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nderstandng Brecht

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Introduction S:onle .i:ckell vu
hat is tpic Theatre` [Iirst versionj :
The Country here it is Ior Lidden to
Conversations ith 5recht :o;
hat is tpic Theatre` [Second version | :;
S:udies or a Theory o tpic Theatre :
Irom the 5recht Commenury :;
^ IamiIy Drama in the tpic Theatre
Mention the Proletariat ;
Commentaries on Poems Ly 5recht
+

5recht's 7kreeenn 7ovel ;;
The ^uthor 3 Producer 8;
5iLliographical Iotes :::
Index ::
cr`! m t. c _r8tct U bU b tcCht
aod tc mcthuco 1td 1Or thHr kod QctmOo tO tcgrOduCc thc
Q0cm D cttOlt tcCht uw o th8 DOOk.
Jrwumtorrnotr: haVc cmm thc c cdtOo 1 zur
rrct, uaoslatcd Vaul 8Vu [b1aogO8 n,Vat8 1y0))
aod UUtatOo Ot `hat Q0 m arr Oho o
nm [Ooath8o Lg d aHOurt mCc _OVOV0h
OodOo aod cW Otk 1y)O) 8od Ot `Dc uthOt VtOdu0ct D_
]Oho c o 1JcjJrw oO. Z [LOodOo Iy)O)
oc OthctWc odtcd all tOOmOtc takcn Om thc
LcDnao cdtOo.
cnjmn hd Wht ukC cnormousl
1Okcd, unquc cyc QtOscl or s_nhCnt
dct8 or thc m8r@n ... or thc mQn_n_
nd unoustomcd un9tO gttOutty
WhOh doc not ht n nd thcrcotc
dcrcs gutc sQccl nd nCsVc ttcnton.
[rxsx uoc]
0
1kc %ykoVsk nd thc ussn ormlsts
rcOI nd cnjmn otm onc o thc Ol8sO ltcrry Qrtncrshgs o
thc tcVoutonary OoOI movcmcnt. cr wluonshQ
hoWcvct
s onl noW Omn_ to lgt, or t not unt Iht UIc mjort
o Hjmns ess on rcOht Wcrc gublshcd.
cnjamn n ttO o lcItcts, boH o Wcll-
to-do L ]cWsh m n tQ2. 1n U Ooursc o s lctmc,
hc undcrcnt Comgl Cn_c, UanQosn_ thc sUuOturcs
nd
hbN o hs ctlcr mystl tou_ht to cntOh thc O8tc_oH o
%msm.
cn[mns dosnOttO nd dhOut t o mnd boOKtd hs
Wy to an OdcmO r. oCosuO uthortcs rcjcOtcd hs doOtora
Ihs [on thc Ot_ns o Lcrmn U_cdy] or nOomgrchcnsblt.
uI noI on thI: Hjmn Wth Oh8t8CtcrstO Ck o dQomOy
hd m ssuc Wth ]oh8nn Nolkct, onc o U:c omO Ihct-
Ons o Lctmn dcm. ttcd om scOurc _cmQomcnt hc
D n tnctanI M o cttcrs QO1cnOn_ tc ntclcOtul
grolcI8rnzIOn hc dOtbcs n hc fuUIor toduOcr. a hc
viii
gained a univetsity post it is dimcuIt to say ho his thought might
have deveIoped. i:h hindsight, many o his Marxist ideas are
traceaLIe in diEerent orms to the days Leore his proessionaI ate
decided. Hoever, hat is certain is that his precrious economic
position sharpened his attraction to Marxism. ^t one point he con-
tempIated joining the Communist Party.
The period as the Iate tenties and earIy thirties. ^sya lacs, a
Communist theatricaI producer, hom 5enjamin had met in Capri
in :gzq,introduced him to 5recht hom he visited requentIy during
the thirties, staying ith him or Iong periods during the Iatter's
Danish exiIe. Throughout the decade, :gjO to :gjg responding to
the rise and triumph o ascism, 5enjamin rote the present sketches
and studies. less ortunate than 5recht Iuck as not one o his stars,
5enjamin took his Iie in hight rom the Cestapo, hiIe attempting
to cross the Iranco-Spanish Lorder in :gqO.
5enjamin's riting is essayistic, aphoristic, ragmentary. tven his
doctoraI thesis is more a phiIosophicaI meditation than a systematic
exposition and demonstration. ^t 6rst it might seem odd that 5recht
came together ith 5enjamin and not ith someone more poIiticaIIy
committed, Ceorg lukacs, or instance. 5ut 5recht and lukacs
never sa eye to eye. hereas lukacs hostiIe to the experimen-
uI art o the tentieth century Lecause it Iacked a sense o totality
and perspective, 5recht shared ith 5enjamin 8 scvenging, magpie
temperament, receptive to the oten agmented nature o modem
art and Iiterature. 5enjamin an extravagant coIIector and anti-
quarian, a passionate roamer and oLserver o cities, ho couId
extract cuIturaI histories rom ayside odds and ends.
The diary extract, 'Conversations ith 5recht', hich concIudes
this voIume, seems to sho 5recht as the giver, 5enjamin the taker,
hich as no douLt true psychoIogicaIIy. 5enjamin's oId Zionist
riend, Cershom SchoIem, rote: '5recht as the harder nature and
made a deep impac: upon the more sensitive 5enjamin ho entireIy
Iacked athIetic quaIities.` InteIIectuaIIy, the reIationship is certainIy
more compIex and to-sided. There are, or instance, strong indica-
tions that the ideas and impIications o 'epic theatre' ere common
to them Loth Leore they met.
7n:room:ion ix
Jhis diary exuact (never intended or publication) is so vaIuabIe
because it gives the immediate atmosphere o the two men's con-
versations, their cst o mind, manner o speech, ondness or
image, parabIe, aIIegory, aphorism, aII o which we 5nd separateIy
in their writings. Yhereas ben|amin was the more mephoricaI
thinker, rom brecht he Ieamt - what his ormer associates, rom
Gershom SchoIem to J. Y. ^domo, aIways depIored, considered
disastrous- 'crude thinking' (laes Deoken ), that need or thought
to simpIi[ itseI, crystaIIize out into essentiaIs beore it couId be
made practice.
ben|amin beIonged to a generation o thinkers who, in the years
|ust preceding the Iirst YorId Yar, rebeIIed against the Iinguistic
barrenness o German academic discourse. 1n diherent ways these
thinkers sought to vaIidate and discover meaning by revitaIizing
the semantic and metaphorical attributes o Ianguage itseI. Marxism
bene5ted rom this generation in the writings o ben|amin, bIoch,
and ^domo. ^t the same time, IittIe wiII be gained rom these Marx-
isu, i they are approached with a 'commonsense', materiaIistic
gauge. Here, as or poetry, one must oIIow Goethe`s dictum:
Per den Licbter wvercteben
ucc mLicbterc 1=e Jeo.
[f the poet you'd undersnd,
You must go Into me poet's Iand.]
Yith ben|amin it was the poet, brecht, who was abIe to toughen
the materiaIist sinews o the critic.
7ke .ooe Soge
Jwo things, essentiaIIy, Iinked brecht and ben|amin: a simiIar
historicaI imagination and a simiIar humanism. like Gramsci they
were distinguished rom the ociaI Communist movement o the
thirties by a deep historicI pessimism into which, according to
!omain !oIIand's ormuIa, 'essimism o the 1nteIIect, Cptimism
o the YiII', they pIanted seedIings o hope, and upon which they
grounded a diaIecticaI unders:anding o past and uture. ^s with
X
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COQOd OOm amOn_ tbC QOtCnta `WsC mCn O tbC `Oad nCW
days. t s Wtb tbCm VCtms and Otsam O mass sOCCty tbat rCCbt
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nOt QrOdUCn_ `rOUndCd ObaraCtCrs rCCbt rCOnCd tbat dCbUman2-
atOn WOUd nOt OC tCd Oy CaVn_ tbC mass OUt Oy OCCOmIn_ Qatt
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X
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mans a man: ths s nOt !CCty tO any sn_C CssCnCC O! OnCs OWn
OUt a COntnUa tCaCnCss tO aCmt a nCW CssCnCC. hC `OaC nCW
Cays CCsttOy QCtsOnaty CtCatC anOnymty. tCCht anC Cnamn
statt Wth thC anOnymOUs man anC CnCOUta_C hs tCsCnOC sO that
thC `hatC thn_ may _VC Way. Ut OCCUsC O! thCt !Cat O! a nCW
CatK ?_C thCy thnK n a QCtsQC0tVC Wh0h _OC8 DCyOnC thO !m-
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Iy WhCtC QUatCs KC CUnnn_ anC CnCUtanCC atC mOtC mQOttant
than hCtOsm. tCChts Ctama anC QOCtty !Otm a hUmanst vooemecum
!Ot CatK a_Cs. s `hCtOCs atC tCsOUtCC!U hUmOtOUs nOOOCCs.
Eic 7keo:re
LQC thCattC :s thC QtOCUCt O! a kisroricol ma_naCOn. tCChts
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y ! thC QtOCOssCs O! hstOty atC tCVaUCC. nChts Ctama s a CC-
OCtatC UnsCatn_ O! thC sUQtCmaCy O! tta_CCy anC tta_C nCVtaO-
ty. s `hstOtC QCssmsm CUts thC _tOUnC !tOm UnCCt thC ttUy
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tOty Cnam!n COmmCnts. `t Cn haQQCn ths Way OUt t C asO
haQQCn QUtC a CUCtCnt Way that s thC !UnCamCnta atttUCC O!
OnC WhO WttCs !Ot CQC thCattC. hC QOssOty that hstOty m_ht
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tOty OUt thC nCOmmCnsUtaOC anC thC sn_Uat.
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7nrrooucrun X
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C! sCnstCn and rCCt. %Cnta_C bCCmC !Cr m tC mCdCt CCn-
sOUCtVC aCtVC UnmCanCCy !Ctm C! aC_Cry namCy tC abty
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cWrtn_ CCnCCCs tsC! Wt sCCK as tC Qrmary CXQCrCnCC C!
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sCntatCn s nCVCr CCmQCtC n tsCl bUt s CQCny and CCntnUay
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mCmCnt stand CUtsdC tCmsCVCs and sCW tCmsCVCs tC bC
aCtCrs.
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mCn. Cnamn QCnts tC tC CUstCm C! LnCsC tCaOC tC `maKC
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XV
V8 thc mcOcV8! mystcty Q!8y LcC8n O8rOQuc Ot8m8 Cctt8n
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8t 8!! t8thct th8n 8n OVct_rOWn st8!Kn_-tt8CK 8!On_ WhCh thc
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suO!mc Out O8ttcn m8ss O C!8ssCsm.
cnj8mn QuOtcs tOm thc c8t!y LuKCs tO OunO 8 thcOty WhCh
Kcs 8n Cnttc!y OQQOscO OtcCtOn tO LuKCss OWn suOscQucnt
Om8!ut_y. hc !8tct LuK8C COnCcCcO Wth thc `m8n !nc O
hstOry ttc8tcO st8!Kn_-tt8CKs 8s Cthct nOn-cXstcnt Ot unWOtthy
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thc O8!O_uc [t s nOt 8!W8ys): Out cQC thc8ttc nccO nOt Ot th8t
tsOn Oc 8ny thc !css Qh!OsOQhc!.
1n tcChts tt8nsOC8tOn thc s8_c tOm L8!y L8y n .on's
o .on tO zO8K n thc Coucosion Cko 6i:le 8nO M8tt n He
1unrdo, s 1hc DWhO h8s suhctcO 8nO tt8Vc!!cO muCh WhO Ch8n_cs
Ds tO!c tO sut hs CrCumst8nCcs. c s n cn8mns WOtOs `8n
cmQty st8_c On WhCh thc COntt8OCtOns O Out sOCc!y 8 8CtcO
Out. 1t s thtOu_h ths `cmQty COnscntn_ Q!8nt 8O8QO!c `hctO
th8t sOmc O thc QtnCQ!cs O mOnt8_c Ie]:emoung [8!cn8tOn)
cXCh8n_n_ tO!Cs 8nO OcnttCs m8y Ocst Oc cn8CtcO. ouCh 8 OcvCc
s uscO Oy L!Ot n 7Xe osre Jono, n thc h_utc O thc hcrm8QhtO-
Otc O!nO scct tcs8s WhO D8s sccn cvctythn_ OcOm WhO Wt-
nCssc 8nO suhcrs cVcrythn_ 8_8n. ut hc s 8 h_utc O nOst8!_8
7n:roouc:ion xv
a traditionaI stoic sage who speaks the Ianguage o snobbish irony
and C bequeath nothing to posterity but the primaI syIIabIes o
the 1ndo-uropean tongue. brecht's sages or 'thinking men' are by
contrast men o sense and vimIity. GaIy Gay Ieams his Iesson,
masters his situation, and or aII his adaptabiIity, indeed because o
it, proves the onIy humane person in the pIay, abIe to show 'riendIi-
ness' to the man whose identity he aIIowed himseI to rob. ^zdak,
the rogue, C make justice reign or a brie taIismanic hour. GaIiIeo,
though not a man o the peopIe, but who beIongs with the 'adapt-
abIe' heroes, C in the second version o the pIay, which ben|a-
min did not Iive to read, make a seI-critique o the scientist that
encompasses the history o proessionaI men rom the !enaissance
to the present.
1n his metaphysicaIIy probing thought, ben|amin sees brecht's
epic theatre as a orm not mereIy o 'Socratic', but o truIy Iatonic
drama. Jhe aim o the address, 'Jhe ^uthor as roducer', is to hnd
a poIiticI answer, a poIiticI roIe or the artist that wouId pIacte
Iato's strictures in the FeUlx. benjamin's historicI imagination
uncovers a path that Ieads rom the diaIogues to epic theatre. 1n his
disquisitions on brecht, benjamin seeks to rescue the artist in Iato,
whom Iato himseI eared.
r: ono 1oli:ics
1n one respect, by eIiding the poIiticization o art with the use o
artistic 'means o production' or apparatus, benjamin and brecht at
times constricted the reIauonship between poIitics and art. brecht,
in his Iater theory and practice, was abIe to cIariy this conusion.
ben|amin died beore he couId compIeteIy think through a new
materiaIist aesthetics.
brecht's earIier attitudes were shaped by iscator and the !ussian
ex-Iuturists, Iike Jretyakov, or whom the destruction o a theatre
o iIIusion meant a rontaI attack on the bourgeoisie itseI. StanisIav-
skian reproduction was considered bourgeois as such. Jo be anti-
bourgeois or proIetarian was to show how things worked, whiIe
they were being shown, to 'Iay bare the device' (in the words o the
XV
UssanOrmasts).rtsbOUObCCOnsOCrCOa!OrmO!QrOOUCtOn
nOt a mystCry tbC sta_C sbOUO aQQCar KC a !aCtOry Wtb tbC
maCbnCrytyCXQOsCO.
LCrtany tbC OrC Or LOrntban Qars WbCb !rOntCO tbC
bOUr_COs banK sCrVCO a rCaCtOnary QUrQOsC. Ut tbC mOOCr
_ass-QatCObanKssbOWnOtbn_mOrCO!tbCWOrKn_sO!CaQtasm.
s an anaO_y Wtb rCCbtan tbCOry tbs WOUO bC CruOC anO Un-
!ar!Or asWCbaVC sCCn tWasQrCCsCytbCUsC O!mOnta_C WbCb
COnstruCtCO tbC QOtCa COnnCCtOns tbat WCrC nOt mmCOatCy
VsbC. `CVCrtbCCss tbrOU_bOUt tbC C!t-Wn_ aVant-_arOC O!
tbC tWCntCs anO tbrtCstbC bCC! QrCOOmnatCO tbattO attaCK anO
rCQUOatC `UsOnsm Or `rCQrOOUCtOn tsC! COnsttUtCO a QrO-
_rCssVC QOtCa aCt COnsttUtCO :e Way n WbCb QOtCs COUO
CntCrOrCCtyntO art. bs bCC! COntnUCs tO aCCt a raOC anO
C!t tbnKn_OnaCstbCtCs tOOay.
Cnamns OCVCOQmCnt UQ tO tbs QOnt baO bCCn sn_uar. C
bC_an VCry tyQCay !Or tbC tmC as an aCstbCtC QbOsOQbCr WbO
amCntCO tbC Qassn_ O! OO traOtOns as mOOCr tCCbnOO_y anO
masssOCCIytOOk tbCr QaCC. CWasanytbn_ bUta rCVOUtOnary
aVant-_arOC tbnKCr. C Was aWays aVant-_arOC bUt n tbC sQrt
O!anLOtWtbWbOmnOCCObCsbarCOa_rCatOCa:LOtsrCCOVCry
O! tbC mCtaQbysCa QOCts stCms !rOm tbC samC rOOts as Cnamns
ntCrCst n \Crman barOgUC Orama) anO as a CrtC bC matCbCO tbC
assOCatVC aC_OrCa QOWCrs O! LOts QOCtry.
CnamnsatttUOC tO tbCnCWsQaQCrUstratCsnstrtbCrCVOU-
tOn. n `bC OtOrytCCr bs Cssay On LCsKOV n 7llaino:ions,
Cnamn COntrasts tbC sC!-QrCsCrVn_, sC!-COntann_ QOWCrs O!
tbCstOrytbatmCstanCCntbCarCrO!WsOOmWtbtbCmCrC_Vn_-
OUtO!n!OrmatOn tbat screcellence tbC rOC O! tbC nCWsQaQCr.
n `bCUtbCras rOOUCCr QaraOOXCay QrObaby COmQOsCO
CarCrtban`bCOtOrytCCr)aCban_C O!CnOrmOUssCaCsCVOCnt
nbstbnKn_.bCnCWsQaQCrOratCasttbCCOntCmQOraryOOVCt
nCWsQaQCr Cn|amn bCrC OCsCrbCs as a `Vast mCtn_-OOWn QrO-
CCss WbCb`nOt OnyOCstrOys tbCCOnVCntOnasCQaratOnbCtWCCn
_CnrCsbCtWCCn WrtCranO QOCtsCbOaranO QOQUarzCrbUt `gUCs-
tOns CVCn tbC sCQaratOn bCtWCCn aUtbOr anO rCaOCr. bC `QaCC
7nrroomrwn XVII
WbCrC tbC WOrO Is mOst OCbasCO tbat IstO say tbC nCWsQaQCr
bCCOmCs tbC VCry QaCC WbCrC a rCsCUC OQCratIOn Can bC mOUntCO.
bC LbInCsC Wa nCWsQaQCr O! tbC LUtUra CVOUtIOn tbC
QOstCrs InsCrIQtIOns anO rOnCOCOsbCCts O! tbCarIsIan anOOtbCr)
stUOCnts In :6 a bCar CnamIn OUt anO mKC tbIs OnCC mCan-
CbOy mCtaQbysICa li::ro:eur IntO tbC !OrCmOstrCVOUtIOnary anO
raOICa CrItIC O! tbC nInCtCCn-sIXtICs anO sCVCntICs. bC sQrCaO O!
strCCt-tbCatrC a_ItQrOQ `IntCrCuOn IKCWIsC VInOIcatC CnmIns
anO rCCbtsVICWsO!tbCtbCaDC.1ttbCsamCtImCtbCIrCntbUsIasm
anOraOICIsmCOnCCaaQOtCntIaybarm!UOnC-sIOCOnCss.bUstbC
VCry OCmOcratIzatIOn O!art by mCans O! tbC mCOIa O!rCQrOOUCtIOn
IsUsCO tOOUst anOrCCCt a traOItIOna !Orms O!art assOCIatCOWItb
a OIVIsIOn O! QCr!OCCr anO aUOICnCC OWnCr anO OnOOKCr. Cna-
mIn sImQy IOCntICs `aUra tbC aCstbCtIC nImbUs sUrrOUnOIn_ a
WOrK O! art WItb QrOQCrty anOmCCbanIC rCQrOOUCtIOn WItb QrO-
CtarIanIzatIOn. L! COUrsC mCCbanICa rCQrOOUCtIOn Can bC anO Is
abUsCO anOabsOrbCObyCaQItaIsmanOCnamIn anCary QCr-
CCQtIVC OIa_nOstICIan O! tbIs Oan_Cr. 1s a QrCVCntIVC Or I! nCCCs-
sary a CUrC) bC ar_UCO !Or tbC sOCIa COntrO O! tbC mCOIa. n tbIs
tbCrC Was nOtbIn_ nCW. bat Was CbaCn_In_ Was tbC sU__CstIOn
tbatsUCbsOCIaCOntrOWOUOCrCatCnCW!OrmsO!art,mOrCtbattbC
QOItICIzatIOn O! tbC mCOIa WastbC samC astbC QOItICIzatIOn O! art.
n OtbCr WOrOs mCOIa anO art WCrC IOCntICO. bC OO OIstInCtIOn
bCtWCCn !Orm anO COntCnt Was abOIsbCO, !Orm ItsC! bCCamC
QOItICa.
ytbUs COaQsIn_COntCntIntO!Orm tbC ran_CO! !Orms may bC
rCstrICtCO.CCaUsCCnamInWastbCCbIOO!tbCrstQbasCO!a nCW
tCCbnOO_ICaCraWbCntCCbnIgUCs IKCQbOtO-mOnta_CbaOa OIrCCt
QOItICaCCCtbCsOmCtImCstCnOCOtOIsOatCtCCbnIgUCasQOItICay
CCCtIVC In ItsC! anO tOI_nOrC tbattbC QOItICIzatIOn O! tCCbnOO_y
InVOVCs tbC rCatIOns asWC as tbC mCans O! QrOOUCtIOn.
1t tbC samC tImC as bC CbamQIOnCO tbC `baO nCW tbIn_s Cn-
amInsQbIOsOQby O!bIstOry asWCbaVCsCCnrCgUIrCO a COnstant
battC On bCba! O! tbC Qast On bCba! O! Its VICtIms. 1C sOU_bt tO
sOVC tbIsCOntraOICtIOn WItbtbC COnCCQtO!eq:ei:, [`tbCQrCsCnCC
XV
O! tbc nOW] a DCs:oas, n Wbcb tmc stands st!! Wbctc Qast and
!utUtc cOnVct_c nOt batmOnOUs! bUt cXQlOsVc! n tbc Qtcscnt
nstant.
bs cOnccQt O! e:ei:, tO_ctbct Wtb tbat O! Emo::ungs:ok:ik
[`tactcs O! attttOn] Wctc tbc tWO dcas Ot QtcdsQOstOns tbat
dOmnatcd cnamns tbnKn_ dUtn_ bs !ast cats. eei: cn-
ta!cd tbc ab!t tO ntctvcnc n cVcnts Wbctbct as QO!tcan Ot n-
tc!!cctUa! tO `b!ast OQcn tbc cOntnUUm O! bstOt [OXtccntb bcss
On tbc b!OsOQb O! 1stOt]. bc dca s mQOttant n VcW O!
tbc QtO_tcssVst cVO!UtOnst dctctmnst ttadtOns O! OOca!
1cmOcrac On tbc Onc band Wncb cnamn cXQ!ct! attacKcd
n bs 'bcscs On tbc b\OsOQb O! stOt} and Uc `'tOQan
QOstVsm and Qta_matsm O! tbc OOVct !nOn Undct Ota!n On tbc
Otbct. |n !nKn_ tbc dca O! e::ei: Wtb tbc OOca!st tcVO!UtOnat
mOVcmcnt cnamn O\ns tanKs Wtb 'tamsC and tbc 1ucs O\
1|t:cry anJ C/a:: Ccn:cicu:ne:: Onc O! tbc NatX\st tcXts WbC mOst
nhUcnccd bm).
bc Otbct dca Ot atttUdc Emo:tungs:ok:ik, tccbt dcsctbcd n
a QOcm !U!! O! Qcssmsm Wtttcn a!tct cnamns dcatb.
trmattungstaktik wat, wo m oekagte
m 3cbacbccb tiqend in dc ribaumc 3cbatten.
Ler Feind, dr dick von deinen ricbe agte
/tt tick von untereinem nic.\t ermatten.
jacucs O! attruOn arc Wnat OU cnjOcd
ottn at mc cbcss taDc mtbc Qcat uccs sbadc.
bc cncm WbO dtOVc Ou !tOm OUt bOOKs
m nOt b WOm dOWn b tbc Kcs O! us.j
bc Qb!OsOQb O! Emo::ung dOmnatcs cnamns Wttn_s On
tccbt tbc bc!c! tbat n tbc cnd `tbc batd tbn_ _Vcs Wa. bc da-
!cctca! csscncc O! cnamns tbOU_bt !cs n tbc QO!att ofe::ei:
and Emo::ung, tbc `Ncssanc ntctvcnuOn n and cOnttO! OVct
bstOr [bOWcVct sma!! tbc QtOQOttOns and sbOtt!Vcd tbc dUtatOn)
tbc cXQcctatOn cXQtcsscd n tbc !ast `bcss On tbc b!OsOQb O!
1stOt tbat `cVct sccOnd O! tmc Was tbc stta_bt _atc tbtOU_b
Wbcb tbc Ncssab m_bt cOmc and tbc sObct sa_c-!Kc Qatcnt
7 n:roowtion X
WCarn_ OOWn O! barOnCss. 1t Was tbs sCnsC O! CXQCCtatOn tbat
Cnamns !rCnO anO COntCmQOrary Cst OCb transatCO ntO
tbC CtC_Ory O! `COnCrCtC tOQa Or tbC OntOO_Ca QrnCQC O!
bOQC.
OCb WrOtC O! Cnamns suCOC tbat t `a KnO O! Qartn_
Wtb!C nOt sO unCbaraCtCrstC O! bm ! OnC tbnKs O! 8 QbrasC O!
bsWbCbrCCa: `LCastO!abasOnC QOWCrOVCraOCaOman.n
a smar VCnrCCbt WrOtC n a sCCOnO QOCm On bs !rCnOs OCatb:
Zulett an eine unoerscbreitbare 6rene getrieben
Hast du, beisst es, eine oerscbreitbare :ioerscbritten
[L \LC CLO OtVCL \C 8n mQ8ss8O!C \tCn\Cr
`Ou =C DCat Q888CO OVCt Qa888OC OUC.]
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banOCO OVCr tO tbC \CstaQO tbC !OOWn_ Oay. rCCbt rCmarCO
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bJ^1 111
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On pagc 11.
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tCaity QCssCssCs !hCm thC_ dC!Cnd an aQQatatus CVCt WhICh thCy nC
Cn_Ct haVC CCnttC WhICh Is nC Cn_Ct a thCy stI OCICVC a
mCanso thC QtCduCCts Out has OCCCmC a mCans tC OC usCd a_aInst
thC QtCduCCts. Ith thCsC WCtds tCCht dIsQCs thC IusICn that
thCaUC tCday Is OasCd Cn ItCtatutC. hat Is ttuC nCIthCt !Ct thC
CCmmCtCIa thCattC nCt !Ct his L. |n OCth thC tCXt Is thC sCrVant:
In thC !CtmCt It sCtvCs tC KCCQ thC OusInCss _CIn_ In thC attCt tC
Chan_C It. CW Is suCh Chan_C QCssIOC: |s thCtC suCh a thIn_ as
dtama !Ct thC QuOIC Qat!Ctm ~ !Ct that Is What thC sta_C has OC-
CCmC - Ct as tCCht says !Ct `QuOIC QtCQa_anda InstItUtCs: nd
I! sC What Is Its natutCr hC Cny QCssIOItty C! dCIn_ justICC tC thC
QuOIC Qat!Ctm aQQCatCd tC haVC OCCn !Cund Oy thC thCattC C! Cut-
tCnt CVCnts thC Zei::eoter, In thC !Ctm C! QCItIC Qays. ut hCW-
CVCt thIs QCItIC thCattC !unCtICnCd sCCIay It QtCmCtCd thC CCCu-
QatICn Oy thC QtCCtattan masCs C! thC VCty QCsItICns WhtCh thC
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Out a CCnVCnICnt QuOIC CXhIOItICn atCa. 1Ct Its sU_C thC QuOIC Is
nC Cn_Ct a CCCCtICn C! hyQnCtICd tCst suOjCCts Out an asCmOy
C! IntCtCstCd QCtsCns WhCsC dCmands It must satIsQ. 1Ct Its tCXt thC
QCt!CtmanCC Is nC Cn_Ct a VIttuCsC IntCtQtCtatICn Out Its ti_CtCus
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!CtmanCC Out a _tId Cn WhICh In thC !Crm C! nCW !CtmuatICns thC
_aIns C! that QCt!CtmanCC atC matKCd. 1Ct It aCtCt thC QtCduCCt nC
Cn_Ct _IVCs hIm InsttuCtICns aOCut CUCCts Out thCsCs !Ct CCmmCnt.
1Ct Its QtCduCCt thC aCtCt Is nC Cn_Ct a mImC WhC must Cm-
OCdy a tCC Out a !unCtICnaty WhC has tC maKC an InVCntCty
C! It.
LCaty !unCtICns thus Chan_Cd must OC !CundCd Cn Chan_Cd
CCmCnts. tCCCnt Jj1) CtIn QCt!CtmanCC C! tCChts QataOC
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ko: u Eic Tkeo:re? [Firs: versionj
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C!u8Cn: IC UC:C !rCQucnI!y WC nICrruQI 8CUCCnC Cn_8_CC n 8n
8CICn IC UC:C _C8tu:C8 WC CDI8n. 1CnCC IC nICr:uQIn_ C!
8CICn 8 CnC C! IC Q:nCQ8 CCnCC:n8 C! CQC IC8I:C. JC:Cn !C8
IC !CtU8! 8CCVCUCnI C! D:CCI8 8Cn_8 WI IC: CtuCC C8:I-
:CnCn_ :C!:8n8. NICuI 8nICQ8In_ IC CUCu!I 8IuCy yCI IC DC
U8CC C! IC D1nCtCn C! IC ICXI n CQC IC8I:C WC C8n 8I !C88I 88y
I8I C!ICn I8 U8n D1nCICn 8 nCI IC !!u8tt8IC C: 8CV8nCC tC 8CICn
DuI Cn IC CCnI:8ry IC nIC:tuQI I: nCI Cn!y IC 8CICO C! CIC:8
4
OUt asO IhC aCtOn O! OnCs OWn. t s thC rCIardn_ gUaty O! thCsC
ntCrrUQtOns and thC CQsOdC gUaty O! Ihs !ramn_ O! aCtOn
WhCh aOWs _CstUta thCatrC tO OCCOmC CQC thCatrC.
hC jOO O! CQC thCatrC t has OCCn CXQanCd s nOt sO mUCh tO
dCVCOQ aCtOns as tO rCQrCsCnt COnduOns. mOst O! IhC sO_ans O! thC
dtamatUr_y O! CQC thCatrC haVC OCCn _nOrCd OUt ths OnC has at
Cast CrCatCd a msUndCrstandn_. CasOn CnOU_h tO taKC t UQ.
hOsC `COndtOns WhCh had tO OC rCQrCsCntCd WCrC thOU_ht tO OC
thC CQUVaCnt O! thC `mCU Or sOCa sCttn_ O! CarCr thCOrCt-
Cans. hUs UndCrstOOd thC dCmand mCant nO mOrC than a QCa !Or
a rCtUm tO natUrastC drama. `Ct nO OnC C OC naVC CnOU_h tO
ChamQOn suh a rCtUm. hC natUrastC sIa_C s n nO scnsC a QUOC
Qat!Orm t s CntrCy UsOnstC. ts OWn aWarCnCss that t s thCa-
trC CannOt !CrIzC t KC CVCry thCatrC O! Un!Odn_ aCtOn t mUst
rCQrCss ths aWarCnCss sO as tO QUrsUC UndstraCtCd Is am O! QOr-
trayn_ IhC rCa. QC thCatrC Oy COntrast nCCssanty dCtVCs a VCy
and QrOdUCtVC cOnsC!OUsnCss !rOm IhC !aCt Ihat t s thCatrC. hs
COnsCOUsnCss CnaOCs t tO trCat CCmCnts O! rCaty as thOU_h t
WCrC sCttn_ UQ an CXQCrmCnt Wth IhC `COndtOns at thC Cnd O! thC
CXQCrmCnt nOt at thC OC_nnn_. hUs thCy atC nOt OrOU_ht COsCr
tO thC sQCCtatOr OUt dstanCCd !rOm hm. NhCn hC rCCO_nzCs thCm
as rCa COndIOns t s nOt as n naIUrastC thCatrC WIth COmQa-
CCnCy OUt Wth astOnshmCnt. hs astOnshmCnt s thC mCans WhCrC-
Oy CQC thCaUC n a hard QUrC Way rCVVCs a OOCratC QraXs. n OnC
WhO s astOnshCd ntCrCst s OOm: ntCrCst n ts QrmOrda !Otm.
Othn_ s mOrC CharaCtCrstC O! rCChts Way O! IhnKn_ than thC
attCmQt WhCh CQC thCatrC maKCs tO trans!Otm ths QrmOrda
ntCrCst drCCty ntO a tCChnCa CXQCrt OnC. LQC thCatrC addrCssCs
tsC! tO ntCrCstCd QCtsOns `WhO dO nOt thnK UnCss thCy haVC a
rCasOn tO. Ut Ihat s an atttUdC aOsOUtCy sharCd Oy thC massCs.
rCChts daCCtICa matCr!asm assCrts tsC! UnmstaKaOy n hs
CndCaVOUr tO ntCrCsI thC massCs n thCatrC as tCChnCa CXQCrts OUt
nOt at a Oy Way O!`CUtUrC. `n ths Way WC COUd VCry sOOn haVC a
thCatrC !U O! CQCrts as WC haVC sQOrts stadUms !U O! CXQCrts.
LQC thCatrC thCn dOCs nOt rCQrOdUCC COndtOns OUt rathCr
rCVCas thCm. hs UnCOVCtn_ O! COndtOns s OrOU_ht aOOUt
ot is E Tkeotre? [First version] 5
tbrOU_b QrOCCssCs OCn_ ntCrtUQtCd. VCty CrUdC QC: a
!amy rOW. bC mOtbCr s Ust aOOUt tO QCK UQ a QOW tO bUt at
tbC daU_btCr tbC !atbCr s OQCnn_ a WndOW tO Ca a QOCCman. t
tbs mOmCnt a sttan_Cr aQQCats at tbC dOOr. `8OCaU as tbCy UsCd
tO say arOUnd :gOO. n OtbCr WOrds. tbC stran_Cr s sUddCny COn-
!rOntCd Wtb Ccrtan COndtOns: tUmQCd OCdCOtbCs OQCn WndOW
a dCVastatCd ntCtOr. Ut tbCrC CXsts a VCW n WbCb CVCn tbC mOrC
UsUa sCCnCs O! OOUr_COs !C aQQCar ratbCr KC tbs. bC mOrC !ar-
rCaCbn_ tbC dCVastatOns O! OUr sOC8 OrdCr [tbC mOrC tbCsC dCVas-
t8OOns UndCrmInC OUtsCVCs and OUt CaQaCty tO rCman aWarC O!
tbCm) tbC mOrC mard mUst D U dsUnCC OCtWCCn tbC sttan_Cr
and tbC CVCnts QOtttayCd. NC KnOW sUCb a stran_Cr !rOm rCCbts
Iersucke: a OWaOan `1ts a COUntCtQart O! 1yssCs tbC LrCCK
``OOOdy WbO Vsts OnC-CyCd OyQbCmUs n bs CaVC. Omary
CUnCr tbat s tbC stran_Crs namC- QCnCtratCs ntO tbC CaVC O! tbC
OnC-CyCd mOnstCr WbOsC namC s `Cass sOCCty. KC 1yssCs bC s
!U O! _UC aCCUstOmCd tO sUCrn_ mUCb-UaVCCd OOtb mCn arC
WsC. QtaCtC rCs_natOn WbCb bas aWays sbUnnCd UtOQan
dCasm maKCs 1yssCs tbnK Ony O! rCtUnn_ bOmC CUnCr nCVCr
CaVCs tbC trCsbOd O! bs bOUsC at a. C KCs tbC trCCs WbCb bC
sCCs n tbC yard WbCn bC COmCs OUt O! bs !OUttb-OOr tCnCmCnt
at. `Nby dOnt yOU CVCr _O ntO tbC WOOds asK bs !tCnds `!
yOU IKC trCCs sO mUCbr `d nOt tC yOU rCQCs Ctt CUnCr
`tbat KC tbC trCCs n my yard: O mOVC tbs tbnKn_ man Crr
CUnCr [WbO rCCbt OnCC sU__CstCd sbOUd OC CartCd On sta_C
yn_ dOWn sO ttC s bC dtaWn tbtbCr) tO mOVC bm tO CXstCnCC
UQOn tbC sta_Ctbat s tbC am O! tbs nCW tbCattC. t W OC nOtCCd
nOt WtbOUt sUtQtsC tbat ts Or_ns rCaCb OaCK a VCry On_ tmC. Or
tbC Ct s tbat CVCr snCC tbC LrCCKs tbC sCarCb !Or tbC Untra_C bCrO
On tbC LUrOQCan st8_C bas nCVCr CCasCd. CsQtC a tbC CassCa
rCVVas tbC _rCat dtamatsts baVC aWays KCQt as !ar aWay as QOssOC
!rOm tbC aUtbCntC LrCCK h_UrC O! tm_Cdy. bs s nOt tbC QaCC tO
traCC tbC Qatb WbCb Wnds tbrOU_b tbC %ddC _Cs n rOsWtba
and tbC mystCty Qays Or atCr n LtyQbUs Cn2 and LraOOC Or
tO sbOW bOW LOCtbC CrOssCd t n tbC sCCOnd Fousr. Ut WC may say
tbat tbIs Qatb Was a sQCCay LCtman OnC. ! tbat s OnC Can sQCaK

