Punjab College of Business Administration University of Central Punjab

Code: MGMT 6093 Summer Term 2009 Section: A Course: Research Project-II

Research Project-II
Research Thesis

Job Design with Respect to Employee Motivation & Job Performance
(Pakistan’s Banking Industry)
Submitted To: Prof. Seema Arif Submitted By:

University of Central Punjab

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Dedication
We would like to dedicate our report to our parents who provided us stand and gave us support and helped us a lot in reaching where we are standing now. Then we would also like to dedicate this report to all our friends and to our dignified supervisor and adviser Prof. Abdul Rauf.

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Acknowledgements
All praise to the gracious, the greatest Almighty Allah who blessed us with the courage and made our efforts fruitful for the completion of this research to a happy end. Without Allah’s assistance, a project like this would never come to fruition. It gives us immense pleasure to express deepest gratitude to our dignified teacher Prof. Abdul Rauf and Prof. Seema Arif for their advice and encouragement. Their masterly expression, stimulating criticism and able guidance compelled us to think freely and write independently throughout our research thesis. Their special benignity towards us was really memorable. We wish to dedicate this research report to all the Greatest Minds that have made a huge difference in this world, and have made this world a better place.

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Abstract
This research "Job Design with respect to Employee Motivation and Job Performance" was carried out to identify factors which play important role in job design so that it could best motivate the employees and in return they give best performance. This research thesis, which drew knowledge from many disciplines (e.g., psychology, engineering, human factors, physiology), demonstrate effect of job design on employee motivation in the banking sector of Pakistan in order to enhance their performance at workplace. This mixed method study used both quantitative (survey) and qualitative data (job descriptions and other documents) for analysis and interpretation, which provide information not only about existing designs but in the end a model job design is presented for bankers to improve both their efficiency and effectiveness. We had collected data from Habib Bank Limited, United Bank Limited and Saudi-Pak commercial Bank (Silk Bank). We had drawn a sample unit of 50 respondents from each bank making a collective sample of 150 respondents. It was concluded that different job designs deeply influence the performance of an employee as it guides the behavior of an individual. So in order to be competitive in the global era employees’ job must be designed in all round manner.

