auIOnOU¸. ·Ou DcÌ¡cVc InaI
tnc QrcscnIsOC¡aÌs¡IuaI¡On !OrCcsn¡UIO dcC¡dc ¡nVnOscscrv¡Ccnc
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undcttaKcn t¡Uc and a_a¡n ¡n tnc C¡rCÌc O! Our !r¡cnds. LcrIa¡n̸.
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tncrc!Orc¸ O! ncCcss¡t¸¸ nas O!tcn dr¡!tcd ¡ntO Va_ucncss. OOC¡aÌ
rcÌat¡Ons¸asVcKnOV¸arcdctcrU¡ncd O¸QrOduCt¡OnrcÌat¡Ons.´nd
Vncn Uatcr¡aÌ¡st Cr¡t¡C¡sU aQQrOaCncd a VOrK¸ ¡tuscd tO asK Vnat
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t¡Ons O! ¡ts t¡Uc. Ånat ¡s an ¡UQOrtant gucst¡On. Dut aÌsO a Vcr¸
d¡mCuÌt Onc. Ånc ansVcr tO ¡t ¡s nOt aÌVa¸s uncgu¡VOcaÌ. ´nd Ï
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_Ocs Ìcss Lr¸ Out Vn¡Cn¸ ¡t sccUs tO Uc¸ stands a Octtcr CnanCc O!
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vis-ò-v:s tnc QrOduCt¡Vc rcÌat¡Ons O! ¡ts t¡Uc¸ dOcs ¡t CndctVr¡tc
tncsc rcÌat¡Ons¸ ¡s¡trcaCt¡Onar¸¸ OrdOcs ¡tasQ¡rctOOVcrtnrOVtncU¸
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tC_tC88\VC CDC.
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8DC C!ÌCt tC88CD8¸ ÌC CÜCt8 !C ÍCtt ÍCCÌC ~ ´CDDC!¸ D¸ ¡C\D\D_ !ÌC
' Änc to!Îo¬ing passagc¸ Iatcr dcIc:cd, origina!Îy appcarcd :n :nc manu-
scr:p: :n p!acc ot :øc ncxt scn:cncc: 'Lr¸ in ¯ro:sky`s ¬ords¦ `¯ncn cn!ign:cncd
pacihsts undcr:aìc to ato!isn ¯ar ty mcans ot ra:ionaÎis: argumcn:s, :ncy arc
simp!y r:dicuIous. ¯ncn :nc armcd masscs star: :o ækc up :nc argumcnts ot
1cason aga¡ns: ¯ar, no¬cvcr, U s:gn¡hcs tnc cnd ot ¬ar.´´
Tke ¬urkor os 1rooucer §¸
QrO!Ctar¡an !rOnt¸ _¡VC QraCt¡Ca! CUCCt tO tÌC amrmat¡On V¡tÌ VÌ¡CÌ
jOu rCsQOnd ¡n Qr¡nC¡Q!C tO tÌC stru__!C ¸O! tÌC QrO!Ctar¡at). `Ou
must COnFnC jOursC!! tO aQQrOV¡n_ tÌ¡s stru__!C V¡tÌ CmOt¡On and
V¡tÌ sOrrOV; !Or jOu must KnOV tÌat¸ ¡! jOu dO mOrC¸ tÌCn a trC-
mCndOus!j ¡mQOrtant QOs¡t¡On V¡!! !a!! VaCant . . . tÌC Or¡_¡na! COm-
mun¡st QOs¡t¡On O! ¡nd¡V¡dua! Ìuman !rCCdOm¸ O! sQOntanCOus sO!¡d-
ar¡tj and un¡tj amOn_ mCn . . . . ÅÌ¡s¸ mj dCar O¡r¸ ¡s tÌC On!j QOs¡-
t¡On aQQrOQr¡atC tO jOu.´ ÌCrC ¡t DCCOmCs Qa!QaD!j C!Car VÌCrC tÌC
COnCCQt O! tÌC `man O! m¡nd´ as a tjQC dCBnCd aCCOrd¡n_ tO Ì¡s
OQ¡n¡Ons¸ ¡ntCnt¡Ons Or QrCd¡sQOs¡t¡Ons¸ Dut nOt aCCOrd¡n_ tO Ì¡s
QOs¡t¡On V¡tÌ¡n tÌC QrOduCt¡On QrOCCss¸ must !Cad. ÅÌ¡s man¸ sajs
ÍÒD!¡n¸ sÌOu!d Fnd Ì¡s Q!aCC or rke sioe O! tÌC QrO!CUr¡at. Üut VÌat
sOrt O! a Q!aCC ¡s UC ÅÌC Q!aCC O! a VC!!-V¡sÌCr¸ an ¡dCO!O_¡Ca!
QatrOn. ^¡mQOss¡D!C Q!aCC. Pnd sO VC COmC DaCK tO tÌC tÌCs¡s VC
QrOQOsCd at tÌC DC_¡nn¡n_: tÌC Q!aCC O! tÌC ¡ntC!!CCtua! ¡n tÌC C!ass
sCu__!C Can On!j DC dCtCrm¡nCd¸ Or DCttCr st¡!! CÌOsCn¸ On tÌC Das¡s
O! Ì¡s QOs¡t¡On V¡tÌ¡n tÌC QrOduCt¡On QrOCCss.
ÜrCCÌt Ìas CO¡nCd tÌC QÌrasC `UnCt¡Ona! trans!Ormat¡On´ ¸Lm-
¸uokriooieruo¿) tO dCsCr¡DC tÌC Cans!Ormat¡On O! !Orms and ¡nstru-
mCnts O! QrOduCt¡On Dj a QrO_rCss¡VC ¡ntC!!¡_Cnts¡a ¬ an ¡ntC!!¡_Cnt-
s¡a ¡ntCrCstCd ¡n !¡DCrat¡n_ tÌC mCans O! QrOduCt¡On and ÌCnCC aCt¡VC
¡n tÌC C!ass stru__!C. ÌC ¾ tÌC Frst tO addrCss tO tÌC ¡ntC!!CCtua!s
tÌC !ar-rCaCÌ¡n_ dCmand tÌat tÌCj sÌOu!d nOt suQQ!j tÌC QrOduCt¡On
aQQaratus V¡tÌOut¸ at tÌC samC t¡mC¸ V¡tÌ¡n tÌC !¡m¡ts O! tÌC QOss¡D!C¸
CÌan_¡n_ tÌat aQQaratus ¡n tÌC d¡rCCCOn O! OOC¡a!¡sm. `ÅÌC QuD!¡Ca-
t¡On O! tÌC Iersucke,' VC rCad ¡n tÌC autÌOr´s ¡ntrOduCt¡On tO tÌC
sCr¡Cs O! tCXts QuD!¡sÌCd undCr tÌat t¡t!C¸ ´marKs a QO¡nt at VÌ¡CÌ
CCrta¡n VOrKs arC nOt sO muCÌ ¡ntCndCd tO rCQrCsCnt ¡nd¡V¡dua! CX-
QCr¡CnCCs ¸¡.C. tO ÌaVC tÌC CÌaraCtCr O! Bn¡sÌCd VOrKs} as tÌCj arC
a¡mCd at us¡n_ ¸trans!Orm¡n_) CCrta¡n CX¡st¡n_ ¡nst¡tutCs and ¡nst¡tu-
t¡Ons.´ 1t ¡s nOt sQ¡r¡tua! rCnCVa!¸ as tÌC !asC¡sts QrOC!a¡m ¡t¸ tÌat ¡s
dCs¡raD!C¡ VÌat ¡s QrOQOsCd ¡s tCCÌn¡C! ¡nnOVat¡On. 1 sÌa!! rCtut tO
tÌ¡s suD¡CCt !atCr. ÌCrC 1 sÌOu!d !¡KC tO COnBnC mjsC!! tO QO¡nt¡n_
Out tÌC dCC¡s¡VC d¡UCrCnCC DCtVCCn mCrC!j suQQ!j¡n_ a QrOduCt¡On
aQQaratus and CÌan_¡n_ ¡t. 1 sÌOu!d !¡KC tO QrC!aCC mj rCmarKs On tÌC
ÌCV LD¡CCt¡V¡tj V¡tÌ tÌC QrOQOs¡t¡On tÌat tO suQQ!j a QrOduCt¡On
§4
8QQ8r8tus ?¡tDOut trj¡n_¸ ?¡tD¡n tDC Ì¡m¡ts OI tDC QOss!DÌC¸ tO CD8n_C
¡t¸ ¡s 8 D¡_DÌj d¡sQut8DÌC 8Ct¡V¡tj CVCn ?DCn tDC m8tCr¡8Ì suQQÌ¡Cd
8QQC8rs tO DC OI 8 rCVOÌut¡On8rj n8turC. ÍOr ?C 8rC COnIrOntCd ?¡tD
tDC I8Ct - OI ?D¡CD tDCrC )DCCn nO sDOrt8_C OI QrOOI ¡n LCrm8nj
OVCr tDC Ì8st dCC8dC - tD8t tDC DOur_CO¡s 8QQ8r8tus OI QrOduCt¡On
8nd QuDÌ¡C8t¡On ¡s C8Q8DÌC OI 8ss¡m¡Ì8t¡n_¸ ¡ndCCd OI QrOQ8_8t¡n_¸ 8n
8stOn¡sD¡n_ 8mOunt OI rCVOÌuUOn8rj tDCmCs 9¡UOut CVCr sCr¡OusÌj
Qutt¡n_ ¡ntO QuCst¡On ¡ts O?n COnt¡nuCd CXIstCnCC Or tD8t OI UC CÌ8ss
?D¡CD O?ns ¡t. 1n 8nj C8sC tD¡s rCm8¡ns truC sO ÌOn_ 8s ¡t ¡s suQQÌ!Cd
Dj D8Cs¸ 8ÌDC¡t rCVOÌut¡On8rj D8CRs. ¬nd 1 dC!nC 8 D8CR 8s 8 m8n
?DO rCD1sCs 8s 8 m8ttCr OI Qr¡nC¡QÌC tO ¡mQrOVC tDC QrOduCtIOn
8QQ8r8tUs 8nd sO Qr¡sC ¡t 8?8j IrOm tDC ruÌ¡n_ CÌ8ss IOr tDC DCnCLt
OI oOC¡8Ì¡sm. 1 D1rtDCr m8¡nt8¡n tD8t 8n 8QQrCC¡8DÌC Q8rt OI sO-C8ÌÌCd
ÌCIt-?¡n_ Ì¡tCr8turC D8d nO OtDCr sOC¡8Ì IunCuOn tD8n tD8t OI COn-
t¡nu8ÌÌj CXtt8Ct¡n_ nC? CDCCts Or sCns8t¡Ons IrOm tD¡s s¡tu8t¡On IOr
tDC QuDÌ¡C´s CntCrt8¡nmCnt. ¯¡CD Dr¡n_s mC tO tDC ÌC? LD]CC-
t¡V¡tj. 1t Ì8unCDCd tDC I8sD¡On IOr rgOrt8_C. iCt us 8sR OursCÌVCs
?DOsC ¡nVrCsts ?CrC 8dV8nCCd Dj tD¡s tCCDn¡QuC.
ÍOr _rC8tCr CÌ8r¡tj ÌCt mC COnCCntr8tC On QDOtO_r8QD¡C rCQOrt_C.
¯8tCVCr 8QQÌ¡Cs tO ¡t ¡s tr8nsICr8DÌC tO tDC Ì¡tCr8rj IOrm. ÛOtD O?C
tDC¡r CXC8Ord¡n8rj dCVCÌOQmCnt tO QuDÌ¡C8t¡On tCCDn¡QuCs - r8d¡O
8nd tDC ¡ÌÌustr8tCd QrCss. iCt UtD¡nR D8CR tO l8d8¡sm. ²DC rCVOÌu-
t¡Onæj strCn_tD OI l8d8¡sm Ì8j ¡n tCst¡n_ 8rt IOr ¡ts 8utDCnt¡C¡tj.
`Ou m8dC st¡ÌÌ-Ì¡ICs Out OI t¡CCts¸ sQOOÌs OI COttOn¸ C¡_8rCttC stUDs¸
8nd m¡XCd tDCm 9¡U Q¡CtOrI8Ì CÌCmCnts. `Ou Qut 8 D8mC rOund tDC
?DOÌC tD¡n_. ¬nd ¡n tDIs ?8j jOu s8¡d tO tDC QuDÌ¡C: ÌOOR¸ jOur Q¡C-
turC Ir8mC dCstrOjs t¡mC¡ tDC sm8ÌÌCst 8utDCntIC D8_mCnt OI CVCrjd8j
Ì¡IC s8js mOrC tD8n Qaint¡n_. ]ust 8s 8 murdCrCr´s DÌOOdj Dn_CrQrInt
On 8 Q8_C s8js mOrC tDan UC ?Ords Qr¡ntCd On ¡t. `uCD OI tD¡s rCVO-
Ìut¡On8rj 8tt¡tudC Q8ssCd ¡ntO QDOtOmOnt8_C. `Ou nCCd OnÌj tD¡nR
OI tDC ?OrRs OI ]ODn ÏcCÌd¸ ?DOsC tCCDn¡QUC m8dC tDC DOOR
¡8CRCt ¡ntO 8 QOÌ¡t¡CÌ ¡nsttumCnt. Ûut nO? ÌCt U IOÌÌO? tDC suDsC-
QuCnt dCVCÌOQmCnt OI QDOtO_r8QDj. ¯8t dO ?C sCC: 1t D8s DCCOmC
mOrC 8nd mOrC sD1ÌC¸ mOrC 8nd mOrC mOdC:¸ 8nd UC rCsuÌt ¡s tD8t
!t ¡s nO? ¡nCQ8DÌC OI QDOtO_r8QD¡n_ 8 tCnCmCnt Or 8 r¤D¡sD-DC8Q
9¡tDOut D8ns!_ur¡n_ ¡t. ÌOt tO mCnt¡On 8 r¡VCr d8m Or 8n CÌCCtr¡C
Tke ¬urkor Ü Prooucer
P
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CD¡C ¼CtOr¸. ¡n !rOnt O! UCsC¸ QnOIO_r8Qnj Can nOV On̸ sa¸¸ `ÎOV
DC8Ut¡D1Ì.´ Tke ºo·lo 7s Beouri]ul÷tnat ¡s t!C t¡tÌC O! tnC VC!¡-RROVn
Q¡CtUrC DOOR D¸ FCn_Cr-Í8tZsCn ¡n Vn¡cn VC sCC ÌCV LDjCCt¡V¡t¸
QnOtO_raQn¸ 8t ¡ts QC8R. Ït n8s sUCCCCdCd ¡n tUC¡n_ aDjCCt QOVCrt¸
¡tsCÌ!¸ D¸ n8ndÌ¡n_ ¡t ¡n 8 UOdÍsn¸ tCCDn¡CÌ̸ QCrICCt V8¸¸ ¡ntO 8n
OD¡CCt O! CnjO¸UCnt. !Or¡!¡t ¡s 8n CCOnOU¡C D1nCtÍOn O! QnOtO_r8Qn¸
tO sUQQ!¸ t!C U8ssCs¸ D¸ UOd¡sn QrOCCss¡n_¸ V¡tn U8ttCr Vn¡Cn
QrCV¡OUs¡¸ CÌUdCd U8ss COnsUUQt¡On ~ bQr¡n_¸ !aUOUs QCOQÌC¸
!OrC¡_n COUntr¡Cs - I!Cn OnC O! ¡ts QO¡¡t¡C¡ !UnCt¡Ons ¡s tO rCnOV8tC
tDC VOrÍd 8s ¡I ¡s UOU I!C ¡ns¡dC¸ ¡.C. D¸ UOd¡sn tCCnn¡QCs.
ÎCrC VC n8VC 8n CXtrCUC CX8UQ¡C O! Vn8t ¡t UC8ns tO sUQQ̸ 8
QrOdUCt¡On 8QQ8r8tus V¡tnOUt Cnan_¡n_ ¡t. !n8n_Ín_ ¡t VOU¡d n8VC
UC8nt Dr¡n_¡n_ dOVn OnC O! t!C D8CCrs¸ sUrUOUnt¡n_ OnC O! t!C
COntrad¡Ct¡Ons Vn¡C! ¡nn¡D¡t t!C QrOdUCt¡VC C8QaC¡t¸ O! tnC ¡ntCÌ¡¡-
_Cnts¡8. ¯n8t VC UUst dCU8nd !rOU tnC QnOtO_r8QnCr ¡s tnC 8DÍ¡¡I¸
tO QUt sUCn a C8Qt¡On DCnCatn n¡s Q¡CturC 8s V¡¡I rCsCUC ¡t !rOU tnC
r8V8_Cs O! UOd¡snnCss 8nd COn!Cr UQOn ¡t 8 rCVO¡Ut¡Onarj UsC V8ÍUC.