O! a Qath at a tathCt than an OVCt_tOWn staKIn_-traCK aOn_ WhICh


thC C_aCy O! mCdICVa and OatOQuC dtama has CtCQt dOWn tO us OVCt
thC suOImC Out OartCn massI! O! CassICIsm. JhIs ttaCK tCaQQCats tO-
day tOu_h and untCndCd as It may OC In thC Qays C! tCCht. JhC
untta_IC hCtO Is Qatt O! thIs LCtman ttadItIOn. Jhat hIs QatadOXICa
sta_C C.IstCnCC has tO OC tCdCCmCd Oy Out OWn aCtua OnC Was tCCO_-
nIzCd at an Caty datC nOt O! COutsC Oy thC CrItICs Out Oy thC OCst
COntCmQOtaty thInKCts suCh as LCOt_ LuKCs and tanz OsCn-
zWCI_. atO LuKCs WrOtC tWCnty yCars a_O atCady tCCO_nIzCd
thC undramatIC natutC O! thC hI_hCst !Otm O! man thC sa_C. nd
yCt In hIs dIaO_uCs hC OtOu_ht hIm tO thC !htCshOd O! thC sta_C.
LnC may tC_ard CQIC thCattC as mOtC dramatIC !han thC dIaO_uC
[It Is nOt aWays): Out CQIC thCattC nCCd nOt !Ot that tCasOn OC any
thC Css QhIOsOQhICa.
JhC !Otms O! CQIC thCattC COttCsQOnd tO thC nCW tCChnICa !Orms -
C:nCma and tadIO. QIC thCattC COrrCsQOnds tO thC mOdCt CVC O!
tCChnOO_y. n !m thC thCOry has OCCOmC mOtC and mOtC aCCCQtCd
that thC audICnCC shOud OC aOC tO `COmC In at any QOInt that COm-
QICatCd QOt dCVCOQmCnts shOud OC aVOIdCd and that CaCh Qa:t
OCsIdCs thC VauC It has !Ot thC WhOC hOud asO QOssCss Its OWn
CQIsOdIC VauC. Ot radIO WI!h Its QuOIC WhICh Can !Cy sWItCh
On Ot O at any mOmCnt thIs OCCOmCs a strICt nCCCssIty. QIC thCaCC
InttOduCCs thC samC QtaCtICC On thC sta_C. Ot CQIC thCattC as a
mat!Ct O! QtInCIQC !hCtC Is nO suCh thIn_ as a atCCOmCt. JhC ImQI-
CatIOns O! thIs su__Cst !hat CQIC thCaCCs ChaCn_C tO thC thCa!tC as
a sOCIa InstI!utIOn Is !ar mOtC sCtIOus than any dama_C It may InbICt
On thC thCattc as CntCrUInmCnt Industty. NhCtCas In COarCt thC
OOut_COIsIC mIn_C WIth OOhCmIa and In VarC!y thC _aQ OCtWCCn
QCtty and OI_ OOut_COIsIC Is OtId_Cd !Ot thC sQaCC O! an CVCnIn_
thC haOI!us O! tCChts hCattC WhCtC CI_atCttC smOKC Is Cau_ht In
thC QtOjCCtOt OCam atC QtOCtarIan-. Ot thCm thCtC Is nOthIn_
stran_C aOOut tCChts InsttuC!IOn tO an aCtOt tO Qay thC ChOOsIn_
O! a WOOdCn C_ Oy thC OC__at In thC Tkreeem Oeo In suCh a Way
that `ust !Ot thC saKC O! sCCIn_ thIs QattICuat tut QCOQC WI Qan
tO tCVIsIt !hC shOW at thC QtCCIsC mOmCnt It OCCuts. ChCts OaCK-
kor is Eic Tkeorre? [Firsr crsion]
QtOCCtIOns !Ot sUCh `tUCs atC !at mOtC !IKC QOstCts than sta_C
dCCOtatIOns. JhC QOstCt Is a COnstItUCnt C!CmCnt O! `HtCtatIzCd
thCattC. `LItCtatIzIn_ CntaI!s QUnCtUatIn_ tCQtCsCntatIOn Wth !Ot-
mU!atIOn _IVCs thC thCattC thC QOssIOInty O! maKIn_ COntaCt Wth
OthCt nstItUtIOns !Ot IntC!!CCtUa! aCtIVItICs." JhCsC InsttUtIOns
_mCdIa) CVCn InC!UdC OOOKs. `OOtnOtCs and thC haOIt O! tuDIn_
OaCK In OtdCt tO ChCCK a QOInt nCCd tO OC InttOdUCCd 1ntO Q!ay-
WrtIn_ tOO.
Ut What Is It that ChCts QOstCts adVCttIsC: tCCht WtItCs that
thCy `adOQt an attItUdC tOWatds CVCnts In sUCh a Way that thC tCa!
_!UttOn In aha_Onny sIts In !tOnt O! thC dCQICtCd _!UttOn. Cry
WC!!. NhO Can say that thC aCtCd _!UttOn Is mOtC tCa! than thC dC-
QICtCd OnC: NC Can maKC thC aCtCd OnC sIt In !tOnt O! thC mOtC tCa!
OnC I.C. WC Cn !Ct thC dCQICtCd OnC at thC OaCK OC mOtC tCa! than
thC aCtCd OnC. CthaQs It Is On!y nOW that WC OOtaIn a C!UC tO thC
QOWCtD1! and CUtIOUs CCCt O! sCCnCs sU_Cd In thIs Way. OOmC O!
thC Q!ayCts aQQCat as mandatOtICs O! thC !at_Ct !OtCCs WhICh tC-
manIn_ In thC OaCK_tOUnd atC !IKC !atOs dCas In that thCy COn-
stItutC thC IdCa! mOdC! O! thIn_s. ChCts OaCK-QtOjCCtIOns hOWCVCt
atC matCtIa!Ist IdCas; thCy tC!atC tO _CnUInC `COndItIOns CVCn WhCn
thCy aQQtOxImatC tO aCtUa! CVCnts, thC ttCmU!OUsnCss O! thCIt COn-
tOUts stI!! sU__Csts thC !at _tCatCt and mOtC ntmatC QtOxImIty !tOm
WhICh thCy haVC OCCn WtCnChCd In OtdCt tO OCCOmC VIsIO!C.
JhC !ItCtarzatIOn O! thCattC Oy mCans O! VCtOa! !OrmU!as QOstCts
CaQtIOns Is IntCndCd tO and WI!! `maKC What Is shOWn On thC sta_C
UnsCnsatIOna!. [tCCht Is D1!!y aWatC O! thC COnnCCtIOns OCtWCCn
thCsC mCthOds and CCttaIn QtaCtICCs O! LhInCsC thCattC a COnnCCtIOn
WhICh WC WI!! CInC at sOmC D1tUtC datC.) tCCht _OCs sO!! DtthCt
In thC samC dItCCtIOn Oy asKn_ hImsC!! WhCthCt thC CVCnts QOt-
ttayCd Oy thC CQIC aCtOt OU_ht nOt tO OC KnOWn In adVaOCC. `n that
CasC hIstOtICa! CVCnts WOU!d On thC !aCC O! It OC thC mOst sUItaO!C.
LnC mUst, hOWCVCt CxQCCt thC dtamaUst tO taKC a CCrtaIn amOUnt
O! !ICCnCC In that hC WI!! tCnd tO CmQhasIzC nOt thC _tCat dCCIsIOns
"
Brec/t on T/eatre: T/e Oeelo
j
menr o]O .esr/et:c, cdtcd and trans-
atcd Dj ]ODn ctt 1 and ang c `OrK tg QQ. q-q [ra;s-
atOrs nOtc).

WhICh IC aOn_ thC maIn InC O! hIstOty Out thC InCOmmCnsutaOC
and thC sIn_uat. `t Cn haQQCn thIs Way Out It Cn asO haQQCn QuItC
a dICtCnt Way that Is thC !undamCnU attItudC O! OnC WhO WtItCs
!Or CQIC thCatrC. 1Is tCatIOn tO hIs stOty Is IKC that O! a OaCt tCaChCt
tO hIs QuQI. Is tst aIm Is tO OOsCn hCr jOInts tO thC VCty ImIts
O! thC QOssIOC. 1C WI OC as !at tCmOVCd !rOm hIstOtICa and Qsy-
ChOO_ICa CIChCs as OtrndCr_ In hIs hIstOrCa drama8. Or OtrInd-
OCr_ madC a strOn_y COnsCIOus attCmQt at CQIC untta_IC thCattC.
n thC WOtKs COnCCrCd WIth IndIVIdua IVCs hC stI _OCs OaCK tO
thC LhrIstIan sChCma O! thC assIOn, Out In hIs hIstOtICs thC VChC-
mCnCC O! hIs CtItIOa thOu_ht and hIs ItOny WIt Its unmasKIn_ CCCt
QaVC thC Way !Ot CQIC thCattC. n thIs sCnsC thC LaVary Qay To
Domoscus and thC mOraIty Qay 0us:ovus oolkus atC thC tWIn
QOCs O! hIs dtamatIC WtItIn_.
! WC adOQt thC OQtIC WhICh WC haVC ust OutInCd WC Cn sCC thC
QrOduCtIVC dIChOtOmy OCtWCCn rCCht and thC sO-OaCd Zei:-
oromo:ik, a dICOtOmy WhICh hC ttICs tO OVCrCOmC In hIs Jekr-
s::icke [dIdaCtIC Qays. JhCsC Qays atC thC nCCCssaty dCtOut VIa CQIC
thCattC WhICh tC Qay WIth a thCsIs must taKC. JhC Qays O! a JOCt
Ot a LamQC dO nOt taKC thIs dCtOut, CXaCty IKC thC WOtKs O! LCr-
man QsCudO-CassICIsm thCy `aWatd QrImaCy tO thC IdCa and a thC
tImC maKC thC sQCCtatOt dCsIrC a sQCCIC aIm CrCatIn_ as It WCrC an
CVCt-InCrCasIn_ dCmand !Or thC suQQy. OuCh WrItCrs attaCK thC
COndItIOns In WhICh WC IVC !rOm tC OutsIdC rCCht Cts thC COn-
dItIOns sQCaK !Ot thCmsCVCs sO that thCy COn!tOnt CaCh OthCr dIa-
CCtICay. JhCIt VatIOus CCmCnts atC QayCd O O_ICy a_aInst OnC
a!:OthCr. JhC dOCKCt Lay Lay In tCChts Aon's o Aon Is IKC
an CmQty sta_C On WhICh thC COnttadICtIOns O! Our sOCICty atC aCtCd
Out. OOWIn_ tCChts InC O! thOu_ht OnC mI_ht attIVC at thC QrO-
QOsItIOn that It Is thC WIsC man WhO Is thC QCt!CCt sta_C !Ot suCh a
dIaCCtIC. n any CasC Lay Lay Is a WIsC man. C InttOduCCs hImsC!
as a dOCKCt `WO dOCsnt dtInK smOKCs VCty IttC and hasnt any
QassIOns tO sQCaK O!. 1C Is nOt tCmQtCd Oy thC OCt O! sCX WIth thC
WIdOW WhOsC OasKCt hC has CattICd. `JO OC !tanK d tCay IKC tO
Ouy sOmC sh. `Ct hC Is InttOduCCd as a man `WhO Cant say nO. nd
thIs tOO Is WIsC !Ot hC Cts thC COnttadICtIOns O! CXIstCnCC CntCt IntO
Zot is E Tkeote? [Fist vesion]