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Contents
Research Thesis.......................................................................................................1 Dedication................................................................................................ ...................2 Acknowledgements.....................................................................................................3 All praise to the gracious, the greatest Almighty Allah who blessed us with the courage and made our efforts fruitful for the completion of this research to a happy end. Without Allah’s assistance, a project like this would never come to fruition...................................................................................................................... 3 It gives us immense pleasure to express deepest gratitude to our dignified teacher Prof. Abdul Rauf and Prof. Seema Arif for their advice and encouragement. Their masterly expression, stimulating criticism and able guidance compelled us to think freely and write independently throughout our research thesis. Their special benignity towards us was really memorable. ..........................................................3 We wish to dedicate this research report to all the Greatest Minds that have made a huge difference in this world, and have made this world a better place...............3 Abstract............................................................................................................... ........4 1. Chapter..................................................................................... ..............................8 INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................8 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................... .........8 1.2 Operational Definitions....................................................................................12 1.2.1 Job..................................................................................................... ......12 1.2.2 Job Design ................................................................................... ...........12 1.2.3 Motivation .............................................................................. ................12 1.2.4 Job Performance.............................................................................. ........12 2. Chapter................................................................................... ..............................13 LITERATURE REVIEW............................................................................................ ......13 2.1 Literature Review ............................................................................................13 2.2 Job Design Approaches.................................................................................. ...21 Job enrichment (JE) .........................................................................................21 Job engineering (JEng) ....................................................................................21 Quality of work life (QWL) and socio-technical design ....................................22
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Social information processing approach (SIPA) ...............................................22 The job characteristics approach to job design ...............................................22 Diagnosing and measuring job scope .............................................................24 Towards a proposed model of job design.........................................................24 Antecedents and expanded job characteristics ..............................................24 Outcomes ....................................................................................................... .32 Future implications of the model......................................................................33 Fig: 4 Outcome of the proposed model of job design............................................37 2.3 History of Banks...............................................................................................38 2.3.1 The Bank........................................................................................ .........38 2.3.2 Banking in Pakistan.................................................................................38 HABIB BANK LIMITED........................................................................................ ......39 (HBL).................................................................................................. ....................39 UNITED BANK LIMTED............................................................................................40 (UBL)................................................................................................ ......................40 Saudi-Pak Commercial Bank (Silk Bank).................................................................42 3. Chapter................................................................................... ..............................44 METHODOLOGY.............................................................................. ...........................44 3.1 Purpose of the Study........................................................................................44 3.2 Objectives.............................................................................. ..........................44 3.3 Null Hypothesis................................................................................................45 3.4 Data Collection and Analysis............................................................................45 3.4.1 Methodology...........................................................................................45 3.4.2 Design................................................................................................ .....45 3.4.3 Population.............................................................................. .................45 3.3.4 Sample Size............................................................................................46 3.3.5 Sampling....................................................................................... ..........46 3.3.6 Data Collection:......................................................................................46 3.3.7 Data Analysis..........................................................................................48
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3.3.8 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY ..........................................................................48 3.3.9 Ethics .................................................................................. ...................49 DATA ANALYSIS.................................................................................... ..................50 4.1 Data Analysis...................................................................................................50 4.2 Data Analysis Results.......................................................................................50 4.3 Findings ............................................................................................... ............71 5. Chapter................................................................................... ..............................72 5.1 Conclusion................................................................................................... .....72 5.2 Recommendations........................................................................................... .75 5.3 Model of Job Design for Employees in Banking Sector.....................................77 5.3.1 First Step......................................................................................... ........77 5.3.2 Second Step.................................................................................. ..........78 5.3.3 Final Step................................................................................................79 Officer Grade III...................................................................................... ...................83 Bibliography...................................................................................... ........................84 Robert N. Lussier. (2000).Human Relations in Organizations: Applications and Skill Building (5th Ed.). NY: McGraw-Hill............................................................................84 Appendices......................................................................................................... .......86 QUESTIONNAIRE......................................................................................... ...............87 Rating Your Job Design.......................................................................................87

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1. Chapter INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction

While good people are hard to find, great people are much harder to replace. Michael Guld
Organization is the strength of any business. The more organized and efficient the different components in the business are, the better it functions and produces. Breaking down tasks associated with each component in the system has led to the concept of job design. Job design came about with rapid technological advancements at the turn of the 20th century when mass production and assembly line operations emerged. As jobs continue to become more sophisticated and specialized, the need for an educated and motivated workforce has become indispensable. The nature of work and its organization has interested managers, economists and social scientists for as long as people have been employed by others to engage in productive activity. Managers have largely been interested in maximizing output from available resources. Economists and social scientists have raised questions about the organization of work in relation to issues of the individual and society in general. Workers today are motivated by many different intentions. Some of these causes are considered as a needed entity or as a desired. Many organizations all over the globe throughout the past hundred years have focused on theories that motivate the workers to be the best they can be. Many of the theories of motivation have proven to be true. In this day of age most workers are well educated to a very high standard and for that they demand a reasonable salary and good working conditions. Motivation has conventionally been assumed to be an individual phenomenon. Each individual is unique in which each individual have different needs, potential, values, strengthening
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history, attitudes and goals. The most important aspect that most workers are concerned about is their wants and desires. "It is important to identify employees' wants and desires which includes: 1) Praise and recognition-often employees feel that they get noticed only for the things they do wrong, not for the things they do right; 2) Job security; 3) Opportunity to advance and gain new experiences; 4) Communication-to know where they stand in the eyes of their employers and what is done right or wrong; 5) To feel involved in the company-to take part in making decisions. Job design and work organization is the specification of the contents, method and relationships of jobs to satisfy technological and organizational requirements as well as the personal needs of jobholders. The main purpose of job design (or re-design) is to increase both employee motivation and productivity (Rush, 1971). Increased productivity can manifest itself in various forms. For example, the focus can be that of improving quality and quantity of goods and services, reduce operation costs, and/or reduce turnover and training costs. Managers have the opportunity to influence the motivation of employees through design of their jobs. Well-designed jobs help accomplish two important goals: getting the necessary work done in a timely and competent manner, and motivating and challenging employees. Both the business and the employee benefit from successful job design. Poorly designed jobs leave to chance whether the expected tasks will get done in a timely and competent manner. Poorly designed jobs, moreover, are likely to be discouraging, boring and frustrating to employees. Even if employees would otherwise be enthused, competent and productive, poorly designed jobs almost certainly lead to employee disappointment. Managers have the responsibility of designing jobs. If they ignore this responsibility, employees will design their own jobs. Not surprisingly, the jobs designed by employees
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are more likely to be attuned to employee experiences and preferences than to the goals of the business. Neither the business nor the employees are long-term winners from managers defaulting job design to employees. In designing the work group activity one of the basic principles is that of 'minimum critical specification' of the tasks and the 'minimum critical specification of tasks to jobs. Specification of objectives remains essential but the means for obtaining them in many instances can be decided by the task performer. In designing the work system it will often be the case that some overriding factor limits the application of all these principles. Nevertheless they can form the basis for questioning the assumptions being made in the design process and lead to discussion about the possible consequences of ignoring them. Criteria applied when making decisions about jobs and work organization were criticized by Louis Davis, in the 1950's, for more or less ignoring the social and psychological needs of job holders. Whilst there is now a much greater awareness of these aspects, those responsible for designing systems often are forced to operate within narrow parameters. Decisions made earlier by designers of manufacturing equipment often impose constraints on the choices available at the later stage. However, whilst recognizing these constraints it would appear that those responsible for job design are still dominated in their decisions by those factors criticized by Davis. The challenge facing managers now and in the future is that of employing the new technology with all its opportunities in ways which not only meet the organization's needs but also the expectations and aspirations of employees. In order to achieve this more effectively there is the need to further develop these approaches to job and work organization design which facilitates these broader criteria being incorporated into the design process as well as the tools with which to achieve the task.
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Job design serves to improve performance and motivation. Job-design analysis starts by looking at a job with a broad perspective and swiftly moves toward identifying the specific activities required to do the job. This is done for the purpose of identifying and correcting any deficiencies that affect performance and motivation. In this study we intend to explore which features of job design are motivating for employees working in banking sector in Pakistan so that they can perform at their best.

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1.2 Operational Definitions
1.2.1 Job
A job is a regular activity performed in exchange for payment, especially as one's occupation. A person usually begins a job by becoming an employee, volunteering, or starting a business. The duration of a job may range from an hour (in the case of odd jobs) to a lifetime (in the case of some judges). If a person is trained for a certain type of job, they may have a profession. The series of jobs a person holds in their life is their career.

1.2.2 Job Design
It refers to the process of determining exactly what an employee does on the job: the tasks, duties, responsibilities, decision-making and the level of authority

1.2.3 Motivation
Motivation is goal directed behavior. Factors, which energize, direct and sustain employee behavior.

1.2.4 Job Performance
Job performance is a commonly used, yet poorly defined concept in industrial and organizational psychology, the branch of psychology that deals with the workplace. It most commonly refers to whether a person performs their job well. Despite the confusion over how it should be exactly defined, performance is an extremely important criterion that relates to organizational outcomes and success.