¬nd VC sn8ÍÍ ÌCnd _rC8tCr CUQnas¡s tO tD¡s dCU8nd ¡I VC¸ as 9rÍtCrs¸
st8rt taR¡n_ QnOtO_r8Qns OUrsC¡VCs. ÎCrC a_8¡n¸ t!CrC!OrC¸ tCCnn¡Ca¡
QrO_rCss ¡s¸ !Or tDC aUtnOr 8s QrOdUCCr¸ tnC Das¡s O! D¡s QOÌ¡t¡CaÍ
QrO_rCss. Ìn OtnCr VOrds¸ ¡ntC!ÍCCtU8! QrOdUCt¡On C8nnOt DCCOUC
QO¡¡t¡C8Ì̸ UsC!UÌ Unt¡Í t!C sCQartC sQnCrCs O! COUQCtCnCC tO Vn¡Cn¸
8CCOrd¡n_ tO t!C DOUr_CO¡s V¡CV¸ tnC QrOCCss O! ¡ntC!!CCIU8¡ QrOdUC-
t¡On OVCs ¡ts OrdCr¸ n8VC DCCn sUrUOUntCd¡ UOrC QrCC¡sC̸¸ tDC
DarrÍCrs O! COUQCtCnCC UUst DC DrORCn dOVR D¸ CaCn O! UC QrOdUC-
t¡VC !OrCCs tnC¸ VCrC CrCatCd tO sCQ8r8tC¸ aCt¡n_ ¡n COnCCrt. D¸ C>¯QCr¡-
CnC¡n_ n¡s sOÌ¡dar¡t¸ V¡t! tDC QrO¡Ctar¡at¸ tnC 8Ut!Or 8s QrOdUCCr
C>¯QCrÍCnCC8¸ d¡rCCt¡¸ 8nd s¡UU¡IanCOUs̸¸ n¡s sOÌ¡d8r¡t¸ VÍC CCrI8¡n
Ot!Cr QrOdUCCrs VnO¸ Unt¡Í tnCn¸ UC8nt !¡tt!C tO DÍU.
1 sQORC O! tnC QnOtO_r8QnCr; ¡Ct UC nOV¸ VCrj Dr¡CL¸¸ QUOtC 8
rCU8rR O!Î8nns Í¡sÍCr´s 8DOUt tDC UUs¡C¡an. `Ïn tnC dCNCÍOQUCnt O!
UUs¡C¸ DOtn m QrOdUCt¡On 8nd ¡n rCQrOdUCt¡On¸ VC mUst ¡Cæ tO
rCCO_nÍZC 8n CVCr-¡nCrC8s¡n_ QrOCCss O! r8tÍOn8¡¡Z8t¡On. . . . ÅnC
_raUOQnOnC rCCOrd¸ t!C sOUnd U¡U¸ I!C n¡CRC¡OdCOn C . . . U8rRCt
tnC VOrÌd´s DCst UUs¡Ca! QrOdUCt¡Ons u C8nnCd !OrU. ÅnC COnsC-
QUCnCC O! t!¡s QrOCCss O! r8t¡On8¡¡Z8t¡On ¡s t!8t UUs¡C! rCQrOdUCt¡On
§
6
¡8 DCCOm¡n_ !¡m¡!Cd !O _tOuQ8 O! 8QCC¡a!¡8!8 VD¡CD 8tC _C!!¡n_ 8ma!!Ct,
Du! 8!8O mOtC D¡_D!j Qu8!¡!Cd¸ a!! !DC !¡mC. ²DC Cr¡8¡8 O! COnCCt!-
Da!! mu8¡C u !DC Cr¡8¡8 O! 8 !Orm O! QtOduC!¡On m8dC OD8O!C!C
and OVCt!aSCn Dj nCV !CCDn¡Ca! ¡nVCn!¡On8.´ Ìn O!DCt VOtd8¸ !DC
!a8S COn8¡8!Cd ¡n !DC ´HlIC!¡On8! !t8n8!Otma!¡On´ O! tDC COnCCt!-
Da!! !Orm O! mu8¡C ¡n a mannCt VD¡CD D8d !O mCC! !VO COnd¡!¡On8.
!D8! O! tCmOV¡n_¸ !t8!¸ !DC d¡CDO!Omj O! QCt!OtmCt and 8ud¡CnCC
and¸ 8CCOnd!j¸ tDa! O! !CCDn¡Ca! mC!DOd and COn!Cn!. Ln tDÍ8 QO¡n!
L¡8!Ct maSC8 !DC !OÌ!OV¡n_ ¡n!CtC8!¡n_ OD8CrV8!¡On: ´NC 8DOu!d DC-
VatC O! OVCtC8!¡m8!¡n_ OtCDC8!t8! mu8¡C 8nd tD¡nS¡n_ O! ¡! 88 tDC
On!j D¡_D 8r!-!Otm. %u8¡C V¡!DOu! VOtd8 8CQu¡tCd ¡!8 _tC8! ¡m-
QOr!anCC and ¡!8 !!! dCVC!OQmCn! On!j undCt CaQ¡!a!¡8m.´ ²D¡8 8u_-
_C8!8 !D8! tDC !88S O! !tan8!Otm¡n_ COnCCt! mu8¡C tCQu¡tC8 DC!Q !tOm
!DC VOtd. \n!j 8uCD DC!Q C¸a8 L¡8!Ct Qut8 ¡!¸ tt8n8!Otm a COnCCt!
¡n!O a QO!¡!¡C8! mCC!¡n_. ²DC !aC! !Da! 8uCD a !r8n8!Orma!¡On maj
tCa!!j tCQtC8Cn! a QCaS 8CD¡CVCmCn! O! DO!D mu8¡Ca! 8nd !¡!Ctarj
!CCDn¡QuC ~ !D¡8 ÜtCCD! and L¡8!Ct DaVC QtOVCd VÍtD !DC¡t d¡daC!¡C
Q!aj Tke .eosures Toen.
Ì!¸ 8! tD¡8 QO¡n!¸ jOu !OOS DaCS 8! !DC mC!!¡n_-dOVn O! !¡!Ctatj
!Orm8 O! VD¡CD VC 8QOSC Cat!¡Ct¸ jOu V¡!! 8CC DOV QDO!O_taQDj 8nd
mu8¡C jO¡n tDC ¡ncndC8CCn! !¡Qu¡d m888 !tOm VD¡CD !DC nCV !Otm8
V¡!! DC c8!; 8nd jOu V1!! 88S jOut8CÍVC8 VDa! O!DCt C!CmCn!8 m8j
!ÍSCVÍ8C Cn!Ct ¡n!O ¡!. Ln!j !DC !¡!Ctar¡Z8!¡On O! a!! !¡V¡n_ COnd¡!¡On8
_¡VC8 8OmC ¡dCa O! !DC 8COQC O! !D¡8 mC!Cn_-dOV; QtOCC88; 8nd !DC
!CmQCt8DtC a! VD¡CD !DC mC!!¡n_-dOVn !aSC8 Q!aCC [QCt!CC!!j Ot
¡mQCt!CC!Íj) ¡8 dC!Crm¡nCd Dj !DC 8!a!C O! !DC C!a88 8!tu__!C.
Ì D8VC 8QOSCn O! !DC V8j ¡n VD¡CD CCt!8¡n mOd¡8D QDO!O_t8QDCt8
QtOCCCd ¡n OtdCt !O m8SC Duman m¡8Ctj 8n ODjCC! O! COn8umQ!¡On.
²uC¡n_ !O tDC ÌCV LDjCCt¡V¡!j 88 a !¡!Ctatj mOVCmCn!¸ Ì mu8! _O
8 8!CQ !t!DCt 8nd 88j !D8! ¡! D88 DrCd :ke s:·u¿¿le a¿ains: mise·¸
¡n!O 8n ODjCC! O! COn8umQ!¡On. Ìn manj Ca8C8¸ ¡ndCCd¸ ¡!8 QO!¡DC8!
8¡_n¡!CanCC Da8 DCCn !¡m¡!Cd !O COnVCt!¡n_ tCVO!u!¡Onatj tCHCXC8¸
¡n 8O !8t 88 !DC8C OCCurrCd V¡tD¡n tDC DOut_CO¡8¡C¸ ¡n!O !DCmC8 O!
Cn!Ct!a¡nmCn! 8nd 8mu8CmCn! VD¡CD C8n DC DttCd V¡!DOu! muCD
d¡mCu!!j ¡n!O !DC C8DatC! !¡!C O! a !at_C C¡!j. ²DC CD8t8C!Ct¡8!¡C !C8!-
utC O! !D¡8 !¡!Cr8DtC ¡8 !DC Vaj ¡! !tan8!Orm8 QO!¡!¡Ca! 8ttu__!C 8O !D8!
Tke ¬urkor Õ 1rooucer
§¸
:t CCasCs tO DC a COmQCÌÌ¡n_ mOt¡VC !Or dCC¡s¡On and DCCOmCs an
ODjCCt O! COm!OttaDÌC COntCmQÌat¡On; ¡t CCasCs tO DC a mCans O! QrO-
duCt¡On and DCCOmCs an art¡CÌC O! COnsumQt¡On. 1 QCrCCQt¡VC Cr¡t¡C"
Das COmmCntCd On tD¡s QDCnOmCnOn¸ us¡n_ Lr¡CD ÍasmCr as an
CXamQÌC¸ ¡n tDC !OÌÌOV¡n_ tCrms. `¯D¡s ÌC!t-rad¡C8Ì ¡ntCÌÌ¡_Cnts¡a Das
nOtD¡n_ tO dO V¡U tDC VOrR¡n_-CÌass mOVCmCnt. 1t ¡s a QDCnOmCnOn
O! DOur_CO¡s dCCadCnCC and as suCD tDC COuntCrQart O! tDat m¡m¡Cr¸
O! !CudaÌ¡sm VD¡CD¸ ¡n tDC Ía¡sCr´s \¡mC¸ ¾ adm¡rCd ¡n a rCsCrVC
Ì¡CutCnant. LC!t-rad¡CaÌ ¡Ou:aÌ¡sts O! ÍasmCr´s¸ ¯uCDOÌsR¸´s Or
NCDrÍn_´s t¸QC arC a m¡m¡O¸ O! tDC QrOÌCtar¡an !Or dCCadCnt
strata O! tDC DOur_CO¡s¡C. ¯DC¡r DnCt¡On¸ V¡CVCd QOÌ¡t¡CaÌ̸¸ ¡s tO
Dr¡n_ !OrtD nOt Qart¡Cs Dut CÌ¡QuCs; V¡CVCd !rOm tDC Ì¡tCr8r¸ an_ÌC¸
nOt sCDOOÌs Dut !asD¡Ons¡ V¡CVCd CCOnOm¡CaÌ̸¸ nOt QrOduCCrs Dut
a_Cnts. 1_Cnts Or DaCRs VDO maRC a _rCat d¡sQÌa¸ O! tDC¡r QOVCtt¸
and tur tDC _aQ¡n_ VO¡d ¡ntO a !Cast. \nC COuÌdn´t DC mOrC COm!Ort-
aDÌC ¡n 8n unCOm!OrtaDÌC s¡tuat¡On.´
¯D¡s sCDOO¡ as 1 sa¡d¸ madC a _rCat d¡sQÌa¸ O! ¡ts QOVCrt¸. Û¸ sO
dO¡n_ ¡t CVadCd tDC mOst ur_Cnt tasR O! UC VrÍtCr O! tOda¸. tDat O!
rCCO_n¡Z¡n_ DOV QOOr DC ¡s and DOV QOOr DC must DC ¡n OrdCr tO DC
8DÌC tO DC_¡n a_a¡n at tDC Dç¡nn¡n_. !Or tDat ¡s UC QO¡nt at ¡ssuC.
¯ruC¸ tDC OOV¡Ct OtatC dOCs nOt¸ Ì¡RC ÍÌatO´s ÍCQuDÌ¡C¸ QrOQOsC tO
CXQCÌ ¡ts Vr¡tCrs¸ Dut ¡t dOCs ~ and tD¡s ¡s VD¸ 1 mCn\¡OnCd ÍÌatO at
\DC DC_¡nn¡n_ ¬ QrOQOsC tO ass¡_n tO tDCm UsRs VD¡CD V¡ÌÌ maRC ¡t
¡mQOss¡DÌC !Or tDCm tO QaradC tDC rÍCDnCss O! \DC CrCat¡VC QCrsOnaÌ-
¡t¸¸ VD¡CD Das ÌOn_ DCCn a m¸tD and a !aRC¸ ¡n nCV mastCtQ¡CCCs. ¯O
CXQCCt a rCnOVat¡On ~¡n \DC sCnsC O! mOrC QCrsOnaÌ¡t¡Cs and mOrC
VOrRs O! tD¡s R¡nd ¬¡s a Qr¡V¡ÌC_C O! !asC¡sm¸ VD¡CD¸ ¡n tD¡s COntCXt¸
QrOduCCs suCD !OOÌ¡sD !OrmuÌat¡Ons as \DC OnC V¡tD VD¡CD LuntDCr
LtIíndCÌ rOunds OD tDC Ì¡tCmr¸ sCCt¡On O! Tke .i·sion o] rke Youn¿
0eneroríon· `NC CannOt CÌOsC \D¡s . . . rCV¡CV O! tDC QrCsCnt and Out-
ÌOOR ¡ntO tDC DturC . . . ¡n a DCttCr Va¸ tDan D¸ sa¸¡n_ tDat tDC
ºilkelm .eisrer, UC 0rwe Heinrick O! Our _CnCrat¡On DaVC nOt ¸Ct
DCCn VtÍttCn.´ ÌO\D¡n_ VÍÌÌ DC ÍrtDCr !rOm tDC m¡nd O! an autDOr
LÎ.  ¯aÌtcr  Ûcn¡am:n¸  ´Î:nKc  Nc¼ncDOÌ:c´  Ç´ÍcÛ  NcÌancDOÌj´)¸ On  lt:cD 
ÞasDcr´S ncV  DOOK  OΠpOcmS, :n Ou 6e:ehtc/o]t, 8  Ç1g]1), VOÌ. Ípp.  18;Í. Ïn 
qODn_  ÎrOm  D:mScÌ]  Ûcn¡am:n DaS  a\tcrcd  tDc  Ot:_:naÌ  ÎCΫ
§
á
VDO Das CrCD!!!¸ tDOu_Dt aDOut tDC COnOÎCOns O! QrOOuCCOn tOOa¸
tDan tO CXQCCt Or CVCn tO Vant suCD VOrKs tO DC VtÎttCn. ÌC VÎ!!
nCVCr DC COnCCCCO VÎtD QrOOuCts a!OnC¸ øut a!Va¸s¸ at tDC samC
tÎmC¸ VÎtD tDC mCans O! QrOOuCtÎOn. 1n OtDCr VOrOs¸ DÎs QrOOucts
must QOssCss an Or_anÎzÎn_ DlnCtÎOn DCsÎOCs anO DC!OrC tDCÎr CDaraC-
tCr as DnÎsDCO VOrKs. ¬nO tDCÎr Or_anÎzatÎOna! usCDl!nCss must On
nO aCCOunt DC COnÞnCO tO QrOQa_anOÎstÎC usC. LOmmÎUCnt a!OnC
VÎ!! nOt OO Ît. ¯DC CXCC!!Cnt lÎCDtCnDCr_ saÎO¯ `1t Îs nOt VDat a man
Îs COnVÎnCCO O! tDat mattCrs¸ Dut VDat DÎs COnVÎCCOns maKC O! DÎm.´
L! COutsC OQÎnÎOns mattCr QuÎtC a !Ot¸ Dut tDC DCst OQÎnÎOn Îs O! nO
usC Î! Ît OOCs nOt maKC sOmCtDÎn_ usC!u! O! tDOsC VDO DO!O Ît. ¯DC
DCst `tCnOCnC¸´ Îs VtOn_ Î! Ît OOCs nOt QrCsCtÌDC tDC attÎtuOC VItD
VDÎCD Ît Ou_Dt tO DC QutsuCO. ¬nO tDC VtItCr C On!¸ QrCsCrIDC
suCD an attÎtuOC Ìn tDC Q!aCC VDCrC DC Îs aCtÎVC¸ tDat Îs tO sa¸ În DÎs
VtItÎn_. LOmmÎUCnt Îs a nCCCssat¸¸ Dut nCVCr a suUCÎCnt¸ COnOI-
tÎOn !Or a VtÎtCr´s VOrK aCQuÎrÎn_ an Or_anÎzÎn_ !unCtÎOn. ÏOr tDÎs
tO DaQQCn Ît Îs a!sO nCCCssat¸ !Or tDC VtÎtCr tO DaVC a tCaCDCr´s attÎ-
tuOC. ¬nO tOOa¸ tDÎs Îs mOrC tDan CVCr an CssCnCa! OCmanO. ¬ ×ri:er
×ko ooes oo: :eock o:ker ×ri:ers :eockes ooòoo¸. ¯DC CruCÎa! QOÎnt¸
tDCrC!OrC¸ Îs tDat a VrÎtCr´s QrOOuCtÎOn must DaVC tDC CDataCtCr O! a
mOOC!: Ît must DC aD!C tO ÎnstruCt OtDCr VrÎtCrs În tDCÎr QrOOuCtÌOn
anO¸ sCCOnO!¸¸ Ît must DC aD!C tO Q!aCC an ÎmQrOVCO aQQaratus at tDCÎr
OÎsQOsa!. ¯DÎs aQQatatus VÎ!! DC tDC DCttCr¸ tDC mOrC COnsumCrs Ît
DrÌn_s În COnUCt VÌtD tDC QrOOuCCOn QrOCCss ~ În sDOrt¸ tDC mOrC
rCaOCts Or sQCCtatOrs Ît tuts ÎntO CO!!aDOratOrs. ¯C a!rCaO¸ QOssCss
a mOOC! O! tDÎs KÎnO¸ O! VDÎCD¸ DOVCVCr¸ 1 CannOt sQCaK DCrC În an¸
OCtaÎ!. 1t Îs ÛrCCDt´s CQÎC tDCatrC.