tC Ony Q!aCC WCrC UCy C n UC ast anayss OC rCsOVCd: tC
!!C O! a man. Ln!y tC COnsCntn_ man as any CanCC O! Can_n_
tC WOrd.
1nd sO t aQQCns tat tC WsC QrO!Ctaran Lay Lay, tC man
WO KCCQs msC! tO ImsC!! a_rCCs tO jOn tC OCrsCrK ranKs O! tC
rLs CO!Ona! army tCrCOy COnsCntn_ tO tC dCna! O! s OWn
WsdOm. 1 mOmCnt a_O C WCnt OUt O! s !rOnt dOOr sCnt Oy s
W!C On an Crrand tO OUy sOmC h s. ^OW C mCCts trCC sOdCrs O!
tC 1n_O-ndan army WO aVC !Ost a !OUtt W!C !OOtn_ a Qa_O-
da. C trCC O! tCm aVC tCr OWn rCasOns !Or hndn_ a rCQaCC-
mCnt !Or tC mssn_ man as sOOn as QOssOC. La!y Lay s tC man
WO cnt say nO. C !O!OWs tC trCC sO!dCrs WtOUt KnOWn_
Wat s n stOrC !Or m. LnC Oy OnC C adOQts tOU_ts atOtUdCs
aOts sUCh as a sOdCr n mUst QOssCss WCn C s COmQCtCy
rC-CQUQQCd, C WOnt CVCn rCCO_n2C s OWn W!C WCn sC CVCn-
tUa!y sUCCCCds n ttaCKn_ m dOWn. na!y C OCCOmCs tC mUC-
!CarCd COnQUCrOr O! tC OCtan mOUntan strOn_Od O! bO a
1OOWt. 1 mans a man sO a dOCKCr s a mCrCCnary. C W trCat
s sC!!-COndtOn as mCrCCnary nO dUCrCnty !rOm tC Way C
trCatCd s dOCKCrOOd. 1 mans a man. ts s nOt !dCty tO any
sn_C CssCnCC O! OnCs OWn OUt a COntInUa rCadnCss tO admt a nCW
CssCnCC.
CVC: _VC yOU: CXaCt namC, Wats thC QOntr
NhCn yOU namC yOU:8C! yOU aVay8 namC anOthC:.
lOnt OC 8O OUd tn 8tatn_ yOU: OQtntOn. 1O:_Ct tt. Nhat
W tt a_an thC OQtntOn yOU hC!dr
lO nOt :CmCmOC: thn_8 O: On_C: than thCy !a8t.
QC tCatrC Casts dOUOts UQOn tC nOtOn tat tCaOC s CntCrtan-
mCnt. Jt saKCs tC sOCa Va!dty O! tCatrC-as-CntCrtanmCnt Oy
rOOOn_ t O! ts h:nCtOn Wtn tC CaQtast systCm. 1t asO t:Cat-
Cns tC QrIVC_Cs O! tC CrtCs. CsC QrV!C_Cs arC OasCd On tC
tCCnCa CXQCrtsC WC CnaO!Cs tC CrtC tO maKC CCrtan OOsCtVa-
tOns aOOUt QrOdUCtOns and QCr!OrmanCCs. C CrtCra C aQQCs
n maKn_ s OOsCtVatOns arC On!y VCty rarCy Wtn s OWn COn-
trO; C sCdOm WOrrCs aOOUt ts OUt rCCs UQOn `tCatrC aCstCtCs
:c
n thC dCtas O! WhCh nOOOdy s QartCUaty ntCtCstCd. ! hOWCVCt
thC aCsthCtC O! thC thCattC CCasCs tO tCman n thC OaCK_tOUnd ! ts
!OtUm s thC aUdCnCC and ts CttCtOn s nO On_Ct thC CnCCt tC_s-
tCtCd Oy thC nCtVOUs systCms O! sn_C ndVdUas OUt thC dC_tCC tO
WhCh thC mass O sQCCtatOts OCCOmCs a COhCtCnt WhOC thCn thC
CttC as hC s COnsttUtCd tOday s nO On_Ct ahCad O! that mass OUt
aCtUay bnds hmsC! !at OChnd t. hC mOmCnt WhCn thC mass
OC_ns tO dnCtCntatC tsC! n dsCUssOn and tCsQOnsOC dCCsOns
Ot n attCmQts tO dsCOVCt WC-!OUndCd atttUdCs O! ts OWn thC
mOmCnt thC !asC and dCCCQtVC tOtaty CaCd `aUdCnCC OC_ns tO
dsntC_tatC and thCtC s nCW sQaCC !Ot thC !OtmatOn O! sCQatatC
QattCs Wthn t sCQatatC QattCs COttCsQOndn_ tO COndtOns as
thCy tCay atC at that mOmCnt thC CttC sUnCts thC dOUOC ms-
!OttUnC O! sCCn_ hs natUtC as a_Cnt tCVCaCd and at thC samC tmC
dCVaUCd. OmQy Oy thC !aCt O! aQQCan_ tO an `aUdCnCC WhCh
COntnUCs tO CXst n ts Od OQagUC !Otm Ony !Ot thC thCattC OUt
ChataCtCtstOy nO On_Ct !Ot bmthC CttC OCCOmCs WhCthCt hC
mCans tO Ot nOt thC adVOCatC O! What thC anCCnts UsCd tO O
`thCatrOCrata: thC UsC O! thCattC tO dOmnatC thC massCs Oy manQU-
atn_ thCt tCbCXCs and sCnsatOnsthC CXaCt OQQOstC O! tCsQOnsOC
COCCtVCs !tCCy ChOOsn_ thCr QOstOns. hC `nnOVatOns WhCh
sUCh aUdCnCCs W dCmand atC CXCUsVCy COnCCHCd Wth What s
tCazaOC Wthn CXstn_ sOCCty and atC thUs thC OQQOstC O! `tCnO-
VatOns. LQC thCattC attaCKs thC OasC VCW that att may dO nO mOtC
than _hty tOUCh UQOn CXQCrCnCC thC VCW WhCh _tants Ony tO
tsCh thC t_ht V CnCOmQass thC WhOC tan_C O! CXQCtCnCC and
thCn Ony !Ot thC OWCt CassCs O! sOCCty. hs attaCK UQOn thC Oass
s at thC samC tmC an assaUt UQOn thC CttC QrVC_Cs. nd ths thC
CrtCs haVC sCnsCd n thC dCOatC OVCt CQC thCattC thCy mUst OC COn-
sdCtCd an ntCtCstCd Qatty.
atUtay sUCh `sC!-COnttO O! thC sta_C COUnts On thCtC OCn_
aCtOts WhOsC dCa O! thC aUdCnCC s CssCntay dnCtCnt !tOm thC
anma-tamCts VCW O! thC OCasts WhO nhaOt Ds Ca_C: aCtOts !Ot
WhOm CnCCt s nOt an Cnd OUt a mCans. hC Ussan QtOdUCCt
mCyCthOd Was tCCCnty asKCd n Ctn What n hs OQnOn ds-
tn_UshCd hs aCtOrs !tOm thOsC O! NCstCH LUtOQC. C tCQCd:
kor u Eic Tkcorre? [Firsr version : :
VO tUn_s. rst tDC tDnK sCCOnd tDC dO nOt tDnK dC8!stC-
8!! Dut m8tCr8!stC!!. DC VCV tD8t tDC st8_C s 8 mOr8! nst-
tutOn s ustDCd On! n rC!8tOn tO 8 tDC8trC tD8t dOCs nOt mCrC!
U8nsm:t KnOV!Cd_C Dut 8Ctu8!! Cn_CndCr8 t. 1n CQC tDC8trC tDC
8CtOrs tr8nn_ COnssts n 8Ctn_ n suCD 8 V8 tD8t DC s OrCntCd
tOV8rds KnOV!Cd_C; 8nd tDs KnOV!Cd_C n DdCtCrmnCs nOt On!
tDC COntCnt Dut 8!sO tDC rem, Q8usCs 8nd strCssC8 O! Ds VDO!C QCr-
!Orm8nCC. Ds sDOu!d nOt DOVCVCr DundCr8tOOd n tDC sCnsC O!
8 st!C. 1n tDC QrO_r8mmC nOtCs tO .c's o .c VC rC8d: 1n
CQC tDC8trC tDC 8CtOr D8s sCVCr8! DnCtOns 8nd 8CCOrdn_ tO tDC
Q8rtCu!8r !unCtOn DC s !u!B!!n_ tDC st!C O! Ds 8Ctn_ V!! CD8n_C.
Ds Q!ur8!t O! QOssD!tCs s COntrO!!Cd D 8 d8!CCtC tO VDc 8!!
st!stC COnsdCr8tOns D8VC tO DOV. DC 8CtOr must sDOV 8n
CVCnt 8nd DC must sDOV DmsC!!. C n8tur8!! sDOVs tDC CVCnt D
sDOVn_ DmsC!! 8nd DC sDOVs DmsC!! D sDOV!n_ tDC CVCnt. !-
tDOu_D tDCsC tVO t8sKs CO:nCdC UC must nOt COnCdC tO suCD 8
QOnt tD8t tDC COntr8st _d!CrCnCC) DCtVCCn tDCm ds8QQC8rs.
`O m8KC _CsturCs QuOt8D!C s tDC 8CtOrs mOst mQOrt8nt 8CDCVC-
mCnt DC must DC 8D!C tO sQ8CC Ds _CsturCs 8s tDC COmQOstOr QrO-
duCCs sQ8CCd tyQC. DC CQC Q!8 s 8 cOnstrUCtOn tD8t must DC
VCVCd r8tOn8!! 8nd n VDCD Un_s must DC rCCO_n7Cd; tDCrC!OrC
tDC V8 t s QrCsCntCd must _O D8!!-V8 tO mCCt suCD VCVn_. DC
suQrCmC t8sK O! 8n CQC QrOduCtOn s U _VC CXQrCssOn tO tDC rC!8-
tOnsDQ DCtVCCn tDC 8Ct!On DCn_ st8_CO 8nd CVCrtDn_ tD8t s n-
VO!VCd n tDC 8Ct O! sU_n_ er se. DC _CnCr8! CduC8tOn8! 8QQrO8CD
O! N8:sm s dCtCrmnCd D tDC d8CCtc 8t VOrK DCtWCCn tDC 8tO-
tudC O! tC8CD!n_ 8nd tD8t O! !C8On_. sOmCtDn_ sm!8r OCCurs n
CQC tDC8trC VtD tDC COnst8nt d8CCtC DCtWCCn tDC 8CtOn VDCD s
sDOVn On tDC st8_C 8nd tDC 8tttudC O! sDOVn_ 8n 8CtOn On tDC
st8_C. DC Drst CODdmCnt O! CQC tDC8trC u tD8t tDC OnC VDO
sDOVs ~tD8t s UC 8CtOr ~ `sD8!! DC sDOVn. OOmC V!! QCrD8Qs Dnd
tD8t suCD 8 !Ormu!8tOn s rCmnsCCnt O! CCKs O!d `dr8m8tur_
O! rC!CXOn. O sDOV VD tDs VCV s mst8KCn VOu!d DC tO COn-
struCt 8 sQr8! st8rC8sC tO C!mD tO tDC r__n_-!O!t O! rCCDt8n
tDCOr. 1t sDOu!d suUCC DCrC tO m8KC ust OnC QOnt: !Or 8!! ts sK!!s
O! rCICXOn tDC Om8ntC st8_C nCVCr suCCCCdCd n dOn_ ustCC tO
IC
tC UndamCnta! daCCtCa! rCatOnsQ OC!WCCn tCOry and QraXs
ts strU__C tO 8CCVC ts n ts Way 8s Van as tat O! IC
Zei::keo:e tOday.
! tCn tC aCtOr On tC Od sta_C sOmCtmCs !OUnd msC! as
`COmCdan rUOOn_ sOUdCrs WIt tC QrCst m CQC !CatrC C
h nds msC! OCsdC tC QOsOQCr. s _Cs!UrC dCmOnstratCs tC
sOCa s_nhCanCC and aQQqOty O! daCCtCs. t tCsts COndtOns
On mCn. C dmCUtCs WC a QrOdUCCr mCCts n rCCarsn_ a Qay
CannOt OC rCsOVCd WtOUt COnCrCtC UndCrstandn_ O! tC OOdy O!
sOCCty. Ut tC daCCtC WC CQC tCatrC sCts OUt tO QrCsCnt s nOt
dCQCndCnt On a sCQUCnCC O! sCCnCs n tmC ratCr t dCCarCs t8C!
n tOsC _CstUra CCmCnts tat !Orm tC Oass O! CaC sCQUCnCC n
tmC. CsC _CstUra CCmCnU arC nOt CCmCnta n tC strCt sCnsC O!
tC WOrd OUt Ony nasmUC as tCy arC smQCr tan tC sCQUCnCCs
OasCd UQOn tCm.) C tn_ tat s rCVCaCd as tOU_ Oy _Un_
n !C `COndtOn rCQrCsCntCd On tC s_C as a COQy O! Uman
_CstUrCs, aCtOns and WOrds - s an mmanCnty da!CCtCa atttUdC.
C COndtOnS WC CQC tCatrC rCVCas s tC da!CCtC at a stand-
st. Or jUst a8 n C_C tC sCQUCnCC O! tmC s nOt tC mOtCr O!
tC daCCtC Out Ony tC mCdUm n WC tC daCCtC man!Cst>
tsC! sO n CQ:C tCatrC tC daCCtC s nOt OOC O! tC COntradCtOn
OCtWCCn sUCCCssVC stCmCnts Or Ways O! OCaVn_ OUt O! tC _Cs-
tUrC tsC!.
WCC Lay Lay s sUmmOnCd tO a Wa tC Ur8t OmC tO Can_C
s COtCs, tC sCCOnd tImC tO OC sOt n OOt CasCs IC sUmmOn-
n_ _CstUrC s tC samC. C msC! UsCs anOtCr _CstUrC tWICC. tC
Urst tmC tO rCnOUnCC tC Us C WantCd tO OUy tC sCCOnd tmC tO
aCCCQt tC CCQant. s s tC Knd O! dsCOVCry tat W satsj tC
ntCrCst O! tC aUdCnCC WO !rCQUCnt CQC tCatrC t s Wt dsCOVCr-
Cs KC tCsC tat tCy W _Ct tCr mOnCys WOrt. C aUtOr WCn
dsCUssn_ Wat dstIn_UsCs tC CQC tCatrC !rOm tC Ordnary
tCaDC O! CntCrtanmCnt as 8 mOrC sCrOUs art !Orm s r_t tO QOnt
OUt. `NCn WC Ca tC OtCr tCatrC tC OnC Iat s OstC tO Us
mCrCy Cunary WC CrCatC tC mQrCssOn tat n OUr tC8UC WC arC
a_anst a !Un as tOU_ WC COUd nOt ma_nC CaCn_ Or OCn_
taU_t OtCr Ian as an ntCnsCy UnQCasUr8OC QrOCCss. LnC s O!tCn
o: is Eic Teo:e? [Fis: vesion| :
j
CD_Cd tC ?CaKCn CnCs C?n QCstCn n CrdCr tC _Dt an CQQCnCnt
and tC rCD CnCs CausC C! ts DrCadtD and V8dt !Cr tnC saKC C! m-
mCdatC adVanU_C. Dus rCduCCd QurC tC _Dtn_ !Crm tDC CausC
ma ?n Dut t CannCt rCQaCC ?Dat t Das dC!CatCd. `Ct tDC aCt C!
rCCC_nZn_ C! ?DCD ?C sQCa s tsC! a QCasuraDC aCt. DC smQC
!aCt tDat man C DC rCCC_nZCd n a CCrtan ?a CrCatCs a sCnsC C!
trumQD and tDC !aCt tCC tDat DC Can nCVCr DC rCCC_nZCd CCmQCtC-
nCVCr CnCC and !Cr a tDat DC s nCt sC Cas CxDaustDC tDat DC
DCds and CCnCCas sC man QCssDtCs ?tDn DmsC! DCnCC Ds
CaQaCt !Cr dCVCCQmCnt) s a QCasur8DC rCCC_ntCn. Dat man
Can DC CDan_Cd D Ds surrCundn_s and Can DmsC! CDan_C tDC
surrCundn_ ?Crd .C. Cn trCat t ?tD CCnsCQuCnCC a tDs QrC-
duCCs !CCn_s C! QCasurC. Ct C! CCursC ! man s VC?Cd as sCmC-
tDn_ mCCDanC sCmCtDn_ tDat C8n DC Qut ntC a sCt sCmCtDn_
aCKn_ rCsstanCC as DaQQCns tCda undCr tDC ?C_Dt C! CCrtan
sCCa CCndtCns. stCnsDmCnt ?DCD must DCrC DC nsCrtCd ntC
tDC rstCtCan !Crmu8 !Cr tDC ChCCts C! tra_Cd sDCud DC CCn-
sdCrCd CntrC as a CaQaCt. t DC C8Cd.
DC dammn_ C! tDC strCam C! rCa !C tDC mCmCnt ?DCn ts C?
CCmCs tC a sUndst maKCs tsC! !Ct as rCuX: tDs rCu s astCnsD-
mCnt. DC daCCtC at a standsC s ts rCa CDCCt. t s tDC rCK !rCm
?DCD ?C _8ZC dC?n ntC tDat strCam C! tDn_s ?DCD n tDC Ct C!
]CDCC `tDats a?as !u and ?DCrC nCDCd stas tDC DaVC a sCn_
aDCut:
VC8t nOt Cn C aVC DCn brCaKs a_anst jOU: OOI
bO \On_ t stands mC atCr nC aVCs IDrCaK a_an>t t.
ut ! tDC strCam C! tDn_s DrCaKs a_anst tDs rCCK C! astCnsDmCnt
tDCn tDCrC s nC dUCrCnCC DCt?CCn a Duman !C and a ?Crd. n CQC
tDCatrC DCtD arC Cn tDC CrCst C! tDC ?aVC. QC tDCatrC maKCs !C
sQurt uQ D_D !rCm tDC DCd C! tmC and !Cr an nstant DCVCr r-
dCsCCnt n CmQt sQaCC. DCn t QuU t DaCK tC DCd.
Wh
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SECOIT NEBSIOI
7 Tke Feleo uoiene
OtDID_ I8 DOtC QC888Dt tD8D tO IC OD 8 8OL
tC8OID_ 8 DOVC WtOtC ODC O UC CQIC 8utDOt8 O tDC 88t CCDtutj.
DC tCD8tK 8u__C8t8 tDC OC_tCC O tC8X8tIOD WDICD 8 D8rr8tIVC WOtK
C8D _IVC tO It8 tC8OCt. WC ID8_IDC 8 QCt8OD 8ttCDOID_ 8 Or8D8tIC
8QCCt8CC WC tCDO tO VI8u8IZC tDC OQQO8ItC. NC 8CC 8ODCODC WDO
WItD CVCtj DDtC O DI8 DCID_ I8 IDtCDtj OOWID_ 8 QtOCC88. DC
CODCCQt O CQIC tDC8ttC OCVCOQCO Dj DtCCDt tDC tDCOtCt\CI8D O
DI8 OWD QOCtIC Qt8X:8 IDQIC8 8DOVC 8 tD8t tDC 8uOICDCC WDICD
tDI8 tDCttC OC8ItC8 tO 8ttr8Ct I8 8 tC8XCO ODC OOWID_ tDC Q8j ID 8
tC8XCO D8DDCt. ruC 8uCD 8D 8uOICDCC WI 8W8j8 OCCut 88 8 CO-
CCtIVC uDIKC tDC tC8OCt O 8 DOVC 8ODC WItD DI8 tCXt. uttDCt-
DOtC ID DO8t C88C8 tDI8 8uOICDCC ~ 8_8ID 88 8 COCCtIVC ~ WI
QuICKj CC IDQCCO tO t8KC uQ 8D 8ttItuOC tOW8tO8 WD8t It 8CC8. Dut
tDI8 8ttItuOC DtCCDt tDIDK8 8DOuO DC 8 COD8IOCtCO 8DO tDCtCOtC 8
tC8XCO ODC ~ID 8DOtt It 8DOuO DC tDC 8tt:tuOC O 8D IDtCtC8tCO Q8ttj.
OOuDC OD]CCt I8 QtOVIOCO Ot tDC 8uOICDCC8 IDtCtC8t. It8t tDC
CVCDt8 8DOV OD 8t8_C tDC8C Du8t DC O 8uCD 8 KIDO tD8t tDCj D8j
8t CCtt8ID OCCI8IVC QOIDt8 DC CDCCKCO Dj tDC 8uOICDCC 8_8ID8t It8 OWD
:c
CXQCrCnCC. OCCOnd tBC QrOduCtOn tB:s must DC transQarCnt as tO
ts artstC armaturC. OuCB transQarCnC :s tBC CXaCt OQQOstC Ot
`smQC:t :t QrCsuQQOsCs _CnunC artstC ntC_CnCC and sK :n
tBC QrOduCCr.) LQC tBCatrC addrCssCs tsCt tO ntCrCstCd QartCs `VBO
dO nOt tBnK unCss tBC BaVC a rCasOn tO. rCCBt s COntant aVarC
Ot tBC massCs VBOsC COnd:tOnCd usC Ot tBC taCut Ot tBOu_Bt :s
surC COVCrCd D tBs tOtmua. s CUOrt tO maKC tBC audCnCC :n-
tCrCstCd n tBC tBCattC as CXQCtt8 ~ nOt at a tOr CutUra rCasOns ~ :s
an CXQrCssOn Ot Bs QO:tCa QurQOsC.
77 Tke Folle (S:or)
LQ:C tBCatrC sCts Out `tO maKC VBat :s sBOVn On tBC sU_C unsCnsa-
t:Ona. CnCC an Od stOt V: OttCn DC Ot mOrC usC U t tBan a nCV
OnC. rCCBt Bas COnsdCrCd tBC QuCstOn VBCtBCr tBC CVCnt8 sBOVn
:n CQ:C tBCattC Ou_Bt nOt tO DC arCad KnOVn. BC rCat:OnsB:Q Ot
CQC tBCatrC tO ts stOr BC sas :s KC tBat Ot a DaCt tCaCBCr tO Bs
QuQ Bs Utst tasK s tO OOsCn BCr jOnts a8 tat as tBC V _O.
LB:nCsC tBCatrc QrOCCCds :n QrCCsC tB:s Va. n `BC OuttB a
Ot LBna" rCCUt Bas CXQanCd Bs dCDt tO tBs tBCatrC.) t tBCattC s
tO sBOV CVCnt8 tBat arC atCad KnOVn `tBCn B:stOrC CVCnts VOud
DC On tBC taCC Ot :t tBC mOst sutaDC. BC CQ:C `sttCtCBn_ Ot tBCsC
CVCnts D tBC mCtBOd Ot aCtn_ D QOstCrs and D CQt:Ons ams at
CXOrCZn_ tBCr sCnsatOna:sm.
Bus :n B8 atCst Qa rCCBt taKCs tOr B:s suD]CCt tUC :tC Ot
LaCO. C rCQrCsCnts LaCO Urst and tOrCmOst as a _tCat tCaCBCr.
LaCO nOt On tCaCDs tBC nCV QBsCs BC asO tCaCBCs :t n a nCV
Va. BC sCCntUC CXQCt:mCnt s :n Bs Bands nO On_Cr a COnQuCst
On Ot sCCnCC Dut asO Ot QCd8_O_. BC man CmQBass Ot tBC Qa
s nOt On LaCOs rCCantat:On. atBCr tBC rCa CQ:C QrOCC8s sBOud
DC sOu_Bt :n tBC CaQtOn tO tBC QCnut:matC sCCnC. `16jj~Jq2. ta
Qr:sOnCr Ot tUC nQusUOn La:CO COntnuCs B:s sC:CnthC VOrK unt
Bs dCatB. C suCCCCds n smu__:n_ Bs QrnCQa VOrKs Out Ot
ta.
LQC tBC8UC and Ua_C tBCatrC BaVC a VCr d:UCrCnt K:nd Ot a\-
" Zc and Zeners Toda, VO.` 1g_ nO. -
kor u Eic Tkeore? [Secono vesion t
aDCC ?tD tDC QassD_ O! tmC. CCausC tDC susQCDsC CODCC:s Css
tDC CDdD_ tDaD tDC sCQa:atC CVCDts CQC tDCattC CD sQaD VC: CX-
tCDsVC QC:Ods O! tmC. [Ds ODCC CQua t:uC O! tDC mstC:
Qa. DC d:amatu:_ O! Oeus O: Tke ilo Duck s at tDC OQQO-
stC QOC tO tDat O! CQC tDCat:C.)
777 Tke Unroic Heo
1D :CDCD Cassc tDCat:C tDC:C usCd tO D a sQaCC C!t amOD_ tDC
aCtO:s !O: sQCCtatO:s O! D_D :aDK ?DOsC a:mCDa:s stOOd uQOD tDC
OQCD sta_C. NC tDnK tDs Out O! QaCC. DC DOtOD O! tDC d:amatC
?DCD s Ou: aCCCQtCd DODOD O! tDC tDCat:C ?Oud maKC t aQQCat
CQua Out O! QaCC ! aD mQatta tD:d Qa:I ?C:C assOCatCd as
tDC tDDKD_ maD ?tD tDC CVCDts sDO?D OD sta_C. `Ct sOmCtDD_
KC tDs Das O!tCD OCC:tCd tO :CCDt. NC ma _O !u:tDC: aDd sa
tDat :CCDt Das attCmQtCd tO maC tDC tDDKD_ maD O: DdCCd tDC
?sC maD DtO aD aCtua dtamatC DC:O. Dd t s !:Om tDs QODt O!
VC? tDat Ds tDCat:C ma DC dCbDCd as CQC. DC attCmQt s Cat:Cd
D1ttDCst D tDC CDa:aCtC: O! La La tDC QaCKC:. La La tDC DC:O
O! tDC Qa Aon's o Aon, s DmsC!KC aD CmQt sta_C OD ?DCD
tDC CODt:adCtODs O! Ou: sOCCt a:C aCtCd Out. O O?D_ :CcDts
DC O! tDOu_Dt ODC m_Dt CVCD a:tVC at tDC Q:OQOstOD tDat t s
tDC ?sC maD ?DO D tDs sCDsC s tDC QC:!CCt CmQt sta_C. 1D aD
CasC La La s a ?sC maD. DC uDd:amatC Datu:C O! tDC D_DCst
!O:m O! maD tDC sa_C CCa: :CCO_D2Cd D atO a VC: OD_
tmC a_O. 1D Ds daO_uCs DC tOOK tDC sa_C U tDC VC: tD:CsDOd O!
dmma D tDC 1koeoo, tO UC tD:CsDOd O! tDC QassOD Qa. DC
mCdCVa LD:st ?DO as ?C KDO? !:Om UC a: atDC:s asO
:CQ:CsCDtCd tDC sa_C s tDC uDt:a_C DC:O o ecelunce. ut D tDC
sCCua: dtama O! tDC NCst tOO tDC sCa:CD !O: tDC uDt:a_C DC:O s
DCVC: CCasCd. L!tCD D COD!Ct ?tD ts tDCO:CtCaDs suCD d:ama Das
dCVatCd tmC aDd a_aD aVs D DC? ?as !:Om tDC autDCDtC
!O:m O! I:a_Cd tDat s !:Om L:CCK t:a_Cd. Ds mQO:taDt Dut
Dad ma:Cd :Oad [?DCD ma sC:vC DC:C as tDC ma_C O! a I:ad-
tOD) U D tDC NddC _Cs Va 1:Os?tDa aDd tDC NstC:Cs D
tDC a_C O! tDC Da:OQuC Va LtQDus aDd LadC:OD. LatC: ?C bDd t
:8
n CnZ and LraDDC and na n ODndDCr_. ODaCsQCaran sCCnCs
stand 8s mCnumCnts at ts Cd_C and LCCtDC CrCssCd t n tDC sCCCnd
Qart C! Fous:. t s a urCQCan rCad Dut t s a LCrman CnC tCC. !
tDat s CnC Can sQCaK C! a rCad ratDCr tDan a staKn_-QatD aCn_
?DCD \DC C_aC C! mCdCVa and DarCQuC dr8ma D8s CrCQt dC?n tC
us. Ds staKn_-QatD rCu_D and CVCr_rC?n tDCu_D t ma DC
s VsDC a_an tCda n tDC Qas C! rCCDt.
1l 7ke 1n:errutions
rCC!t CQQCsCs Ds CQC UCatrC \C t!C UCaDC ?D:CD :S dram8t:C :n
tDC narrC? sCnsC and ?DCsC tDCCr !CrmuatCd D rstCt\C.
Ds s ?D rCCDt ntrCduCCs tDC dramatur_ C! Ds tDCatrC as a
`nCn-rstCtCan CnC just as Cmann ntrCduCCd a nCn-uCdCan
_CCmCtr. Ds anaC_ sDCud maKC t CCar tDat ?Dat ?C DaVC
DCrC s nCt a CCmQCttVC rCatCnsDQ DCt?CCn tDC !Crms C! drama n
QuCstCn. Cmann rCDsCd tDC aXCm C! Qar8Cs ?Dat rCCDt rCDsCs
s rstCtCan C8tDarss tDC Qur_n_ C! tDC CmCtCns tDrCu_D dCnt-
C8tCn ?tD tDC dCstn ?DCD ruCs tDC DCrCs !C.
DC rCa Cd ntCrCst C! tDC audCnCC !Cr ?DCD tDC QrCduCtCns C!
CQC tDCatrC arC ntCndCd s duC QrCCsC tC tDC !aCt tDat Qr8CtCa
nC aQQCa s madC tC tDC sQCCtatCrs C8QaCt !Cr CmQatD. DC art
C! CQC tDCatrC CCnssts n arCusn_ astCnsDmCnt ratDCr tDan Cm-
QatD. C Qut t as !Crmua nstCad C! dCnO!n_ tsC! ?tD tDC
DCrC tDC audCnCC s CCd uQCn tC CaC tC DC astCnsDCd at tDC
CrCumstanCCs ?tDn ?DCD DC Das Ds DCn_.
DC \8sK C! CQC tDCatrC rCCDt DCCVCs s nCt sC muCD tC dC-
VCCQ aCtCns 8s tC rCQrCsCnt CCndtCns. ut `rCQrCsCnt dCCs nCt
DCrC s_n] `rCQrCduCC n tDC sCnsC usCd D tDC tDCCrCOCans C!
aturasm. atDCr tDC rst QCnt at ssuC s tC uover tDCsC CCn-
dtCns. LnC CCud ust as ?C sa: tC moke :kem s:rone [ver[rem-
den]=) Ds unCCVCr:n_ maKn_ stran_C Cr aCnatn_) C! CCndOCns
s DrCu_Dt aDCut D QrCCCssCs DCn_ ntCrruQtCd. aKC tDC CrudCst
CXamQC: a !am rC?. OuddCn a stran_Cr CCmCs ntC C rCCm.
DC ?!C s ust aDCut tC QCK uQ a DrCnZC statUCttC and tDrC? t at
tDC dau_DtCr tDC !atDCr s CQCnn_ tDC ?ndC? tC C8 a QCCCman.
kat is Zic Tkeatre? [Seccnd versicn I_
Pt tDs mOmCnt tC stran_Cr aQQCars at tC dOOr. `aDCau as tCj
usCd tO saj arOund :QO. Dat s tO saj tC sCan_Cr s COnIrOntCd
VtD a CCrtan sCt OI COndtOns: trOuDCd IaCCs OQCn VndOV a
dCVastatCd ntCrOr. DCrC CXsts anOtCr QOnt OI VCV IrOm VDCD
tC mOrC usua sCCnCs OI DOur_COs IC dO nOt OOK sO VCrj dUCrCnt
IrOm tDs.
l Tke Quctale 6esture
`DC CDCCt OI c8CD 8cLtcLCc rCads OnC OI rCCDts dramatur_Ca
C\C8C\C QOcU8 8t\C\Q8\cC 8LC tcVc8icC. LC Uc UOUcLt
W8s 8Lt\C\Q8tcC VDCn tDc CtOWC WOuC i8 UC 8cLtcLCcs DQOL t1c
sCaCs. 1n sDOrt tC aCtOn ntCrruQtCd. NC maj _O IurtCr DCrC
and rCCa tat ntCrruQtOn s OnC OI tC IundamCnta mCtOds OI a
IOrm-_Vn_. 1t rCaCDCs Iar DCjOnd tDC dOman OI 3. 1t 1s tO mCn-
tOn ust OnC OI ts asQCCts tC Or_n OI tDC QuOtatOn. _uOtn_ a
tCXt mQCs ntCrruQtn_ U COntCXt. 1t V rCadj DC undCrstOOd
t0CrCIOrC Uat CQC tDCatrC V0CD dCQCnds On ntCrruQtOn s QuOt-
aDC n a VCrj sQCCDC sCnsC. Dat ts tCXts arC QuOtaDC VOud DC
nOtDn_ VCrj sQCCa. ut tC _CsturCs usCd n tDC QrOCCss OI aCtn_
arC anOt0Cr mattCr.
`NaKn_ _Cst0rCs Q0OUDC s OnC OI t0C CssCnta aCCVCmCnts OI
CQC tDCatrC. DC aCtOr must DC aDC tO sQaCC Ds _CsturCs as tC COm-
QOstOr QrOduCCs sQaCCd tjQC. Ds CUCCt Can DC aCDCVCd IOr nst-
anCC Dj tC aCtOr On sta_C QuOtn_ a _CsturC OI Ds OVn. D0s n
Ha_ Znd VC sCC tDat LarOa CDCr n tC rOC OI a OaVatOn
Prmj sCr_Cant, aItCr sn_n_ n a sCamCns taVCt n OrdCr tO maKC
COnVCrts tCrC and CDOOsn_ a sOn_ mOrC aQQrOQratC tO suCD a
QaCC tDan t VOud DaVC DCCn tO a CDurC Das tO QuOtC tDs sOn_ and
tDC _CsturCs VtD VDCD sDC san_ t n IrOnt OI tDC OaVatOn Prmj
LOunC. Lr n Tke 3easures Taken, a _rOuQ OI LOmmunsts DaVC
tO aCCOunt DCIOrC a Vartj CDuna IOr an aCtOn tDCj DaVC taCn
a_anst anOtCr COmradC. 1n dOn_ sO tCj nOt Onj rCQCat tC CVCnt
Dut asO rCQrOduCC UC _CsturCs madC Dj tC OtDCr COmradC. NDat
n CQC tCatrC as a VDOC s an artstC mCtOd OI tC suDt!Cst nd s
n tDC Jekrstck ddaCtC Qaj} Qut tO mmCdatC ddaCtC usC. Pt a
CO
cvcnrs, cpic tLcarrc is, 5 dc6nirion, gcsturaI. Ior rLc morc otrcn
c inrcrrupr somconc in proccss ot acrion, rLc morc gcsrurcs c
o5rain.
I7 Tke Diooc:ic 1lo
tpic rLcatrc is aIas inrcndcd tor rLc acrors quirc as mucL as tor rLc
8Q0ctIOt8. 00 0$80nI t08On L :Lc didacric pIa taIIs ntO a
carcgor ot irs on is rLar, tLrougL rLc cxccprionaI ausrcrir ot irs
appararus, ir taciIirarcs and cncouragcs rLc inrcrcLangca5iIit ot
acrors and audicncc, audicncc and acrors. tvcr spccraror C 5c-
comc onc ot rLc acrors. ^nd, ot coursc, pIaing a 'reacLcr' is casicr
rLan pIaing a 'Lero'.
In rLc 6rsr vcrsion ot Tke Fkr o] rke Jmderks, Lich
pu5IisLcd in a magazinc, tLc aviaror sriII appcarcd as Lcro. JLc pIa
dcviscd tor Lis gIori6carion. JLc sccond vcrsion - and rLis is
LigLI rcvcIaror -ocs irs cxisrcncc ro a scIt-corrccrion ot brccLr's.
Lar immcnsc cnrLusiasm scpr rLc to conrincnrs immcdiarcI
atrcr Lind5crgL's igLr! Ycr rLc scnsarion soon 6zzIcd our. In Tke
Flikr o]rke Jinderks brccLr cndcavours ro 5rcak don rLc spcc-
rrum ot rLc 'cvcnr' in ordcr ro cxuacr tLc coIours ot 'cxpcricncc':
tLc cxpcricncc hicL C onI 5c dran trom Lind5crgL's ork
Lis igLr), and LicL brccLr mcans ro givc 5ack ro 'rLc Lind5crgLs'
rLc orkcrs).
J. t. Larcnce, tLc aurLor ot Tke Seven 1iors o] oom rorc
ro !o5crt Gravcs upon ]oining mc !oaI ^ir Iorcc tLar rhc srcp Lc
Lad rakcn as tor a man ot roda Lar cnrcring a monasrcr Lad
5ccn tor a man in rLc MiddIc ^gcs. In tLis starcmcnr c rccognizc
rLc samc tpc ot rcnsion LicL is cLaracrcrisric ot Tke Flikr o] rke
Jmoleks and ot :Lc Iarcr didacric pIas. ^ monasuc rigour is
appIicd ro rI.c Icaning ot a modcn rccLniquc -in rLc onc csc tLar
ot hing, in tLc orLcr rLar ot rLc cIass srruggIc. JLis sccond appIi-
carion is carricd rLrougL mosr tLorougLI in Tke Aorker. ^ sociaI
drama a 5oId cLoicc tor rch:sing rLc cccts ot cmparL ro LicL
modcn audicnces arc so accusromcd. brccLr is aarc ot rLis Lc
cxprcsscs ir in an cpisroIar pocm LicL Lc addrcsscd ro rLc ork-
kar is Z Tkearre? [Second versionj 2
crs' rLcarrc in ^c Yorx on rLc occsion ot irs producrion ot rLc
pIa, in rLc toIIoing rcrms: 'Man asxcd us: iII rLc orxcr undcr-
srand ou: iII Lc agrcc ro do irLour rLc usuaI drug ot passivc
idcnri6carion irL orLcr mcn's rcvoIrs, orLcr mcn's vicrorics: iII
Lc givc up rLc iIIusion LicL cxcircs Lim tor ro Lours and rLcn
Icavcs Lim morc rircd rLan cvcr, hIIcd onI rL vaguc mcmorcs
and vagucr Lopcs:'
I7 Tke cror
tpic rLcarrc procccds 5 hrs and srarrs, in a manncr compara5Ic ro
rLc imagcs on a 6Im srrip. Irs 5asic torm is rLar ot rLc torccmI im-
pacr on onc anorLcr ot scpararc, sLarpI disrincr siruarions in rLc
pIa. JLc songs, rLc caprions, rLc gcsruraI convcnrions dicrcnriarc
rLc sccncs. ^s a rcsuIr, InrcrvaIs occur LicL rcnd ro dcsrro IIu-
sion. JLcsc InrcrvaIs paraIsc rLc audicncc's rcadIncss tor cmparL.
JLcir purposc is ro cna5Ic rLc spccuror ro adopr a criricaI arurudc
roards rLc rcprcscnrcd 5cLaviour ot rLc pIa's cLaracrcrs and ro-
ards rLc a in LicL rLis 5cLaviour is rcprcscnrcd). So tar as rLc
manncr ot rcprcscnrarion is conccucd, rLc rasx ot rLc acror in cpic
rLcarrc is ro sLo, 5 Lis acring, rLar Lc is xccping a cooI Lcad. Jo
Lim, roo, cmparL is otIirrIc usc. Ior rLis a ot acring, rLc 'acrors'
ot dramaric rLcarrc arc nor aIas and nor compIcrcI prcparcd.
b imagining Lar ir mcans ro 'pIa ar acring' c ma comc cIoscsr
ro undcrsmnding Lar cpic rLcarrc is aII a5our.
brccLr sas: JLc acror musr sLo an cvcnr, and Lc musr sLo
LimscI: Hc naruraII sLos rLc cvcnr 5 sLoing LimscIt and Lc
sLos LimscIt 5 sLoing rLc cvcnr. ^IrLougL rLcc coincidc, rLc
musr nor coincidc in sucL a a rLar rLc dicrcncc 5crwccn rLc ro
rasxs is Iosr.' In orLcr ords, rLc acror musr rcscrvc rLc rigLr ro acr
sxImII our ot cLaracrcr. Hc musr 5c trcc, ar rLc rigLr momcnr, ro
acr LimscIt rLinxing a5our Lis parr). Ir ouId 5c a misraxc, ar sucL
momcnrs, ro dra a paraIIcI irL !omanric iron as pracriscd, tor
cxampIc, 5Jiccxin Puss m Boors. JLis Las no didacric purposc; in
rLc hnaI anaIss, aII ir dcmonsrrarcs is rLc pnIIosopLicI sopLisrica-
rion ot rLc aurLor, Lo, LiIc riring Lis pIas, aIas Las ar rLc
2C
DaCK O! Ds mnd IDC nOIOn IDaI IDC ?Ord ma a!ICr a DC usI a
s!a_C.
1I s QrCCsC IDC mannCr O! aCIn_ ?DCD n CQC IDCaOC C
Casua rCVCa IDC CXICnI IO ?DC arIsIC nICrCsI s DCrC dCnICa
?ID QOICa nICrCsI. C nCCd On IDnK O! rCCDIs CCC Terror
ono Aer o] :ke Tkiro Feick. I s Cas IO sCC IDaI IDC tasK O! aCIn_
an OO man Or a mCmDCr O! IDC COQCs LOurIs mCans sOmCtDn_
!undamCnta dUCrCnI IO a LCrman aCIOr n CXC !rOm ?DaI tDC
IasK sa O! aCIn_ NOrCs On ]uan ?Oud mCan IO a sOd !am
man. Or IDC !OrmCr CmQaID Can sCarCC DC rCCOmmCndCd as a
sutaDC mCtDOd !Or IDCrC Can DC nO CmQatD ?ID !DC murdCrCrs
O! OnCs !CO?-_DICrs. OuCD CasCs Ca !Or a nC? mCIDOd ?DCrCD
IDC aCIOr dsIanCCs DmsC! !rOm Ds rOC. DC rCsu!I COud DC CXIra-
Ordnar: suCCCssD and IDC mCIDOd ?Oud DC IDC CQC OnC.
I71I Tkeo:re on :ke 1ullic 1lo;]orm
DC COnCCr O! IDC CQC IDCatrC Can DC dCUnCd mOrC rCad n ICOs
O! IDC sIa_C IDan n ICrms O! a nC? Knd O! drama. QC tDCaIrC IaKCs
aCCOunI O! a CrCumsIanCC ?DCD Das rCCCVCd IOO IIC aIICnIOn
and ?DCD COud DC dCsCr:DCd as IDC n_-n O! IDC OrCDCsOa QI.
DC aDss ?DCD sCQaraICs IDC aCIOrs !rOm IDC audCnCC KC IDC dCad
!rOm IDC Vn_ IDC aDss ?DOsC sCnCC DC_DICns tDC suDmC n
drama and ?DOsC rCsOnanCC DC_DICns IDC nIOXCaIOn O! OQCra -
tDs aDss ?DCD, O! a tDC CCmCnIs O! IDC sIa_C DCars mOsI ndCD
IDC IraCCs O! Is saCra Or_:ns Das nCrCasn_ OsI Is s_nCanCC.
DC sIa_C s sI CCVa!Cd. uI I nO On_Cr rsCs !rOm an mmCasur-
aDC dCQID: I Das DCCOmC a QuDC QaI!Orm. DC ddaCIC Qa and
CQC IDCaIrC sCI OuI IO OCCuQ tDs QaI!Orm.
0L