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2. Chapter LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Literature Review
A literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge on a particular topic. Most often associated with science-oriented literature, such as a thesis, the literature review usually precedes a research proposal, methodology and results section. Its ultimate goal is to bring the reader up to date with current literature on a topic and forms the basis for another goal, such as the justification for future research in the area. A Literature Review has been done to know about the various aspects of job design in order to identify those motivation factors that effect job performance. According to Rush, 1971 the main purpose of job design (or re-design) is to increase both employee motivation and productivity. Job design can have a significant effect on motivation. ). Increased productivity can manifest itself in various forms. For example, the focus can be that of improving quality and quantity of goods and services, reduce operation costs, and/or reduce turnover and training costs. On the other hand, increasing employees' motivation can be achieved through increased job satisfaction. To this end, the Two-Hygiene Theory by Herzberg (1971, as cited in Rush) describes two sets of factors, satisfying and dissatisfying, that affect an employee's self-esteem and opportunity for self-actualization in the workplace. There is an established body of knowledge supporting the idea that certain jobs and goal setting can enhance performance. This research focuses on motivating performance through job design. It is experienced that well designed jobs can have a positive impact on both employee satisfaction and the quality of performance. In the present paper, it is proposed that a well-defined job would enhance motivation,
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satisfaction and performance of the employees. Thus, for both academicians and practitioners, job design takes on special importance in today's human resource management. It is essential to design jobs so that stress can be reduced, motivation can be enhanced, and satisfaction of employees and their performance can be improved so that organizations can effectively compete in the global marketplace. Initially, the field of organizational behavior paid attention only to job enrichment (JE) approaches to job design. Now, job design has taken a broader perspective, with various dimensions such as job enrichment (JE), job engineering (JEng), quality of work life (QWL), sociotechnical designs, the social information processing approach (SIPA) and the job characteristics approach to job design. The proposed model recognizes certain job characteristics that contribute to certain psychological states, and that the strength of the employee's need for growth has an important moderating effect. The aim of this research is to identify the key issues of job design research and practice, particularly in relation to higher-level jobs. To provide the context for the account that follows, we first take a backward glance at job design. We then briefly describe the approaches to job design with emphasis on the job characteristics approach to job design in detail, followed by a literature review of the job characteristics approach. Later we present the proposed model of job design, and its future implications or outcomes. More attention is being paid to job design for three major reasons: • Job design can influence performance in certain jobs, especially those where employee motivation can make a substantial difference. Lower cost through reduced turnover and absenteeism are also related to good job design. • Job design can affect job satisfaction. Because people are more satisfied with certain job configurations than with others, it is important to be able to identify what makes a “good” job.
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Job design can affect both physical and mental health. Example problems such as backache or leg pain can sometimes be traced directly to job design, as can stress and related high blood pressure and heart disease.

Herzberg (1966) made a critical distinction between these factors in that a person does not move in a continuum from being dissatisfied to becoming satisfied or vice versa. Rush (1971, p. 7) tries to explain Herzberg's point by stating that, "the opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but no satisfaction; and that the opposite of dissatisfaction is not satisfaction but no dissatisfaction". In a practical sense, this means that dissatisfying factors help support and maintain the structure of the job, while the satisfying factors help the employee reach self-actualization and can increase motivation to continue to do the job. According to the Two Factor Theory of Frederick Herzberg (1959) people are influenced by two factors. Satisfaction and psychological growth are a result factor of motivation factors. Managers have the opportunity to influence the motivation of employees through design of their jobs. Well-designed jobs help accomplish two important goals: getting the necessary work done in a timely and competent manner, and motivating and challenging employees. Both the business and the employee benefit from successful job design. Poorly designed jobs leave to chance whether the expected tasks will get done in a timely and competent manner. Poorly designed jobs, moreover, are likely to be discouraging, boring and frustrating to employees. Even if employees would otherwise be enthused, competent and productive, poorly designed jobs almost certainly lead to employee disappointment. Job design serves to improve performance and motivation. Job-design analysis starts by looking at a job with a broad perspective and swiftly moves toward identifying the specific activities required to do the job. This is done for the purpose of identifying and correcting any deficiencies that affect performance and motivation.

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Hence this literature review satisfy all the variables i.e. relationships (between Job design and employee performance/job design and motivation) of research thesis hypothesis. Job design and its approaches are usually considered to have begun with scientific management in the year 1900. Pioneering scientific managers such as Taylor (1947), Gilbreth (1911), and Gilbreth and Gilbreth (1917) systematically examined jobs with various techniques. They suggested that task design might be the most prominent element in scientific management. With respect to the design of individual jobs, the first major theory was that of Herzberg and his colleagues (Herzberg et al. 1959). Their two-factor theory distinguished between two types of factors, namely motivators, which are intrinsic to the work itself (e.g. achievement, recognition, and responsibility), and hygiene factors, which are extrinsic to the work (e.g. work conditions, pay, and supervision). The proposition was that the hygiene factors are absolutely necessary to maintain the human resources of an organization. According to Hertzberg's theory, only a challenging job has the opportunity for achievement, recognition, advancement and growth that will motivate personnel. Hackman and Oldham's (1976) job characteristics model (JCM) superseded the twofactor theory. This identifies five core job characteristics, namely: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback

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The core job characteristics are followed by three critical psychological states, namely: 1. 2. 3. Experienced meaningfulness Experienced responsibility Knowledge of results

In turn, the critical psychological states are accountable for increased work satisfaction, internal work motivation, performance and reduced absence and employee turnover. The model assumes that autonomy and feedback are more important than the work characteristics, and that individuals with higher growth need strength (i.e. desire for challenges and personal development) will respond more positively to enriched jobs than others. To this end, an extension to job design has been proposed that would help organizations and employees to survive in the turbulent marketplace. There was substantial interest from researchers and practitioners in job design during the 1900s. Hackman et al. (1975) conducted a study and claimed that people on enriched jobs are definitely more motivated and satisfied by their jobs. Another study conducted by Griffin (1989) on 1,000 tellers from 38 banks of a large holding company found from the job design intervention that employees perceive meaningful changes and tend to recognize those changes over time. In addition to this, a meta-analysis of the job characteristics model (Fried and Ferris, 1987) found general support for the model and for its effects on motivation and satisfaction and performance outcome. Adler (1991) found that systems in which employees reported higher perceptions of skill variety, task significance, autonomy, and feedback reported higher levels of satisfaction relationships and that internal growth work need motivation. strength Champoux (1991) theorized the core the job moderates between

characteristics and the critical psychological states and affective responses. Moreover, Dodd and Ganster (1996) examined the interactive relationship between feedback,
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autonomy and variety by manipulating the characteristics in lab. In their study, Arce (2002) found that the reward from outside activities is affected by the performance on inside activity. The study provides a rationale for the existence of synergies between different activities. Loher et al. 1985) found the relation between job characteristics and job satisfaction and also found that the relation was stronger for employees high in growth need strength (GNS). Renn and Vandenberg (1995) studied the strongest support for the job characteristic model that allowed the core job dimensions to have direct and indirect effects on personal and work outcomes. Another study conducted by Morrison et al. (2005) found that job designs that provide for high levels of employee control also provide increased opportunities for the development and exercise of skill. Also, mediational influence of perceived skill utilization on job control job satisfaction has been observed. Love and Edwards (2005) concluded that perceived work demands, job control and social support through job design leads to high productivity. Sokoya (2000) found in his study that the level of job satisfaction is determined by a combination of jobs, work and personal characteristics. Rotating managers to different jobs adds the benefit of task variety, resulting in increased performance of employees. Bassey (2002) observed in his study that skills, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback, job security and compensation are important factors for the motivation of employees. Thus, the research done in this field has created virtuous circles for more research and practice. Different variables of job design, employee motivation and job performance are discussed below:

Job content: the activities required of the job or the task to be done on the job

Job Requirements: the personal characteristics (education, experience, licenses, etc) necessary to do the task

Job Context: the environment within which the job is performed .Working relationships with other employees
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Job rotation: Job design technique in which employees are moved between two or more jobs in a planned manner. The objective is to expose the employees to different experiences and wider variety of skills to enhance job satisfaction and to cross-train them.

Job enlargement: Job Enlargement is the horizontal expansion of a job. It involves the addition of tasks at the same level of skill and responsibility. It is done to keep workers from getting bored. It is different than job enrichment (see sidebar).

Job enrichment: Job Enrichment is the addition to a job of tasks that increase the amount of employee control or responsibility. It is a vertical expansion of the job as opposed to the horizontal expansion of a job, which is called job enlargement.

Rating scales: A rating scale is a set of categories designed to elicit information about a quantitative or a qualitative attribute. In the social sciences, common examples are the Likert scale and 1-10 rating scales in which a person selects the number which is considered to reflect the perceived quality of a product.