¯ra_COÌCs anO OQCras atC DCÎn_ VrÎttCn a!! tDC tÎmC¸ aQQatCnt!¸
VÎtD a Uust¸ sU_C aQQaratus tO DanO¸ VDCrCas În rCa!Ît¸ tDC¸ OO
nOtDÎn_ Dut suQQ!¸ an aQQatatus VDÎCD Îs ODsO!CtC. `¯DÎs COnDlsÎOn
amOn_ musÌCÌans¸ VrÌtCts anO CrÌCC aDOut tDCÎr sÎtuatÎOn¸´ sa¸s
ÛrCCDt¸ `Das CnOrmOus COnsCQuCnCCs¸ VDÌCD rCCCÎVC !ar tOO !Îtt!C
attCntÎOn. ÛC!ÎCVÎn_ tDCmsC!VCs tO DC În QOssCssÎOn O! an aQQaratus
VDÎCD În rCa!Ît¸ QOssCssCs tDCm¸ tDC¸ OC!CnO an aQQaratus OVCr VDÎCD
tDC¸ nO !On_Cr DaVC COnttO!¸ VDÎCD Îs nO !On_Cr¸ as tDC¸ stÎ!! DC!ÎCVC¸
a mCans[r tDC QrOOuCCrs Dut Das DCCOmC a mCans tO DC usCO o¿oios:
Tke ¬urkor O 1rooucer
§§
tDC QrCduCCrs.´ ·D¡s tDC8trC C! CCmQÌCX m8CDÍnCr¡Cs¸ _¡_8nt¡C
8rm¡Cs C! sta_C CXtr8s 8nd CXtr8-rCDnCd st8_C CDCCts D8s DCCCmC 8
mC8ns tC DC usCd 8_8¡nst UC QrCduCCrs¸ nCt ÌC8st D¸ tDC !8Ct U8t ¡t ¡s
8ttCmQt:n_ tC rCCru¡t tDCm ¡n tDC DCQCÌCss CCmQCt:t¡VC stt__ÌC
!CrCCd uQCn ¡t D¸ DÌm 8nd rad¡C. ·D¡s tDC8trC ¬ ¡t m8tICrs Ì¡ItÌC
VDCtDCr VC tD¡n× C! tDC tDC8trC C! cuÌturC Cr tD8t C! CntCrI8¡nmCnt¸
s¡nCC DCtD 8rC CCmQÌCmCntar¸ tC CnC 8nCUCr ¬ ¡s tDC tDC8trC C! 8
s8turatCd str8tum !Cr VD¡CD 8n¸tD¡n_ tD8t CCmCs ¡ts V8¸ ¡s 8 st¡mu-
Ì8nt. lts QCs¡t¡Cn ¡s 8 ÌCst CnC. ^Ct sC tDC QCs¡t:Cn C! 8 tDC8trC VD¡CD¸
¡nstC8d C! CCmQCt¡n_ 8_8¡nst tDC nCVCr mC8ns C! CCmmun¡C8t¡Cn¸
D¡Cs U 8QQ̸ tDCm 8nd tC ÌCò !rCm UCm ¬¡n sDCrI¸ UCntCr ¡ntC 8
d¡8ÌC_uC V¡tD tDCm. ·D¡s d¡8ÌC_uC tDC CQ¡C tDC8trC D8s 8dCQtCd as ¡ts
C8usC. N8tCD¡n_ tDC QrCsCnt dCVCÌCQmCnt C! DÌm 8nd rad¡O¸ ¡t ¡s tDC
tDC8DC !Cr Cur UmC.
ln tDC ¡ntCrCsts C! tD¡s d¡8ÌC_uC ÛrCCDt VCnt D8C× tC tDC mCst !un-
d8mCntaÌ 8nd Cr¡_¡n8Ì CÌCmCnts C! tDC8trC. ÏC CCnÞ::Cd D¡msCÌ!¸ 8s ¡t
VCrC¸ tC 8 QCd¡um¸ 8 QÌ8t!Crm. ÏC rCnCunCCd QÌCts rCQu¡r¡n_ 8 _rC8t
dC8Ì C! sQ8CC. ·Dus DC suCCCCdCd ¡n 8ÌtCr¡n_ tDC UnCt¡Cn8Ì rCÌ8t¡Cn-
sD¡Q DCtVCCn st8_C 8nd 8ud¡CnCC¸ tCXt 8nd QrCduCt¡Cn¸ QrCduCCr 8nd
8CtCr. ÍQ¡C tDC8trC¸ DC dCCÌ8rCd¸ must nCt dCVCÌCQ 8Ct¡Cns Lut rCQrC-
sCnt CCnd¡t:Cns. ´s VC sD8ÌÌ QrCsCnt̸ sCC¸ ¡t CDt8¡ns ¡ts ´COnd¡t:Cns´
D¸ 8ÌÌCV¡n_ tDC 8Ct¡Cns tC DC ¡ntCrruQtCd. ÌCt mC rCm¡nd C! ¸Cu C!
tDC `sCn_s´¸ VDCsC Qr¡nC¡Q8Ì !lnCt¡Cn CCns¡sts ¡n ¡ntCrruQt¡n_ tDC
8Ct¡Cn. ÏCrC¸ tDCn ¬tD8t ¡s tC s8¸¸ V¡ID tDC Qr¡nCQÌC C!¡ntCrruQt¡Cn~
tDC CQ¡C tDC8IrC 8dCQts 8 tCCDn¡QuC VD¡CD D8s DCCCmC !8m¡Ì:8r tC ¸Cu
¡n rCCCnt ¸C8rs tDrCu_D DÌm 8nd r8d¡C¸ QDCtC_raQD¸ 8nd IDC QrCss.
l sQC8× C! IDC tCCDn¡QuC C! mCnt8_C¸ !Cr mCnt8_C ¡ntCrruQts tDC
CCntCXt ¡ntC VD¡CD ¡t ¡s ¡nsCrtCd. ´ÌÌCV mC¸ DCVCVCr¸ tC CXQÌ8¡n
VCr¸ Dr¡CD¸ VD¸ ¡t ¡s DCrC tD8t ID¡s tCCDn¡QuC CnjC¸s sgCC¡8̸ 8nd
QCrD8Qs suQrCmC¸ r¡_Dts.
·DC ¡ntCrruQUn_ C! tDC 8CI¡Cn¸ tDC tCCDn¡QuC VD¡cD CnI¡IÌCs
ÛrCCDt tC dCsCr:DC D¡s tDCDC 8s e¸ic, 8ÌV8¸s VCr×s 8_8¡Dst CrC8t¡n_
8n ¡ÌÌus¡Cn 8mCn_ UC 8ud¡CnCC. OuCD ¡ÌÌus¡Cn ¡s C! nC usC tC 8 tDC8trC
VD¡CD QrCQCsCs tC trC8t CÌCmCnIs C! rC8Ì¡t¸ 8s ¡! tDC¸ VCrC CÌCmCnts
C! 8n CX_Cr¡mCntaÌ sCt-uQ. `Ct tDC CCnd¡t¡Cns st8nd 8t tDC Cnd¸ nCt
tDC DC_¡nn¡n_ C! tDC tCst. ·DCsC CCnd¡t¡Cns 8rC¸ ¡n CnC !Crm Cr
:co 
anOtOCt¸ tDC COnd¡t¡Ons O! Out Ì¡!C. `Ct tOC¸ atC nOt DtOu_Ot CÌOsC
tO tDC sQCCtatOt¡ tDC¸ 0:C d¡stanCCd !tOm O¡m. ÏC tCCO_n¡ZCs tOCm
as tCaÌ ~ nOt¸ as ¡n tOC tOCattC O! naUtaÌ¡sm¸ V¡tO COmQÌaCCnC¸¸ Dut
V¡tO astOn¡sOmCDt. 1Q¡C tOCattC dOCs nOt tCQtOduCC COnd¡t¡Ons¡
tatOCt¸ ¡t d¡sCÌOsCs¸ ¡t unCOVCts tOCm. ¯O¡s unCOVCt¡n_ O! tOC COn-
d¡t¡Ons ¡s CÛCCtCd D¸ ¡ntCttuQt¡n_ tDC dtamat¡C QtOCCssCs¡ Dut suCO
¡ntCttuQt¡On dOCs nOt aCt as a st¡muÌant¡ ¡t Oas an Ot_an¡Z¡n_ Dnc-
t¡On. 1t Dt¡n_s tDC aCt¡On tO a standst¡ÌÌ ¡n m¡d-COutsC and tOCtCD¸
COmQCÌs tDC sQCCtatOt tO taRC uQ a QOs¡t¡On tOVatds UC aCt¡On¸ and
tOC aCtOt tO taRC uQ a QOs¡t¡On tOVatds O¡s Qatt. LCt mC _ÌVC an
CXamQÌC tO sOOV OOV ÛtCCOt¸ ¡n OÍs sCÌCCt¡On and ttCatmCnt O!
_CsUtCs¸ s¡mQ̸ usCs tOC mCtOOd O! mOnta_C ¬ VDÎCO ¡s sO CssCnt¡aÌ
tO tad¡O and IÌm ¬ ¡n suCO a Va¸ tOat ¡t CCasCs tO DC a mOd¡sO tcCO-
n¡guC and DCCOmCs a Ouman CVCnt. V¡CUtC tO ¸OutsCÌ! a !am¡Ì¸ tOV.
tDC VÎ!C ¡s ¡ust aDOut U Q¡CR uQ a DtOnZC staUCttC and Out! ¡t at tDC
dau_OtCt¡ tOC !atOCt ¡s OQCn¡n_ a V¡ndOV tO CaÌÌ !Ot OC!Q. 1t tO¡s
mOmCnt a sttan_Ct CntCts. ¯OC QtOCCss ¡s ¡ntcCIQtCd; VOat DCCOmCs
aQQatCnt ¡n ¡ts QÌaCC ¡s tOC COnd¡t¡On nOV CXQOsCd DC!OtC tOC
sttan_Ct´s V¡CV: d¡sUtDCd !aCcs¸ OQCn VÍndOV¸ a dCVa5tatCd
¡ntCt¡Ot. ¯OCtC CX¡sts¸ OOVCVCt¸ a V¡CVQO¡nt !tOm VO¡CO CVCn
tOC mOtC nO:maÌ sCCnCs O! QtCsCnt-da¸ Ì¡!C dO nOt ÌOOR sO VCr¸
d¡ÛCtCnt !tOm tO¡s. ¯Oat ¡s tOC V¡CVQO¡nt O! tOC CQ¡C dtama-
t¡st.
ÏC OQQOsCs tOC dtamaCC ÌaDOtatOt¸ tO tOC Þn¡sOCd VOtR O! att.
ÏC _OCs DaCR¸ ¡n a nCV Va¸¸ tO tOC tOCattC´s _tCatCst and mOst anC¡Cnt
OQQOrUn¡t¸: tOC OQQOtUn¡ty tO CXQOsC tOC QtCsCnt. 1t tOC CCnttC O!
O¡s CXQCt¡mCnts stands man. ¯OC man O! tOda¸¡ a tCduCCd D¸tOCtC-
!OtC¸ a man RCQt On ¡CC ¡n a COÌd VOtÌd. Ûut s¡nCC OC ¡s tDC On̸ OnC
VC´VC _Ot¸ ¡t ¡s ¡n Out ¡ntCtCst tO RnOV O¡m. NC suDjCCt O¡m tO tCsts
and ODsC:Vat¡Ons. ¯Oc OutCOmC ¡s tD¡s: CVCnts atC nOt COan_CaDÌC
at tOC¡t CÌ¡ma. ׸ nOt tDtOu_O V¡tUC and tCsOÌVC¸ Dut On̸ ¡n tOC¡t
stt¡Ct̸ OtdÎnat¸¸ OaD¡UaÌ COutsC¸ tDtOu_O tCasOn and QtaCt¡CC.
¯OC QutQOsC O! CQ¡C tOCattC ¡s tO COnsttuCt Out O! tDC smaÌÌCst
CÌCmCnts O! DCOaV¡Out VOat 1t¡stOtCÌÎan dtama CÌÌs `aCI¡On´. 1ts
mCans¸ tOCtC!OtC¸ atC mOtC mOdC5t !Dan IOOsô O! t:òd¡I¡OnaÌ tOcattC;
¡U a¡ms Ì¡RCV¡sC. 1t sCts Out¸ nOt sO muCO tO IÌÌ tOC aud¡CnCC V¡tO
1ñe .uroor O ±roou.e·
!CCÌ¡n_8 ~8ÌDC¡t QO88¡DÌj !CCÌ¡n_8 O! rCVOÌt ~ a8 tO aÌ¡CnatC tDC aud:-
CnCC ¡n a Ìa8t¡n_ maDnCr¸ t0rOu_D tDOu_Dt¸ !rOm tDC COnd¡t¡On8 ¡n
VD¡CD ¡t Ì¡VC8. ÍCt mC rCmarX¸ Dj tDC Waj¸ tDat tDCrC ¡8 nO DCttCr
8tart¡n_ QO¡nt !Or tDOu_Dt tDan Ìau_tCr¡ 8QCaK\n_ mOrC QrCC¡8CÌj¸
8Q88m8 O! tDC d¡aQDra_m _CnCraÌÌj OUCr DCttCr CDanCC8 !Or tDOu_Dt
tDan 8Qa8m8 O! tDC 8OuÌ. LQ¡C tDCatrC ¡8 ÌaV¡8D OnÌj ¡n tDC OCCa8¡On8
¡t OUCr8 !Or Ìau_DtCr.
`Ou maj DaVC nOt¡CCd tDat tDC rCHCCt¡On8 VDO8C COnCÌu8¡On8 VC
arC nOV nCar¡n_ maXC OnÌj OnC dCm8nd On tDC Vr\tCr: tDC dCmand
tO tkink, tO rCDCCt uQOn D¡8 QO8¡t¡On ¡n tDC QrOduCt¡On QrOCC88. NC
Can DC 8urC tDat 8uCD tD¡nX¡n_¸ m rke ×rtrers ×ko morrer - tDat ¡8 tO
8aj tDC DC8t tCCDn¡C¡an8 ¡n tDc¡r Qarl¡CuÌ8r DranCDC8 O! tDC tradC -
V¡ÌÌ 8OOnCr Or ÌatCr ÌCad tDCm tO COn!rm VCrj 8ODCrÌj UC¡r 8OÌ¡d8r\Ç
V\tD tDC QrOÌCtar¡at. ·O COnCÌudC¸ 1 8DOuÌd Ì¡XC tO QuOtC a tOQ¡C8Ì
QrOO! O! tD¡8 ¡n tDC !Orm O! a 8DOrt Qa88a_C hOm tDC 1ar¡8 QCr¡Od¡cÌ
6ommune. ·D¡8 QCr¡Od¡CaÌ DCÌd an ¡nQu¡rj undCr tDC t:tÌC: `ÍOr
VDOm dO jOu W:¡tC:´ 1 8DaÌÌ QuOtC !rOm tDC rCpÌj Dj ÍCn0 NauDÌanC
and tDCn 8OmC rCÌCVant COmmCnt8 Dj ¬ra_On. NauDÌaDC 8aj8: `·DCrC
¡8 nO dOuDt tDat 1 Wr¡tC aÌmO8t CXCÌu8¡VCÌj !Or a DOur_CO¡8 QuDÌ¡C.