hLT

LF
hLL
QC IDCaDC s _CsIura. bDCI sQCaRn_ IDC _Cs-
IurC s IDC maICra anO CQC IDCaDC Is QraCICa uOZaICn. 1! VC
aCCCQI tDs IDCn IVC QuCsICns CCmC IC DanO. rsI !rCm VDCrC
OCCs CQC IDCaIrC CDIan Is _CsIurCs: bCCCnO VDaI OC VC unOCr-
sIanO D IDC `uIZaICn C! _CsturCs: DC IDrO Qu0ICn VDCD
VCuO IDCn !CCV s: NDaI mCIDCOs OCCs IDC CQC IDCaCC usC n Is
IrCaDCnI anO CrIQuC C! _CsIurCs:
1n ansVCr IC IDC hrsI QuCsICn: IDC _CsIurCs arC !Cund n rCat.
NCrC QrCCsC ~ anO IDs s an mQCrIanI !aCI VCr CCsC rCaICO IC
IDC naIurC C! tDCaIrC ~ IDC arC !CunO Cn n IDC rCaI C! ICOa.
buQQCsC tDaI sCmCCnC VrICs a DsICrCa Qa: VC mantan IDaI DC
V suCCCCO n Ds IasR Cn IC IDC CXICnI IDaI DC s aDC IC CCCrO-
naIC QasI CVCnIs n a mCann_! anO nIC_DC Va VtD _CsIurCs
a man m_DI maRC ICOa. rCm IDs sIQuatCn CCrIan ns_DIs nIC
tDC QCssDtICs anO ImIaICns C! DsICrCa Orama m_DI !CCV. 1n
tDC nrsI QaCC mIaICO _CsturCs arC VCrUCss unCss IDC QCnI IC DC
maOC s QrCCsC tDC _CsIura QrCCCss C! mIatCn. sC tDC _CsturC
O! sa a QCQC as DC CrCVns LDarCma_nC Cr C! LDarCma_nC
as hC tCCCIVCs thC CtCWn Can nC !Cn_Ct CCCUt tCday CXCCQt as
ImItatICn. CnCC thC taW matCtIa! C! CQIC thCattC Is CXC!UsIVC!y
thC _CstUtC as It CCCUts tCday thC _CstUtC CIthCt C! an aCtICn Ct C!
thC ImItatICn C1 an aCtICn.
n ansWCt tC thC sCCCnd gUCstICn: thC _CstUtC has tWC adVanta_Cs
CVCt thC hI_h!y dCCCQtIVC statCmCnts and assCttICns nCtma!!y madC
Oy QCCQ!C and CVCt thCIt m8Dy-!ayCtCd and CQagUC aCtICns. 1Itst
thC _CstUtC Is !a!sIUaO!C Cn!y UQ tC a QCInt; and thC mCtC InCCn-
sQICUCUs It Is thC mCtC haOItUa!!y It Is tCQCatCd thC mCtC dImCU!t
It Is tC !a!sIj. bCCCnd!y Un!IRC QCCQ!Cs aCtICns and CndCaVCUts
It has a dcnaO!C OC_Inn:n_ and a dCLnaO!C Cnd. ndCCd thIs stt:Ct
!tamC-!IRC CnC!CsCd natUtC C! CaCh mCmCnt C! an attItUdC WhICh
a!tCt a!! Is as a WhC!C In a statC C! !IVIn_ LUX Is CnC C! thC OasIC dIa-
!CCtICa! ChataCtCtIstICs C! thC _CstUtC. hIs !Cads tC an ImQCttant
CCnC!UsICn: thC mCtC !tCgUCnt!y WC IntCttUQt sCmCCnC Cn_a_Cd In
an aCtICn thC mCtC _CstUtCs WC COtaIn. CnCC thC IntCttUQtIn_ C!
aCtICn Is CnC C! thC QtInCIQa! CCnCCrs C! CQIC thCaCC. t Is hCtC that
thC ImQCttanCC C! thC sCn_s !Ct thC `CCCnCmy C! thC dtama as a
WhC!C tCsIdCs. IthCUt antICIQatIn_ thC dImCU!t stUdy yCt tC OC
madC C! thC !UnCtICn C! thC tCXt In CQIC thCattC WC C at !Cast say
that C!tCn Its maIn !UnCtICn Is nCt tC I!!UsttatC Ct adVanCC thC aCtICn
OUt Cn thC CCDttaty tC IntCttUQt It: nCt Cn!y thC aCtICn C! CthCts
OUt a!sC CnCs OWn. nCIdCnta!!y It Is thC tCtatdIn_ gUa!Ity C! thCsC
IntCttUQtICns and thC CQIsCdIC gUa!Ity C! thIs !tamIn_ C! aCtICn
WhICh a!!CW _CstUta! thCattC tC OCCCmC CQIC thCattC.
QCssIO!C UOjCCt !Ct IutthCt dIsCUssICn mI_ht OC thC Way In
WhICh thC taW matCtIa! [thC _CstUtC) thUs QtCQatCd Is QtCCCssCd Cn
thC sta_C. CtICn and tCXt sCtvC hCtC as nCthIn_ mCtC than VatIaO!C
C!CmCnts In an CXQCtImCnt. Ut WhCtC dCCs thC tCsU!t C! thC CXQCtt-
mCnt QCInt:
hC ansWCt tC thC sCCCnd gUCstICn QUt In thIs Way CannCt OC
sCQatatCd !tCm thC QtCO!Cm C! thC t0Itd: What atC thC mCthCds UsCd
In QtCCCssIn_ _CstUtCs:' hCsC gUCstICns tCVCa! thC ttUC dIa!CCtIC C!
" ntDcOt:g:natjpcsC:pt tDc OO:ng passagcappcats :n manusc::ptn
tDc marg:n adO:n:ng tD:s pa:agrapD: Dc gcstutc dcmOnsDatcs tDc sOc:a
s:gn:ncancc and app:caD:tj OI d:acct:cs 1t tcsts rcat:Ons On mcn. Dc
Studies[r a Tkeo_ oZtc Tkeatre ?
CQC t!CattC. NC s!a Cn QCnt !CtC tC a !CV C! ts Das:C CCnCCQts.
1Ct a statt t!C !CCVn_ tCatCns!Qs atC daCCtCa: t!at C! t!C
_CstutC tC t!C stuatCn and vce versa, t!at C! t!C aCtCt tC t!C
C!ataCtCt tCQtCCntCd and vtce versa, t!at C! t!C att!tudC C! t!C aCtCt
as dCtCtmnCd D t!C aut!Ctt C! t!C tCXt tC t!C CttCa atttudC C!
t!C audCnCC and vice versa, t!at C! t!C sQCC:bC aCt:Cn tCQtCsCntCd
tC t!C aCtCn mQCd n an t!CattC tCQtCsCntatCn. !s st s
suUCCnt tC s!CV t!at a t!C daCCtCa mCmCnts atC suDCtdnatCd
!CtC tC t!C suQtCmC daCCtC nCV tCdsCCVCtCd a!tCt DCn_ !Ct_Ct-
tCn !Ct a Cn_ tmC namC t!C d:aCCtC DCtVCCn tCCC_ntCn and
CduCtCn. t!C tCCC_nt:Cns aC!CVCd D CQC t!CaC !aVC a dtCCt-
CduCtVC CCCt; at t!C samC tmC t!C CduCtVC CCCt C! CQC
t!CattC s !mmCdatC ttansatCd ntC tCCC_ntCns t!Cu_! t!C
sQCCuC tCCC_ntCns C! aCtCts and audCnCC ma VC DC dCtCnt
!tCm CnC anCt!Ct.
prOducuOn dUcuDcS VDcD tDc prOduccr mccU VDc tcDcars:ng tDc paj
0annOt ~ cvcn tDcj OrgnatcntDcScatcDOrccct ~ DcScpatatcd anj
OngcrtOm cOnCctc nSgDtS ntO tDccOSOcctj.
M
hL
Lh
MMLT
Crt rCCDt :s 8 d:DCut QDCnOmCnOn. C rCLIsCs
tO m8KC `IrCC usC OI D:s _rC8t :tCr8rj _IIts. 1nd tDCrC :s nOt OnC OI
tDC _:DCs CVCCd 8_8:nst D:s stjC OI :tCr8rj 8Ct:V:tj ~ Q8_:8rIst
trOuDC-m8KCr s8DOtCur ~ tD8t DC VOud nOt C8Im 8s 8 COmQmCnt
tO D:s un:tCr8rj 8nOnjmOus 8nd jCt nOt:CC8DC 8CtIV:tj 8s CduC8tOr
tD:nKCr Or_8nIzCr QO:t:c:8n 8nd tDC8UIC8 QrOduCCr. n 8nj c8sC DC
:s unguCst:On8Dj tDC Onj Vr:tCr Vr:t:n_ In LCrm8nj tOd8j VDO
8sKs D:msCI VDCrC DC Ou_Dt tO 8QQj D:s t8Cnt VDO 8QQ:Cs It Onj
VDCrC DC :s COnV:nCCd OI tDC nCCd tO dO sO 8nd VDO 8Dst8ns On
CVCrj OtDCr OCC8s:On. DC Vr:t:n_s 8ssCmDCd undCr tDC t:tC Ier-
sucke Lj 8rC sucD QO:nts OI 8QQ:c8COn OI D:s t8Cnt. DC nCV tD:n_
DCrC :s tD8t tDCsC QO:nts CmCr_C :n tDC:r D :mQOrt8nCC tD8t tDC
8utDOr IOr tDC:r s8KC UC tCmQOr8rj C8VC OI D:s oeuvre 8nd IKC
8n Cn_:nCCr sUrtIn_ tO dr: IOr O: :n tDC dCsCrt t8KCs uQ D:s 8Ct:V:tj
8t QrCC:sCj C8Cu8tCd Q8CCs :n tDC dCsCrt OI COntCmQOr8j :IC. CrC
tDCsC QO:nU 8rC s:tu8tCd :n tDC tDC8trC tDC 8nCCdOtC 8nd r8d:O
OtDCrs VI DC t8CKCd 8t 8 8tCr st8_C. `DC QuD:c8COn OI tDC Ier-
sucke,' tDC 8utDOr DC_:ns `m8rKs 8 QO:nt 8t VD:CD CCt8:n VOrKs 8rC
?
nCt sC muC! mCant tC tCQtCsCnt ndVdua CXQCtCnCCs [.C. tC !aVC
t!C C!ataCtCt C! Lns!Cd VCtRs) as t!C atC amCd at usn_ [and ttans-
!Ctmn_) CCttan CXstn_ nsttutCs and nsttutCns. N!at s QtC-
QCsCd !CtC s nOt tCnCVatCn Dut nnCVatCn. CtC tCtatutC nC
Cn_Ct ttusts an !CCn_ C! t!C aut!Cts V!C! !as nCt n t!C dCstC
tC C!an_C t!C VCtd aCd tsC! Vt! sCDCt ntC_CnCC. CtC
tCtatutC RnCVs t!at t!C Cn C!anCC C!t tC t s tC DCCCmC a D-
QtCduCt n t!C D_! tamIhCd QtCCCss C! C!an_n_ mans VCtd.
Iersucke :j s SuC! a D-QtCduCt and an nCstmaDC CnC; Dut t!C
QtnCQa QtCduCt s a nCV atttudC. LC!tCnDCt_ sad. `t s nCt Vat a
man s CCnVnCCd C! t!at mattCts Dut V!at !s CCnVCtCns maRC C!
!m. !s t!n_ t!at a mans CCnVCtCns maRC C! !m tCC!t Cas
`atttudC. `!C sCCCnd Iersuck, S:or:es oou: Herr Xeuoer,' sas t!C
aut!Ct `tCQtCsCnts an attCmQt tC maRC _CstutCs QuCtaDC. nCnC
V!C tCads t!CsC stCtCs V sCC t!at t!C _CstutCs QuCtCd atC t!CsC C!
QCVCtt _nCtanCC and mQCtCnCC. !C nnCVatCns nttCduCCd -
QatCnts sC tC sQCaR atC Cn sma CnCs. Ctt CunCt a QtCCtatan
s n s!atQ CCnUast tC t!C dCa QtCCtatan C! t!C Q!ant!tCQsts.
!C s nCt ntCtCtZCd. C CXQCCts t!C aDCtCn C! msCt tC attVC
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7rom tke Breckt commentar

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QtO!Ctatat O! Ct!n 3 VC!! as tBC DOUt_COs aVant-_atdC O! tnC
NCst.
BUs !KC nO OnC C!sC tCCt stattCd at tBC DC_nnn_ a_an and
\n tDc Ord ptcm:crc Otc:_DtOnc-8ctQ8j8 Dj tccDt.
a_an. nO !!s nCOCnta s !!C OsOn_us!n_ matR C! !!C
OaCCtCan. !CtC s a OaCCtCan !OOCn n CVCr mastCt C! an art.}
%aRC CCrtan sas LOC !!at t!C mQCtus Cu !aVC CnCC aC!CVCO
nCVCt DCnCDts Cut suDsCquCnt WCtR. tCC!t !as QtCCCCOCO n aCCCtO-
anCC Wt! t!s maXm anO QartCuat n t!C nCW Qas ntCnOCO !Ct
t!C t!CattC C! Cm_ratCn.
C sum uQ DrCp: !!C `attCmQts (Iersucke) C! t!C CarCt Cats
COCO n t!C CnO a OstnCt anO WC-!CunOCO sUnOatO C! tCC!t-
an t!CattC. t OCsCrDCO tsC! as CQC anO D t!s OCsCrQ!Cn sCt
tsC! uQ n CQQCstCn tC t!C OramaUC t!CatrC W!CsC t!CCr Drst
!CrmuatCO D tstCtC. !at s W! tCC!t nttCOuCCO !s !!CCr
as `nCn-rstCtCan just as Cmann CnCC nUCOuCCO a `nCn-
uCOCan _CCmCD. Cmann tCCCtCO t!C aXCm C! QaraCs W!at
Was tCCCtCO n tCs nCW Orama Was !!C rstCtCan `Cat!atss !!C
Qut_n_ C! t!C CmCtCns t!tCu_! OCn!DCatCn W!! t!C !CtCs
tutDuCnt OCstn. a OCstn maOC !utDuCnt D !!C mCVCmCnt C! a
WaVC W!C! sWCCQs t!C auOCnCC aCn_ Wt! t. [!C !amCus _0i-
e:eio s !!C CtCst C! !!C WaVC W!C! DtCaRn_ tCs !CrWarO tC t!C
CnO.}
QC t!CattC D CCnttast aOVanCCs D Dts anO stat!s RC t!C
ma_Cs Cn a m strQ. ts DasC !Crm s t!at C! t!C !CtCCU1 mQaCt Cn
CnC anCt!Ct C! sCQaratC OstnCt s!Ua!Cns n t!C Qa. !C sCn_s
!!C CaQtCns nCuOCO n !!C s!a_C OCCCt !!C _Cs!ur8 CCnVCntCns C!
t!C aCtCrs sCrVC tC sCQaratC CaC! s!uaUCn. !us OstanCCs arC CtCatCO
CVCtW!CtC W!C! arC, Cn tCC W!CC, OCttmCnta tC usCn amCn_
t!C auOCnCC. !CsC OstanCCs atC mCant tC maRC t!C auOCnCC aOCQt
a CttCa att!uOC tC maRC t t!nR. n a smat Wa t!C 1tCnC!
C!assCa sta_C maOC tCCm amCn_ ts aCtCrs !Ct QCrsCns C! !_! ranR
W!CsC arm-C!ats WCtC QaCCO uQCn t!C CQCn sta_C.}
QC !!CattC CVCtt!tCW CCttan CrUCa QCstCDs C! DCur_CCs
tCCattC D QtCOuCtCns W!C! WCtC suQCrCt n mCt!CO aDO QtC-
CsCn tC QtCOuCtCns C! t!C DCut_CCs t!CaDC. ut !!C VCtCrCs t
WCn WCtC oo koc CnCs. !C CQC st8_C Was nCt Ct sC Drm CstaD-
s!CO anO t!C CtCC C! t!CsC U8nCO !C aCt uQCn t nCt Ct sC ar_C
t!at t CCuO DC Dut uQ anCW n Cm_tatCn. CCC_ntCn C! t!s !aCt
Cs at t!C tCCt C! tCC!ts nCW WCtR.
Tke 6ouo:r kere i: is Foriooeo . + #
_
Terror ooo .iser o] :ke Tkiro Feick s a CyCC OtmCd O tWCnty-
sCVCn OnC-aCt Qays COnsttUCtCd aCCOtdn_ tO thC QtCCCQts O u8d-
tOna dtamatUt_y. OOmCtmCs thC dtamaCC CCmCnt OaZCs OUt KC a
ma_nCsUm atC at thC Cnd O an aQQatCnty dyC dCVCOQmCnt.
[hOsC WhO COmC n at thC KtChCn dOOt atC thC ntCt d" QCOQC
Wth
a saCK O QOUtOCs Ot thC ttC hOUsChOd; thOsC WhO WaK OUt
atC stOtm ttOOQCts Cadn_ OCtWCCn thCm thC daU_htCt O thC amy
WhOm thCy haVC attCstCd.) \thCt Qatts O thC CyCC haVC Uy
dCVCOQCd dItC QOts [C._. n Tke 6kolk 6ross a WOtKCt uICKs a
stOtm-ttOOQCt ntO tCVCan_ OnC O thC mCthOds WhCh thC LCsta-
QOs aCCOmQCCs UsC n U_htn_ thC UndC_tOUnd). OOmCCmCs t s
thC tCnsOn O a COnttadCCOn n sOCIa tCaCOns WhCh 8mOst Wth-
OUt ttansQOstOn s tCVCaCd dtamaCCay On thC sta_C. [WO
QtsOnCts taKn_ CXCtCsC n thC QtsOn-yaU UndCt thC CyCs O thC
WatdCt WhsQCt amOn_ thCmsCVCs OOth atC OaKCts OnC s n _aO
OCCaUsC hC dd nOt QUt any Otan n hs OtCad thC OthCt Was attCstCd
a yCat atCt OCCUsC hC dd.)
hCsC 8nd OthCt Qays WCtC QCtOtmCd Ot thC htst tmC n O. h.
UdOWs WC thOU_ht-OUt QtOdUCtOn On 21 Nay )g_8 OCOtC an
aUdCnCC WhCh OOWCd thCm Wth QassOnatC ntCtCst. t ast atCt
UVC yCats O CXC thC sQCCa QOtIC8 CXQCtCnCC WhCh UntCs ths
QUOC OUnd CXQtCssOn On a thCattC sta_C. OtCm OQt8 ans t-
mann L0ntCt 1UsChn LtCh OChOCnanK aCtOts WhO Unt thCn had
nOt aWays OCCn aOC tO tCCasC thCt 1 QOtCnta WhCn QCtOtmn_
n ndVdUa nUmOCts n QOtCa CaOatCt nOW sUCCCCdCd n Qayn_
OU thCt taCnts a_anst OnC anOthCt and thCy shOWCd t What _OOd
UsC thCy had QUt thC CXQCtCnCC WhCh mOst O thCm had aCQUtCd
nnC mOnths CatCt n tCChts Senoro 6orror's Fqes.
CCnC C_C dd UstCC tO thC tt8dCOn WhCh n sQtC O CVCty-
thn_ has sUtvVCd tOm tCChts C8tCt WOtK n ths nCW Knd O
thCattC. OhC mant8nCd thC Knd O LUtOQCan aUthOtIty CstaOshCd
n thC CatCt tCChtan thCauC. C WOUd haVC _VCn a _tCat dCa
tO sCC hCt n thC ast Qay O thC CyCC Fereooa, In WhCh as a
QtOCtatan WOman [a Qatt tCmnsCCnt O hCt UnOt_Ctt8OC tOC n
:nter/:g. a SpurOuS cDar:tj campagn mOuntcd Dj tDc az Vartj tO
ngraDatc ucVtDtDcVOrKcrS {ranSatOrS nOtc)
7ke .Yotker), shC CmOOdCs thC sQrt O! thC UndCr_rOUnd strU__C n
tmCs O! QCrsCCUtOn.
hC CyCC rCQrCsCnts !Or thC thCatrC O! \Crman Cm_ratOn a QO-
tCa and artstC OQQOrtUnty WhCh QaQaOy dCmOnstratCs !Or thC
Drst tmC thC nCCCssty !Or that thCatrC. hC tWO CCmCnts QOtCa
and artstC hCrC mCr_C ntO OnC. 1t s Casy tO sCC that tO Qay a stOrm-
trOOQCr Or a mCmOCr O! thC `QCOQCs COUrts s a VC:y dUCrCnt tasK
!Or a rC!u_CC aCtOr than t s say !Or a _OOd-hCartCd aCtOr tO Qay
1a_O. !Or thC !OrmCr CmQathy s nO mOrC sUtaOC than t WOUd OC
!Or a QOtCa D_htCr tO dCnt!y hmsC! Wth hs COmradCs mUrdCrCr.
dUCrCnt mOdC O! aCtn_ ~ thC QC mOdC tO OC Qan may Dnd a
nCW jUstCatOn hCrC and aChCVC a nCW Knd O! sUCCCss.
hC CyCC ~and hCrC a_an ts CQC gUaty s aQQarCnt thOU_h n a
dUCrCnt !O:m - Can aQQCa tO a rCadn_ QUOC as mUCh as tO thCatrC
aUdCnCCs. s On_ as thC COndtOns WhCh rCCht dCQCts UQOn thC
sta_C QrCVa t s UnKCy that tDC mCans W OC aVaaOC !Or QrO-
dUCn_ mOrC tDan a !ary mtCd sCCCtOn !rOm thC CyCC. OUCh a
sCCCtOn s OQCn tO CrtCa OOjCCtOns and ths _OCs !Or thC ars
QrOdUCtOn. Ot a thC sQCCtatOrs WCrC aOC tO _rasQ What a rCadCr
WOUd rCCO_nzC as thC dCtCrmnn_ thCss O! a thCsC shOrt Qays.
hC thCss Can OC sUmmCd UQ n a sCntCnCC !rOm a!Kas QrOQhCtC
7rial. `hC C s trans!OrmCd ntO a WOrd OrdCr.
LaCh O! thCsC shOrt Qays dCmOnstratCs OnC thn_: hOW nCUCtaOy
thC ruC O! tCrrOr WhCh QaradCs OC!OrC thC natOns as thC hrd
CCh maKCs a rCatOnshQs OCtWCCn hUman OCn_s sUOjCCt tO thC
aW O! thC C. dCCaratOn UndCr Oath OC!OrC a COUrt O! aW s a C
(Jeal 7mdin), a sCCnCC WhOsC tCaChn_s may nOt OC aQQCd n
QraCtCC s a C (Occuational 7tsease), What s shOUtCd !rOm thC
rOO!tOQs s a C (Fe[erendum) and What s WhsQCrCd n a dyn_ mans
Ca:s s st a C (7ke Sermon on tke 3ount). C s OrUtay njCCtCd
ntO What hUsOand and W!C haVC tO say tO OnC anOthCr n thC ast
nstants O! thCr !C tO_CthCr (7ke eisk i[e), a C s thC masK
WhCh Qty hC:sC! QUts On WhCn shC st darCs tO _VC a s_n O! !C
(!n tke Serice o tke Peole). NC arC n thC COUntry WhCrC thC namC
O! tDC QrOCtarat may nOt OC mCntOnCd. rCCht shOWs Us hOW
thn_s haVC COm0 tO sUCh a Qass n that COUntry that a QCasant Can-
Tke Countr kere it t: 7oridden + . qI
nOt CVCn any On_Cr !CCO bIs DCasts WItbOut CnOan_CrIn_ `statC
sCCurIty (Tke 7crmer 7eeds kts So).
bC trutb WbICb WI OnC Oay COnsumC tbIs OtatC anO Its OrOCr
IKC a QurIIn_rC Is tOOay Ony a !CCDC sQarK. t Is !annCODytbC
WOrKCr WbO In !rOntO!tbC mICrOQbOnC sbOWs uQ !Or tbC ICs tbat
tbCy arCtbCWOrOs bCIsDCIn_!OrCCOtOsQCaK, ItIsKCQt aIVC Dy tbC
sICnCC O!tbOsC WbO CannOt CXCCQt WItb tbC _rCatCst CIrCumsQCC-
tIcn mCCt tbCIr COmraOC WbO bas suCrCO martyrOOm, WbIst tbC
rC!CrCnOumCaLCtWbOsCCntIrCtCXtIs`\ IsnOtbIn_OtbCrtbantbat
tIny _OWIn_ sQarK ItsC!.
tIstODCbOQCOtbattbCCyCCWsOOnDCaVaIaDCIn DOOK !Orm
OrtbCsta_CItOCrsanCntIrCrCQCrtOIrC.OrtbCrCaOCrItIsaOrama
suCb 0s raus CrCatCO n bs Jcst 7cs o 3cnkmd. t Is Ony tbIs
KInO O! Orama WbCb C QCrbaQs COntan tbC stI _OWn_ rCaIty
O!tbC QrCsCnt mOmCnt anO Carry It OOWn tO QOstCrIty IKC a tCsta-
mCnt O!IrOn.
MMLL