Management by objectives (MBO): MBO aims to increase organizational performance by aligning goals and subordinate objectives throughout the organization. Ideally, employees get strong input to identifying their objectives, time lines for completion, etc. MBO includes ongoing tracking and feedback in the process to reach objectives.

Peer or team evaluations: Things to consider in making this evaluation include:
o

Competence: Was the team member capable of completing his/her part of the project? In other words, did he/she learn anything in the course?

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o

Quality of Work: Did the team member strive to and do a good job in his/her assigned tasks? Participation: What was the level and extent of participation by the team member in all phases of the project? Promptness: Did the team member meet the task completion deadlines set by your group? Attendance: How often did the team member miss a group meeting?

o

o

o

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2.2 Job Design Approaches
The approaches to job design have been postulated in such a manner that they indirectly affect an employee's level of motivation. The approaches to job design have worked in different perspectives for various organizational developments. These approaches are: job engineering (J.Eng.); job enrichment (JE); quality of work life (QWL); social information processing approach (SIPA) and job characteristics. Each approach has its own costs and benefits, and no single approach is best; trade-offs will be required in most practical situations. Too often, jobs are developed haphazardly; they become arbitrary groupings of activities that our machines cannot do. Little consideration is given to the mental and physical capabilities, limitations, and needs of the workers who must perform them. Because of the academic discipline bases of the various job-design approaches, each approach tends to be owned by a different staff specialty or profession within an organization. Job enrichment (JE) The technique entails enriching the job, which refers to the inclusion of greater variety of work content, requiring a higher level of knowledge and skill, giving workers autonomy and responsibility in terms of planning, directing, and controlling their own performance, and providing the opportunity for personal growth and meaningful work experience. Job engineering (JEng) The scientific management approach evolved into what is now generally called job engineering. It is closely associated with cybernation and sophisticated computer applications, computer assisted design (CAD), and human-machine interactions. In fact, it has been the dominant aspect of job design analysis.
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Quality of work life (QWL) and socio-technical design The overriding purpose of quality of work life is to change the climate at work so that the human-technological-organizational interface leads to a better quality of work life. Social information processing approach (SIPA) The social information processing approach to job design suggests that individual needs, task perceptions, and reactions are socially constructed realities. The process includes choice, revocability, publicness, explicitness, social norms and expectations, and external priming, which combine with social information (from others and the organizational environment) and influence the jobholders' perceptions, attitudes and behaviors. The job characteristics approach to job design To meet the limitations of Herzberg's approach to job enrichment (which he prefers to call orthodox job enrichment (OJE), Hackman and Oldham (1976) developed the most widely recognized model of job characteristics. Basically, this model recognized certain job characteristics that contribute to certain psychological states and that the strength of employees' need for growth has an important moderating effect. The core job characteristics are summarized below:

Skill variety: This refers to the extent to which the job requires the employee to draw from a number of different skills and abilities as well as upon a range of knowledge.

Task variety: This refers to whether the job has an identifiable beginning and end or how complete a module of work the employee performs. Task significance: This involves the importance of the task. It involves both internal significance (i.e. how important the task is to the organization) and

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external significance (i.e. how proud employees are to tell their relatives, friends, and neighbors what they do and where they work).

Autonomy: This refers to job independence. How much freedom and control employees have to perform their job, for example, schedule their work, make decisions or determine the means to accomplish the objectives.

Feedback: This refers to objective information about progress and performance that can come from the job itself, from supervisors or from any other information system.

Critical psychological states can be summarized as follows:

Meaningfulness: This cognitive state involves the degree to which employees perceive their work as making a valued contribution, as being important and worthwhile.