Í¡r8t¸ DCCau8C 1 am ODÌ¡_Cd tO [DCrC DC rC!Cr8 tO D¡8 QrO!C88¡OnaÌ
dut¡C8 a8 a _rammar-8COOÌ tCaCDCr]¸ and 8CCOndÌj DCCau8C 1 am
O! DOur_CO¡8 Or¡_\D¸ Dad a DOur_CO¡8 CduCt¡On¸ and COmC !rOm a
DOur_CO¡8 CnV¡rOnmCnt and tDCrC!OrC 8m natUraÌÌj ¡nCÌ¡nCd tO ad-
drC88 tDC CÌ888 tO VD¡CD 1 DCÌOn_¸ VD¡CD 1 XDOV DC8t and Can DC8t
undCr8taDd. Ûut tDat dOC8 DOt mCan tDat 1 Vr¡tC tO QÌC88C tDat CÌa88
Or tO uQDOÌd ¡t. \n UC OnC Dand¸ 1 am COnV¡nCCd tDat tDC QrOÌCtar¡aD
rCVOÌut¡On ¡8 nCCC88arj and dC8¡r8DÌC; On U Ot0Cr Dand¸ 1 DCÌ¡CVC
Uat tDC VCaXCr tDC rC8¡8taDCC O! tDC DOur_CO¡8¡C¸ tDC mOrC raQ¡d¸ tDC
Ca8¡Cr¸ tDC mOrC 8uCCC88!uÌ and tDC ÌC88 DÌOOdj tD¡8 rCVOÌut¡On V¡ÌÌ
DC . . . . ·0C QrOÌCtar¡at tOdaj nCCd8 aÌÌ¡C8 ¡n tDC DOur_CO¡8 CamQ¸ ]u8t
a8 ¡n tDC C¡_DtCCntD CCnturj tDC DOur_CO¡8:C nCCoCd aÌÌ¡C8 ¡n tDC
!CudaÌ C8mQ. 1 8DOuÌd Ì¡XC tO DC amOn_ t0O8C aÌÌ¡C8.´
¬ra_On´8 COmmCnt On tD¡8 ¡8 a8 !OÌÌOV8: ¯\ur COmradC DCrC
tOuCDC8 uQOn a 8tatC O! aU8¡r8 VD¡CD aUCCt8 a VCrj Ìar_C numDCr O!
QrC8Cnt-daj Vr¡tCr8. ÌOt aÌÌ DaVC tDC COura_C tO ÌOOX ¡t 8tr8\_Dt ¡n
lDC CjC . . . . ·DO8C VDO arC 88 CÌC8r aDOut tDC¡r OVn QO8¡t¡On a8 ÍCnC
to?
N8UDÌ8DC 8tC t8tC. ÛUI :I :8 QtCC:8CÌj !tCD IDC8C ID8I WC DU8I CC-
D8DC 8I:ÌÌ DCtC . . . . 1I :8 DCI CDCU_D IC WC8KCD IDC DCUt_CC:8:C
!tCD W!ID:D: :I :8 DCCC888tj IC U_DI :I :o¿e:ker ×i:k !DC QtCÌCI8t:8I . . . .
ÌCDC N8UDÌ8DC 8DC D8Dj C! CUt !t:CDC8 8DCD_ Wt:ICt8 WDC 8tC
8I:ÌÌ DC8:I8DI D8VC DC!CtC IDCD IDC CX8DQÌC C! OCV:CI ÌU88:8D Wt:ICt8
WDC C8DC !tCD IDC ÌU88:8D DCUt_CC:8:C 8DC jCI DCC8DC Q:CDCCt8
C! OCC:8Ì:8I CCD8ItuCI:CD.´
ÅDU8 !8t 1t8_CD. ÛUI DCW C:C IDC8C Wt:ICt8 DCCCDC Q:CDCCt8:
OUtCÌj DCI W:IDCUI VCtj D:I!Ct 8ItU__ÌC8 8DC 8_CD:Z:D_ CCDH:CI8.
ÅDC CCD8:CCt8I:CD8 1 QUI DC!CtC jCU 8tC 8D 8I!CDQI IC Ct8W 8 QC8:-
I:VC D8Ì8DCC !tCD IDC8C 8Itu__ÌC8. ÅDCj 8tC !CUDCCC UQCD !DC CCD-
CCQI IC WD:CD IDC CCD8IC CCDCC::D_ IDC 8II:IUCC C! ÌU88:8D :DICÌ-
ÌCC!U8Ì8 CWC8 :I8 8CÌUI:CD: IDC CCDCCQI C! !DC CXQCtI. ÅDC 8CÌ:C8t:Ij
C! IDC CXQCtI W!ID IDC QtCÌCI8t:8I ¬ 8DC IDCtC:D Ì:C8 IDC DC_:DD:D_
C! ID:8 8CÌUI:CD ~ C8D DCVCt DC CIDCt ID8D DCC:8ICC. ÅDC 1CI:V:8I8
8DC 8CDCtCDI8 C! .CW 'DjCCI:V:!j D8j 8ItIKC WD8ICVCt QC8C8 IDCj
Ì:KC¸ IDCj CD CC DCID:D_ 8DCUI IDC !8CI ID8I CVCD IDC QtCÌCI8t:8n:-
Z8I:CD C! UC :DICÌÌCCIu8Ì D8tCÌj CVCt D8KC8 D:D 8 QtCÌCI8t:8D. ·Dj.
ÛCCU8C IDC DCUt_CC:8 CÌ888 D88 CDCCWCC D:D W:ID 8 DC8D8 C! QtC-
CUCI:CD ~ :D !DC !CtD C! D:8 CCUC!:CD ~ WD:CD¸ CD IDC _tCUDC8 C!
CCUC8I:CD8Ì Qt:V:ÌC_C¸ CtC8IC8 8 DCDC C! 8CÌ:C8t:!j WD:CD 8II8CDC8
D:D IC D:8 CÌ888¸ 8DC 8!:ÌÌ DCtC 8II8CDC8 D:8 CÌ888 IC D:D. 1t8_CD W88
IDCtC!CtC QCt!CCIÌj t:_DI WDCD¸ :D 8DCIDCt CCDICXI¸ DC 88:C. `ÅDC
tCVCÌUI:CD8tj :DICÌÌCCIU8Ì 8QQC8t8 Ut8I C! 8ÌÌ 8DC 8DCVC CVCtjID:D_
CÌ8C 88 8 It8:ICt IC D:8 CÌ888 C! Ct:_:D. 1D 8 Wt:ICt ID:8 DCIt8j8Ì CCD-
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m8KCs ÎtsC!! DC8rO În tDC n8mC O! !8sCÎsm¸ Du! OÎs8QQC8r. ¯DC mÎnO
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tDC tDCCr¸ 1 dCVCÌCQ ¡B tDC Css8¸ - tD8t tDC 8tt8¡BUCBt C! tCCDB¡C8Ì
QrC_rCss ¡B Ì¡tCr8turC CVCBtu8Ì̸ CD8B_Cs tDC DBCt¡CB C! 8rt !CrUs
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Cr:tCr¡CB !Cr jud_¡B_ tDC rCVCÌut¡CB8r¸ DBCt¡CB C! Ì¡tCr8r¸ 9Cr!s -
8QQÌ¡Cs tC 8rt¡sU C! CB̸ CBC t¸QC¸ tDC 9r¡tCrs C! tDC uQQCr DCur-
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s8¡d¸ `tDCrC rC8Ì̸ CX¡sts 8 QC¡Bt C! sCÌ¡d8r¡t¸ 9¡tD U¡BtCrCsts C! tDC
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duCCr. ¬Bd D¡s CCUQÌCtC QrCÌCUr¡8BIZ8t¡CB 8t tD¡s CBC QC¡Bt Cst8D-
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jusIaCI¡n_~!OrcXaUQÌc¸ sncÌc8cd !rOUUcnOVIO VasnncrscÌ!.
Ûc!Orc InaI snc uscd IOVasn jusIsO as nOt IODc d¡rI¸. ÛuIInaI Vas
aDsOÌuIc̸ OuI O! tnc gucsI¡On¸ ¸Ou undcrsIand. OO Ï Iau_nI ncr
nOVIOVasnncr!aCc. OncDcCaUcsO Qcr!cCI aI ¡IInaI ÏVanIcdIO
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dO¡n_ an¸ DÌU¡n_ ¡usItncn and snc d¡dn´I!ccÌ Ì¡Rc dO¡n_ ¡I ¡n !rOD
O! an¸DOd¸ cÌsc. ÅnaI d¡daCt:C QOcU Vas a UOdcÌ. ´n¸Onc VnO
Ìcarncd!rOU¡IVassuQQOscdIOQuI n¡UscÌ!¡nQÌaCc O!Inc ¨Ï´ O!tnc
QOcU. NncnÛcCncrsa¸s¨Ï´¸ nc COns¡dcrsn¡UscÌ!~as Qrcs¡dcnI O!
Inc 1n¡On O! \crUan ÍrOÌcIar¡an-ÌcVOÌuI¡Onar¸ Nr:Icrs ¬ IO Dc
cXcUQÌat¸. Ånc On̸ IrOuDÌc ¡s tnaI nODOd¸ !ccÌs Ì¡Rc !OÌÌOVÎn_
n¡scXaUQÌc. Ïc_cIsnOIn¡n_aCrOsscXccQIInaInc ¡sraIncrQÌcascd
V¡In n¡UscÌ!.´ Ïn In¡s COnncCI¡On ÛrcCnI sa¡d nc nas Dccn Ucan¡n_
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V¡In Ì¡UDaud´s. Ïc tn¡nRs tnaI BarX and Ln_cÌs IncUscÌVcs¸ nad
Inc¸rcadJe Bo:eou7vre, VOuÌdnaVcscnscd¡n¡IInc_rcaIn¡sIOr¡CaÌ
UOVcUcnI O!Vn¡Cn ¡I ¡s tnc cXQrcss¡On. Ånc¸ VOuÌd naVc CÌcar̸
rcCO_n¡Zcd InaIVnaI¡IdcsCr¡Dcs¡snOIancCCcnIr¡CQOcI_O¡n_!Ora
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V¡In tnc Bc.X¡Can adVcnturc ~ Vas tncn Dc_¡nn¡n_ IO OQcn uQ cVcn
Inc UOrc cXOt:C COnI¡ncnIs IO ¡Is UcrCnI¡Ìc ¡nIcrcsIs. ÛrcCnI tn¡nRs
¡I¡s¡UQOss¡DÌcIO tut Ì¡UDaud´s atI¡Iudc~IncaII¡tudcO!tnc!OOI-
ÌOOscVa_aDOndVnO QuIs n¡UscÌ!aI tnc UcrC¸O!CnanCcandIuts
n¡sDacRuQOn sOC¡ct¸¬ ¡nIO aUOdcÌrcQrcscnIaI:OnO!a QrOÌcIar¡an
U_nIcr.
6 ¸u(·. ÛrcCnI¸ ¡n Inc COursc O!¸csIcrda¸´s COnVcrsaI¡On¯ `Ï O!Icn
¡Ua_¡nc Dc¡n_ ¡nIcrrO_aIcd D¸ a IrÎDunaÌ. ¨ÌOVIcÌÌ us¸ Br ÛrcCnI¸
arc ¸Ou rcaÌ̸ ¡n caDcsIr´ Ï VOuÌd naVc IO adU:I tnaI nO¸ Ï´U nOI
COUQÌcIc̸¡ncaDcsI.ÏIn¡nRIOOUuCnaDOuIatI¡sI:CQrODÌcUs¸¸Ou
6onverso:ions ×i:k Breck: I O_
KnC?¸ aDCut ?Dat ¡s _CCd !Cr tDC tDCatrC¸ tC DC CCmQÌCtC̸ !n
C8Cst. Ûut DaV¡n_ sa¡d ¨nC´ tC tDat ¡mQCrUnt QuCst¡Cn¸ Î ?CuÌd
add sCmCtD¡n_ st¡ÌÌ mCrC ¡mQCt!ant: namC̸¸ tDat m¸ att!tudC !s¸
¸ermissdle.' Î must adm¡t DC sa¡d tD¡s a!tCr tDC CCnVCrsat¡Cn Dad DCCn
_C¡n_ Cn !Cr sCmC Ì¡ttÌC t¡mC. 1C stattCd D¸ CXQrCss¡n_ dCuDt¸ nCt as
tC ?DCtDCr D¡s att¡tudC ?as QCtm¡ss¡DÌC¸ Dut ?DC!DCr ¡t ¾ CUCCCVC.
1¡s Ürst rCmarK ?as ¡n ans?Cr tC sCmCtD!n_ Î Dad sa¡d aDCut LCr-
Dart 1auQtmann. `Î sCmCt¡mCs asK m¸sCÌ!¸´ DC sa¡d¸ ´?DCtDCr
?t¡tCrs Ì:KC 1auQtmann arCn´t¸ a!tCr aÌ̸ tDC Cn̸ CnCs ?DC rCaÌ̸ _Ct
an¸?DCrC. Î mCan tDC suls:ooce ×ri:ers [ Suls:oo¡-Dick:er ].' Û¸ !D¡s
DC mCans tDCsC ?t¡tCts ?DC rCaÌ̸ arC CCmQÌCtC̸ ¡n CarCst. ¯C
CXQÌa¡n tD¡s tDCu_Dt DC QrCCCCds !rCm tDC D¸QC!DCs¡s tDat LCn!u-
C¡us m¡_Dt CnCC DaVC ?t¡ttCn a tta_Cd¸¸ Cr ÍCn¡n a nCVCÌ. ¯Dat¸ DC
tD¡nKs¸ ?CuÌd DC !CÌt as ¡mQrCQCr¸ un?CrtD¸ DCDaV¡Cur. ´OuQQCsC
¸Cu rCad a VCt¸ _CCd D¡stCr¡CÌ nCVCÌ and ÌatCr ¸Cu d¡sCCVCr tDat ¡t
¡s D¸ ÍCn¡n. `Cu ?CuÌd CDan_C ¸Cur CQ¡n¡Cn C! DCtD¸ tC tDC dCtr¡-
mCnt C! DC!D. Í¡KC?¡sC ¡t ?CuÌd DC ?tCn_ !Cr LCnHC¡us tC DaVC
?r¡ttCn a tta_Cd¸¸ sa¸ CnC C! Íur¡Q¡dCs´s tra_Cd¡Cs¸ ¡t ?CuÌd DC !CÌt as
un?CrtD¸. `Ct D¡s QataDÌCs atC nCt.´ 1ÌÌ tD¡s ÌCads¸ ¡n sDCt!¸ tC a
d¡UCrCnt¡at¡Cn DCt?CCn t?C Ì¡tCtar¸ !¸QCs. tDC V¡s¡Cnar¸ art¡st¸
?DC ¡s ¡n C8Cst¸ and tDC CCCÌ-DCadCd tD¡nK¡n_ D_ ?DC ¡s nCt
CCmQÌCtC̸ ¡n CarCs!. 1t tD¡s QC¡nt Î ta¡sCd tDC QuCs!¡Cn C! Ía!Ka.
¯C ?D¡CD C! tDC !?C _rCuQs dCCs DC DCÌCn_: Î KnC? !Dat tDC QuCs-
t!Cn CannCt DC ans?CrCd. 1nd ¡t ¡s QrCCsC̸ ¡ts unans?CraD¡Ì¡t¸
?D¡CD ÛrCCDt rC_ards as an ¡nd¡Ca!ÍCn C! !DC !aCt tDat Ía!Ka¸ ?DCm
DC CCns¡dCts tC Da _tCat ?t!!Cr¸ !s¸ Ì¡KC ÍÌC¡s!¸ LraDDC Cr ÛüCDnCr¸
a !a¡ÌurC. Ía!Ka´s statt¡n_ QC¡nt ¡s rCaÌ̸ tDC QataDÌC¸ ?D¡CD ¡s
_CVCrCd D¸ rCasCn and ?D!CD¸ tDCrC!CrC¸ sC mas ¡ts aC!uaÌ ?Crd-
¡n_ ¡s CCnCCrCd¸ CannCt DC Cnt¡rC̸ ¡n C8Cst. Ûut tDCn tD¡s QataDÌC
¡s¸ aÌÌ tDC samC¸ sUD]CCtCd tC tDC QrCCCss C! !Crm-_¡V!n_. Ît _rC?s
¡ntC a nCVCÌ. 1nd u¸Cu ÌCCK CÌCsC̸ ¸Cu sCC tDat ¡t COnU¡nCd tDC
_Ctm C! a nCVCÌ DCm tDC statt. Ît ¾ nCVCr aÌtC_C!DCr DansQarCnt.
i sDCuÌd add tDat ÛrCct ¡s CCnV¡nCCd tDat Ía!Ka ?CuÌd nCt DaVC
!Cund D¡s C?n sQCC!aÌ !Ctm ?¡tDCut ÍCstC¸CVsK¸´s Ltand ÎnQu!s!-
tCr Cr tDat CtDCr Qassa_C ¡n Tke Bro:kers Xoro
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toá
CCnD¡Ct ?¡tD tDC \¡s¡Cnat¸ CÌCmCnt. ÛUt Ía!Ka as a V¡s¡Cnat¸¸ sa¸s
ÛtCCDt¸ sa? ?Dat ?as CCm¡n_ ?¡tDCUt sCC¡n_ ?Dat t. 1C CmQDas¡ZCs
CnCC mCtC [as CatÌ¡Ct at ÍC ÍaVandCU¸ DUt ¡n tCtms ?D¡CD atC CÌCatCt
tO mC) tDC QtCQDCt¡C asQCCt C! Ía!Ka´s ?CtK. Ía!Ka Dad CnC QtCDÌCm
and CnC Cn̸¸ DC sa¸s¸ and tDat ¾ tDC QtCDÌCm C! Ct_an¡zat¡Cn.