FLM
T
Lh
t :s a KLOVL !aCt tDat a COmmCLtatj :s sOmCID:L_
O:UCtCLt !tOm a CatCUlj VC:_DCO aQQtCC:at:OL aQQOtt:OL:L_ :_Dt
aLO sDaOC. JDC COmmCLtatj QtOCCCOs !tOm tDC Cass:C LaIutC O! :ts
tCXt aLO DCLCC as :t VCtC !tOm a QtC]uO_CmCLt. t :s !u:IDCt O:st:L-
_u:sDCO !tOm aL aQQtCC:at:OL Dj tDC !aCI IDat :t :s COLCCDCO sOCj
V:ID IDC DCauIj aLO tDC QOs:t:VC COLtCLt O! :ts tCXt. LO :t :s a VCtj
O:aCCt:C statC O! aUa:ts VD:CD CL:sts tD:s atCDa:C !Otm IDC COm-
mCLtatj VD:CD a!tCt a :s aL autDOt:tat:VC !Otm ~ :n IDC sCtV:CC
O! a QOCCj VD:CD :s LOt :L tDC Cast atCDa:C aLO VD:CD DOOj CDa-
CL_Cs VDat u tCCO_L:zCO as auIDOt:UI:VC tOOaj.
OuCD a sUtC O! aUa:ts CO:LC:OCs V:tD OLC CLV:sa_CO :L aL OO
maX:m O! O:aCCt:Cs: UC sutmOuLt:L_ O! O:UCut:Cs Dj tDC:t aCCumu-
aI:OL. JDC O:UCuIj tO DC sutmOuLtCO DCtC COLs:sts :L tCaO:L_ jt:C
QOCCj tOOaj at a. ouQQOs:L_ tDCL tDat OLC C:Cs tO mCCt tD:s O:U-
CuIj Dj tCaO:L_ tDC tCXt CXaCIj as tDOu_D :t VCtC aL atCaOj CsIaD-
:sDCO OLC DCaVj V:tD a COntCLt O! :OCas ~:L sDOtI a Cass:Ca tCXt
LO suQQOs:L_ :! OLC UC tDC Du Dj tDC DODs aLO :! OLC DCats
:L m:LO IDC sQCC:a C:tCumsULCC COttCsQOLO:L_ CXaCtj tO tDC
~~
dmCutj O! tCadn_ jtC QOCDj tOdaj namCj tDC dUCutj O!
Vttn_ jtC QCCttj tOdaj - suQQOsn_ tDat VDCn VC maRC Out
actCmQt tO tCad a jtCa tCXt as tDOu_D t VCtC a CassCa OnC VC
CDOOsC a COCCtOn O! lric erse ritten todc:
1! anjtDn_ Can CnCOuta_C tDs attCmQt t s tDC tCCO_ntOn LOm
VDCD cDC COuta_C O! dCsQat s _CnCtaj dtaVn tOdaj: IDC tCCO_n-
tOn tDat tOmOttOV maj Dtn_ dsastCts O! suCD COOssa dImCnsOns
tDat VC Can ma_nC OutsCVCs sCQatatCd !tOm tDC tCXts and QtOduCts
O! jCstCtdaj as tDOu_D Dj CCntutCs. _DC COmmCntatj VDCD tOdaj
st !ts tDC tCXt tOO t_tj maj DaVC OOsCnCd ntO CassC !Ods tO-
mOttOV. DCtC tOdaj ts QtCCsOn maj sDRC OnC as amOst unsCCm-
j tOmOttOV mjstCtj maj DaVC tC-CstaDsDCd tsC!.)
CtDaQs tDC COmmCnUtj VDCD !OOVs VI atOusC ntCtCst n
anOtDCt Vaj tOO. COQC !Ot VDOm LOmmunsm aQQCats tO DCat tDC
st_ma O! OnCsdCdnCss maj DaVC a sutQtsC n stOtC !Ot UCm ! tDCj
sIudj COsCj a COCCtOn O! VCtsC suCD as DtCCDts. DC sutQtsC V
O! COutsC DC Ost ! VC nsst On sCCn_ Onj IDC `dCVCOQmCnt VDCD
DtCCDts VCtsC Das undCt_OnC !tOm IDC Hcusostille tO tDC Svend-
or Poems. DC asOCa aIItUdC O! IDC Hcusostille s It8ns!OtmCd
n IDC Svendor Poems, ntO a sOCa attIudC. Dut IDat s nOt CXaCIj
a COnVCtsOn. 1t s nOt a mattCt O! COns_nn_ tO tDC LamCs VDat OnCC
Vas VOtsDQQCd. 1t s nCCCssatj tO QOnt Out VDat IDC dCtCnt CO-
CCtOns O! VCtsC DaVC n COmmOn. 1mOn_ tDCt mutQC attcudCs
tDCtC s OnC jCu V nCVCt !nd: tDat s tDC unQOtC8 nOn-sOCa OnC.
1t s tDC COmmCnUtjs QutQOsC tO QnQOnt UC QOtC COntCnU O!
Qassa_Cs CDOSCn QtCCsCj DCCausC tDCj atC QutCj jtCa.
On tke ausQOsUC ('Housekold 3essener')
1t _OCs VtDOut sajn_ tDat tDC tIC `OusCDOd NCssCn_Ct s tOnC.
1ts mCssa_C dOCs nOt COmC dOVn uOm ona Ot !tOm IDC LOsQCs.
DC sOutCC O! ts nsQtatOn s DOut_COs sOCCIj. DC CssOns VDCD
tDC CatC!U tCadCt dW !tOm t dCt as VdCj as QOssDC !tOm UC
CssOns VD:CD t QutQOtts OstCnsDj tO tCaCD. DC Hcusostille s
CCnCCDCd VIID IDC !OtmCt CatC_Otj O! CssOns aOnC. 1! anatCDj
s IDC ttuC aV O! DOugCOs !C sO tCasOns IDC QOCt tDCn Ct t at Cast
ccmmenrares cn Pcems qBreckt
~~
DC CaCO Dj Is QrOQCr namC. OnC O! IDC QOCIC !Orms VID VD:CD
IDC DOur_COsC CmDCsDCs Is CXsICnCC s tOO saCrCO !Or tDC QOCI
IO usC :n COsn_ tDC naturC O! DOur_COs ruC. DC CDOraC VDCD
COUCs tDC COn_rC_aLOn IDC !OR-sOn_ VDCD s !CO as a sOQ IO tDC
QCOQC IDC QaIr:OIC DaaO IDat aCCOmQanCs IDC sOOCr IO IDC
sau_DICr IDC OVC-sOn_ tDaI QurvCjs tDC CDCaQCsI COnsOaIOn a
O! tDCsC rCCCVC DCrC a nCV COnICnI n tDaI IDC rrCsQOnsDC anO
asOCa man sQCaRs O! IDCsC tDn_s LOO QCOQC DOmCanO anO
DrOC) n tDC Vaj tDCj sDOuO DC sQORCn O! n !rOnt O! rrCsQOnsDC
anO asOCa mCn: VtDOuI anj !asC Or IruC sDamC.
On tke NaDa_Onnj oOn_s"
77LTT` LT TL= 1
DOcVct 8tajcd n %aDa_Onnj
ad tO DaVc Vc dO\\at8 a daj
1nd Dc \Vcd :t uQ mOtc tDan tDc OtDct8
c nccdcd 8Omc cXtta majDc
ut :n tDO8c daj8 tDcj a\\ 8ujcd.
Dcj O8t ctDct Vaj
ut tDcj _Ot 8OmctDn_ Out O t.
1
\n 8ca and On \and
VctjDOdj8 _ctt:n_ 8Rtnncd
Dat8 VDj cVctjDOdj jOu Cn 5
18 8c:n_ m8R:n
Ot 8R:n8 atc VOttD dO !!t8 anjVaj.
DOcVct 8tajcd m%aDa_Onnj
ad tO DaVc DVc dO\at8 a daj ctC.
\nlc8 OtDctV8c :ndctcd tDc uan8latiOn8 O! Vct8c n tD8 VOlumc arc
ptO8c Onc8 madc D tDc ttan8latOt. LtDct8 atc tcptOduccd !tOm a ptOjcctcd
VOIumc O! tccDt8 Vct8c :n Dn8lauOn D cOuttc8 O! cdtOt |ODn
u U{t8IatOt8 nOtc]
1
\n 8Ca and On and
oaC8 O tC8D 8K:n8 atC DOOm:n_
`OuVC a _Ot tDC :tCD
ut VDO8 _O:n_ tO Qaj Ot tDC DOOZC:
Ot 8K:n8 atC CDCaQ and VD:8Kj8 dCat.
NDOCVCt 8tajCd :n NaDa_Onnj
ad tO DaVC hVC dOat8 a daj, CtC.
)
\n 8Ca and On and
DC manj m:8 O LOd _t:nd 8OV
Pnd tDat8 VDj CVCtjOnC jOu Can 8CC
18 8C:n_ D:8 8K:n
1Ot tDCjtC Ond O :V:n_ D:_ Dut tDCj dOnt uk Qaj:n_ Ca8D.
CVCt 8taj8 :n D:8 DOC
OC8nt nCCd hVC dOat8 a daj
Pnd : DC8 _Ot a V:C
C dOC8nt nCCd anjtD:n_ cO majDC.
ut tOdaj UCjtC a 8:tt:n_ t:_Dt
n LOd'8 OVn CDCaQ 8aOOn
DCj V:n C:tDCt Vaj
Pnd tDCjtC _Ctt:n_ nOtD:n_ Out O :I.
W77LTT` LT TL.
)
\nC _tCj mOt:n_
:_Dt :n tDC m:ddC O tDC VD:8Kj
LOd CC tO NaDa_Onnj
LOd CC tO NaDa_Onnj.
:_Dt :n tDC m:ddC O tDC VD:8Kj
NC nOt:CCd LOd :n NaDa_Onnj.
1
NDj dO jOu 8OaK uQ :KC 8QOn_C8
Nj _OOd VDCat DatVC8t jCat Dj jCat:
comenrares on Poems Brer
~7
`Ou nCVCt CxQCCtCd UC tO COUC
ut nOV U DCtC, D CVCtjtDn_ tCadj:
DC UCn O NaDa_Onnj OOkCd at CaCD OtDCt.
`C8, 8ad tDC UCn O NaDa_Onnj.
\nC _tCj UOtn_
_Dt n tDC UddC O tDC VD8kj, CtC.

O jOu au_D On 1tdaj n_Dt8:
8aV Natj CCUan n tDC O8tanCC
oVUUn_ KC a CO8D, duUD, n tDC 8at 8Ca.
LCntCUCn, 8DC DC dtj nO UOtC.
DC UCn O NaDa_Onnj OOKCd at CaCD OtnCt.
`C8 8ad tDC UCn O NaDa_Onnj.
\nC _tCj UOtn_
_Dt n tDC UddC O tDC VD8Kj, CtC.
J
O jOu tCCO_nZC tDC8C DuCt8:
t jOu VDO htCd at Uj _OOd U88Onatj:
PU _On_ tO VC VtD jOu n DCaVCn:
A _On_ tO _aZC uQOn jOut _tCj dtunKatd8 Dat:
DC UCn O NaDa_Onnj OOkCd at CaCD OtDCt.
`C8, 8ad tDC UCn O NaDa_Onnj.
\nC _tCj UOtn_
_t n tDC UddC O tDC VD8Kj, CtC.
P O jOu atC _On_ tO DC
1ut jOut Nt_na C_at8 aVaj
\h tO DC, tDC Ot O jOu,
aCk DC8 jOut Ot
DC UCn O NaDa_Onnj OOKCd at CaCD OtDCt.
`C8, 8ad tDC UCn O NaDa_Onnj.
\nC _tCj UOtn_
_Dt n tDC UddC O tDC VD8kj
4
`Ou CD uQ :n NaDa_Onnj
`Ou CD uQ n NaDa_Onnj.
:_Dt n tDC m:ddC O tDC VD:8Kj
`Ou aj dOVn tDC aV :n NaDa_Onnj
7
ODOdj mO\C
1VCtjOnC OD 8tt:KC!
`Ou VOnt Ota_ u8 tO DC Dj Out !at:
For e've lee- i- ke!! c!! c!o-.
DC mCn O NaDa_Onnj OOkCd at LOd.
O, 8a:d tDC mCn O NaDa_Onnj.
!C `mCn C! %8!8_Cnn 8rC 8 D8nO C! CCCCntrCs. \n mCn 8rC
CCCCntrC. \n QCrsCns CnOCWCO D n8!urC W!U m8C QCtCnC C8n
DC usCO tC OCmOnstr8tC Wt!Cut mt8tCn t!C OC_rCC tC W!C! t!C
n8tutB rC!CXCs C! !um8n DCn_s !8VC DCCn DuntCO D t!Cr CXstCnCC
n t!C sCCCt C! tCO8. !C CCCCnuC s nCt!n_ Ct!Cr t!8n t!C 8VCr-
8_C m8n Q8CO Cut. rCC!t !8s CCmDnCO sCVCr8 ntC 8 D8nO. !Cr
rC8CtCns 8rC t!C mCst DurrCO QCssDC 8nO CVCn t!CsC t!C CCn
QrCOuCC 8s 8 CCCCtVC. n CrOCr tC DC 8DC tC rC8Ct 8t 8 !!C !8VC tC
!CC t!CmsCVCs 8 `CCmQ8Ct m8ss ~ 8nO n t!s tCC t!C 8rC t!C m8_C
C! t!C 8VCr8_C m8n 88s QCtt DCur_CCs. !C `mCn C!%8!8_Cnn
CCK 8t CnC 8nCt!Cr DC!CrC t!C s8 8nt!n_. !C rCsQCnsC W!C!
t!C t!Cn Drn_ Cut Cs 8Cn_ t!C nC C! C8st rCsst8nCC. !C `mCn
C! %a!8_Cnn CCnDnC !!CmsCVCs tC s8n_ `Cs tC CVCrt!n_
LCO tCs t!Cm tC CVCr quCstCn LCO Quts tC t!Cm 8nO CVCr
OCm8nO !C m8KCs uQCn t!Cm. OuC! 8CCCrOn_ tC rCC!t must DC
!!C n8turC C! 8 CCCCt!VC t!8t 8CCCQts LCO. nO t!!s LCO tCC s
!msC! 8 rCOuCCO CnC. !C WCrOs
e noticed 6od
n t!C rC!r8n C! OCn_ C. j mQ t 8nO ts 8st VCrsC CCnrms t.
!C Drst 8ssCnt s _VCn tC t!C st8tCmCnt.
You never eected me to come.
commentaries on 7oems Breckt
~5
1t !s C!Cat BOVCVCt tBat tBC D!UntCd tCaCt!Ons O! tBC mCn O! Nana-
_Onn atC nOt sBatQCnCd CVCn D tBC sUtQt!sC CUCCt. 1n a s!m!!at
Va !atCt On tBC sCCm tO tB!nK tBat tnC!t C!a!m tO CntCt BCaVCn !s
!n nO Va VCaKCnCd D tBC !aCt tBat tBC BaVC UtCd at tBC m!ss!On-
at. BC !OUttB VCtsC tCVCa!s tBat LOds V!CV !s d!UCtCnt:
O_` to kell, tke lot o[ ou/
CtC !s tBC B!n_C dtamatUt_!Ca!! sQCaK!n_ tBC erteteta, O! tBC
QOCm. 1n !ssU!n_ B!s COmmand LOd Bas madC a D!UndCt. O mCasUtC
!ts CXtCnt !t !s nCCCssat tO V!sUa!!ZC tBC !OCa!!t a !!tt!C mOtC C!Cat!.
1t !s dCUnCd !n tBC Una! VCtsC O! OOn_ O. ?. 1n !aCt V!tB tBC !ma_C
O! tB!s dCUn!t!On O! a Q!aCC tBC QOCt addtCssCs B!s CQOCB.
But toda tke`re all sttttn ttkt
7n 6od's on ckea saloon.
BC adjCCt!VC `CBCaQ COnta!ns a _OOd dCa! O! mCan!n_ (Transla-
tor' s note. tnC LCtman VOtd db mCans `!a!t Ot `jUst as VC!! as
`CBCaQ; tBC VCtD tllten mCans `tO sanCt!On Ot `tO aQQtOVC]. NB
!s tBC sa!OOn CBCaQ: 1t !s CBCaQ DCCaUsC tBC QCO!C !n !t atC LOds
_UCsts at a CBCaQ Qt!CC. 1t !s CBCaQ (tllt) DCCaUsC tBC QCOQ!C aQQtOVC
(tllten) CVCttB!n_ tnat !s !n !t. 1t !s CBCaQ [!a!t] DCCaUsC !t !s !a!t
tBat QCOQ!C sBOU!d CntCt !t. LOds OVn CBCaQ sa!OOn !s BC!!. BC C-
QtCss!On Bas tBC tCtsC gUa!!t O! CCtta!n dtaV!n_s D tBC !nsanC. 1t !s
jUst !!KC tB!s as a CBCaQ sa!OOn tBat tBC man !n tBC sttCCt [OnCC BC
Bas _OnC mad] ma VC!! Q!CtUtC tBC !!tt!C Q!Ot O! BCaVCn VB!CB !s
aCCCss!D!C tO B!m. [1DtaBam Oanta L!ata m!_Bt BaVC sQOKCn O!
`LOds CBCaQ sa!OOn.] Ut LOd !n B!s OVn CBCaQ sa!OOn Bas madC
B!msC!! CBCaQ V!tB tnC BaD!tUcs. !s tBtCat O! sCnd!n_ tBCm tO BC!!
Bas nO mOtC Va!UC tBan a QUD!!Cans tBtCat tO tBtOV B!s CUstOmCts
OUt !ntO tBC sttCCt.
BC `mCn O! NaBa_Onn BaVC tCa!!ZCd tB!s. Ot CVCn tBC atC sO
Dta!n!Css as tO DC !mQtCssCd D tBC tBtCat O! DC!n_ sCnt tO BC!!.
BC anatCB O! DOUt_CO!s sOC!Ct !s an !n!Cna! OnC. Ot BUman
DC!n_s VBO BaVC DCCn CaU_Bt UQ !n !t sOmCtB!n_ tnat U!!s tBCm V!tB
_tCatCt BOttOt tBan tB!s sOC!Ct s!mQ! CannOt CX!st.
5c
You on't dca u to kell our kair:
7or e've oeen tn kell a alon.
sajs tDc tDtd NaDa_Onnj sOn_. Dc Onj dUctcnCc DctVccn Dc
and tDs sOCa Otdct s tDat n tDc Qcttj DOut_cOs tDc cCCcnttC) tDctc
s nO t_d dstnCtOn DctVccn Ds OVn QOOt sOu and tDc LcV.
On rke oem `1_anst LcCcQtOn
77T L LT
LCt tDCm nOt dCCCVC jOu
DCtC :8 nO tCtut:n_ DOmC.
DC daj 8 nCatj OVCt
nc n:_Dt V:nd makC8 jOu 8DVCt
OmOttOV V nOt COmC.
LCt tDCm nOt m:8Cad jOu
NtD Vantj and VOC.
LuQ C V:tD ut_Cnt _tCCd jOu
`I! hnd nOtDn_ C8C tO CCd jOu
NDCn OnCC jOu Ct t _O.
LCt tDCm nOt DCat jOu Ctj:n_
`Ou DaVC 8O :ttC tmC.
CCaj 8 Ot C dj:n_
L:C8 C\max nOV s j:n_
1t V\ nOt 8taj tDC 8amC.
LCt tDCm nOt dCCat jOu
Lt smpc jOu 3 tDCj Vant.
O tCttOt8 nOV Can tCaCD jOu
`Ou d:C :kC anj CtCatutC
Pnd nOtDn_ Va:t8 DCjOnd.
tranlated q jobn Pillett
Dc QOct _tcV uQ n a suDutD VtD a QtcdOmnantj LatDOC
QOQuatOn; Dut tDc Qcttj-DOut_cOs ccmcnt tDctc Vas atcadj
DcCOmn_ mXcd VtD VOtRcts !tOm tDc at_c !aCtOtcs On tDc Out-
Commen:aries on 7oems Brecb: 5:
sRrts C! IDC ICn. Ds CXQans tDC aIIIuOC anO VCCaDuar C! tC
QCCm `_ansI CCCQICn. DC QCCQC DaVC DCCn arCO D IDC
CCr_ a_ansI ICmQIaICns !Cr DCD IDC DaVC IC Qa OCar n
a sCCCnO !C a!ICr OCaID. DC QCCI ars IDCm a_ansI ICmQIaICns
anO OCCCQICns !Cr DCD IDC musI Qa OCar n IDs !C DCrC Cn
CartD. C CCnICsts tDC CXsICnCC C! anCIDCr !C. s 8n_ s _VCn
nC Css sCCmn IDan tDaI C! IDC CCr_ Ds assuranCCs arC CQua
aQCOCIC. LRC tDC CCr_ DC CmQCs tDC CCnCCQI C! `OCCCQICn (Cr
`ICmQIaICn] aDsCuIC IDCuI aOjunCI; DC IaRCs CVCr IDCr CO!-
n_ aCCCnIs. DC CCVaICO ICnC C! IDC QCCm ma sCOuCC tDC rCaOCr
nIC _Cssn_ CVCr CCrn Qassa_Cs DcD CnO IDCmsCVCs IC OCrCnI
nICrQrCIaICns anO CCnIan a RnO C! DOOCn DCauI.
7bece ts no cetucnin bome.
rsI nICrQrCIaICn: CI IDCm nCI OCCCVC Cu nIC DCCVn_ IDaI
IDCrC s a rCIun DCmC. OCCCnO nICrQrCIaICn: IaRC CarC nCI IC maRC
an msIaRCs !Cr Cu Cn VC CnCC.
7be da t near( over (ransaICrs nCIC: IDC ICra
rCnOCrn_ C! tDC LCrman nC 7er 7a stebt in den 7:icen, s: `DC
Oa sIanOs n tDC OCCr].
rsI nICrQrCIaICn: IDC Oa s rCaO IC _C I s OCQarIn_. OCCCnO
nICrQrCIaICn: IDC Oa s aI Is DC_DI (CI CVCn sC Cu Can arCaO
!CC IDC DrCaID C! IDC n_DI nO].
7omorro ill not come.
rsI nICrQrCtaICn: tDCrC nCI DC anCtCr Oa. OCCCnO nICr-
QrCIaICn: IDCrC nCI DC anCIDCr mCrn_ (7ranslatoc's note. IDC
LCrman 3ocen mCans DCID `ICmCrrC anO `:DCrn_ C!. IDC
n_sD `mCrrC]. DC n_DI Das IDC asI CrO.
7as Jeoen enij tst (ransaICrs nCIC: IDs nC
IDC sCCCnO C! IDC sCCCnO VCrsC s CsI n tDC aDCVC 1ransaICn IC
aC IDC rDmC `CC - _C. DC ICra mCann_ s: `1!C s a sma
tDn_.].
n tDC CQCnDCuCt QtVatC CODCn tDs 1nC tCaO 7a Jeen enq
isr [`tDat !C s a sma tD!n_). Ds VCtsCn OUCts !tCm tDC atCt
QuD!C CnC n tVC tCsQCCts. DC Btst OUCtCnCC s tDat tDC CatCt
VCtsCn CXtCnOs anO OCUnCs tDC Utst nC C! tDs VCtsC [`Ct tDCm nCt
OCCCVC Cu) D sQCn_ Cut tDC tDCss C! tDC OCCCVCts .C. tDat !C
s a sma tDn_. DC sCCCnO OUCtCnCC s tC D sCCn n tDC !aCt tDat
tDC nC `!C s a sma tDn_ CXQtCssCs tDC VtCtCDCOnCss C!!C n an
nCCmQataDC Va anO tDus unOCtnCs tDC CXDCttatCn nCt tC DC
at_uCO Cut C! an C! t.
!r ill nor sra rke same [tansatCts nCtC: tDC
tCta mCann_ C! tDC LCtman 7s sreor nir meor beretr, s. `t stanOs
tCaO nC mCtC.).
1tst ntCtQtCtCn: `t stanOs tCaO no more'. tDs aOOs nCtDn_
tC tDC QtCCCO!n_ 1nC `!Cs CmaX s nCV Dn_. OCCCnO ntCtQtCta-
t!Cn `t stanOs read nC mCtC: Cu DaVC atCaO Da!-mssCO tDs
Cut _tCatCst CDanCC. `Cut !C stanOs tCaO !Ct Cu nC mCtC t Das
atCaO DC_un Das atCaO DCCn staRCO n tDC _amC.
DC QCCm !CtCCs us tC DC sDaRCn Ct sDattCtCO, D tDC sDCttnCss C!
Cut !C. \nC VCuO OC VC tC QCnOCt tDC !aCt tDat tDC LCtman VCtO
ersrre [`tC sDaRC) CCnCCas n t tDC VCtO scurrer [`sQatsC).
NDCtC sCmCtDn_ CCaQsCs tDCtC atC DCunO tC DC DCCs anO _aQs.
nass sDCVs tDat n tDs QCCm tDCtC atC numCtCus Qassa_Cs VDCtC
tDC VCtOs CCmDnC Dut CCsC anO unstCaO! tC CO a mCann_.
Ds ntCnsUCs tDC QCCms sDattCtn_ CUCCt.
On rke oem `\! tDC OnnCts n 1C
L TH 5111B5 1U HL1
1
DC 8:nnCt8 :n DC
1ty DOttCt tDan jOu mn
but jOu CCQ Ot OnC
DC tCat a18 _Cntj On D8 DCad.
6omenrories on Poems [ Breck:
~


DCj VDO Du tDC DaCKC8t
LCt nO tCat8 DOm anj OnC
\n tDC:t daj Oh tDCj _O Out
O DC_ Ot a tCat.

DCj 8tand tDCtC :nV:8:DC.
DC V:nd _OC8 tDtOu_D tDC:t DOd:C8
DC 8un 8D:nC8 tDtOu_D tDCm.
DCj CannOt DC 8CCn.
4
CtC COmC Out N\1CtC:8Ctt
C d:Cd :n PmCt:C
:8 Dt:dC dOC8nt KnOV :t jCt
Dat8 VDj VatCt tDCtC :8 nOnC.
]
Pnd DCtC :8 a8Qat CDCt
C COmC8 a8 8OOn a8 tDC 8un DtCaK8 tDtOu_D
Pnd nODOdj LOd KnOV8 VDj
1VCt 8DCd8 a tCat Ot Dtm.
6
DCn COmC8 LCOt_C 1anZCt
P mO8t unDaQQj H
:8 :dCa Va8 tDat
C d:d nOt mattCt.

Pnd 8VCCt Nat:C tDCtC
oDC tOttCd aVaj :n DO8Q:ta\
Pnd nCVCt _Ct8 a V.
oDC CatCd tOO :ttC aDOut :t a.