Responsibility: The degree to which the employee feels personally accountable for the results of the work they do. Knowledge of results: The degree to which the employee knows and understands, on a continuous basis, how effectively they perform their job Summary of Outcomes from the Job-Design Approaches

Source: Michael A. Campion & Paul W. Thaye (2001), Job Design: Approaches, Outcomes, and Trade-offs. http://www.krannert.purdue.edu/faculty/campionm/Job_Design_Approaches.pdf.
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Diagnosing and measuring job scope
There are several ways in which the Hackman-Oldham model can be used to diagnose the degree of job scope that job possesses. More systematically, Hackman and Oldham developed a questionnaire, The Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) (Hackman and Oldham, 1975) to analyze jobs. The questions on this survey yield a quantitative score that can be used to calculate an overall measure of job enrichment, or what is increasingly called “job scope”. For this, the motivational potential score (MPS) is calculated. The formula for this is: Equation 1 Besides this, the JDS also measures some supplementary job dimensions (feedback from others, dealing with others), experienced psychological states (meaningfulness of work, responsibility for work, knowledge of results), affective responses to the job (general satisfaction, internal work motivation, growth satisfaction), context satisfactions (pay satisfaction, security satisfaction, social satisfaction, supervisory satisfaction), individual growth need strength (GNS), and MPS. The MPS scores can range from 1 to 343. The average score is about 125.

Towards a proposed model of job design
An elaborated model of job design has been proposed considering the designing of job at individual and group level. The proposal has been made on the following grounds.

Antecedents and expanded job characteristics
Various factors influence and constrain the choice of job design. Such factors can be internal to the organization, such as style of management, technology, organizational design, workplace spirituality or high performance improvement. Factors can also be external, such as environmental uncertainty, available technology and labor market. Thus, considering the external and internal factors, it is important in many ways to manipulate job characteristics. This can be done, for example, by removing demarcation barriers by running management development programs (MDPs), promoting cultural changes or conducting behavior modification programs. For this, technology and job design need to come together to deliver excellent services. Thus,
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in a well-defined circumstance, it is reasonable to assume that individuals might mould their job characteristics to fit their individual abilities and personalities. Moreover, environmental uncertainties such as downsizing and layoffs make it vital in many ways to manipulate the available human resources by considering them as the social capital of the organization. For this, managers must initiate and develop relationships among individuals, organizations and communities. Managers must initiate and develop social capital with three aspects:
1. The

structural

dimension,

which

concerns

the

overall

pattern

of

relationships found in organizations;
2. The relational dimension, which concerns the nature of the connections

between individuals in an organization; and
3. The cognitive dimension, which concerns the extent to which employees

within a social network share a common perspective or understanding (Nahapiet and Ghosal, 1998). The creation of social capital assists in solving problems of coordination, reduces transaction costs, and facilitates the flow of information between and among employees. It also facilitates collective procession of work-related activities, growth in teamwork, collective representations, and collective emotional experience, that is, tuning one's own emotional state to that of another person or work group, reflecting joint activities, common goals, norms, and values. Consistent with this notion, social capital directs high internal motivation leading to high performance and making employees more successful in achieving goals in comparison to organizations that have less capital. As we already know that technology has become the lifeblood of every organization, it is vital to make the optimum use of available technology. Technologies like ecommerce and e-business have become buzzwords in every organization and have affected life in the workplace. With the introduction of e-commerce, transactions and dealings are being undertaken on the internet, enhancing the job profile of
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employees. Similarly, e-business has a full breadth of activities, including the development of strategies for running internet-based companies, improving communication between employees and customers, and coordinating design and production electronically. The resulting increased level of motivation leads to high performance in employees. Thus, with such forms of technological advances, employees can meet two types of cognitive demands that often emerge in manufacturing settings:
1. Attention demands; and 2. Problem-solving demands.

Attention demands occur as a result of increased vigilance requirements (Van Colt, 1985), and problem-solving demands occur because of the need for fault prevention and active diagnosis of errors (Dean and Snell, 1991). Moreover, traditional job characteristics such as job autonomy, task variety and feedback are likely to be key factors. Feedback is one of the salient features within modern settings, especially given the prevalence of electronic performance monitoring (EPM). This provides accurate, fair and timely feedback that can help employees cope with work demands. Others have suggested serious downsides, such as reduced privacy and increased workload (Carayon, 1993), but employees can perceive EPM positively if there is high trust and a supportive culture. Another element of job design concerns the emotional demands of work. There can clearly be positive benefits of emotional displays for organizations. Positive emotional displays control the exchanges with customers or clients, and hence lead to customer retention. For this, autonomy would enable the individual to enable to control their exposure to emotional demands. A further development necessary in job design is growth in teamwork or considering group-level work characteristics in a more systematic manner. Thus, this means focusing on aspects that are the function of groups, such as the design of cohesion among members, team composition, and interdependency and shared knowledge
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structures. This will result in collective representations, which are the components of a system of knowledge, opinion and behavioral norms originating from social experience. This will also lead to collective emotional experience that is, tuning one's own emotional state to that of another person or work group, reflecting joint activities, common goals, values and norms. Our discussion now moves towards the internal factors of the organization that play a vital role in motivating the performance of employees. These factors are:
• • • • • •