1C ?as tCtt¡ICd D¸ tDC tDCU_Dt C! tDC CmQ¡tC C! ants: tDC tDCU_Dt C!
mCn DC¡n_ aÌ¡CnatCd !tCm tDCmsCÌVCs D¸ tDC !Ctms C! tDC¡t Ì¡!C ¡n
sCC¡Ct¸. 1nd DC ant¡C:QatCd CCtta¡n !Ctms C! tD¡s aÌ¡Cnat¡Cn¸ C._. tDC
mCtDCds C! tDC GP!- ÛUt DC nCVCt !CUnd a sCÌUt¡Cn and nCVCt a?CKC
!tCm D¡s n¡_DtmatC. ÛtCCDt sa¸s C! Ía!Ka´s QtCC¡s¡Cn tDat ¡t ¡s tDC
QtCC¡s¡Cn C! an ¡mQtCC¡sC man¸ a dtCamCt.
t?_u(. `CstCtday a!tCt QÌa¸¡n_ CDCss ÛtCCDt sa¡d. ``CU KnC?¸ ?DCn
ÍOtsCD CCmCs¸ ?C tCaÌ̸ CU_Dt tC ?CtK CUt a nC? _amC ?¡tD D¡m.
1 _amC ¡n ?D¡CD tDC mCVCs dC nCt aÌ?a¸s sta¸ tDC samC¸ ?DCtC tDC
!UnCt¡Cn C! CVCt¸ Q¡CCC CDan_Cs a!tCt ¡t Das stCCd ¡n tDC samC sQUatC
!Ct a ?D¡ÌC. ¡t sDCUÌd C¡tDCt DCCCmC sttCn_Ct Ct ?CaKCt. ¯D¡s ?a¸
tDC _amC dCCsn´t dCVCÌCQ¸ ¡t sta¸s tDC samC !Ct tCC ÌCn_.´
?_ ¸u¸. `CstCtda¸ a V¡s¡t !tCm Íat¡n %¡CDaCÌ¡s¸ ?DC Das jUst tC-
tUrCd !tCm DCt tt¡Q tC DUss¡a and ¡s !UÌÌ C! CntDUs¡asm. ÛtCCDt
tCmCmDCts DC? DC ¾ taKCn tCUnd %CsCC? D¸ ¯ tCt¸aKCV.
¯tCt¸aKCV sDC?Cd D¡m tDC C¡t¸ and ?as QtCUd C! CVCt¸tD¡n_¸ nC
mattCt ?Dat ¡t ?as. ´¯Dat ¡sn´t a Dad tD¡n_¸´ sa¸s ÛtCCDt¸ `¡t sDC?s
tDat tDC QÌaCC DCÌCn_s tC D¡m. LnC ¡sn´t QtCUd C! CtDCt QCCQÌC´s
QtCQCtt¸.´ 1!tCt a ?D¡ÌC DC addCd¡ ``Cs¸ DUt ¡n tDC Cnd Î _Ct a D¡t
t¡tCd C! ¡t. Î CCUÌdn´t adm¡tC CVCt¸tD¡n_¸ nCt d¡d Î ?ant tC. ¯DC QC¡nt
¡s¸ tDC¸ ?CtC D¡s sCÌd:Cts¸ D¡s ÌCtt¡Cs. ÛUt nCt¸ aÌas¸ m¡nC.´
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Qa¡ntCd tDC ?Ctds. `¯tUtD ¡s CCnCtCtC.´ Ln a ?¡ndC?-s¡ÌÌ sUnds a
smaÌÌ ?CCdCn dCnKC¸ ?D¡CD C nCd ¡ts DCad. ÛtCCDt Das DUn_ a
Ì¡ttÌC s¡_n tCUnd 1ts nCCK Cn ?D¡CD DC Das ?t¡ttCn. `ÍVCn Î mUst
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6onversorions ×irk Breck: t o
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bC  rCaO  Ìt¸  but  bC  nCVCr  aÌÌuOCO  tC  Ìt C!  bÌs  CWn  aCCCrO¸  anO Cn  tWC 
CCCasÌCns  WbCn  Ì  stCCrCO  tbC  CCnVCrsabCn  rCunO  tC  Ìt  bC  rCQÌÌCO 
CVasÌVCÌy.  Ìn  tbC  CnO  Ì  tCCK  tbC  manusCrÌQt  aWay  a_aÌn  WÌtbCut 
sayÌn_ a WCrO. Ïast nÌ_bt bC suOOCnÌy bC_an sQCaKÌn_ C! tbÌs Cssay. 
ÅbC ratbCr abruQt transÌtÌCn tCCK  tbC  !Crm C! a  rCmarK tC  tbC  CÛCCt 
tbat  ̸  tCC¸  CCuÌO  nCt  bC  CCmQÌCtCÌy  aCguÌttCO  C!  a  OÌarÌstÌC  sIyÌC  C! 
WrÌtÌn_ à lo `ÌCCsCbC. ^y Ìa!Ka Cssay¸ !Cr ÌnstanCC. Ìt trCatCO Ìa!Ka 
QurCÌy !rCm tbC  QbCnCmCnaÌ QCÌnt C! VÌCW ¬ tbC WCrK as sCmCtbÌn_ 
tbat baO _rCWn sCQaratCÌy¸ by ÌtsCÌ! ¬ tbC  man¸ tCC ¬ Ìt OCUCbCO tbC 
WCrK  !rCm  aÌÌ  CCnnCCtÌCns¸  CVCn  WÌtb  Ìts  autbCr.  Ìn  tbC  CnO  CVCry-
tbÌn_  Ì  WrCtC  aÌWays  CamC  OCWn  tC  tbC  guCstÌCn  C!  essence. `CW 
Wbat  WCuÌO  bC  tbC  CCrrCCt  Way  C!  taCKÌÌn_  tbC  QrCbÌCm  C!  Ìa!Ka: 
ÅbC  CCrrCCt  Way  WCuÌO  bC  tC  asK:  Wbat  OCCs  bC  OC:  bCW  OCCs  bC 
bCbaVC:  ¬nO¸  at  tbC  sUrt¸  tC  CCnsÌOCr  tbC  _CnCraÌ  ratbCr  tban  tbC 
QartÌCuÌar. Ìt WCuÌO tbCn transQÌrC  tbat  Ìa!Ka  ÌÌVCO  Ìn Íra_uC¸ Ìn an 
unbCaÌtby  mÌÌÌCu  C!  ¡CuraÌÌsts¸  C!  sCÌ!-ÌmQCrtant  ÌÌttCratÌ¡  Ìn  tbat 
WCrÌO¸  ÌÌtCraturC  Was  tbC  QrÌnCÌQaÌ  rCaÌÌry  Ì!  nCt  tbC  CnÌy  CnC. 
Ìa!Ka´s strCn_tbs  anO  WCaKnCssCs  WCrC  bCunO  uQ  WÌtb  tbÌs  Way  C! 
sCCÌn_ tbC  WCrÌO ¬ bÌs artÌstÌC  VaÌuC¸  but  aÌsC bÌs !CCbÌCnCss  Ìn many 
rCsQCCts.  ÌC  ¾ a  ]CW-bCy  ¬ CnC  CCuÌO  ¡ust  as  WCÌÌ  CCÌn  tbC  tCrm 
`¬ryan  bCy´  ¬ a  sCrry¸  OÌsmaÌ  CrCaturC¸  a  mCrC  bubbÌC  Cn  tbC  _ÌÌtt-
CrÌn_ gua_mÌrC C! Íra_uC CuÌturaÌ ÌÌ!C¸ nCtbÌn_ mCrC. `Ct tbCrC WCrC 
aÌsC  sCmC  VCry  ÌntCrCstÌn_  asQCCts  C!  bÌm.  LnC  CCuÌO  brÌn_  tbCsC 
Cut.  LnC  mÌ_bt  Ìma_ÌnC  a  CCnVCrsatÌCn  bCtWCCn  ÏaC  Åzu  anO  tbC 
OÌsCÌQÌC  Ìa!Ka.  ÏaC  Åzu  says:  `PDO  sC¸  ÌÌsCÌQÌC  Ìa! Ka¸  yCu  baVC 
CCnCCÌVCO  a  bCrrCr  C!  tbC  Cr_anÌzauCns¸  QrCQCrIy  rCÌatÌCns  anO 
CCCnCmÌC  !Crms  WÌtbÌn  WbÌCb  yCu  ÌÌVC:´ ~ ``Cs.´  ¬ ``Cu  Can´t LnO 
yCur  Way  abCut  tbCm  any  mCrC:´ ~ ``C.´ ¬ `¬  sbarC  CCrtÌÍCatC ÍÌÌs 
yCu WÌtb OrCaO:´ ~ ``Cs.´ ¬`¬nO sC nCW yCu´rC ÌCCKÌn_  !Cr a ÌCaOCr 
yCu  C bCÌO  Cn  tC¸  ÌÌsCÌQÌC  Ìa!Ka.´  `L!  CCursC  suCb  an  attÌtuOC 
WCn´t OC¸´ says ÛrCCbt. `Ì OCn´t aCCCQt Ìa!Ka¸ yCu KnCW.´ ¬nO bC _CCs 
Cn  tC  sQCaK  abCut  a  LbÌnCsC  QbÌÌCsCQbCr´s  QarabÌC  C!  `tbC  trÌbuÌa-
tÌCns  C!  usCUlÌnCss´.  Ìn  a  WCCO  tbCrC  arC  many  OÌÛCrCnt  KÌnO5  C! 
DCC-trunK. ÏrCm tbC tbÌCKCst tbCy maKC sbÌQ´s tÌmbCrs !rCm tbCsC 
WbÌCb arC ÌCss tbÌCK 
but stÌÌÌ guÌtC sturOy¸ tbCy maKC bCXCs anO CCÍn-
ÌÌOs¡  tbC  tbÌnnCst  C!  aÌÌ  arC  maOC  ÌntC  WbÌQQÌn_-rCOs¡  but  C!  tbC 
I 2 O
stuntCd OnCs tDC¸ maXC nOtD¡n_ at aÌÌ: tDCsC CsCaQC tDC tr¡DuÌat¡Ons
O! usCt1ÌnCss. ``Ou´VC _Ot tO ÌOOX 8rOund ¡n Ì8Õ8´s ¬rÍnn_s as ¸Ou
m¡_Dt ¡n suCD a ¬OOd. ÅDCn ¸Ou´ÌÌ F:\d a ¬DOÌC ÌOt O! VCr¸ usC!uÌ
tDÍn_s. ÅDC ¡ma_Cs arC _OOd¸ O! COursC. Ûut tDC rCst ¡s QurC m¸st¡-
FCanOn. 1t´s nOnsCnsC. `Ou DaVC tO ¡_nOrC ¡t. iCQtD dOCsn´t _Ct ¸Ou
any¬DCrC at aÌÌ. iCQtD ¡s a sCQaratC d¡mCns¡On¸ ¡t´s just dCQtD ~and
tDCrC´s nOtD¡n_ ¬DatsOCVCr tO DC sCCn ¡n ¡t.´ ÅO COnCÌudC tDC d¡s-
Cuss¡On 1 tCÌÌ Û. tDat QCnCtrat¡n_ ¡ntO dCQtD ¡s m¸ ¬a¸ O! traVCÌÌ¡n_
tO tDC ant¡QOdCs. 1n m¸ Cssa¸ On Þraus 1 aCtUaÌ̸ _Ot tDCrC. 1 XnO¬
tDat tDC OnC On Þa!X8 dOCsn´t COmC OD tO tDC samC dC_rCC: 1 C8n´t
d¡sm¡ss tDC CDar_C tDat ¡t Das ÌandCd mC ¡n a dÍar¡st¡C st¸ÌC O! nOtat¡On.
1t ¡s truC tDat tDC stUd¸ O! tDC !rOnt¡Cr arCa dCÞnCd D¸ Þraus and¸
¡n anOtDCr ¬a¸¸ D¸ Þa!Xa QrCOCCuQ¡Cs mC a _rCat dCaÌ. 1n Þa!Xa´s
CasC 1 DaVCn´t ¸Ct¸ 1 sa¡d¸ COmQÌCtCd m¸ CXQÌOrat¡On O! tD¡s arCa. 1
am a¬arC tDat ¡t COnta¡ns a ÌOt O! rUDD¡sD and ¬astC¸ a ÌOt O! QurC
m¸st¡ÞCat¡On. Ûut 1 Can´t DCÌQ tD¡nX¡n_ tDat UC ¡mQOrt8nt tD¡n_
aDOut Þa!Xa ¡s sOmCtD¡n_ CÌsC¸ and sOmC O! tD¡s 1 tOuCDCd uQOn ¡n
m¸ Cssa¸. Û.´s aQQrOaCD sDOuÌd¸ 1 sa¡d¸ DC CDCCXCd a_a¡nst ¡ntCrQrCta-
t¡Ons O! sQCC¡ÞC ¬OrXs. 1 su__CstCd 7k 7e×: IílL¿e, and ¼
¡mmCd¡atC̸ aDÌC tO ODsCrVC tDC COnL¡Ct ¡n ¬D¡CD tD¡s su__Cst¡On
QÌun_Cd Û. ÍC rCsOÌutC̸ rCjCCtCd L¡sÌCr´s V¡C¬ tDat tD¡s VCr¸ sDOrt
stOr¸ ¡s `¬OrtDÌCss´¸ Dut nC¡tDCr COuÌd DC _Ct an¸¬DCrC nCarCr tO
dCÞn¡n_ ¡ts VaÌuC. `\nC Ou_Dt tO stud¸ ¡t mOrC CÌOsC̸¸´ DC sa¡d. ÅDCn
tDC COnVCrsat¡On DrOXC OÛ¸ as ¡t ¬8s tCn O´CÌOCX and t¡mC tO Ì¡stCn
tO tDC nC¬s !rOm ·¡Cnna.
_
: ¬u¿us:. ÅDC n¡_Dt DC!OrC Ìast a ÌOn_ and DCatCd dCDatC aDOut m¸
Þa!Xa. 1ts !Oundat¡On: tDC CDar_C tDat ¡t QrOmOUs ]C¬¡sD !asc¡sm.
1t ¡nCrCasCs and sQrCads tDC darKnCss surrOund¡n_ Þa!Xa ¡nstCad O!
d¡sQCrs¡n_ ¡t. `Ct ¡t ¡s nCCCssar¸ tO cÌar¡] Þa!Xa¸ tDat ¡s tO sa¸ tO
!OrmuÌatC tDC QraCt¡CaDÌC su__Cst¡Ons ¬D¡CD Can DC CXtraCtCd !rOm
D¡s stOr¡Cs. 1t ¡s tO DC suQQOsCd tDat suc su__Cst¡Ons C0DC C.×traC-
tCd !rOm tDCm¸ ¡! On̸ DCCausC O! tDC¡r tOnC O! suQCr¡Or CaÌm. Ûut
tDCsC su__Cst¡Ons sDOuÌd DC sOu_Dt ¡n tDC d¡rCCt¡On O! tDC _rC8t
_CnCraÌ CV¡Ìs ¬D¡CD assa¡Ì Duman¡t¸ tOda¸. ÛrCCDt ÌOOXs !Or tDC rC-
LCX¡On O! tDCsC CV¡Ìs ¡n Þa!Xa´s ¬OrX. ÍC COnÞnCs D¡msCÌ!¸ ¡n tDC
6onverso:uns ×i:k Breck: : i :
ma:n¸ IC Tke Triol NDaI ÎI CCnVCjs aDCVC aÌÌ CÌsC¸ DC IDÎnRs¸ Îs a
OrCaO C! IDC unCnOÎn_ 8nO ÎrrCsÎsIÎDÌC _rCVtD C! IDC _rCaI CÎI:Cs. ÌC
CÌaÎms IC RnCV IDC nÎ_DImarC C! IDÎs ÎOCa !rCm DÎs CVn ÎnIÎmaIC
C.¯.QCr¡CnCC. buCD CÎIÎCs arC an CXQrCssÎCn C! IDC DCunOÌCss mSZC C!