1nd tDCtC :n tDC :_Dt 8tand8 Ctt tCCDt
\VCt tDCtC Dj a dO_-8tOnC.
C _Ct8 nO VatCt DCCJu8C CVCtjOnC tD:nK8
C8 _OnC tO DCaVCn.
Q
`Ct DC8 Du::n_ nOV :n DC
NCCQ mj DtOtDCt8 VCCQ
\t CVCtj oundaj atCtnOOn
C mu8t 8tand tDCtC Dj D:8 dO_-8tOnC.
Cs QOCm sCOWs WtC startn_ Cart tCC _rCat OstanCC !rOm
WCCC tCC QOCt O! tCC HousekoH 3essener Cas traVCCO. OW
CaVn_ COmC sO !ar CC rCaCCCs Casua !Or tCC nCarCst tCn_ at CanO.
CC nCarCst tCn_ at CanO s aVaran !OR-OrC. CC QOCm sts !rCnOs
n CC-rC n tCC samC Wa as a sCrnC at tCC rOaOsOC ma COmmCnO
tCOsC WCO OCO W:tCOut rCCCVn_ tCC ast saCramCnts tO tCC QraCrs
O! QassCrs-D. Ct tCC QOCm WCCC at rst _anCC aQQCars sO narrOW
COnLnCO COmCs n rCat !rOm VCr !ar aWa. ts QCO_rCC s tCat
O! tCC amCnt WCCC Was OnC O! tCC maOr !Orms O! mCOCVa tCra-
turC. \nC COuO sa tCat t _OCs DaCR tO tCC anCCnt amCnt n OrOCr tO
amCnt sOmCtCn_ VCr mOOCrn. tCC !aCt tCat CVCn amCntatOn Cas
DCCOmC a tCn_ O! tCC Qast.
Here comes our 3lleretert
He died in mericc
H:s bride doesnt kno it et
7kct`s k cter tkere is none.
ruC tCC QOCm OOCs nOt QrOQCr amCnt tCs tCarCssnCss. Or
Can OnC QrOQCr assumC tCat %iCrCsCrt s OCaO snCC aCCOrOn_
tO tCC autCOrs `nstruCtOns tCs sCCtOn O! tCC DOOR s OCOCatCO
tO Cm nOt tO Cs mCmOr.
CC sCrnC WCCC s Qut CCrC DCars ma_Cs O! tCC !rCnOs n CC-
rC WCO arC mCntOnCO D namC; Dut at tCC samC tmC [tCs Can DC
OOnC n a QOCm} t aOOrCssCs tCCm as QassCrs-D n OrOCr tO rCmnO
6ommeo:ories oo Poems Breckr
55
tDCm tDat tDC cn CXQCCt nC ntCtCCssCn. DC QCCt CattCs tDs Cut
VtD QCtCCt CCmQCsutC. ut at tDC CnO Ds CCmQCsutC as Dm.
1C CCmCs tC sQCaR C Ds CVn QCCt sCu CtCr RC nC CtDCt. t
stanOs n tDC _Dt anO VDat s mCtC Cn a OunOa atCrCCn anO D
a OC_-stCnC. ]ust VDat tDat s CnC OCCs nCt QutC RnCV QCtDaQs a
stCnC a_anst VDCD OC_s maRC VatCt. 1Ct tDs snnCts sCu tDat
VCuO DC sCmCtDn_ 8 amat as a OamQ QatCD Cn tDC Va C Ds
CC s Ct a QtsCnCt. tD tDC QCCt DmsC tDC jCRC COmCs tC an
CnO anO DaVn_ sDCVn sC muCD IsCCnCC DC DC_s ~ nsOCnt t s
ttuC ~ Ct tCats.
Oo :ke oem `\ CCt ..
L JLL B. B.
1 cttOt tcCDt COmc Out O tDc DaCR Otc8U.
%j mOtDct DtOu_Dt mc tO tDc Ctc8 c8tj On
18 1 aj n Dct DOdj. 1nd tDc C O tDc Otc8t
tcman VtD mc t mj c 8 dOnc.
1n tDc a8QDat Ctj 1 8 at DOmc. tOm Uc Dt8t
ouQQcd VtD Xttcmc \nCuOn D Qcntj:
tD QaQct8. ODaCCO. 1nd Dtandj.
%:8ttu8tu and :dc and uDmatcj nOt d:8COntcntcd.
1 8 QO:tc tO QcOQc. 1 Vcat
1 Datd Dat mOtdct tO OOR Rc tDc OtDct8.
1 8. VDat CutOu8-8mcn_ anma8
Dcn 1 up: 1m Onc mj8c\ 8O VDj DOtDct:
1n mj cmQtj tOCRn_-CDat8 DcOtc unCcOn
1 QaCc Onc Ot tVO VOmcn 1Vc mj cjc On
1nd 1 OOR Ucm OVct C8tc8j and tc tDcm.
ctc jOuVc a man jOu Cant tcj On.
OVatd8 cVcnn_ 1 _ct 8Omc mcn tO_ctDct
c 8tatt addtc88:n_ caCD OtDct a8 `_cntcmcn.
Dg Qut tDct cct uQ On mj taDc8
oajn_: 1t VOtR Out a t_Dt. 1 dOnt a8R. Dcn:
3c
Oatd8 mOr:n_ :n tDc _tc :_Dt tDc Q:ncttcc8 8!and Q:88:n_.
Jnd tDc Vctm:n :n tDcm - D:td8 Dc_:n tO 8CtccCD.
JOOut tDat DOut 1m cmQt:n_ m _a88 :n tDc C:t and tDtO:n_
My C:_atct!c-Dutt aa and dtOQ tc8tc88 tO 8ccQ.
J maKc8D:!t taCc c Camc and 8cttcd
1n DOu8c8 tDat ctc 8uQQO8cd tO a8t
[hus WC DuIt thC ta COntaInCrs On Manhattan 1S3Pd
Jnd tDc 8cndct an!cnnac On D:CD tDc Jtant:C tc8t8).
N: 8utV:Vc O! tDc8c C:t:c8 Dat cnt tD:Ou_D tDcm: tDc :nd !
Dc DanQUctct :8 _ad tO cmQt tDc man8:On.
Nc :ca:Zc tDat c atc Qutc QtOV:8:Ona
Jnd a!tct D8 ?: COmc nOtD:n_ OttD mcnDOn.
1n tDc cattDQuaKc8 tDat atc tO !OO 1 _tcat DOQc
1 8Dant _rO tOO cmD:ttctcd tO QuU at m C:_at
1 cttOt tcCDt adt:!t :n tDc a8QDat C:t:c8
LOn_ a_O :n m mO!Dct !tOm Dctc !Dc DaCK !Otc8t8 atc.
:ra-s!a:ed _ jo- h:1!e::
7, Berrolr Breckr, come our orke olack [oresrs.
3 morker oroukr me ro rke ctrtes ear( on
s 7 la tn ker bod. nd rke cktll o rke [oresr
tlI rematn trk me rtll m lje ts done.
n thC !OrCsts It Is COd It CannOt OC any COdCr In thC CItICs. -
rCady In hs mOthCrs OOdy thC QOCt Was as COd as In thC asQhat
CItICs In WhICh hC Was tO IVC.
oour rkar kour 7'm emtn m lass tn rke ct and
7krotn m c:arerre-ourr aa, and dro resrless( ro slee.
CrhaQs nOt thC ast thn_ WhICh QrOVOKCs thIs rCstCssnCss Is thC
thOU_ht O! sCCQ ItsC! OOdy-rCaXIn_, tCst-_IVIn_ sCCQ. NI It dCa
mOrC KIndy WIth thC sCCQCr than thC mOthCrs WOmO dCa!t WIth thC
UnOOD: rOOaOy nOt. OthIn_ maKCs sCCQ sO UnQUICt as thC !Car
O! WaKIn_.
(7kus e outlr rke rall conratners on 3a-karran 7sland
nd rke slender a-rennae on ktck rke :lanrtc resrs).
6ommeorories oo Poems Breckr
5;
BC antCnnaC {aCtas] VBCB `suQQOtt {Ot Cn tCttan] tBC PtantC
dO nOt VC maj DC sutC CntCtta:n t VtB musC Ot taK Dut V:tB sBOtt
and On_ VaVCs V:tB tBC mOCCuat QtOCCssCs VBCB atC tBC QBjsCa
CX:stCnCC O! tadO. 1n tBs nC tBC ut:ZatOn O! tCCBnC mCda Dj
mOdCr man s dsm:ssCd VtB a sBtu_ O! tBC sBOudCts.
ill survive o] rkese ciries kor eor rkrouk rkem rke ioo!
1! tBC Vnd tBat VCnt tBtOu_B tBCm sutVVCs tBCsC CtCs t V
nO On_Ct DC tBC Od Vnd tBat KnCV nOtBn_ O! CtCs. BC CtCs
V:tB tBCt asQBat VtB tBCt sttCCts and manj VndOVs V VBCn
dCsttOjCd and dsntC_tatCd dVC n tBC Vnd.
Tke oouerer is loo ro em rke moosioo.
BC DanQuCtCt BCtC tCQtCsCnts tBC dCsttOjCt. atn_ s nOt Onj
!CCdn_ OnCsC! t s asO d__n_ OnCs tCCtB ntO sOmCtBn_ and
dCsttOj:n_ t. BC VOtd s mmCnsCj smQOCd ! VC tCst t nOt sO
muCB !Ot ts CnjOjaDtj {CdDtj] as !Ot U dCsttUCtDtj. LC-
sttuCCDtj s tBC DOnd tBat un:tCs n BatmOnj CVCtjtBn_ tBat CX:sts.
BC s_Bt O! tBs BatmOnj Us tBC QOCt VtB jOj. C s tBC DaLQuCtCt
VtB tBC tOn ]aVs VBO CmQtCs tBC VOtds mansOn.
e reolie rkor e ore ure rovisioool
oo oer us ill come - oorkm orrk meorioo.
Iorlue, `QtOVsOna ~ QCtBaQs tBCj m:_Bt DC Iorlur, `QtC-
CutsOts Dut BOV C tBCj DC s:nCC nOtB:n_ VOttB mCntOnn_ V:
COmC aDCt tBCm: 1t s nOt Cnt:tCj tBCt Lut ! tBCj _O dOVn n
BstOtj VtBOut _Otj. {BC QOCm `O Out OuCCCssOts Vt:ttCn tCn
jCats atCt taKCs uQ a smat tBOu_Bt.]
!, Berrolr Breckr, oor(ft m rke oskolr ciries
Joq qo, io pmorker, rom kere rke lock ]oresrs ore.
BC Qn_-uQ O! QtCQOst:Ons O! QaCC ~tBtCC n tVO nCs ~ must
QtOduCC an unCOmmOnj dstUtDn_ CCCt. BC stta__n_ tmC
CausC On_ a_O (Troosloror's oore. n tBC LCtman Us CausC COmCs
at tBC Cnd O! tBC ast nC] Bas dOuDtCss mssCd ts COnnCCtOn VtB
tBC QtCsCnt and sO tCn!OtCCs an mQtCssOn O! QOVCtCssnCss O!
58
aDandOnmCnt. BC QOCt sQCaKs as !! a!tCad !n B!s mOtBCts VOmD
BC Bad DCCn CXQOsCd tO CVCt V!nd.
NBOCVCt tCads tB!s QOCm Bas Va!KCd tBtOU_B tBC QOCt as tBtOU_B
a _atC UQOn VB!CB !n VCatBCt-VOC !CttCts a . . Can DC dCC!QBCtCd.
BC QOCt Vants tO Ba!t tBC tCadCt On B!s Va as !!tt!C as a _atC Vants
tO Ba!t tBC QassCt-D. BC atCBVa QCtBaQs DU!!t CCntUt!Cs a_O:
!t st!!! stands DCcUsC !t stOOd !n nO OnCs Va. !BC stands !n nO OnCs
Va . . V!!! dO jUstICC tO B!s n!CKnamC (oor . .]. OtB!n_ VOttB
mCnt!On!n_ Can BaQQCn !n tBC !!!C O! sOmCOnC VBO stands !n nO
OnCs Wa and VBO nO !On_Ct mattCts Un!Css !t DC tBC dCC!s!On tO
QUt OnCsC!! !n QCOQ!Cs Va and tO maKC sUtC tBat OnC dOCs mattCt.
BC !atCt CC!Cs O! QOCms DCat VItnCss tO jUst sUCB a dCC!s!On. BC!t
CaUsC !s tBC C!ass sttU__!C. BC DCst dC!CndCt O! a CaUsC !s OnC VBO
Bas madC a statt D !Ctt!n_ _O O! B!msC!!.
On rke OtUd!Cs
BCsC Srudies atC nOt sO mUCB tBC QtOdUCts O! IndUstt!OUs ZCa! as O!
an orium cum dinirare. OOmCt!mCs an Cn_taVCts Band sCatCC!
mOV!n_ W dtaV Ot dOOd!C !ma_Cs at tBC Cd_C O! tBC Q!atC; !n tBC
samC Va !ma_Cs !tOm Cat!!Ct tImCs atC BCtC tCCOtdCd !n tBC mat_!n
O! tCCBts VOtK. t BaQQCns tO tBC QOCt tBat !OOK!n_ UQ !tOm B!s
VOtK BC ma _!anCC aCtOss tBC QtCsCnt !ntO tBC Qast. `Ot tBC COm-
QaCt _at!ands O! tBC sOnnCtNCaVC tBCmsC!VCs as tBOU_B O! tBC!t
OVn aCCOtd !n m BandsNB!!st m CCs _taZC !n tBC d!stanCC sas
Nt!KC. 1 CasUa! _!anCC !ntO tBC d!stanCC VBOsC Und!n_s atC Cn-
C!OsCd !n tBC stt!CtCst QOCt!C !Otm.
1mOn_ tBC !atCt QOCt!C VOtKs tBC S:udtes atC CsQCC!a!! aK!n tO
tBC Housc'oH 3essener. BC Housekold 3essener ODCCts tO mUCB
O! OUt mOta!!t; !t Bas tCsCtVat!Ons tC_atd!n_ a nUmDCt O! ttad!-
t!Ona! COmmandmCnts. t Bas nOt tBC tCmOtCst !ntCnt!On BOVCVCt
O!CXQ!!C!t! stat!n_ UCsC tCsCtvat!Ons. t Dt!n_s tBCm OUt !n tBC !Otm
O! Vat!ants QtCC!sC! O! tBC mOta! att!tUdC and _CstUtCs VBOsC
CUstOmat !Otm !t COns!dCts tO DC nO !On_Ct gU!tC Utt!n_. n tBC
S:udies tCCBt ttCats a nUmDCt O!!!tCtat dOCUmCnts and VOtKs !n a
s!m!!at sQ!t!t. C Bas tCsCtVat!Ons aDOUt tBCm. Ut D ttans!at!n_
ccmmenraries on 7oems Breckr
5p
tUC8C tC8C:V8!!OD8 !D!O 8ODDC! !OtD UC Qu!8 !UCD !O !UC !C8t. U8!
!UC 8u:V!VC !U!8 !:C8!DCD! QtOVC8 tUC!t V8!O!!.
iD !UC Srudies tC8C:VC !8 D!XCO 9!!U 8 CCt!8!D 8DOuD! O! tCVCtCDCC.
UC uDtC8C:VCO !t!Du!C 9U!CU COttC8QODO8 !O 8 D8tD8t:8D COD!CDQt
O! Cu!utC U88 D8OC tOOD !Ot 8 !tJDutC !u O! tC8CtV8!!OD8.
On rke 18DODOOK !Ot \!!-O9CCt8
JL L Hodookor Cip-dellerc
1att !tOm jOut :Cnd8 at thC 8tat:On
ntCt thC C:tj :n thC mOt:n_ V:th jOut COat DuttOnCd uQ
LOOK !Ot a tOOm and VhCn jOut !::Cnd KnOCK8:
lO nOt Oh dO nOt OQCn thC dOOt
ut
LOVC: jOut UaCK8.
i! jOu mCCt jOut QatCnt8 :n amDut_ Ot C8CVhCtC
1a88 thCm :KC 8ttan_C:8 CD thC COtCt dOnt tCCO_n:ZC thCm
1u thC hat thCj _aVC jOu OVCt jOut !aCC and
lO nOt Oh dO nOt 8hOV jOut !aCC
ut
LOVCt jOut t:aCK8.
at thC mCat that8 thCtC. lOnt 8t:nt jOut8C!.
LO :ntO anj hOu8C VhCn :t ta:n8 and 8:t On anj Cha:t thaI8 :n :t
ut dOnt 8:t On_. Jnd dOnt !Ot_Ct jOut hat.
1 tC jOu:
LOVCt jOut UaCK8.
NhatCVCt jOu 8aj dOnt 8aj :t tV:CC
1! jOu hnd jOut :dCa8 :n anjOnC C8C d:8OVn thCm.
hC man VhO ha8nt 8:_nCd anjU:n_ VhO ha8 C!t nO Q:CtutC
NhO Va8 nOt thCtC VhO 8a:d nOth:n_:
OV Can thCj CtCh h:m:
LOVCt jOut t:aCK8.
bCC VhCn jOu COmC tO th:nK O! dn_
hat nO _:aVC8tOnC 8tand8 and DCt:aj8 VhCtC jOu :C
N:th a CCat :n8C::Qt:On tO dCnOunCC jOu
Jnd tDc ca: O! Our dcatD tO _:Vc Ou aa.
LnCc a_a:n.
LOVct Ou: !:aCK8.
Da! :s Dat !Dc tau_D! mc).
translated q Frank jellnek
1:DOO Z9C:_ U88 QO:D!CO Ou! !U8! !U:8 8CQuCDCC O! QOCD8 U88
8CQu::CO 8 DC9 DC8D:D_ !D :cCCD! C8:8 !! :CQ:C8CD!8 !UC C!! 88 !UC
:C!u_CC CXQC:!CDCC8 !! !D 8 !O:C:_D COuD!:. U8! !8 CO::CC!. Du! ODC
8UOuO DO! !O:_C! !U8! !UC D8D 9UO !_U!8 !O: !UC CXQO:!CO C888 !8
8 :C!u_CC :D U!8 O9D COuD!:. O: !UC :D!C!_CD! \ODDuD:8! !UC
!D8 DVC C8:8 O! U:8 QO!!!C8 9O:K :D !UC C:D8: CQuD:C 8!_D!-
CO 8 C:Q!O-CD!_:8!:OD. D:CCU! CXQC:!CDCCO !UO8C C8:8 88 8uCU.
U!8 D8 U8VC Q:OV!OCO !UC !DDCO!8!C OCC88:OD !O: !UC 9:\!!D_ O!
!U!8 CCC O! QOCD8. \:Q!O-CD:_:8!!OD 988 8 Q:C!D!D8: !O:D O!
8C!u8 CD!_r8!!OD :! 988 88O 8 Q:C!D:D8: !O:D O! uDOC:_:OuDO
QO:!:C8 8C!:V:!.
cover our tracks
1 Q:CCCQ! !O: !UC uDOC:_:OuDO QO:!!C8 9O:KC:
![ou nd our ideas in anone else, dtson tkem.
J Cu:!Ou8 Q:CCCQ! !O: !UC !D!CCC!u8 O! t
9
z8 8 Cr8!8-CC8: ODC
!O: !UC !D!CCC!u8 _ODC uDOC:_:OuDO.
See ken ou come to rkink o[di_
Tkar no ravestone stands and betras kere ou lie
!U!8 Q:CCCQ! 8ODC COuO DC COD8:OC:CO Ou! O! O8!C !UC uDOC:_:OuDO
QO:!:C8 9O:KC:8 U8VC DCCD :C!CVCO O! !U:8 9O:r D 1!!C: 8DO U!8
!Uu_8.
1D !U!8 U8DODOOK !UC C:! !8 8CCD 88 !UC 8:CD8 O! !UC 8!ru__C !O:
CX!8!CDCC 8DO O! !UC C888 8!ru__C. UC V:8:OD O! !UC ODC :8 r8!UC:
8D8:CU:8!!C 8DO U88 :DK8 9!!U !UC Housekold 3essener, !UC V:8!OD
O! !UC 8CCODO :8 :CVOu!:OD8: 8DO QO!D!8 !Orw8:O !O UC U:CC
OOO!C:5 !!8 5uCCC88O:. 1D C8CU C88C ODC !U!D_ tCD8:D8 uDCU8D_CO.
6ommen:ories on 1oems Breck:

C!!!C8 8:C D8!!CCO8. \DC C8DDO! !D8_!DC 8D OD8C:VC: C88 8CD8!!IVC


!O !C DC8u!!C8 O! 8DO8C8QC !8D !C 8!:8!C_!C8 !:8!DCO OD8C:VC:
O! 8 D8!!C. \DC C8DDO! !D8_!DC 8D OD8C:VC: 8u:VC!D_ !C C8:D8
O! 8 C!! ~ !!8 Du!!!ud O! Ou8C8 !C D:C8!-!8K!D_ 8QCCO O! !!8
!:8DC !!8 CD!C:!8IDDCD!8 ~ DO:C uD!CC!D_ t8D D:CC!. !8 8CK
O! !CC!D_ !O: !C C!! OCCO: CODD!DCO 9!! 8D C. !:CDC 8CD8!D!!!
!O: !C CI!-O9CC:8 8QCC!8 988 O! :C8C!!OD O!8!!D_u!8C8 D:CC!8
CCC !:OD 8 D!_-C!! QOC!: !8! Q:CCCOC8 !!. 8! !!D8D !D-
!OX!C8!CO !D8C! 9!! !C uD8D D888C8 O! !C8C !C:C !8 DO DCD-
!!OD !D D:CCt. D8uOC8!:C QC:CC!VCO !C !:8!! 8! !C C8:! O! 8:!8
!D !C 8:!8!8D8 C QC:CC!VCO OD 98! !8! !:8!! 8O OODC !O !CD.
`C:8C:CD 8!!CDQ!CO 8D 8QO!CO8!8 O! C!!!C8. O LCO:_ 1CD !C
8QQC8:CO !u O! QO:!CD!8 O! !C C8!88!:OQC8 9!C !:C8!CDCO !CD.
iDQO:!8D! D!_-C!t QOC!: _CDC:8 CD Ou! !C C!!-O9CC:. 1C
D8 D !C:C !D iCDC] Du! !D !!8 C88C !C 8OD!Xtu:C O! QC!!-
DOu:_CO!8 !u8!OD8 Q:OVCO !8!8 !O QOC!!C 8uCCC88. D:CC! !8 Q:OD8D
!C :8! !DQO:!8D! QOC! 9O 88 8ODC!!D_ !O 88 8DOu! u:D8D D8D.
On tke :kiro oem ]tom :ke 18DODOOK !O: \!!-i9CC:8
Nc dO nOtanttO IcaVcjOurnOusc
Nc dO nOtant tO smasn tnc stOVc
NcanttO Qut tnc QOt On!DC stOVc.
1Ousc stOVc and QOt can staj
nd jOu mustVansn Ikc smOkc n tnc skj
Nncn nODOdj nOIds Dack.
i!jOu ant tO cIn_ tO us cII _O aaj
i! jOur Oman ccQs c Qut Our nats OVcr Our ccs
ut On cj cOmc !Or jOu c sna QOnt
nd snaII saj:natmustDc nm.
Nc dOnt knOnatstO cOmc, andnaVcnOtnn_bcttcr
utC antnO mOrc O!jOu.
1ntIjOuVc _Onc
Lctusdratnc curtans tO snut Out tOmOrrO.
nc ctcsarc aIIOcdtO cnan_c
ut jOu arc nOtaIIOcd tO cnan_c.
Nc snaII ar_uc m tncstOncs
ut jOu VC snaII II
Ou must nO: IVc
NnatcVcr Icsc arc !Orccd tO bc\:cVc
Ou must nOt naVc bccn.
[nat snO c sQca& tO Our !atncrs.)
tan.!a:e b_F-ank e!nek
nC CXQU!sOn O! ]CVs !tOm LCtman [Unt! tnC QO_tOms O!
IQ] CattCO OUt n tnC sQtt OCsCtDCO n tns QOCm. nC ]CVs VCtC
nOt mUtOCtCO mmCOatC!, VnCtCVCt tnC naQQCnCO tO DC !OUnO.
atnCt tnC VCtC OCa!t Vtn n aCCOtOanCC Vtn tns QtnCQ!C.
e oo no: on: :o smosk :ke s:ove
e on: :o u: :ke on on :ke s:ove.
House, s:ove ono o: con s:o
no ou mus: vonisk . . .
tCCnts QOCm s !!Umnatn_ !Ot tnC tCaOCt O! tOOa. t snOVs
VCt C!Cat! Vn a!Ona! OOCa!sm nCCOs ant-sCm!t!sm. t nCCOs t
as a QatOO. nC atttUOC VnCn tnC tU!Cts attLCa!! QtOVORC vis--
vis tnC ]CVs s QtCCsC! tnC OnC VnCn VOU!O DC natUta! n tnC OQ-
QtCssCO C!ass vis--vis tnC tU!Cts. nC ]CV ~t!Ct OtOans sna!! DC
ttCatCO as tnC _tCat CXQ!OtCt OU_nt tO naVC DCCn ttCatCO. 1nO jUst
DCCaUsC tns ttCatmCnt O! tnC ]CV s nOt tCa!! n C8Cst DCCaUsC t s
tnC OstOttCO mttOt-ma_C O! a _CnUnC tCVO!UtOnat aCtOn t
nC!UOCs an aOmXtUtC O! saOsm. nC QatOO CannOt OO VtnOUt
saOsm. nC QUtQOsC O! tns QatOO s tO maRC a mOCRCt O! tnC ns-
!OtCa! QtOQOstOn tnat tnC CxQtOQtatOts sna!! DC CXQtOQtatCO.
On :ke n:n:k oem om :ke anODOOR !Ot L!t-VC!!Cts
L! `7 L L 7 7 7 J
L _\7
ncrcs anOmc !Or yOu ncrc
ncrcs rOOm !Or _Our tnn_s.
6ommen:ories on 1oems Breck: 6_
NOVc tDc tuntutc aDOut tO su:t jOutscI!
c us Dat jOu nccd
1crc s tDckcj
OtajDctc.
Dctcs a Qatcut !Ot us a
nd !Ot jOu atOOm tD aDcd
OucanOtktD us ntDcjatd
Ou DaVc jOut On Qatc
Otaj tD us.
1ctcs Dctc jOurc tO sccQ
Dc sDccts atc st ccan
DcjVc Onj Dccn scQt :n Oncc.
i!jOutc !ussj
1nsc jOut tn sQOOn n tDc Duckct tDctc
it Dc 3 _OOd as nc
Outc cIcOmc tO staj tD us
Dats tDc tOOm
1utrj uQ OrjOu canasO staj
Dc n_Dt, Dut tDat cOsts cXtta.
i sDant dstutD jOu
j tDcaj im nOt m .
Ou Dc 3c OnDcrc asanjDctc csc
OOjOu m_Dtas cI staj.
translated q Fran/ ellinek
C Honoook [r 6i-Dellers Q:OV:OC8 89C 8VC 8:C8O_ 88:O
ODjCC! C88OD8 :D uDOC:_:OuDO 8C!:V:!_ 8DO CD:_:8!:OD. C D:D!
QOCD :8 CODCCFCO 9:! 8 8OC8 Q:OCC88 9C uDOC:_:OuDO QO!C8
9O:KC:8 89C 8CD:_:8D!8 8VC !O 88:C 9J! !O8C 9O 8uCCuDD
!O CXQO:!8!:OD 9J!Ou! 8!:u__C. C QOCD :u8!:8!C8 9:! 8 !C9
CCODOD:C8 8!:OKC8 98! :DQOVC::8DCD! :D 8 8:_C C:!_ DC8D8. 1!
!C 88DC !:DC :! 8CO8 :_! uQOD !C D:8! QOCD O! !C C_CC.
8C O! !C Ou: iDV:!8!OD8 !O 8 8D 8! iUC:CD! :DC8 \:OD
i:UC:CD! _u8:!C:8 CD8DC8 u8 !O :CCO_D:ZC !C D8D8 Q8:!:Cu8:
CCODOD:C 8:!u8!:OD. !C _C!8 8!C8O:_ QOO:C:. C QCOQC 9O OUC:
!O Qu! :D uQ !8KC !:8 88 88:O !C_ 8O9 :D Q:O_:C88:VC_ C88
t_Dt tC CaVC an ttaCRs. DC Utst t!mC tDC st t8RC nCtCC C Ds
DCCn_n_s. \n tDC sCCCnO CCCasCn Cn a QatC C Ds CVn s mCn-
tCnCO anO tDs s DatO RC tC DC a QatC DC Das DtCu_Dt VtD
Dm. DC CO_Cts aDCut QCVCt s atCaO DCn_ OsQCsCO C D tDC
8nOCtO [``Cu Can VCtR VtD us n tDC atO). DC man VDC
aQQCats n tDC tDtO VCtsC s QtCDaD CnttC unCmQCCO. DC
QtVatC sQDCtC C Ds C s smDCCa tCQtCsCntCO D tDC aCt C
VasDn_ a t!n sQCCn. DC CuttD nVtatCn s tCm a QtCsttutC tC a
CustCmCt VDC s CDVCus QCCt. Ct s tDCtC an Cn_Ct an QuCs-
tCn C OutatCn. t s a CO_n_ Ct CnC n_Dt at mCst anO tDC tt8CRs
VDCD tDC man aOOtCssCO ma CaVC DCDnO atC DCst unmCntCnCO.
1Ct tDC tCaOCt C tDC nntD QCCm tDC QtCCCQt C tDC Utst ~ `LCVCt
Cut UaCRs ~ s suQQCmCntCO D tDC aOjunCt: `tatDCt tDan DaVC
sCmCCnC CsC CCVCt tDCm.
DC tCnO nOUCtCnCC VDCD s CCmmCn tC a Cut nVtaOCns
s VCttD C nCtC. tDC aCt tDat tDC DatsDnCss C tDC CUCt CaVCs
tCCm Ct suCD rCnOnCss VC tCCC_nzC tDat sCCa CCnOtCns CCn-
tCnt man tCm CutsOC, as sCmCtDn_ aCn tC Dm. DC tCnO!nCss
VtD VDCD tDCr VCtOCt s CCmmunCatCO tC Dm D Ds CCV mCn
sDCVs tDat tDC OC nCt CC OCntBCO VtD tDCsC CCnOtCns. DC
man aOOtCssCO aQQCats tC aCCCQt VDat DC s tCO: RCVsC tDCsC VDC
aOOtCss Dm DaVC CCmC tC tCtms V!tD tDC CCnOtCns CC. DC n-
Dumant tC VDCD tDC atC CCnOCmnCO Das nCt DCCn aDC tC taRC
tCm tDCm a CCttan CCuttCs C tDC DCatt. Ds ma sCrVC as Lst-
BCatCn Ct DCQC Ct OCsQa!t. DC QCCt OCCs nCt CXQtCss an VCVs Cn
tDs sCCtC.
On tke OVCnODCt_ CCms co on tb LCtman N8 tmCt
1
nc Orkcrs crj Out!Or Drcad
nc mcrcnantscrj Out!Ormarkcts.
nc uncmQOjcdcrc nun_rj. nc cmQOjcd
rcnun_rj nO.
nc nands tnataj !Odcd arc Dusj a_an:
ncyarc makn_ sncs.
trdn:dtcd g 1. 1. 1c_:
6ommentories on 1oems l Breck: c5
J_
it s n:_nt. nc marrcd cOuQcs
Lc ntncr Dcds. nc jOun_ Omcn
N Dcar OrQnans.
translated q 1ee raandall

]
nOsc at tnc tOQ saj:
it !cads tO _!Orj.
nOsc dOn Dc!O saj:
it cads tO tnc _raVc.
translated q Carol 3teart and obn Ptlle:t
1
ncn t cOmcs tOmarcnn_ manj dO nOt knO
nat tncr cncmj s marcnn_at tncrncad.
ncVO:ccncn _Vcs tncm tncr Ordcrs
istnc cncmjsVO:cc and
nc man nO sQcaks O!tnc cncmj
istnc cncmjnmsc!.
translated q Carol 3teart and obn Ptllett
C or 1rimer s VtttCn n `aQdatj stjC. C VOtd COmCs
!tOm tC Latn lois, `stOnC and dCsCtDCs tC stjC VC Vas dC-
VCOQCd !Ot Oman nsCtQtOns. ts mOst mQOttant CataCtCtstC
Vas DtCVtj. s Vas COndtOnCd ntst Dj tC CDOtt tCQutCd tO
CsC tC VOtds n stOnC; sCCOnd Dj tC tCaZatOn tat !Ot OnC VO
sQCaKs tO a suCCCssOn O! _CnCtatOns t s sCCmj tO DC DtC!.
! stOnC tC natuta COndtOn O!aQdatj stjC s nO On_Ct tC
matCta O! tCsC QOCms Vat as taKCn ts QaCC: Nat justhCs
tCt nsCtQtOn stjC: \nC O! tCm nts at an ansVCt. t tCads:
Ln tnc VaII Vas cnakcd:
ncj ant
nc man nO rOtc t
tas aIrcadj !acn.
translated q Carol 3teart and jobn Ptllett

UC :8! !DC O! !U!8 QOCD COuO DC Q8CCO 8t !UC UC8O O! C8CU O!


!UC or 1rimer QOCD8. UC8C !D8Cr:Q!!OD8 8:C DO! !KC !UO8C O! !UC
OD8D8 !D!CDOCO !O: 8!ODC Du! !KC tUO8C O! uDOC:_:OuDO !_U!C:8
!O: !CDCC8.
1CCO:O!D_ !UC CU8r8C!C: O! !UC or 1rimer D8 DC 8CCD !D 8
uDQuC COD!r8O!C!!OD: !UC8C 9O:O8 9UO8C QOC!!C !O:D !DQ!C8 !U8!
!UC 8:C DC8D! !O 8urV!VC !UC !O:!UCOD!D_ CDO O! !UC 9O:O COD-
!8!D !UC _C8!urC O! 8 8O_8D 8C:89CO !D U88!C OD 8 Q8DK !CDCC D 8
D8D DC!D_ Qu:8uCO. iD !U!8 COD!:8O!C!!OD !C8 !UC CX!:8O:O!D8: 8:!!8-
!!C 8CU!CVCDCD! O! !UC8C 8CD!CDCC8 COD8!ruC!CO Ou! O! Q:!D!!!VC
9O:O8. UC QOC! CDOO98 9!!U !UC 1Or8!!8D oere erennis 9U8! 8
Q:OC!8r:8D CXQO8CO !O !UC :8!D 8DO !UC 8_CD!8 O! tUC LC8!8QO U88
8Cr89CO 9!U CU8JJ uQOD 8 98.
On :ke oem UC \U!O UO i!OD! 8D! !O 88U

L1 L 7 L J
lncc tncrc as acnd
NnO ddntant tO asn.
nd ncn tncd _Ot Um asncd
1cd O ns !acc n asn.
nc asctcamc tO cI
\Q scVcn m_nts Ostats.
NOtnct IOO&cd !OtatOc
O ccan ns !acc and nar.
ncrcas nO ta_ aDOut.
ncnOcVstWtcc&cd.
nc ascrcnt aa.
Nnat cOud tnc cnd cXQcct:
tranclated q nna Boctock c7e:er 1ei
UC QOC! 8!OC8 9!tU !UC CU!O 9UO O!OD! 98D! !O 988U. 1C 8u_-
_C8!8 !U8! !UC C:82!C8! C!:CuD8UDCC8 9OuO U8VC !O COD8Q!:C !O: !UC
CU!O !O 8uUC: 8D :C8 U8:D 88 8 :C8u! O! !!8 uD988UCO CODO!!!OD.
6ommen:ories on 1oems [ Sreck: c
;
OI On! :s I mOsI UnUsUa! !Ot Inc a:sct IO Iakc Inc ItOUO!c IO
C!:mO scVcn :_nIs O! sIa:ts: OUI as :! InaI VctcnI cnOU_n nc nas IO
CnOOsc IO V:s:I a nOUscnO!d :n Vn:Cn cVcn a ta_ CannOI Oc !OUnd.
nc !ta_mcnIcd d:CI:On O! Inc QOcm :mQ!:cs InaI sUCn a COnCaIcna-
I:On O! aCC:dcnIs nas sOmcIn:n_ dtcam!kc aOOUI :I.
ctnaQs Vc m:_nI Ca!! IO m:nd anOInct QatI:san Ot dc!cndct O!
UnVasncd Cn:!dtcn: OUt:ct VnOsc Qna!ansIct Vas nOI On! a
sOC:a!:sI UIOQ:a OUI a!sO a Qcda_O_:Ca! Onc. OUt:ct d:V:dcs Inc
Cn:!dtcn O! Inc Qna!anstct :nIO IVO majOt _tOUQs: Inc e:i:es lonoes
and Inc e:i:es /:roes. nc e:i:es lonoes OCCUQ Incmsc!Vcs V:In
_atdcn:n_ and OInct Q!casanI Iasks. nc e:i:es koroes naVc IO Qct-
!Otm Inc d:tI:csI dUI:cs. nc CnO:Cc OcIVccn Inc IVO _tOUQs :s OQcn
IO cVct Cn:!d. nOsc VnO OQIcd !Ot Inc e:i:es broes Vctc Inc mOsI
nOnOUtcd. O VOtk COU!d Oc UndctIakcn :n Inc Qna!ansIct V:InOUI
Inc:t BtsI naV:n_ Inc:t sa aOOUI :I CtUc!I IO an:ma!s Vas sUOcCI IO
Inc:t Ut:sd:CI:On; Inc nad dVat! QOn:cs On Vn:Cn IDc _a!!OQcd
IntOU_n Inc Qna!ansIct and Vncn Inc asscmO!cd !Ot VOtk Inc
s:_na! Vas _:Vcn O an cat-snaIIct:n_ d:n O! ItUmQcIs sIcam-
Vn:sI!cs CnUtCn Oc!!s and dtUms. n Inc Cn:!dtcn O! Inc e:i:es koroes
OUt:ct saV !OUt _tcaI Qass:Ons aI VOtk: attO_anCc snamc!cssncss
and :nsUOOtd:naI:On OUI Inc mOsI :mQOtIanI O! a!! Was Inc !OUtIn:
le o: d lc sole:, a IasIc !Ot d:tI.
nc tcadct In:nks a_a:n O! Inc Cn:!d VnO VOU!d nOI Vasn and
VOndcts: QctnaQs :I On! tuOs :Is !aCc :n asn OcCaUsc sOC:cI nas
!a:!cd IO Cnannc! :Is Qass:On !Ot d:tI IOVatds a _OOd and Usc!U!
QUtQOsc: ctnaQs :I On! VanIs IO sIand :n sOC:cIs Va !:kc a
sIumO!:n_-O!OCk sO as IO :ssUc a msIct:OUs X:n_ !kc Inc
!:II!c nUnCnOaCk :n Inc Lctman nUtsct sOn_ VnO UQscIs cVct
Otdct! nOUscnO!d: ! OUt:ct :s t:_nI Incn Inc Cn:!d VOU!d sUtc!
nOI naVc msscd a _tcaI dca! O !a!:n_ IO mccI Inc a:sct. a:sct
VnO On! VanIs IO scc C!can Cn:!dtcn dOcsnI amOUnI IO mUCn mOtc
Inan Inc sIuQ:d sUOcCIs On VnOm nc COmcs IO Ca!!.
c8
On :e oem `DC um tCC
V1!
DC pum DC :n tDC _atd8 8O 8ma
1t D8td_ 8CCm8 a UCC at a
`Ct tDCtC :t :8 ta:Cd tOund
O KCCQ :t 88!C and 8Ound.
DC QOOt tDn_ cant _tO an_ mO:C
DOu_D :! :t cOud :t Oud !Ot 8u:C.
DC:C8 nOtD:n_ tO DC dOnC
1t _Ct8 tOO :ttC 8un.
DC Qum OO nCVC DCat8 a Qum
OO :t8 nOt C88_ tO DC:CVC.
1t8 a Qum Oc a tDC 8amC
`Ou tC :t O_ tDC Ca!.
rrdnldrcd g Ldrcl Orcwdrr
DC Va !n VD!CD anOsCaQC CCmCs !ntC tDC Vat!Cus CCCs !n
tCCDts DCCR CCmQ!UCs tDC !nnCt un!t C! tD!s t!C QCCtt anO at
tDC samC t!mC !ts VCatD C! QCtsQCCt!VCs. tDC HouseoH .essener,
anOscQC CCCuts aDCVC a !n tDC !Ctm C! a sR tDat Das DCCn Qut!UCO
as tDCu_D VasDCO CCan uQCn VD!CD OC!CatC CCuOs aQQCat !tCm
t!mC tC t!mC anO DCnCatD VD!CD VC_Ctat!Cn Cut!nCO V!tD a DatO
QCnC ma p sDC. i Sons 1oems Coruses nCtD!n_ !s C!t C!
anOsCaQC !t !s CCVCtCO D tDC `V!ntt snCVstCtm tDat sVCCQs
tDtCu_D tDs CCC C! QCCms. i tDC Svenolor 1oems !t !s _!mQsCO
nCV anO a_a!n t!m!O anO QaC: sC QaC tDat tDC QCsts `Qut uQ !n tDC
atO !Ct tDC CD:OtCns sV!n_ atCaO CCunt as Qatt C! !t.
DC anOsCaQC C! tDC Svenolor 1oems tCsCmDCs tDC CnC QtC!CttCO
D 1Ctt CunCt n a stCt D tCCDt. 1tCnOs DaVC DCatO Dm sa
tDat DC !s !CnO C! tDC ttCC tDat !s Vast!n_ aVa :n tDC atO C! tDC
tCnCmCnt DCusC n VDCD DC !VCs. DC :nVtC D!m tC CCmC V!tD
tDCm tC tDC VCCOs anO atC sutQt!sCO DCCausC 1Ctt CunCt OCCnCs
tC OC sC. L!O Cu nCt sa tDat Cu RC ttCCs: 1Ctt CunCt tCQCs:
` sa!O !RCO tDC ttCC in m oro.' D!s ttCC ma VC DC OCnt!Ca
6ommenrories on 1oems Breckr c
V:tB tBC CnC VBCB n tBC HousekoH .essener, _CCs Dj tBC namC C!
0reen.* BC QCCt BCnCuts t Dj addtCssn_ t n tBC mCrn_ as
!CCVs.
1t ct naVcDccn atrbn_ tnn_ tO _rO sO n_n
ctccn tncnOuscs
O _rO sO n_n Ltccn at c
OtOrmVstcdjOuastddIast n_nt:
Bs ttCC LtCCn VBCB CCts ts ttCC-tCQ tC tBC stCtm st
DCCn_s tC a `BCtCC andsCaQC. {BC QCCt BCVCVCt dstanCCs Bm-
sC! !tCm tBs andsCaQC Dj addtCssn_ tBC ttCC !Crmaj as Sie.) s
tBC jCats Qass tCCBts jtCa CjC turs tC tBat asQCCt C! tBC ttCC
VBCB tCsCmDCs tBC Buman DCn_s VBCsC VndCVs !aCC tBC jatd n
VBCB t stands. tBC mCdCCtC and tBC stuntCd. ttCC tBat nC Cn_Ct
Bas anjtBn_ BCtCC aDCut t aQQCats n tBC Svenoor 1oems as a
Qum ttCC. tan_ Bas tC QtCtCCt t !tCm DCn_ KCKCd CtCCKCd. 1t
DCats nC Qums.
Tke lum rree never eors o lum
So ir's nor ea ro elieve.
7r is o lum rree oll rke some
You rell ir rke leo[
[BC ntCra tBjmC n tBC Dtst nC [oen 1oumenoum lou:
mon ikm koum | tCndCts tBC ast VCtd C! tBC tBtd nC [ 1oumen-
oum | unsutaDC !Ct D1rtBCt tBjmn_ t ndCatCs tBat !Ct tBC
Qum ttCC atBCu_B t Bas sCatCCj DC_un tC _tCV !C s atCadj
CVCt.]
Bat s VBat tBC trCC n tBC jatd VBCB Ctr CunCt Vas !Cnd C!
CCKs KC. BC Cnj ttaCCs t sC DCats C! andsCaQC and CVCtjtBn_
tBat t CnCC CCtCd tC a jt:C QCCt s a sn_C Ca!. VCtBaQs tCC CnC
Bas tC DC a _tCat jtC QCCt tCdaj n CtdCt nCt tC tCaCB Cut !Ct mCtC.
" 1n Lng!isn Dtncorigina! {rans!ators notc).
o
On re `Lc_cnd O! Inc \t_n O! Inc OOK aO c Lnn_ On LaO
ZUs Na nIO LX!c
L L L L L 1LL 7L L L

LT 17L Z! 7` TL ?1
DCn DC Vas sCVCn! and _tOVn_ ta
Dc !CacDCt a!Ct a C! tDC nCCd Ot QCacC
Ot OncC a_an n !DC cOun!t ZndnCss dd nO! QtCVa
Jnd macC OncC a_an Vas On !DC nctCasC.
oO DC !Cd Ds sDOC-acC.

Jnd DC QacKCd CVCt nCcCssat !Dn_.
O! mucD. u! tDs and tDa! n!O Ds DundC sQCd.
oO !DC QQC !Da! DC smOKCd CVCt CVCnn_
Jnd !DC sCndCt DOOK tDa! DC aVas tCad.
JsO a taUOn O VD:!C Dttad.
)
as _ad OncC mOtC O tDC VaC and Qu! ! Ou! O m:nd
DCn !OVatds tDC mOun!ans DC DC_an !O !tacK.
Jnd Ds OX Vas _ad O a !DC nCV _tass ! cOuld Dnd
LDCVn_ as ! cattCd !DC Od man On !s DacK.
Ot DC Vas nO! !DC Duttn_ Knd.
+
u! DCOtC tDC OuttD das tOcK !:aVCn_ Vas dOnC
J cus!Oms man n!C:QOsCd Ds autDOtt.
`CasC dCcatC Out VauaDCs `OnC.
Jnd !DC DO VDO Cd !DC Ox sad: `J !CacDCt Ou sCC.
D.s mC! !OC cOn!n_Cnc.
6ommenrories on 1oems Breckr t
)
ut tDc man cDcctu\ and sDucK D a suddcn nOt:On
cnt On tO asK. `DO d:scOVctcd sOmctDn_ Oud sa:
Dc DO tcQcd: `Dat cdn_ Vatct n mOtOn
Lcts !Dc Dcttct U !Dc cnd O _tantc and QOtQDt.
`Ou _ct mc. tDc Datd tDn_ _Vcs Va.
6
O Osc nO mOtc tmc n tDc an_ _Dt
Dc DO dtOVc On tDc Ox and tDc tDtcc Dad Qasscd
cDnd a DacK ocOtcD Dt and Vctc Out O s_Dt
Dcn Out man jctKcd ntO acDOn at ast
`ccd Out. `c tDctc stOQ Ot sO ast

Dats tDs aDOut Vatct Od man !Da!s sO sQcca:
Dc Od man stOQQcd: `LOcs t ntctcst Ou:
oad tDc OtDct. `1m On\ a custOms Omca
ut VDO _cts tDc Dcttct O VDOm tDat ntctcsts mc tOO.
1 Ou KnOV and can tc mc dO

ttc t dOVn Ot mc. Lctatc t tO !Ds DO.
`Ou dOnt taKc tDn_s \Kc tDat V!D Ou. aVc a catc.
L QaQct and nK VcVc a cOQOus suQQ.
Jnd !Dctcs a Dtc Ot Ou tOO. 1 Vc n tDctc.
c dO Ou ca tDat at:
9
LVct D:s sDOudct tDc Od sa_c nOV
Lanccd at !Dc H atcDcd cOat. cVct OVncd a sDOc.
Lnc dccQ Vt:nKc Ds DtOV.
LD tDs Vas nO VctOt. oO mucD Dc . t\cV.
1O Dc mutmutcd. ``Ou tOO:
1C
O tcjcct a cOuttcOus su__cstOn
Dc Od man t sccmcd Vas tOO Od.
_C
Ot Dc sad aOud: `DOsc VDO asx a Qucst\On
Lcsc:Vc an ansVC:. oad tDc DO: `Jnd ts tutn_ cOd.
`cl sta tDcn. Od
1 J
Jnd tDc sa_c dsmOuntcd DaVn_ madc Ds cDOcc.
O: scVcn das tDc tVO O tDcm VtOtc On.
Dc custOms man D:Ou_Dt tDCm OOd and a tDat tmc OVctcd
Ds VOcc
NDcn Dc sVO:c at tDc smu__cts and tDOsc On tDc :un].
Dcn tDc VO:R Vas dOnc.
1
Jnd Onc mOtnn_ tDc DO cOud Qtcscnt tO
Dc custOms man c_Dt-Onc maXms cOmQctcd
Jnd tDanxn_ Dm O: Ds _t O a sma mcmcntO
O tDc tOcY Dacx :Ound tDat Ut tDc tct:catcd.
1a:c QOtcncss Ou _tant. Lan Ou Dcat t
J
ut nOt tO tDat V\sc man alOnc Ou: Qta\sc L duc
DOsc namc adOts tDc DOOx 1do 1c Ln:n_.
Ot tDc Vsc mans V\sdOm must Dc dta__cd Out O Dm tOO.
oO tDc custOms man asO dcsctVcs Ou: tDanxs Ot tDc tDn_.
c dd tDC cctn_.
trdndrcd b_:cnml 1dmbur_cr
nc QOcm OUcts an OCCasOn IO d:sCUss Inc sQcC:a! tO!c Vn:Cn 1nc
QUa!:I O! !t:cnd!:ncss Q!as :n Inc aUInOts :ma_:naI:On. tcCnI
a!!OCaIcs an :mQOtIanI Q!aCc IO In:s QUa!:I. ! Vc VsUa!Zc Inc !c_cnd
nc :s Ic!!:n_ Vc scc On Onc s:dc Inc V:sdOm O! LaO ZU VnO O
Inc Va :s nOI tc!cttcd IO O namc) a VsdOm !Ot Vn:Cn nc :s
aOOUI IO Qa V:In cX:!c and On Inc OInct s:dc Inc CUsIOms OU-
C:a!s dcs:tc !Ot knOV!cd_c !Ot Vn:Cn aI Inc cnd Vc atc _taIc!U!
OcCaUsc :I cX1taCIcd Inc V:sc mans VsdOm !tOm n:m. UI Ins
VOU!d ncVct naVc naQQcncd V:InOUI a In:td !aCIOt and In:s !aCIOt
:sienoliness. I m_nI Oc UnItUc IO sa InaI !t:cnd!ncss :s Inc aCIUa!
6ommentories on 1oems Breckt
;(
CCntCnt C! tBC DCCK Too Te 6km, Dut t VCu!d DC CnCtC!j ttUC tC
saj tBat aCCCtdn_ tC tBC !C_Cnd VtBCut tBC sQtt C! !tCnd!nCss
tBC DCCK VCu!d nCVCt BaVC DCCn BandCd dCVn tC us. PDCut tBs
!tCnd!nCss tBC QCCm Bas muCB tC tC us.
tst C! a!!: !tCnd!nCss s nCt dsQCnsCd VtBCut duC !CtCtBCu_Bt.
Over kis skouloer tke olo soe no
0lonceo ot tke mon. 1otckeo coot. 7ever oneo o skoe.
LCt tBC tCQuCst DC as CCuttCCus as t maj LaC Zu Otst assutCs
BmsC!! tBat tBC man VBC maKCs t s Cntt!Cd tC dC sC.
OCCCnd!j !tCnd!nCss dCCs nCt CCnsst n dCn_ sma!! tBn_s
Casua!!j Dut n dCn_ tBC VCtj _tCatCst tBn_s as tBCu_B tBCj VCtC
tBC sma!!Cst. \nCC LaC Zu Bas asCCttanCd U CustCms CmCa!s
t_Bt tC asK BC Q!aCCs tBC ncXt !CV dajs tBCsC VCt!d-BstCtC dajs
dut:n_ VBCB tC Q!CasC tBC CtBCt man BC ntCttUQts Bs ]CutCj -
undCt tBC mCttC
' e'll sto tken. Holc/'
Btd!j VC !Cat aDCut !tCnd!nCss tBat t dCCs nCt aDC!sB tBC
dstanCC DCtVCCn Buman DCn_s Dut Dtn_s tBat dstanCC tC !!C. P!tCt
tBC VsC man Bas dCnC suCB a _tCat tBn_ [r tBC CustCms CUCa!
BC Bas !tt!C mCtC tC dC itk Bm and t s nCt BC Dut tBC DCj VBC
Bands CVCt tBC C_Btj-CnC maXms.
`BC C!assCs an C!d LBnCsC QB!CsCQBCt Bas sad `!VCd n tBC
datKCst and D!CCdCst t:m0 and VCtC tBC !tCnd!Cst and mCst CBCCt-
U1! QCCQ!C tBat BaVC CVCt DCCn sCCn. BC LaC Zu C! tBs !C_Cnd
sCCms tC sQtCad CBCCtUnCss VBCtCVCt BC _CCs. s CX undCtCttCd
Dj tBC C!d mans VC_Bt Cn Bs DaCK s _!ad C! a!! tBC _tCCn _tass t
Can Dnd. s DCj s CBCCtU1! VBCn n CtdCt tC CXQ!an LaC Zus
QCVCttj BC Quts n dtj!j: P tCaCBCt jCu sCC. BC CustCms CmCa!
Dj Bs tC-_atC s n a CBCCtU! mCCd and t s tBs CBCCtU!nCss t0at
nsQtCs B:m 91tB tBC BaQQj dCa C! asKn_ !Ct tBC tcsu!ts C! LaC
Zus tCsCatCB. na!!j BCV CCu!d tBC sa_C nCt DC CBCCtU1! BmsC!!:
Pt UC Otst tutn_ C! tBC tCad BC Qut Cut C! Bs mnd tBC Va!!Cj
VBCB Cn!j a mCmCnt DC!CtC Bad madC Bm _!ad. NBat VCu!d Bs
VsdCm DC VCttB ! BC CCu!d nCt a!sC !Ct_Ct Bs anXCtj aDCut tBC
UtutC a!mCst as sCCn as BC !C!t t:
~
iD !C Housekolo .essene D:CC! 9tO!C 8 D88O 8DOu! !C !::CDO-
:DC88C8 O! !C 9O:O. C 8:C !:CC :D DuDDC:. !C DO!C: Qu!8 D8Q-
K:D8 OD !C C:O !C !8!C: !8KC8 !C DO D !C 8DO QCOQC !:O9
8DOU18 O! C8:! OD !C D8D8 _:8VC. 1DO !8! :8 CDOu_. O: 8! !C
CDO O! !C QOCD :! :8 88:O
lmos: eveone kos loveo :ke oH
ken ke eceives :o kono]uls o]eo:k.
C D8D:!C8!8!:OD8 O! !C !::CDO:DC88 O! !C 9O:O 8:C !O DC !OuDO
8t tC 8:OC8! DODCD!8 O! CX:8!CDCC: 8! D::! 8! !C :8! 8!CQ :D!O :!C
8DO 8! !C 88! ODC 9:C C8O8 Ou! O! :!C. 8! :8 !C D:D:DuD
Q:O_:8DDC O! uD8D:t. i! :CCu:8 :D !C L8O Zu QOCD :D tC !OtD
O! !C D8X:D:
'You e: me: de koo :kin ives o.'
C QOCD CODC8 !O u8 8! 8 !:Dc 9CD 8uC 9O:O8 ::D_ :D tC C8:8
O! DCD :KC 8 Q:OD:8C 9:C 88 DO!:D_ !O CODCCOC !O !C Q:OD:8C8
O! 8 C88:8. O: !C COD!CDQO:8: :C8OC: O9CVC: !C COD!8:D
DO! OD 8 Q:OD:8C Du! 88O 8 C88OD.
' . . . Tko: ieloin o:e in mo:ion
0e:s :ke le::e in :ke eno o]oni:e ono ok.'
C C88OD O: 8OV:CC C:C :8 DCVC: !O !O:_C! 8DOu! !C :DCOD8!8DC
8DO C8D_C8D::! O! !:D_8 8DO !O 8:_D ODC8C! 9:! !O8C !:D_8
9:C 8:C :DCOD8Q:CuOu8 8DO 8ODC: 8DO :DCX8u8!:DC :KC 98!C:.
C D8!C::8:8! O:8CC!:C:8D 9: DC :CD:DOCO O! !C C8u8C O! !C
OQQ:C88CO. i! :8 8D :DCOD8Q:CuOu8 !:D_ !O: !C tuC:8 8 8ODC: ODC
!O: !C OQQ:C88CO 8DO :D :!8 COD8CQuCDCC8 !C DO8! :DCX8u8!:DC O!
8.) L88! 8Q8:! !:OD !C Q:OD:8C 8DO !C !COt !C:C :8 8 DO:8
:D !C QOCD. OCVC: 98D!8 !O D8KC !C 8:O !:D_ _:VC 98
8OuO D:88 DO OQQO:!uD:! !O: !t!CDO:DC88.
Lh
hLLFLT
LL
Eik: Yeos
cIVccn Inc Tkeeeoo Oeo and Inc Tkreeeoo
7ovel !:cs an :nIctva! O! c:_nI cats. nc ncV VOtk dcVc!OQcd OUI
O! Inc O!d. UI In:s d:d nOI naQQcn :n Inc COmQ!cX Va :n Vn:Cn Onc
_cncta!! :ma_:ncs Inc matUtn_ O! a VOtk O! 3. ncsc cats Vctc
QO!:I:Ca!! dcCs:Vc. nc aUtnOt nas ass:m:!aIcd Inc:t !cssOns nc nas
Ca!!cd tnc m:sdccds InaI Vctc QctQcItaIcd dUt:n_ tnOsc cats O Inc:t
ItUc namc and !:I a Cnd!c !Ot tnc:t V:CCms. c nas Vt:IIcn a saI:t:-
Ca! nOVc! O! majOt Ca!:Otc.
O Vt:Ic tn:s OOOk nc nas Oc_Un a_a:n aI tnc Oc_:nn:n_. L:II!c
tcma:ns O! Inc OQctas Oas:C c!cmcnIs Ot O! :Is Q!OI. \n tnc CcnIta!
CnataCIcts atc st:!! tnc samc. 1Ot :I Inc VnO Oc!Otc OUt ccs
Oc_an IO _tOV dUt:n_ tnOsc cats and VnO sO OtUIa!! C!a:mcd Inc
sQaCc ncCcssat !Ot Inc:t _tOVIn. Nncn tnc Tkreeeon Oeo BtsI
aQQcatcd UQOn tnc Lctman s_c tnc _an_sIct Vas sI:!! a sItan_ct
tnctc. n Inc mcanI:mc nc nas madc n:msc!! aI nOmc and nas madc
OatOat:I a Va O! !:!c. 1Ot tnc dtasI:C cXCcmc QUa!:I Vn:Cn aI tnc
Vct Oc_nn:n_ O! CaQ:Ia!:sm CnataCIct:Zcs Inc m:sct O! Inc cX-
Q!O:Icd OcCOmcs man:!csI :n Inc cXQ!O:Icts On! aI a !aIc sIa_c.
rcCht s CCnCc:cd Vth DCth cXQCtcd and cXQCtcrs; that s Vh
hc tccsCCQcs dcrcnt hstCrCa QcrCds tC_cthcr and Quts hs _an_-
stcr tQcs dCVn n a CndCn VhCh has thc rhthm and CutVard CCK
C! 1CKcnsan t:mcs. hc CCndtCns C! QrVatc !!c arc thc Cd Cncs
thCsc C! thc Cass stru__c DcCn_ tC Cur CVn tmc. hcsc CndCncrs
dC nCt haVc thc tccQhCnc Dut thcr QCCc s arcad cguQQcd Vth
tanKs. hc CndCn C! tCda ~ t has Dccn sad ~ dcmCnstratcs that
t s _CCd !Cr CaQtasm tC Qrcscrvc a Ccrtan DaCKVardncss. rcCht
has tuCcd ths CrCumstanCc tC adVanta_c. c QcCQcs thc stu
CmCcs danK Dathn_ cstaDshmcnts and !C__ strccts Vth tQcs
VhCsc manncrs arc C!tcn Cd-!ashCncd Dut VhCsc QrCCccdn_s
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scr:p: :n p!acc ot :c ncxt scn:cncc: 'Lr in ro:sky`s ords `ncn cn!ign:cncd
pacihsts undcr:ac to ato!isn ar ty mcans ot ra:ionais: argumcn:s, :ncy arc
simp!y r:dicuIous. ncn :nc armcd masscs star: :o kc up :nc argumcnts ot
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QrO!Ctaran !rOnt _VC QraCtCa! CUCCt tO tC amrmatOn Vt VC
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Vt sOrrOV; !Or jOu must KnOV tat ! jOu dO mOrC tCn a trC-
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tOn aQQrOQratC tO jOu. CrC t DCCOmCs Qa!QaD!j C!Car VCrC tC
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QOstOn Vtn tC QrOduCtOn QrOCCss must !Cad. s man sajs
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sOrt O! a Q!aCC s UC C Q!aCC O! a VC!!-VsCr an dCO!O_Ca!
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uokriooieruo) tO dCsCrDC tC Cans!OrmatOn O! !Orms and nstru-
mCnts O! QrOduCtOn Dj a QrO_rCssVC ntC!!_Cntsa an ntC!!_Cnt-
sa ntCrCstCd n !DCratn_ tC mCans O! QrOduCtOn and CnCC aCtVC
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tC !ar-rCaCn_ dCmand tat tCj sOu!d nOt suQQ!j tC QrOduCtOn
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sCrCs O! tCXts QuD!sCd undCr tat tt!C marKs a QOnt at VC
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ts suDCCt !atCr. CrC 1 sOu!d !KC tO COnBnC mjsC!! tO QOntn_
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4
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tDC I8Ct - OI ?DCD tDCrC )DCCn nO sDOrt8_C OI QrOOI n LCrm8nj
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8nd tDC ustr8tCd QrCss. iCt UtDnR D8CR tO l8d8sm. DC rCVOu-
tOnj strCn_tD OI l8d8sm 8j n tCstn_ 8rt IOr ts 8utDCntCtj.
`Ou m8dC st-ICs Out OI tCCts sQOOs OI COttOn C_8rCttC stUDs
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?DOC tDn_. nd n tDIs ?8j jOu s8d tO tDC QuDC: OOR jOur QC-
turC Ir8mC dCstrOjs tmC tDC sm8Cst 8utDCntIC D8_mCnt OI CVCrjd8j
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QuCnt dCVCOQmCnt OI QDOtO_r8QDj. 8t dO ?C sCC: 1t D8s DCCOmC
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CrC VC n8VC 8n CXtrCUC CX8UQC O! Vn8t t UC8ns tO sUQQ 8
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6
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Tke urkor 1rooucer