ÎnOÎrCCI rCÌaIÎCnsDÎQs¸ CCmQÌCX muIuaÌ OCQCnOCnCÎCs 8nO CCmQarI-
mCnIauCns ÎnIC VDÎCD Duman DCÎn_s arC !CrCCO Dj mCdCrn !Crms
C! ÌÎVÎn_. ¬nO IDCsC În !un LnO CXQrCssÎCn În IDC ÌCn_În_ !Cr a
`ÌCaOCr´. ÅDC QCIIj DCur_CCÎs sCCs IDC ÌCaOCr as IDC CnÌj maD VDCm¸ În
a VCrÌO VDCrC CVCrjCnC Can Qass tDC DuCR IC sCmCCnC CÌsC¸ DC Can
maRC rCsQCnsÎDÌC !Cr aÌÌ DÎs ÎÌÌs. ÛrCCDI CaÌÌs Tke Tr:ol 8 QrCQDCIÎC
DCCR. `Ûj ÌCCRÎn_ aI IDC LCsIaQC jCu Can sCC VDaI maj DCCCmC
C! IDC 'DCRa.´ Ía!Ra´s CutÌCCR Îs IDaI C! a man Cau_Dt unOCr tDC
VDCCÌs. \OraOCR Îs CDaraCICrÎsIÎC C! tDÎs CuIÌCCR. ÛrCCDI ÎnICr-
QrCIs IDC DCusC-QCrICr as QCrsCnÎ]În_ IDC VCrrÎCs C! a !aI. '1Cr C! a
!am¡Ìj. ÅDC QCIIj DCur_CCÎs Îs DCunO IC _CI ÎI În IDC nCC. ÌÎs sÎIua-
IÎCn Îs Ía!Ra´s CVn. ÛuI VDCrCas IDC tjQC C! QCIIj DCur_CCÎs Cur-
rCnI ICOaj ¬ IDaI Îs¸ IDC !asCÎsI ~ Das OCCÎOCO IC sCI DÎs ÎnOCmÎIaDÌC
ÎrCn V¡ÌÌ a_aÎnsI IDÎs sÎIuaIÎCn¸ Ía!Ra DarOÌj CQQCsCs ÎI¡ DC Îs VÎsC.
NDCrC IDC !asCÎsI DrÎn_s DCrCÎsm ÎnIC QÌaj¸ Ía!Ra rCsQCnOs VÎID
guCstÎCns. ÌC asRs !Cr sa!C_uarOs !Cr DÎs sÎIuaIÎCn. ÛuI IDC naturC
C! DÎs s:IuaIÎCn Îs suCD I¡aI I¡C sa!C_uarOs DC OCmanOs must DC un-
rCasCnaDÌC. 1I Îs a Ía!×8CsguC ÎrCnj IDaI I¡C man VDO aQQCars IC
DC CCnVÎnCCO C! nCIDÎn_ sC muCD as C! I.'C !raÎÌIj C! aÌÌ sa!C_uarOs
sDCuÌO DaVC DCCn an ÎnsuranCC a_CnI. 1nCÎOCnIaÌÌj¸ DÎs unÌÎmÎICO
QCssÎmÎsm Îs !rCC !rCm anj Ira_ÎC sCnsC C! OCsIÎnj. ÍCr nCI CnÌj
Îs DÎs CXQCCIaIÎCn C! mÎs!CrIunC !CunOCO Cn nCIDÎn_ DuI CmQÎrÎCÎsm
(aÌIDCu_D ÎI musI DC saÎO IDaI tDÎs !CunOaIÎCn Îs unsDaRaDÌC]¸ DuI
aÌsC¸ VÎID ¡nCCrr:_ÎDÌC na:VCIj¸ DC sCCRs IDC CrÎICrÎCn C! LnaÌ suCCCss
În IDC mCsI Îns:_nÎhC8nI anO DÎVÎaÌ unOCræKÎn_s ~ a VÎsÎI !rCm a
IraVCÌÌÎn_ saÌCsman¸ an ÎnguÎrj aI a _CVCCnI CmCC. ÍCr QarIs C!
IDC IÎmC IDC CCnVCrsaIÎCn CCntrCO Cn tDC sICrj Tke 7e×: Iiho¿e.
ÛrCCDI sajs ÎI Îs a CCunICrQarI IC IDC sICrj C! ¬CDÎÌÌCs anO IDC ICr-
ICÎsC. \nC nCVCr _CIs IC IDC nCXI VÎÌÌa_C Î! CnC DrCaRs IDC ¡CutCj
OCVn ÎnIC ÎIs smaÌÌCsI QarIs¸ nCI CCunIIn_ IDC ÎnCÎOCnIaÌ CCCurrCnCCs.
ÅDCn a VDCÌC ÌÎ!C Îs ICC sDCrI !Cr UC ¡CunCj. ÛuI IDC !aÌÌaCj ÌÎCs
În IDC VCrO `CnC´. ÍCr Î! IDC ¡CutCj Îs DrCRCn OCVn ÎnIC Îts QarIs¸
ï ï ?
tDCn tDC ttaVCÌÌCr ¡s tCC. 1nd ¡! tDC un¡t¸ C! Ì¡!C ¡s dCsttC¸Cd¸ !DCn sC
¡s ¡ts sDCrtnCss. LCt Ì¡!C DC as sDCrt as ¡t ma¸. ¯Dat dCCs nCt mattCr¸
!Cr tDC CnC VDC arr¡VCs ¡n tDC nCXt V¡ÌÌa_C ¡s nCt tDC CLC VDC sCt Cut
Cn tDC ¡CurC¸¸ Dut anCtDCr. ~ 1 !Cr m¸ Qart CUCr tDC !CÌÌCV¡n_
¡ntCrQrCtat¡Cn. tDC !tuC mCasurC C! Ì¡!C ¡s mCmCr¸. LCCR¡n_ DaCR¸ ¡t
traVCrsCs tDC VDCÌC C! Ì¡!C ÌIRC Ì¡_Dtn¡n_. 1s !ast as CnC C tur
DaCR a !CV Qa_Cs¸ ¡t Das ttaVCÌÌCd DCm tDC nCXt V¡ÌÌa_C tC tDC QÌaCC
VDCrC tDC traVCÌÌCr tCCR !DC dCC¡s¡Cn tC sCt Cut. ¯DCsC !Cr VDCm Ì¡!C
Das DCCCmC trans!CrmCd ¡ntC VI¡t¡n_ ~ ÌIRC tDC _rand!atDCr ¡n tDC
stCr¸ ¬Cn Cn̸ rCad tDC Vr¡Un_ DaCR7tds. ¯Dat ¡s tDC Cn̸ Va¸ ¡n
VD¡CD tDC¸ CnCCuntCr tDCmsCÌVCs¸ and Cn̸ tDus ~ D¸ DCC¡n_ !rCm
tDC QrCsCnt ~Can tDC¸ undCrstand Ì¡!C.
C_ Se¸:emer. Dro¿ør. 1n a CCnVCrsat¡Cn a !CV CVCn¡n_s a_C ÜrCCDt
sQCRC C! tDC Cut¡Cus ¡ndCC:s¡Cn VD¡CD at tDC mCmCnt QrCVCnts D¡m
!rCm maR¡n_ an¸ dCÞn¡tC QÌans. tDC ¡s !DC Þrst tC QC¡nt Cut¸ tDC
ma¡n rCasCn !Cr tD¡s ¡ndCC¡s¡Cn ¡s tDat D¡s s¡Uat:Cn ¡s sC muCD mCrC
Qr¡V¡ÌC_Cd tDan tDat C! mCst CtDCr rCD_CCs. ¯DCrC!CrC¸ s¡nCC ín
_CnCraÌ DC sCarCC̸ adm¡ts tDat Cm¡_rat¡Cn C DC a QrCQCr Das:s !Cr
QÌans and QrCjCCts¸ DC rCDsCs aÌÌ tDC mCrC rad¡CaÌ̸ tC adm¡t ¡t as
suCD ¡n D¡s CVn Qart¡CuÌar CasC. 1¡s QÌans rCaCD Cut tC tDC QCr:Cd
DC¸Cnd Cm¡_rat¡Cn. ¯DCrC¸ DC ¡s !aCCd V:tD tVC aÌtCtat¡VCs. Ln tDC
CnC Dand tDCrC arC sCmC QrCsC QrCjCCts Va¡Un_ tC DC dCnC: tDC
sDCr!Cr CnC C! tDC Ui- a sat¡rC Cn 1¡!ÌCr ¡n tDC st¸ÌC C! tDC ÍCna¡s-
sanCC D¡C_raQDCrs ~and tDC ÌCn_ CnC C! tDC Tui nCVCÌ. ¯D¡s ¡s tC DC
an CnC¸CÌCQCd¡C survC¸ C! tDC !CÌÌ¡Cs C! tDC ¯CÌÌCCUaÌ-1ns ¸¡ntCÌ-
ÌCCUaÌs)¡ ¡t sCCms tDat ¡t V¡ÌÌ DC sCt¸ ¡n Qar! at ÌCast¸ ¡n LD¡na. 1
smaÌÌ mCdCÌ !Cr tD¡s VCrR ¡s aÌrCad¸ CCmQÌCtCd. Üut DCs¡dCs tDCsC
QrCsC QrC¡CCts DC ¡s aÌsC QrCCCCQ¡Cd D¸ CtDCrs¸ dat¡n_ DaCR tC VCr¸
CÌd sUd¡Cs and ¡dCas. `DCrCas DC ¾ aDÌC¸ at a Q¡nCD¸ tC sCt dCVn
¡n D¡s nC!Cs and ¡ntrCduCt¡Cns tC tDC Ierske tDC tDCu_Dts VD¡CD
CCCurrCd tC D¡m V¡tD¡n tDC sCCQC C! CQ¡C tDCaDC¸ CtDCr tDCu_Dts¸
aÌtDCu_D Cr¡_¡nat¡n_ ¡n !DC samC ¡ntCrCsts¸ DaVC DCCCmC CCmD¡nCd
V¡tD D¡s sUd¸ C! LCn¡n¡sm and aÌsC C! tDC sC¡Cnt:ÞC tCndCnC¡Cs C!
tDC CmQÍr:C:sts¸ and DaVC tDCrC!CrC Cut_rCVn tDat ratDCr Ì¡m¡tCd
!ramCVCrR. ÌCr sCVCraÌ ¸Cars Qast tDC¸ DaVC DCCn suDsumCd¸ nCV
6ooversotioos ×itk Breck: t t _
undCt OnC RC¸ COnCCQt¸ nOV undCt anOtUCt¸ sO tUat nOn-¬t¡stOtCÌ¡an
ÌO_¡C¸ DCUaV¡Out¡st tUCOt¸¸ tUC nCV CnC¸CÌOQCd¡a and tUC Ct¡t¡QuC
O! ¡dCas UaVC¸ ¡n tut¸ stOOd at tUC CCnttC O! U¡s QtCOCCuQat¡Ons. ¬t
QtCsCnt tUCsC Vat¡Ous Qutsu¡ts atC COnVCt_¡n_ uQOn tUC ¡dCa O! a
QU¡ÌOsOQU¡CaÌ d¡daCt¡C QOCm. Ûut UC Uas dOuDts aDOut tUC mattCt.
ÌC VOndCts¸ ¡n tUC !tst ¡nstanCC¸ VUCtUCt¸ ¡n V¡CV O! U¡s OutQut tO
datC and CsQCC¡aÌ̸ O! ¡ts sat¡t¡CaÌ CÌCmCnts¸ Qatt¡CuÌat̸ tUC Tkree-
¸eoo¸ 7ovel, tUC QuDÌ¡C VOuÌd aCCCQt suCU a VOtR. ¯U¡s dOuDt ¡s
madC uQ O! tVO d¡stÌnCt sttands O! tUOu_Ut. NU¡Ìst DCCOm¡n_ mOtC
CÌOsC̸ COnCCtCd VÌtU tUC QtODÌCms and mCtUOds O! tUC QtOÌCtat¡an
CÌass sttu__ÌC¸ UC Uas ¡nCtCas¡n_̸ dOuDtCd tUC sat¡tÌCÌ and CsQCC¡aÌ̸
tUC ¡tOn¡C att¡tudC as suCU. Ûut tO COn!usC UCsC dOuDts¸ VU¡CU atC
mOst̸ O! a QtaCtÌCaÌ natutC¸ VÌtU OtUCt¸ mOtC QtO!Ound OnCs VOuÌd
DC tO m¡sundCtstand tUCm. ¯UC dOuDts at a dCCQCt ÌCVCÌ COnCCt
tUC att¡st¡C and QÌa¸!uÌ CÌCmCnt ¡n att¸ and aDOVC aÌÌ tUOsC CÌCmCnts
VU¡CU¸ QattÌaÌ̸ and OCCas¡OnaÌ̸¸ maRC att tC!taCtOt¸ tO tCasOn.
ÛtCCUt´s UCtO¡C ChOtts tO ÌC_¡t¡m¡ZC att vis-c-vis tCasOn UaVC a_a¡n
and a_a¡n tC!CttCd U¡m tO tUC QataDÌC ¡n VU¡CU att¡st¡C mastCr¸ ¡s
QtOVCd D¸ tUC !aCt tUat¸ ¡n tUC Cnd¸ a!! tUC art¡st¡C CÌCmCnts O! a VOtR
CanCCÌ CaCU OtUCt Out. ¬nd ¡t ¡s QtCC¡sC̸ tUCsC ChOtts¸ COnnCCtCd
V¡tU tU¡s QataDÌC¸ VU¡CU atC at QtCsCnt COm¡n_ Out ¡n a mOtC tad¡CaÌ
!Orm ¡n tUC ¡dCa O! UC d¡daCt¡C QOCm. 1n UC COutsC O! tUC COnVCtsa-
t¡On 1 tt¡Cd tO CXQÌa¡n tO ÛtCCUt tUat suCU a QOCm VOuÌd nOt UaVC tO
sCCR aQQtOVaÌ !tOm a DOut_CO¡s QuDÌ¡C Dut uOm a QtOÌCtat¡an OnC¸
VU¡CU¸ QtCsumaD̸¸ VOuÌd !nd ¡ts Ct¡tCt¡a ÌCss ¡n ÛtCCUt´s CatÌ¡Ct¸
Qatt̸ DOut_CO¡s-Ot¡CntCd VOtR tUan ¡n tUC dO_mat¡C and tUCOtCt¡-
CÌ COntCnt O! UC d¡daCt¡C QOCm ¡tsCÌ!. `1! tU¡s d¡daCt¡C QOCm suC-
CCCds ¡n CnÌ¡st¡n_ tUC autUOt¡t¸ O! NatX¡sm On ¡ts DCUaÌ!¸´ 1 tOÌd
U¡m¸ `tUCn ¸Out CatÌ¡Ct VOtR ¡s nOt Ì¡RC̸ tO VCaRCn tUat autUOt-
¡t¸.´
q Oc:oòer. `CstCtda¸ ÛtCCUt ÌC!t !Ot ÌOndOn. NUCtUCt ¡t ¡s tUat m¸
QtCsCnCC OhCts QCCuÌ¡at tCmQUt¡Ons ¡n tU¡s tCsQCCt¸ Ot VUCtUCt
ÛtCCUt ¡s nOV _CnCtaÌ̸ mOtC U¡s Va¸ ¡nCÌ¡nCd tUan DC!OtC¸ at aÌÌ
CVCnts U¡s a__tCss¡VCnCss [VU¡CU UC U¡msCÌ! CaÌÌs `Da!t¡n_´¡ ¡s nOV
muCU mOtC QtOnOunCCd ¡n COnVCtsat!On tUan !t usCd tC DC. 1ndCCd¸
² ¹
4
i am struck by a spcc¡a! vocabu!ary cn_cndcrcd by tn¡s a__rcss¡vc-
ncss. in part¡cu!ar¸ nc ¡s !ond o! us¡n_ tnc tcrm ºärs:cken (!¡tt!c
sausa_c). in Lra_or i ¤as rcad¡n_ Lostoycvsky´s 6rime ono 1unisk-
men:. ¯o start ¤¡tn nc b!amcd tn¡s cno¡cc o! rcad¡n_ !or my bc¡n_
un¤c!!. 1s conhrmat¡on nc to!d no¤¸ ¡n n¡s youtn¸ a pro!on_cd
¡!!ncss (¤n¡cn nad doubt!css bccn !atcnt !or a !on_ t¡mc) nad bc_un
¤ncn a scoo!!c!!o¤ nad p!aycd Lnop¡n to n¡m on tnc p¡ano and
nc nad not nad tnc strcn_tn to protcst. brccnt tn¡nks tnat Lnop¡n
and Lostoycvsky navc a part¡cu!ar!y advcrsc cncct on pcop!c´s
nca!tn. in otncr ¤ays¸ too¸ nc m¡sscd no opportun¡ty o! nccd!¡n_
mc about my rcad¡n_ mattcr¸ and as nc n¡msc!! ¾rcad¡n_ Sck×e¸k
at tnc t¡mc nc ¡ns¡stcd on mak¡n_ comparat¡vc va!uc jud_cmcnts o!
tnc t¤o
autnors. it bccamc cv¡dcnt tnat Lostoycvsky s¡mp!y cou!d
not mcasurc up to Ïasck¸ and brccnt ¡nc!udcd n¡m ¤¡tnout blrtncr
ado amon_ tnc º:irs:cken, on!y a !¡tt!c morc and nc ¤ou!d navc
cxtcndcd to Lostoycvsky tnc dcscr¡pt¡on nc kccps rcady¸ tncsc days¸
!or any ¤ork ¤n¡cn !acks an cn!¡_ntcn¡n_ cnaractcr¸ or ¡s dcn¡cd
sucn cnaractcr by n¡m: nc ca!!s sucn a ¤ork a 1lumy [!ump¸ or c!ot).
t
9]
8
?á_une. i ¤as ¡n a !abyr¡ntn o! sta¡rs. ¯n¡s !abyr¡ntn ¤as not cnt¡rc!y
roo!cd ovcr. i c!¡mbcd, otncr sta¡rways !cd do¤n¤ards. Ln a !and-
¡n_ i rca!¡zcd tnat i nad arr¡vcd at a summ¡t. 1 ¤idc v¡c¤ o! many
!ands opcncd up bc!orc mc. i sa¤ otncr mcn stand¡n_ on otncr pcaks.
Lnc o! tncsc mcn ¾ suddcn!y sc¡zcd by d¡zz¡ncss and !c!!. ¯nc
d¡zz¡ncss sprcad, otncrs ¤crc no¤ !a!!¡n_ !rom otncr pcaks ¡nto tnc
dcptns bc!o¤. ¯ncn i too bccamc d¡zzy i ¤okc up .
Ln zz]unc i arr¡vcd at brccnt´s.
brccnt spcaks o! tnc c!c_ancc and noncna!ancc o! N¡r_¡!´s and
Lantc´s bas¡c attitudc¸ ¤n¡cn¸ nc says¸ !orms tnc backdrop to N¡r_¡!´s
majcsUc gªn. Ïc ca!!s botn N¡_¡! and Lantc ¡romeneurs'. Îm-
pnas¡z¡n_ tnc c!ass¡c rank o! tnc 7n]rno, nc says: `7ou C rcad ¡t
out o! doors.´
Ïc spcaks o! n¡s dccp-rootcd natrcd o! pr¡csts¸ a naucd nc ¡nncr¡-
tcd !rom n¡s _randmotncr. Ïc n¡nts tnat tnosc ¤no navc appro-
6onversotuns ×irk Breckr t t ¤
Qt¡atCd tUC tUCOtCUCaÌ dOCU¡nCs O! NatX and taRCn OVCt tUC¡t
mana_CmCnt V¡ÌÌ aÌVa¸s !Otm a CÌCt¡CaÌ Camat¡Ì!a. NatX¡sm ÌCnds
¡tsCÌ! au tOO Cas¡Ì¸ tO `¡ntCtQtCtat¡On´. ÅOda¸ ¡t ¡s a UundtCd ¸Cats
OÌd and VUat dO VC !nd: [¬t tU¡s QO¡nt tUC COnVCtsat¡On ¾ ¡ntCt-
tuQtCd.) ´`ÅUC OtatC must V¡tUCt aVa¸.´ NUO sa¸s tUat: ÅUC OtatC.´
¸ÌCtC UC Can On̸ mCan tUC OOV¡Ct Ïn¡On.) ÌC assumCs a Cunn¡n_¸
!utI¡VC CXQtCss¡On¸ Quts U¡msC!! ¡n !tOnt O! tUC CUa¡t ¡n VU¡CU 1 am
s¡tt¡n_ ¬ UC ¡s ¡mQCtsOnat¡n_ `IUC OtatC´ ¬and sa¸s¸ V¡tU a s̸¸ s¡dC-
ÌOn_ _ÌanCC at an ¡ma_¡nat¸ ¡ntCt!OCutOt: `1 RnOV 1 ou¿ñr tO
V¡IUCt
aVa¸.´
¬ COnVCtsat¡On aDOut nCV OOV¡Ct nOVCÌs. NC nO ÌOn_Ct tCad
tUCm. ÅUC ta!R tUCn tuts tO QOCU¸ and tO tUC ttansÌat¡Ons O! QOCms
!tOm Vat:Ous !an_ua_Cs ¡n tUC ¹OOÛV¡tU VU¡CU Lc: ºorr ¡s UOOdCd.
ÌC sa¸s tUC QOCts OVCt tUCtC atC UaV¡n_ a Uatd t¡mC. `ÏI Ota!¡n´s
namC dOCsn´t CtOQ uQ ¡n a QOCm¸ tUat´s ¡ntCtQtCtCd as a s¡_n O! ¡ÌÌ
¡ntCnt.´
?
§
¸une. ÛtCCUt taÌRs aDOut CQ¡C tUCattC¸ and mCnt¡Ons QÌa¸s aCtCd
D¸ CU¡ÌdtCn ¡n VU¡CU !auÌts O! QCt!OtmanCC¸ OQCtat¡n_ as aÌ¡Cnat¡On
ChCCIs¸ ¡mQatt CQ¡C CUataCtCt¡st¡Cs tO tUC QtOduCt¡On. OOmCtU¡n_
s¡m¡Ìat ma¸ OCCut ¡n tn¡td-tatC QtOV¡nC¡aÌ tUCattC. 1 mCnt¡On tUC
LCnCVa QtOduCt¡On O! Je 6io VUCtC tUC s¡_Ut O! tUC R¡n_´ s CtOVn
VOn CtOORCd!¸ On U¡s UCad _aVC mC tUC htst ¡nRÌ¡n_ O! tUC ¡dCas 1
CVCnIuaÌ̸ dCVC!OQCd ¡n tUC Trauers¸iel DOOR n¡nC ¸Cats ÌatCt.
ÛtCCUt ¡n tut QuOtCd tUC mOmCnt at VU¡CU tUC ¡dCa O! CQ¡C IUCattC
!tst CamC ¡ntO U¡s UCad. 1t UaQQCnCd at a tCUCatsaÌ !Ot tUC Nun¡CU
QtOduCt¡On O! Eo×oro1.ÅUC Datt!C ¡n tUC QÌa¸ ¡s suQQOsCd tO OCCu-
Q¸ IUC sta_C !Ot IUtCC-QuattCts O! an UOut. ÛtCCUt COuÌdn´t sta_C-
mana_C tUC sOÌd¡Cts¸ and nC¡tUCt COuÌd ¬s¸a gÌaC¡s ]¸ U¡s QtOduCt¡On
ass¡stant. 1¡naÌ̸ UC turCd ¡n dCsQa¡t tO ÏatÌ ·aÌCnt¡n¸ at tUat t¡mC
OnC O! U¡s CÌOsCst !t¡Cnds¸ VUO Vas attCnd¡n_ tUC tCUCatsa̸ and asRCd
U¡m: `NC!̸ VUat ¡s ¡t: NUat´s IUC U1tU aDOut tUCsC sOÌd¡Cts: NUat
oòour tUCm:´ NaÌCnt¡n: `ÅUC¸´tC QaÌC¸ tUC¸´tC sCtCd¸ tUat´s VUat'´
ÅUC tCmatR sCttÌCd tUC ¡ssuC¸ ÛtCCUt add¡n_: `ÅUC¸´tC I:tCd.´ NUCtC-
uQOn tUC sOÌd¡Cts´ !aCCs VCtC tU¡CR!¸ madC uQ V¡tU CUaÌR¸ and tUat
Vas tUC da¸ tUC QtOduCt¡On´s st¸ÌC ¾ dCtCtm¡nCd.
: : c
Latcr tOc OÌd suDjcCt O! `ÌO_¡CaÌ QOs¡t¡V¡sm´ Camc uQ. Ì adOQtcd a
sOmcVOat ¡ntrans¡_cnt att¡tudc and tOc COnVcrsat¡On tOrcatcncd tO
taRc a d¡sa_rccaDÌc tur. ¯O¡s Vas aVO¡dcd D¸ ÛrcCOt adm¡tt¡n_ !Or
tOc Frst t¡mc tOa1 O¡s ar_umcnts Vcrc suQcr!C¡aÌ. ¯O¡s Oc d¡d V¡tO
tOc dcÌ¡_OtDÌ !OrmuÌa. `1 dccQ nccd maRcs !Or a suQcrÞC¡aÌ _rasQ.´
Latcr¸ VOcn Vc Vcrc VaÌR¡n_ tO O¡s OOusc [tOc COnVcrsat¡On Oad
taRcn QÌaCc ¡n m¸ rOOm). `Ìt´s a _OOd tO¡n_ VOcn sOmcOnc VOO
Oas taRcn uQ Û cXtrcmc QOs¡t¡On tOcn _Ocs ¡ntO a Qcr¡Od O! rcaCt¡On.
¯Oat Va¸ Oc arr¡Vcs at a OaÌ!-Va¸ OOusc.´ ¯Oat¸ Oc c.¯cQÌa¡ncd¸ Vas
VOat Oad OaQQcncd tO O¡m: Oc Oad DcCOmc mcÌÌOV.
Ìn tOc cVcn¡n_: Ì sOOuÌd Ì¡Rc tO _ct sOmcDOd¸ tO taRc a smaÌÌ
Qrcscnt ¬ a Qa¡r O! _ÌOVcs ¬ !Or 1s¸a. ÛrcCOt tO¡nRs tO¡s m¡_Ot Dc
tr¡CR¸. Ìt COuÌd OaQQcn tOat sOmcOnc tOOu_Ot tOc _ÌOVcs Vcrc
]aUnn´s` Va¸ O! rcQa¸¡n_ 1s¸a !Or Ocr csQ¡Ona_c scrV¡Ccs. `¯Oc VOrst
¡s aÌVa¸s tOat VOOÌc scts O! d¡rcCt¡Vcs| arc V¡tOdraVn cn DÌOC¸ Dut
tOc ¡nstruCt¡Ons tOc¸ COnta¡n QrcsumaD̸ rcma¡n ¡n !OrCc.´
t _u[. NOcncVcr Ì rc!cr tO COnd¡t¡Ons ¡n Íuss¡a¸ ÛrcCOt´s COmmcnts
arc O¡_O̸ sCcQt¡CaÌ. NOcn Ì ¡ngu¡rcd tOc OtOcr da¸ VOctOcr Ltt-
VaÌd Vas st¡ÌÌ ¡n _aOÌ [¡n COÌÌOgu¡aÌ Lcrman: VOctOcr Oc Vas `st¡ÌÌ
s¡tt¡n_´]¸ tOc ansVcr Vas: `Ì! Oc C st¡ÌÌ s¡t¸ Oc´s s¡tt¡n_.´ `cstcrda¸
LrctÌ Otcmn cXQrcsscd tOc OQ¡n¡On tOat ¯rct¸aROV ¾ nO ÌOn_cr
a̡Vc.
4
_u[. ÛrcCOt ¡n tOc COursc O! a COnVcrsat¡On On ÛaudcÌa¡rc Ìast
n¡_Ot: `Ì´m nOt a_a¡nst tOc asOC¡a̸ ¸Ou RnOV; Ì´m a_a¡nst tOc nOn-
sOC¡aÌ.´
?t _u_. ¯Oc QuDÌ¡Cat¡Ons O! LuRaCs¸ ÞurcÌÌa 0! marc _¡V¡n_ ÛrcCOt
a _OOd dcaÌ O! trOuDÌc. Ïc tO¡nRs¸ OOVcVcr¸ tOat Onc Ou_Ot nOt tO
OQQOsc tOcm at tOc tOcOrct¡CaÌ ÌcVcÌ. Ì tOcn Qut tOc gucst¡On On tOc
QOÌ¡t¡CaÌ ÌcVcÌ. Ïcrc Oc dOcs nOt OOÌd O¡s QunCOcs. `OOC¡aÌ¡st cCOnOm¸
dOcsn´t nccd Var, and tOat ¡s VO¸ ¡t ¡s OQQOscd tO ¾. ¯Oc ¨QcaCc-
¯ ¯Uc  namc¸  prcsumaDÌj tDat  OΠtUc  prOpOscd :ntcrmcd:arj¸  CnnOt Dc dc-
c:pDcrcd V:tD aDSOÌutc  Ccrm:ntj¡  pcrUaps 1ans 1cnnj ]aDn: 
|
\nccrm:n  rcad:n_  OI tDc manuscr:pt. 
6onversorions ×irk Breckr t t¿
¡CV¡n_ naturC C! tDC Ìuss¡an QCCQ¡C´ ¡s an CXQrCss¡Cn C! tD¡s and
nCtD¡n_ C¡sC. ¯DCrC Can´t DC a sCC¡a¡¡st CCCnCm¸ ¡n CnC CCuntt¸.
ÌCarmamCnt Das ¡nCV¡taD¡¸ sCt tDC Ìuss¡an QrC¡CUrÎat a ¡Cn_ ?a¸
DaCK ¡n D¡stCr¸¸ DaCK tC sta_Cs C! D¡stCt¡Ca¡ dCVC¡CQmCnt ?D¡CD DaVC
¡Cn_ s¡nCC DCCn CVCttaKCn ¬ amCn_ CtDCts¸ tDC mCnarCD¡C sta_C.
Ìuss¡a ¡s nC? undCr QCrsCna¡ tu¡C. Ln¡¸ D¡CCKDCads Can dCn¸ tD¡s¸
C! CCursC.´ ¯D¡s ?as a sDCtt CCnVCrsaOCn ?D¡CD ?as sCCn ¡ntCrtUQ-
tCd. ¬ Ï sDCu¡d add tDat ¡n tD¡s CCntCXt ÛrCCDt CmQDas¡ZCd tDat as a
rCsu¡t C! tDC d¡ssC¡uOCn C! tDC Í¡rst ÏntCrat¡Cna¡¸ NarX and Ín_C¡s
¡Cst aCt¡VC CCntaCt ?¡tD tDC ?CrK¡n_-C¡ass mCVCmCnt and tDCrC-
a!tCr _aVC Cn¡¸ adV¡CC ¬ C! a Qr¡VatC naturC¸ nCt ¡ntCndCd !Cr QuD¡¡-
Cat¡Cn ~ tC ¡nd¡V¡dua¡ ¡CadCrs. ÏCr ?as ¡t an aCC¡dCnt ¬ a¡tDCu_D
rC_rCttaD¡C ¬ tDat Ín_C¡s at tDC Cnd C! D¡s ¡¡!C turCd tC tDC natUta¡
sC¡CnCCs.
Ûc¡a Þun¸ DC sa¡d¸ ¾ D¡s _rCatCst adm¡rCr ¡n Ìuss¡a. ÛrCCDt and
1C¡nC ?CrC tDC Cn¡¸ LCrman QCCts Þun stUd¡Cd [sic]. ¸LCCas¡Cna¡¡¸
ÛrCCDt DÎnts at tDC CX¡stCnCC C! a CCrta¡n QCrsCn Cn tDC LCntta¡ LCm-
mÎttCC ?DC suQQCrts D¡m.)
?¤ ¸u¸. `CstCrda¸ mCr¡n_ ÛrCCDt CamC CVCr tC m¸ Q¡aCC tC rCad
mC D¡s Ota¡¡n QCCm¸ ?DÍCD ¡s Cnt¡t¡Cd `¯DC ÍCasant tC D¡s LX´. ¬t
Urst Ï d¡d nCt _Ct ¡ts mCan¡n_ CCmQ¡CtC¡¸¸ and ?DCn a mCmCnt ¡atCr
tDC tDCu_Dt C! Ota¡¡n QassCd tDtCu_D m¸ DCad¸ Ï d¡d nCt darC
CntCrta¡n ¡t. ¯D¡s ¾ mCrC Cr ¡Css tDC ChCCt ÛrCCDt ¡ntCndCd¸ and DC
CXQ¡a¡nCd ?Dat DC mCant ¡n tDC CCnVCrsaOCn ?DÍCD !C¡¡C?Cd. ÏtDÍs
CCnVCtsat¡Cn DC CmQDas¡ZCd¸ amCn_ CtDCr tD¡n_s¸ tDC QCs¡t¡VC
asQCCts C! tDC QCCm. Jt ?as ¡n !aCt a QCCm ¡n DCnCur C! Ota¡Ín¸ ?DC
¡n D¡s CQ¡n¡Cn Das ¡mmCnsC mCr¡t. Ûut OU¡¡n ¡s nCt ¸Ct dCad. ÛCs¡dCs¸
a dÎhCrCnt¸ mCrC CntDus¡asOC mannCr C! DCnCur¡n_ Ota¡¡n ¡s nCt
¡nCumDCnt uQCn ÛrCCDt¸ ?DC ¡s s¡tt¡n_ ¡n CX¡¡C and ?a¡On_ !Cr tDC
ÌCd ¬rm¸ tC marCD ¡n. 1C ¡s !C¡¡C?¡n_ tDC dCVC¡CQmCnts ¡n Ìuss¡a
and a¡sC tDC ?rÎt¡n_s C! ¯rCtsK¸. ¯DCsC QrCVC tDat tDCrC CX¡sts a
susQ¡C¡Cn ¬ a ¡ust¡UaD¡C CnC ¬ dCmandín_ a sCCQt¡Ca¡ aQQraÍsa¡ C!
Ìuss¡an aha¡rs. OuCD sCCQt¡C¡sm ¡s ¡n tDC sQ¡t¡t C! tDC NatX¡st C¡ass¡Cs.