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ilkelm .eisrer, UC 0rwe Heinrick O! Our _CnCratOn DaVC nOt Ct
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Tke urkor O 1rooucer

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tDC8DC !Cr Cur UmC.
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8aj tDC DC8t tCCDnCan8 n tDcr QarlCu8r DranCDC8 O! tDC tradC -
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8 nO dOuDt tDat 1 WrtC amO8t CXCu8VCj !Or a DOur_CO8 QuDC.
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C! IDC 'DCRa. a!Ras CutCCR s IDaI C! a man Cau_Dt unOCr tDC
VDCCs. \OraOCR s CDaraCICrsIC C! tDs CuICCR. rCCDI nICr-
QrCIs IDC DCusC-QCrICr as QCrsCn]n_ IDC VCrrCs C! a !aI. '1Cr C! a
!amj. DC QCIIj DCur_CCs s DCunO IC _CI I n IDC nCC. s sIua-
ICn s a!Ras CVn. uI VDCrCas IDC tjQC C! QCIIj DCur_CCs Cur-
rCnI ICOaj IDaI s IDC !asCsI ~ Das OCCOCO IC sCI Ds nOCmIaDC
rCn V a_ansI IDs sIuaICn a!Ra DarOj CQQCsCs I DC s VsC.
NDCrC IDC !asCsI Drn_s DCrCsm nIC Qaj a!Ra rCsQCnOs VID
guCstCns. C asRs !Cr sa!C_uarOs !Cr Ds sIuaICn. uI IDC naturC
C! Ds s:IuaICn s suCD IaI IC sa!C_uarOs DC OCmanOs must DC un-
rCasCnaDC. 1I s a a!8CsguC rCnj IDaI IC man VDO aQQCars IC
DC CCnVnCCO C! nCIDn_ sC muCD as C! I.'C !raIj C! a sa!C_uarOs
sDCuO DaVC DCCn an nsuranCC a_CnI. 1nCOCnIaj Ds unmICO
QCssmsm s !rCC !rCm anj Ira_C sCnsC C! OCsInj. Cr nCI Cnj
s Ds CXQCCIaICn C! ms!CrIunC !CunOCO Cn nCIDn_ DuI CmQrCsm
(aIDCu_D I musI DC saO IDaI tDs !CunOaICn s unsDaRaDC] DuI
asC VID nCCrr:_DC na:VCIj DC sCCRs IDC CrICrCn C! Lna suCCCss
n IDC mCsI ns:_nhC8nI anO DVa unOCrKn_s ~ a VsI !rCm a
IraVCn_ saCsman an ngurj aI a _CVCCnI CmCC. Cr QarIs C!
IDC ImC IDC CCnVCrsaICn CCntrCO Cn tDC sICrj Tke 7e: Iihoe.
rCCDI sajs I s a CCunICrQarI IC IDC sICrj C! CDCs anO IDC ICr-
ICsC. \nC nCVCr _CIs IC IDC nCXI Va_C ! CnC DrCaRs IDC CutCj
OCVn nIC Is smaCsI QarIs nCI CCunIIn_ IDC nCOCnIa CCCurrCnCCs.
DCn a VDCC !C s ICC sDCrI !Cr UC CunCj. uI IDC !aaCj Cs
n IDC VCrO `CnC. Cr ! IDC CutCj s DrCRCn OCVn nIC ts QarIs
?
tDCn tDC ttaVCCr s tCC. 1nd ! tDC unt C! !C s dCsttCCd !DCn sC
s ts sDCrtnCss. LCt !C DC as sDCrt as t ma. Dat dCCs nCt mattCr
!Cr tDC CnC VDC arrVCs n tDC nCXt Va_C s nCt tDC CLC VDC sCt Cut
Cn tDC CurC Dut anCtDCr. ~ 1 !Cr m Qart CUCr tDC !CCVn_
ntCrQrCtatCn. tDC !tuC mCasurC C! !C s mCmCr. LCCRn_ DaCR t
traVCrsCs tDC VDCC C! !C IRC _Dtnn_. 1s !ast as CnC C tur
DaCR a !CV Qa_Cs t Das ttaVCCd DCm tDC nCXt Va_C tC tDC QaCC
VDCrC tDC traVCCr tCCR !DC dCCsCn tC sCt Cut. DCsC !Cr VDCm !C
Das DCCCmC trans!CrmCd ntC VItn_ ~ IRC tDC _rand!atDCr n tDC
stCr Cn Cn rCad tDC VrUn_ DaCR7tds. Dat s tDC Cn Va n
VDCD tDC CnCCuntCr tDCmsCVCs and Cn tDus ~ D DCCn_ !rCm
tDC QrCsCnt ~Can tDC undCrstand !C.
C_ Se:emer. Dror. 1n a CCnVCrsatCn a !CV CVCnn_s a_C rCCDt
sQCRC C! tDC CutCus ndCC:sCn VDCD at tDC mCmCnt QrCVCnts Dm
!rCm maRn_ an dCntC Qans. tDC s !DC rst tC QCnt Cut tDC
man rCasCn !Cr tDs ndCCsCn s tDat Ds sUat:Cn s sC muCD mCrC
QrVC_Cd tDan tDat C! mCst CtDCr rCD_CCs. DCrC!CrC snCC n
_CnCra DC sCarCC admts tDat Cm_ratCn C DC a QrCQCr Das:s !Cr
Qans and QrCjCCts DC rCDsCs a tDC mCrC radCa tC admt t as
suCD n Ds CVn QartCuar CasC. 1s Qans rCaCD Cut tC tDC QCr:Cd
DCCnd Cm_ratCn. DCrC DC s !aCCd V:tD tVC atCtatVCs. Ln tDC
CnC Dand tDCrC arC sCmC QrCsC QrCjCCts VaUn_ tC DC dCnC: tDC
sDCr!Cr CnC C! tDC Ui- a satrC Cn 1!Cr n tDC stC C! tDC Cnas-
sanCC DC_raQDCrs ~and tDC Cn_ CnC C! tDC Tui nCVC. Ds s tC DC
an CnCCCQCdC survC C! tDC !CCs C! tDC CCCUa-1ns ntC-
CCUas) t sCCms tDat t V DC sCt n Qar! at Cast n LDna. 1
sma mCdC !Cr tDs VCrR s arCad CCmQCtCd. ut DCsdCs tDCsC
QrCsC QrCCCts DC s asC QrCCCCQCd D CtDCrs datn_ DaCR tC VCr
Cd sUdCs and dCas. `DCrCas DC aDC at a QnCD tC sCt dCVn
n Ds nC!Cs and ntrCduCtCns tC tDC Ierske tDC tDCu_Dts VDCD
CCCurrCd tC Dm VtDn tDC sCCQC C! CQC tDCaDC CtDCr tDCu_Dts
atDCu_D Cr_natn_ n !DC samC ntCrCsts DaVC DCCCmC CCmDnCd
VtD Ds sUd C! LCnnsm and asC C! tDC sCCnt:C tCndCnCCs C!
tDC CmQr:C:sts and DaVC tDCrC!CrC Cut_rCVn tDat ratDCr mtCd
!ramCVCrR. Cr sCVCra Cars Qast tDC DaVC DCCn suDsumCd nCV
6ooversotioos itk Breck: t t _
undCt OnC RC COnCCQt nOV undCt anOtUCt sO tUat nOn-tstOtCan
O_C DCUaVOutst tUCOt tUC nCV CnCCOQCda and tUC CttQuC
O! dCas UaVC n tut stOOd at tUC CCnttC O! Us QtCOCCuQatOns. t
QtCsCnt tUCsC VatOus Qutsuts atC COnVCt_n_ uQOn tUC dCa O! a
QUOsOQUCa ddaCtC QOCm. ut UC Uas dOuDts aDOut tUC mattCt.
C VOndCts n tUC !tst nstanCC VUCtUCt n VCV O! Us OutQut tO
datC and CsQCCa O! ts sattCa CCmCnts QattCuat tUC Tkree-
eoo 7ovel, tUC QuDC VOud aCCCQt suCU a VOtR. Us dOuDt s
madC uQ O! tVO dstnCt sttands O! tUOu_Ut. NUst DCCOmn_ mOtC
COsC COnCCtCd VtU tUC QtODCms and mCtUOds O! tUC QtOCtatan
Cass sttu__C UC Uas nCtCasn_ dOuDtCd tUC sattC and CsQCCa
tUC tOnC atttudC as suCU. ut tO COn!usC UCsC dOuDts VUCU atC
mOst O! a QtaCtCa natutC VtU OtUCt mOtC QtO!Ound OnCs VOud
DC tO msundCtstand tUCm. UC dOuDts at a dCCQCt CVC COnCCt
tUC attstC and Qa!u CCmCnt n att and aDOVC a tUOsC CCmCnts
VUCU Qatta and OCCasOna maRC att tC!taCtOt tO tCasOn.
tCCUts UCtOC ChOtts tO C_tmZC att vis-c-vis tCasOn UaVC a_an
and a_an tC!CttCd Um tO tUC QataDC n VUCU attstC mastCr s
QtOVCd D tUC !aCt tUat n tUC Cnd a!! tUC artstC CCmCnts O! a VOtR
CanCC CaCU OtUCt Out. nd t s QtCCsC tUCsC ChOtts COnnCCtCd
VtU tUs QataDC VUCU atC at QtCsCnt COmn_ Out n a mOtC tadCa
!Orm n tUC dCa O! UC ddaCtC QOCm. 1n UC COutsC O! tUC COnVCtsa-
tOn 1 ttCd tO CXQan tO tCCUt tUat suCU a QOCm VOud nOt UaVC tO
sCCR aQQtOVa !tOm a DOut_COs QuDC Dut uOm a QtOCtatan OnC
VUCU QtCsumaD VOud !nd ts CttCta Css n tCCUts CatCt
Qatt DOut_COs-OtCntCd VOtR tUan n tUC dO_matC and tUCOtCt-
C COntCnt O! UC ddaCtC QOCm tsC!. `1! tUs ddaCtC QOCm suC-
CCCds n Cnstn_ tUC autUOtt O! NatXsm On ts DCUa! 1 tOd
Um `tUCn Out CatCt VOtR s nOt RC tO VCaRCn tUat autUOt-
t.
q Oc:oer. `CstCtda tCCUt C!t !Ot OndOn. NUCtUCt t s tUat m
QtCsCnCC OhCts QCCuat tCmQUtOns n tUs tCsQCCt Ot VUCtUCt
tCCUt s nOV _CnCta mOtC Us Va nCnCd tUan DC!OtC at a
CVCnts Us a__tCssVCnCss [VUCU UC UmsC! Cas `Da!tn_ s nOV
muCU mOtC QtOnOunCCd n COnVCtsat!On tUan !t usCd tC DC. 1ndCCd

4
i am struck by a spcca! vocabu!ary cn_cndcrcd by tns a__rcssvc-
ncss. in partcu!ar nc s !ond o! usn_ tnc tcrm rs:cken (!tt!c
sausa_c). in Lra_or i as rcadn_ Lostoycvskys 6rime ono 1unisk-
men:. o start tn nc b!amcd tns cnocc o! rcadn_ !or my bcn_
unc!!. 1s conhrmaton nc to!d no n ns youtn a pro!on_cd
!!ncss (ncn nad doubt!css bccn !atcnt !or a !on_ tmc) nad bc_un
ncn a scoo!!c!!o nad p!aycd Lnopn to nm on tnc pano and
nc nad not nad tnc strcn_tn to protcst. brccnt tnnks tnat Lnopn
and Lostoycvsky navc a partcu!ar!y advcrsc cncct on pcop!cs
nca!tn. in otncr ays too nc msscd no opportunty o! nccd!n_
mc about my rcadn_ mattcr and as nc nmsc!! rcadn_ Sckek
at tnc tmc nc nsstcd on makn_ comparatvc va!uc jud_cmcnts o!
tnc to
autnors. it bccamc cvdcnt tnat Lostoycvsky smp!y cou!d
not mcasurc up to asck and brccnt nc!udcd nm tnout blrtncr
ado amon_ tnc :irs:cken, on!y a !tt!c morc and nc ou!d navc
cxtcndcd to Lostoycvsky tnc dcscrpton nc kccps rcady tncsc days
!or any ork ncn !acks an cn!_ntcnn_ cnaractcr or s dcncd
sucn cnaractcr by nm: nc ca!!s sucn a ork a 1lumy [!ump or c!ot).
t
9]
8
?_une. i as n a !abyrntn o! stars. ns !abyrntn as not cntrc!y
roo!cd ovcr. i c!mbcd, otncr starways !cd donards. Ln a !and-
n_ i rca!zcd tnat i nad arrvcd at a summt. 1 idc vc o! many
!ands opcncd up bc!orc mc. i sa otncr mcn standn_ on otncr pcaks.
Lnc o! tncsc mcn suddcn!y sczcd by dzzncss and !c!!. nc
dzzncss sprcad, otncrs crc no !a!!n_ !rom otncr pcaks nto tnc
dcptns bc!o. ncn i too bccamc dzzy i okc up .
Ln zz]unc i arrvcd at brccnts.
brccnt spcaks o! tnc c!c_ancc and noncna!ancc o! Nr_!s and
Lantcs basc attitudc ncn nc says !orms tnc backdrop to Nr_!s
majcsUc gn. c ca!!s botn N_! and Lantc romeneurs'. m-
pnaszn_ tnc c!assc rank o! tnc 7n]rno, nc says: `7ou C rcad t
out o! doors.
c spcaks o! ns dccp-rootcd natrcd o! prcsts a naucd nc nncr-
tcd !rom ns _randmotncr. c nnts tnat tnosc no navc appro-
6onversotuns irk Breckr t t
QtatCd tUC tUCOtCUCa dOCUnCs O! NatX and taRCn OVCt tUCt
mana_CmCnt V aVas !Otm a CCtCa Camat!a. NatXsm Cnds
tsC! au tOO Cas tO `ntCtQtCtatOn. Oda t s a UundtCd Cats
Od and VUat dO VC !nd: [t tUs QOnt tUC COnVCtsatOn ntCt-
tuQtCd.) `UC OtatC must VtUCt aVa. NUO sas tUat: UC OtatC.
CtC UC Can On mCan tUC OOVCt nOn.) C assumCs a Cunnn_
!utIVC CXQtCssOn Quts UmsC!! n !tOnt O! tUC CUat n VUCU 1 am
sttn_ UC s mQCtsOnatn_ `IUC OtatC and sas VtU a s sdC-
On_ _anCC at an ma_nat ntCt!OCutOt: `1 RnOV 1 our tO
VIUCt
aVa.
COnVCtsatOn aDOut nCV OOVCt nOVCs. NC nO On_Ct tCad
tUCm. UC ta!R tUCn tuts tO QOCU and tO tUC ttansatOns O! QOCms
!tOm Vat:Ous !an_ua_Cs n tUC OOVtU VUCU Lc: orr s UOOdCd.
C sas tUC QOCts OVCt tUCtC atC UaVn_ a Uatd tmC. `I Ota!ns
namC dOCsnt CtOQ uQ n a QOCm tUats ntCtQtCtCd as a s_n O!
ntCnt.
?

une. tCCUt taRs aDOut CQC tUCattC and mCntOns Qas aCtCd
D CUdtCn n VUCU !auts O! QCt!OtmanCC OQCtatn_ as aCnatOn
ChCCIs mQatt CQC CUataCtCtstCs tO tUC QtOduCtOn. OOmCtUn_
smat ma OCCut n tntd-tatC QtOVnCa tUCattC. 1 mCntOn tUC
LCnCVa QtOduCtOn O! Je 6io VUCtC tUC s_Ut O! tUC Rn_ s CtOVn
VOn CtOORCd! On Us UCad _aVC mC tUC htst nRn_ O! tUC dCas 1
CVCnIua dCVC!OQCd n tUC Trauersiel DOOR nnC Cats atCt.
tCCUt n tut QuOtCd tUC mOmCnt at VUCU tUC dCa O! CQC IUCattC
!tst CamC ntO Us UCad. 1t UaQQCnCd at a tCUCatsa !Ot tUC NunCU
QtOduCtOn O! Eooro1.UC Datt!C n tUC Qa s suQQOsCd tO OCCu-
Q IUC sta_C !Ot IUtCC-QuattCts O! an UOut. tCCUt COudnt sta_C-
mana_C tUC sOdCts and nCtUCt COud sa gaCs ] Us QtOduCtOn
assstant. 1na UC turCd n dCsQat tO at aCntn at tUat tmC
OnC O! Us COsCst !tCnds VUO Vas attCndn_ tUC tCUCatsa and asRCd
Um: `NC! VUat s t: NUats IUC U1tU aDOut tUCsC sOdCts: NUat
oour tUCm: NaCntn: `UCtC QaC tUCtC sCtCd tUats VUat'
UC tCmatR sCttCd tUC ssuC tCCUt addn_: `UCtC I:tCd. NUCtC-
uQOn tUC sOdCts !aCCs VCtC tUCR! madC uQ VtU CUaR and tUat
Vas tUC da tUC QtOduCtOns stC dCtCtmnCd.
: : c
Latcr tOc Od suDjcCt O! `O_Ca QOstVsm Camc uQ. adOQtcd a
sOmcVOat ntrans_cnt atttudc and tOc COnVcrsatOn tOrcatcncd tO
taRc a dsa_rccaDc tur. Os Vas aVOdcd D rcCOt admttn_ !Or
tOc Frst tmc tOa1 Os ar_umcnts Vcrc suQcr!Ca. Os Oc dd VtO
tOc dc_OtD !Ormua. `1 dccQ nccd maRcs !Or a suQcrCa _rasQ.
Latcr VOcn Vc Vcrc VaRn_ tO Os OOusc [tOc COnVcrsatOn Oad
taRcn QaCc n m rOOm). `ts a _OOd tOn_ VOcn sOmcOnc VOO
Oas taRcn uQ cXtrcmc QOstOn tOcn _Ocs ntO a QcrOd O! rcaCtOn.
Oat Va Oc arrVcs at a Oa!-Va OOusc. Oat Oc c.cQancd Vas
VOat Oad OaQQcncd tO Om: Oc Oad DcCOmc mcOV.
n tOc cVcnn_: sOOud Rc tO _ct sOmcDOd tO taRc a sma
Qrcscnt a Qar O! _OVcs !Or 1sa. rcCOt tOnRs tOs m_Ot Dc
trCR. t COud OaQQcn tOat sOmcOnc tOOu_Ot tOc _OVcs Vcrc
]aUnns` Va O! rcQan_ 1sa !Or Ocr csQOna_c scrVCcs. `Oc VOrst
s aVas tOat VOOc scts O! drcCtVcs| arc VtOdraVn cn DOC Dut
tOc nstruCtOns tOc COntan QrcsumaD rcman n !OrCc.
t _u[. NOcncVcr rc!cr tO COndtOns n ussa rcCOts COmmcnts
arc O_O sCcQtCa. NOcn ngurcd tOc OtOcr da VOctOcr Ltt-
Vad Vas st n _aO [n COOgua Lcrman: VOctOcr Oc Vas `st
sttn_] tOc ansVcr Vas: `! Oc C st st Ocs sttn_. `cstcrda
Lrct Otcmn cXQrcsscd tOc OQnOn tOat rctaROV nO On_cr
aVc.
4
_u[. rcCOt n tOc COursc O! a COnVcrsatOn On audcarc ast
n_Ot: `m nOt a_anst tOc asOCa Ou RnOV; m a_anst tOc nOn-
sOCa.
?t _u_. Oc QuDCatOns O! LuRaCs urca 0! marc _Vn_ rcCOt
a _OOd dca O! trOuDc. c tOnRs OOVcVcr tOat Onc Ou_Ot nOt tO
OQQOsc tOcm at tOc tOcOrctCa cVc. tOcn Qut tOc gucstOn On tOc
QOtCa cVc. crc Oc dOcs nOt OOd Os QunCOcs. `OOCast cCOnOm
dOcsnt nccd Var, and tOat s VO t s OQQOscd tO . Oc QcaCc-
Uc namc prcsumaDjtDat OtUc prOpOscd:ntcrmcd:arj CnnOtDcdc-
c:pDcrcdV:tDaDSOutc Ccrm:ntj pcrUaps1ans1cnnj]aDn:
|
\nccrm:n rcad:n_ OItDcmanuscr:pt.
6onversorions irk Breckr t t
CVn_ naturC C! tDC ussan QCCQC s an CXQrCssCn C! tDs and
nCtDn_ CsC. DCrC Cant DC a sCCast CCCnCm n CnC CCuntt.
CarmamCnt Das nCVtaD sCt tDC ussan QrCCUrat a Cn_ ?a
DaCK n DstCr DaCK tC sta_Cs C! DstCtCa dCVCCQmCnt ?DCD DaVC
Cn_ snCC DCCn CVCttaKCn amCn_ CtDCts tDC mCnarCDC sta_C.
ussa s nC? undCr QCrsCna tuC. Ln DCCKDCads Can dCn tDs
C! CCursC. Ds ?as a sDCtt CCnVCrsaOCn ?DCD ?as sCCn ntCrtUQ-
tCd. sDCud add tDat n tDs CCntCXt rCCDt CmQDasZCd tDat as a
rCsut C! tDC dssCuOCn C! tDC rst ntCratCna NarX and n_Cs
Cst aCtVC CCntaCt ?tD tDC ?CrKn_-Cass mCVCmCnt and tDCrC-
a!tCr _aVC Cn adVCC C! a QrVatC naturC nCt ntCndCd !Cr QuD-
CatCn ~ tC ndVdua CadCrs. Cr ?as t an aCCdCnt atDCu_D
rC_rCttaDC tDat n_Cs at tDC Cnd C! Ds !C turCd tC tDC natUta
sCCnCCs.
ca un DC sad Ds _rCatCst admrCr n ussa. rCCDt and
1CnC ?CrC tDC Cn LCrman QCCts un stUdCd [sic]. LCCasCna
rCCDt Dnts at tDC CXstCnCC C! a CCrtan QCrsCn Cn tDC LCntta LCm-
mttCC ?DC suQQCrts Dm.)
? u. `CstCrda mCrn_ rCCDt CamC CVCr tC m QaCC tC rCad
mC Ds Otan QCCm ?DCD s CnttCd `DC Casant tC Ds LX. t
Urst dd nCt _Ct ts mCann_ CCmQCtC and ?DCn a mCmCnt atCr
tDC tDCu_Dt C! Otan QassCd tDtCu_D m DCad dd nCt darC
CntCrtan t. Ds mCrC Cr Css tDC ChCCt rCCDt ntCndCd and DC
CXQanCd ?Dat DC mCant n tDC CCnVCrsaOCn ?DCD !CC?Cd. tDs
CCnVCtsatCn DC CmQDasZCd amCn_ CtDCr tDn_s tDC QCstVC
asQCCts C! tDC QCCm. Jt ?as n !aCt a QCCm n DCnCur C! Otan ?DC
n Ds CQnCn Das mmCnsC mCrt. ut OUn s nCt Ct dCad. CsdCs
a dhCrCnt mCrC CntDusasOC mannCr C! DCnCurn_ Otan s nCt
nCumDCnt uQCn rCCDt ?DC s sttn_ n CXC and ?aOn_ !Cr tDC
Cd rm tC marCD n. 1C s !CC?n_ tDC dCVCCQmCnts n ussa
and asC tDC ?rtn_s C! rCtsK. DCsC QrCVC tDat tDCrC CXsts a
susQCCn a ustUaDC CnC dCmandn_ a sCCQtCa aQQrasa C!
ussan ahars. OuCD sCCQtCsm s n tDC sQtt C! tDC NatXst CassCs.
ODCud tDC susQCCn QrCVC CCrrCCt CnC da tDCn t ? DCCCmC nCC-
Cssar tC U_Dt tDC rC_mC and uc. ut `un!CttUnatC Cr LCd
t t
DC QrasCd VOCOCVCr Ou QrC!Cr tOC susQCOn s at QrCsCnt nOt
Ct a CCttant. OCrC s nO justFCatOn !Or COnsttuCtn_ uQOn t a
QOC suCO as rOtsJ. _s. `1nd tOCn tOCrCs nO dOuDt tOat CCrtan
Crmna CQuCs rCa arC at VOrR n ussa tsC!. LnC Can sCC t
!rOm tmC tO tmC D tOC Oarm tOC dO. na rCCOt QOntCd Out
tOat VC LCtmans OaVC DCCn CsQCCa aUCCtCd D tOC sCtDaCRs VC
OaVC suUCrCd n Our OVn COuntr. `NC OaVC Oad tO Qa !Or tOC stand
VC tOOR VCrC COVCrCd VtO sCars. 1ts On natura tOat VC sOOud
DC CsQCCa sCnstVC.
OVards CVCnn_ rCCOt !Ound mC n UC _ardCn rCadn_ 6oi:o!.
rCCOt: `1 tOnR ts VCt _OOd tOat OurC studn_ `atX just nOV
at a tmC VOCn OnC COmCs aCrOss Om Css and Css CsQCCa amOn_
Our QCOQC. 1 rCQCd tOat 1 QrC!Cr studn_ tOC mOst taRCd-aDOut
autOOrs VOCn tOC arC Out O! !asOOn. NC VCnt On tO dsCuss
ussan tCrar QOC. 1 sad rC!Ctrn_ tO LuR8Cs L8DOr and
urCa: `OCsC QCOQC just arCnt antOn_ U VrtC OOmC aDOut
[tCra: VtO tOCsC QCOQC Ou Cant maRC statC]. rCCOt: `Lr ratOCr
a OtatC s a Ou con maRC VtO tOCm Dut nOt a COmmunt. OC
arC tO Qut t Dunt CnCmCs O! QrOduCtOn. VrOduCtOn maRCs tOCm
unCOm!OrtaDC. `Ou nCVCr RnOV VOCrC Ou arC VtO QrOduCnOn
QrOduCtOn s tOC un!OrsCCaDC. `Ou nCVCr RnOV VOats _On_ tO
COmC Out. 1nd tOC tOCmsCVCs dOnt Vant tO QrOduCC. OC Vant
tO Qa tOC ooro:ckik and CXCrCsC COntrO OVCr OtOCr QCOQC. 1VCr
OnC O! tOCr CrtCsms COntans a tOrCat. NC tOCn _Ot On tO LOCtOCs
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