ODCu¡d tDC susQ¡C¡Cn QrCVC CCrrCCt CnC da¸¸ tDCn ¡t ?Ρ¡ DCCCmC nCC-
Cssar¸ tC U_Dt tDC rC_¡mC¸ and ¸uòùc¸. Ûut¸ `un!CttUnatC¡¸ Cr LCd
t t á
DC QraÎsCd¸ VOÎCOCVCr ¸Ou QrC!Cr´¸ tOC susQÎCÎOn Îs at QrCsCnt nOt
¸Ct a CCttaÎnt¸. ¯OCrC Îs nO justÎFCatÎOn !Or COnsttuCtÎn_ uQOn Ît a
QOÌÎC¸ suCO as ¯rOtsJ. _´s. `1nd tOCn tOCrC´s nO dOuDt tOat CCrtaÎn
CrÎmÎnaÌ CÌÎQuCs rCaÌ̸ arC at VOrR În ÍussÎa ÎtsCÌ!. LnC Can sCC Ît¸
!rOm tÎmC tO tÎmC¸ D¸ tOC Oarm tOC¸ dO.´ ÌÎnaÌ̸ ÛrCCOt QOÎntCd Out
tOat VC LCtmans OaVC DCCn CsQCCÎaÌ̸ aUCCtCd D¸ tOC sCtDaCRs VC
OaVC suUCrCd În Our OVn COuntr¸. `NC OaVC Oad tO Qa¸ !Or tOC stand
VC tOOR¸ VC´rC COVCrCd VÎtO sCars. 1t´s On̸ naturaÌ tOat VC sOOuÌd
DC CsQCCÎaÌ̸ sCnsÎtÎVC.´
¯OVards CVCnÎn_ ÛrCCOt !Ound mC În UC _ardCn rCadÎn_ 6o¸i:o!.
ÛrCCOt: `1 tOÎnR Ît´s VCt¸ _OOd tOat ¸Ou´rC stud¸În_ `atX just nOV¸
at a tÎmC VOCn OnC COmCs aCrOss OÎm ÌCss and ÌCss¸ CsQCCÎaÌ̸ amOn_
Our QCOQÌC.´ 1 rCQÌÎCd tOat 1 QrC!Cr stud¸În_ tOC mOst taÌRCd-aDOut
autOOrs VOCn tOC¸ arC Out O! !asOÎOn. NC VCnt On tO dÎsCuss
ÍussÎan ÌÎtCrar¸ QOÌÎC¸. 1 saÎd¸ rC!CtrÎn_ tO LuR8Cs¸ L8DOr and
ÞurCÌÌa: `¯OCsC QCOQÌC just arCn´t an¸tOÎn_ U VrÎtC OOmC aDOut´
[ÌÎtCraÌ̸: VÎtO tOCsC QCOQÌC ¸Ou Can´t maRC statC]. ÛrCCOt: `Lr ratOCr¸
a OtatC Îs aÌÌ ¸Ou con maRC VÎtO tOCm¸ Dut nOt a COmmunÎt¸. ¯OC¸
arC¸ tO Qut Ît DÌunt̸¸ CnCmÎCs O! QrOduCtÎOn. VrOduCtÎOn maRCs tOCm
unCOm!OrtaDÌC. `Ou nCVCr RnOV VOCrC ¸Ou arC VÎtO QrOduCnOn¡
QrOduCtÎOn Îs tOC un!OrsCCaDÌC. `Ou nCVCr RnOV VOat´s _OÎn_ tO
COmC Out. 1nd tOC¸ tOCmsCÌVCs dOn´t Vant tO QrOduCC. ¯OC¸ Vant
tO QÌa¸ tOC o¸¸oro:ckik and CXCrCÎsC COntrOÌ OVCr OtOCr QCOQÌC. 1VCr¸
OnC O! tOCÎr CrÎtÎCÎsms COntaÎns a tOrCat.´ NC tOCn _Ot On tO LOCtOC´s
nOVCÌs¸ 1 dOn´t rCmCmDCr OOV; ÛrCCOt RnOVs On̸ tOC E!ec::·e
¬_ni:ies. ÏC saÎd tOat VOat OC admÎrCd aDOut Ît Vas tOC autOOr´s
¸OutO!uÌ CÌC_anCC. NOCn 1 tOÌd OÎm LOCtOC VtOtC tOÎs nOVCÌ at tOC
a_C O! sÎXt¸¸ OC Vas VCr¸ muCO surQrÎsCd. ¯OC DOOR¸ OC saÎd¸ Oad
nOtOÎn_ QOÎÌÎstÎnC aDOut Ît. ¯Oat Vas a trCmCndOus aCOÎCVCmCnt.
ÏC RnCV a tOÎn_ Or tVO aDOut QO!ÌÎst!nÎsm; aÌÌ LCrman dtama¸ În-
CÌudÎn_ tOC mOst sÎ_nÎÞCant VOrRs¸ ¾sUmQCd V!tO Ît. 1 rCmarRCd
tOat E!ec:ive ¬_ni:ies Oad DCCn VCr¸ Dad̸ rCCCÎVCd VOCn Ît CamC
Out. ÛrCCOt. `1´m QÌCasCd tO OCar Ît. ~ ¯OC LCrmans arC a ÌOus¸
natÎOn [ein Sckeissvo9]. 1t Îsn´t trUC tOat OnC must nOt draV COn-
CÌusÎOns !rOm ÏÎtÌCr aDOut LCrmans În _CnCraÌ. 1n mC¸ tOO¸ CVCt¸-
tOÎn_ tOat Îs LCrman Îs Dad. ¯OC ÎntOÌCtaDÌC tOÎn_ aDOut us LCts
6onverso:ions ×i:k Breck: ¡:¸
:s Cut narrCV-m:nOCO :nOCQCnOCnCC. ÌCVDCtC Vas tDCtC suCD a tD:n_
as tDC !tCC C:t:Cs C! tDC LCtman ÌC:CD¸ Ì:RC tDat ÌCus¸ Ju_sDut_.
L¸Cns ¾ nCVCt a !tCC C:t¸¡ tDC :nOCQCnOCnt C:t¡Cs C! tDC ÌCna:s-
sanCC VCtC C:t¸ statCs. ¬ LuRaCs :s a LCtman D¸ CDC:CC. 1C´s _Ct nC
stUmn_ ÌC!t :n D:m¸ nCnC VDatsCCVCt.´
OQCaR:n_ C! Tòe .os: Beou:q Je¿en¿s o] ºo¸nok :ke Bri¿ono
D¸ Jnna OC_DCts¸ ÜtCCDt Qta¡sCO tDC DCCR DCCausC :t sDCVs tDat
OC_DCts :s nC ÌCn_Ct Vt:Cn_ tC CtOCt. `OC_DCts CaD´t QtCOuCC tC
CtOCt¸ ¡ust as¸ V:tDCut an CtOCt¸ 1 VCuÌOD´t CVCn RnCV DCV tC start
Vt:t:n_.´ 1C aÌsC Qt8:sCO tDC stCt¡Cs !Ct DaV:n_ a tCDCÌÌ:Cus¸ sCÌ:t8r¸
D_utC as tDC:t CCnttaÌ cataCtCt.
ac ¸u¸. ÜtCCD¡ Ìast n:_Dt: `²DCtC Can´t DC an¸ OCuDt aDCut :t
an¸ ÌCn_Ct: tDC sO__ÌC a_a:nst :OCCÌC_¸ Das DCCCmC a nCV :OCC-
ÌC_¸.´
a¸ juj. ÜtCCDt tCaO tC mC sCmC QCÌCm:CÌ tCXts DC Das Vr:ttCn as
Qatt C! D:s CCnDCVCts¸ V:tD LuRaCs¸ stUO:Cs !Ct an Cssa¸ VD:CD :s tC
DC QuDÌ:sDCO :n Da ºor:. 1C asRCO m¸ aOV:CC VDCtDCt tC QuDÌ:sD
UCm. Js¸ at tDC samC CmC¸ DC tCÌO mC tDat LuRaCs´s QCs:t:Cn `CVCt
tDCtC´ :s at tDC mCmCnt VCr¸ sttCn_¸ 1 tCÌO D¡m 1 CCuÌO CnCt nC
aOV:CC. ´²DCtC atC QuCst:Cns C! QCVCt :nVCÌVCO. `Cu Cu_Dt tC _Ct
tDC CQ:n:Cn C! sCmCDCO¸ !tCm CVCt tDCtC. `Cu´VC _Ct !t¡CnOs
tDCtC¸ DaVCn´t ¸Cu:´ ¬ÜtCCDt: ´JCtuaÌ̸¸ nC¸ 1 DaVCn´t. ÌC:tDCt DaVC
tDC NusCCV:tCs tDCmsCÌVCs ¬ Ì¡RC tDC OCaO.´
_ ¬u¿us:. Ln zg]u̸ :n tDC CVCn¡D_¸ VD:ÌC VC VCtC :n tDC _atOCn¸
tDC CCnVCtsat:Cn CamC tCunO tC tDC QuCst:Cn VDCtDCt a Qatt C! tDC
6kiloren's Son¿s C¸CÌC sDCuÌO DC :nCÌuOCO :n tDC nCV VCÌumC C!
QCCms. 1 Vas nCt :n !aVCut DCCausC Î tDCu_Dt tDat tDC CCnttast
DCtVCCn tDC QCÌ:CC¡ anO tDC Qt:VatC QCCms maOC tDC CXQCt:CnCC C!
CX:ÌC Qart:CuÌat̸ CXQÌ:C:t¸ anO tD:s CCnttast VCuÌO DC O:m:n:sDCO D¸
tDC :nC¡us:Cn C! a O:sQ8tatC sCQuCnCC. Ï sa¸:D_ tD:s 1 QtCDaD̸
:mQÌ:CO tDat tDC su__Cst:Cn CnCC a_a:n tCDCCtCO tDC OCsttuCt¡VC
asQCCt C! ÜtCCDt´s CDaraCtCt¸ VD:CD QuU CVCt¸tD:n_ :n Oan_Ct
a¡mCst DC!CtC :t Das DCCn aCD:CVCO. ÜtCCDt: `1 RnCV; tDC¸´ÌÌ sa¸ C!mC
t?o
IBaI Ì Vas man¡C. Ì! IBC B¡sIOt¸ O! OUt I¡mC ¡s BandCd dOVn IO IBC
!UIUtC¸ IBC CaQaC¡I¸ IO UndCtsIand m¸ man¡a V:¡¡ DC BandCd dOVn
V¡IB ¡I. ÅBC I¡mCs WC ¡¡VC ¡n V¡¡¡ maKC a DaCRdtOQ IO m¸ man¡a.
ÛUI VBaI Ì sBOU¡d tCa¡¡¸ ¡¡KC VOU¡d DC !Ot QCOQ¡C IO sa¸ aDOUI mC:
BC Vas a mooerote man¡C.´ ~ Ï¡s d¡sCOVCt¸ O! mOdCtaI¡On¸ ÛtCCI
sa:d¸ sBOU¡d Und CXQtCss¡On ¡n IBC QOCIt¸ VO¡UmC: IBC tCCO_n¡I¡On
tBat ¡¡!C _OCs On dCsQ¡IC Ï¡UCt¸ IBaI IBCtC V¡¡¡ a¡Va¸s DC CB¡¡dtCn.
ÏC Vas IB¡nK¡n_ O! IBC `CQOCB V¡IBOUI B¡sIOt¸´ O! VB¡CB BC sQCaKs
¡n B¡s QOCm addtCssCd IO atI¡sIs. ¬ !CV da¸s ¡aICt BC IO¡d mC BC
IBOU_BI IBC COm¡n_ O! sUCB an CQOCB mOtC ¡¡KC¡¸ IBan V¡CIOt¸ OVCt
!asC¡sm. ÛUI IBCn BC addCd¸ V¡IB a VCBCmCnCC BC tatC¡¸ sBOVs¸ ¸CI
anOIBCt at_UmCnI ¡n !aVOUt O! ¡nC¡Ud¡n_ IBC Cki!oren`s Son¿s ¡n IBC
1oems ]:om E×i!e. `·C mUsI nC_¡CCI nOIB¡n_ ¡n OUt sDu__¡C a_a¡nst
IBaI ¡OI. ·BaI IUC¸´tC Q¡ann¡n_ ¡s nOIB¡n_ sma¡¡¸ maKC nO m¡sIaKC
aDOUI ¡I. ÅBC¸´tC Q¡ann¡n_ !Ot tB¡tI¸ IBOUsand ¸Cats aBCad. LO¡Ossa¡
IB¡n_s. LO¡Ossa¡ Ct¡mCs. ÅBC¸ sIOQ aI nOIB¡n_. ÅBC¸´tC OUI IO dCs-
ItO¸ CVCt¸IB¡n_. LVCt¸ ¡¡V¡n_ CC¡¡ COnItaCIs UndCt IBC¡t D¡OVs. ÅBaI
¡s VB¸ VC IOO mUsI IB¡nK O! CVCt¸IB¡n_. ÅBC¸ Ct¡QQ¡C tBC DaD¸ ¡n
IBC mOIBCt´s VOmD. ·C mUsI On nO aCCOUnI ¡CaVC OUI IBC CB¡¡dtCn.´
·B¡¡C BC ¾ sQCaKÍn_ ¡¡RC IB¡s Ì !C¡I a QOVCt DC¡n_ CXCtC¡sCd OVCt
mC VB¡CB Vas CQUa¡ ¡n sItCn_IB IO tBC QOVCt O! !asC¡sm ~ Ì mCan
a QOVCt IBaI sQtan_ !tOm tBC dCQIBs O! B¡sIOt¸ nO ¡Css dCCQ IBan UC
QOVCt O! IBC !asC¡sIs. ÌI Vas a VCt¸ CUt¡OUs !CC¡¡n_¸ and nCV IO mC.
ÅBCn ÛtCCBI´s IBOU_BIs IOOK anOtBCt IUO¸ VB¡CB UtIBCt ¡nICns¡UCd
IB¡s !CC¡¡n_ Ì BaC. `ÅBC¸´tC Q¡ann¡n_ dCVasIat¡Ons On an ¡C¸ sCa¡C.
ÅBaI´s VB¸ tBC¸ Can´I tCaCB a_tCCmCnI V¡IB IBC LBUtCB¸ VB¡CU ¡s
a¡sO _CatCd IO IBOUsands O! ¸Cats. ¬nd IBC¸´VC QtO¡CIat¡an¡ZCd mC
IOO. ÌI ¡sn´I jUsI IBaI tBC¸´VC IaKCn m¸ BOUsC, m¸ hsB-QOnd and m¸ Cat
!tOm mC¡ IBC¸´VC a¡sO tODDCd mC O! m¸ sta_C and m¸ aUd¡CnCC.
ÎtOm VBCtC Ì sIand IOda¸ Ì Can´I¸ as a maIICt O! QtÎnC¡Q¡C¸ adm¡I
IBaI OBaKCsQCatC´s Ia¡CnI Vas _tCaICt IBan m¡nC. ÛUI OBaKCsQCatC
COU¡dn´I BaVC VtÎIICn jUsI !Ot B¡s dCsK dtaVCt¸ an¸ mOtC IBan Ì Can.
ÛCs¡dCs¸ BC Bad B¡s CBataCICts ¡n !tOnI O!B¡m. ÅBC QCOQ¡C BC dCQ¡CICd
VCtC tUnn¡n_ atOund ¡n IBC sItCCIs. ÏC jUsI ODsCtVCd tUC¡t DCBaV¡OUt
and Q¡CKCd OUt a !CV IDÎIs¡ IBCtC VCtC man¸ OtBCts¸ ¡UsI as ÎmQOtIanI¸
tBaI BC ¡C!I OUI.´
6onversorions ×iJ Breck: t ?t
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dtCd_Cd UQ !tCm IBC dCQIBs C! IBC sCa Ín IBC !Ctm C! BCOCd UsB Ct
CtBCt mCnsICrs.
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IB:n_s DUI IBC Dad nCV CnCs.´
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`LOmmCRI8tIC8 OR VOCm8 D¸ DrCCDI´: `LR IDC Orudrc:´ 8RO `LR IDC
1cccck jcr Lt_-dwcÍÍr:´¸ ht`8I QuDÌ:8DCO :R Ïcr:ucnc ucr 1rccnt¸
1Q66¸ ItOm uRQuDÌI8DCO m8Ru8Ct:Q!8¡ ´LR !DC ¨ÍC_CRO O! IDC LrI_:R
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OcnntdQ, 2] fQt:Ì 1Q]Q¸ 8ÌÌ OIDCt COmmCR!8t:C8¸ ht8I QuDÌISDCO :R
N8ÌICr DCR]8m:R¸ Ocnr;]:cn¸ VOÌ. 2¸ Ï:8RK!utI¸ 1Q) ) .
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cmucn¸ Ït8RK!utI¸ 1Q6O.
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!rOm 8R uRQuDÌ:8DCO m8Ru8C:IQI.
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LDa:¡cma_nc¸  2¿
LDOQ:n¸  1:cdcr:c¸  11q
LOnÍuc:us¸  öq¿ 1O¸
lantc  f¡:_D:c::¸  1 1q
lcDmc¡¸  1:cDa:d¸  61
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