Human resource management; Ergonomics; Organizational culture; Leadership style; Human performance improvement (HPI); and Workplace spirituality.

As we already know that HR or personnel management is an essential part of every manager's responsibility, thus managers must consider employees as the most valued asset of an organization. To promote novel thoughts and ideas, a proper blend of HR strategy and job design is required. There should be appropriate manpower planning. Employees must be selected according to the knowledge, skills, and abilities that are apt for to the job to be performed. Apart from this, employees must be given proper training so as to enhance their levels of knowledge, which will motivate them to perform better as they will be in a better position to meet global challenges. Alterations must also be made to organizational policies to consider employee benefits so that employees benefit from contributing to achieve organizational goals. Employees must be evaluated annually on the basis of their performance, and employees who perform well must be delegated with increased responsibility and recognition, leading to an increased level of motivation. Finally, interactional levels must be increased, with the creation of informal groups so as to meet social demands and motivate employees in the collective representation of organizations.

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With increased innovation, downsizing and lay-offs are taking place, and to make the optimum use of labor, flexibility must be induced in the job profile of employees. Flexible schedules, compressed work schedules, job sharing, and telecommuting must be allowed within organizations so to make optimum use of time and labour, resulting in increased productivity and overall performance. Apart from bringing flexibility to working hours, employees must be encouraged to produce novel and thoughtful ideas so as to solve various organizational problems and make their jobs more interesting, involving, and personally challenging, and hence leading to an increase in intrinsic motivation. This motivation in turns transforms potential into creative ideas, which fosters fair and constructive judgment of ideas and sharing of information. As well as fostering creativity within organizations, variable performance-linked pay (VPLP) must be introduced within organizations, including piece-rate plans, wage incentives, sharing, bonuses and gain-sharing. With the introduction of such programs in organizations, performances are improved and the motivational level of employees is also increased. Also, such programs recognize contributions, and low performers find ways to increase their pay, and are hence motivated to perform better. Another aspect that has been discussed is ergonomics, which plays a vital role in designing jobs and influencing the motivational levels of employees. To sustain the workforce, it has become important to ensure a hazard-free and safe environment, and it has been embraced by managers that a safe working environment can result in greater efficiency and productivity. Jobs must be designed in such a manner that musculoskeletal disorders do not happen. Tools and equipment must be designed with the worker in mind and for the job being performed. Mini-breaks or coffee breaks must be given to employees so that body parts are not over-exerted. Production quotas, excessive supervision, machine-paced work and other pressures must be avoided so as to reduce musculoskeletal injuries. For this, work rotation must be encouraged so as to reduce exposure to ergonomic hazards: performing a variety of tasks can result in high performance. Apart, from this, the most significant aspect of designing jobs ergonomically is that there should be complete involvement of workers and unions regarding how work should be organized and structured.
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On the whole, we can say that when jobs are designed ergonomically, there is overall interaction of technology, work, and human beings. That is, the involvement of anatomy, physiology and psychology is complete, as the designing of jobs done on these basic human sciences results in the most productive use of human capabilities, and the maintenance of human health and well-being. The contribution of anatomy lies in improving the physical fit between employees and jobs: that is, excessive forces are avoided. The human physiology sets standards for an acceptable physical work rate, workload, and nutrition requirements. Finally, psychology is concerned with aiding the cognitive fit between employees and the jobs they perform, which results in appropriate decision-making and action. With this fit there is sustenance of an organization's workforce, lower absenteeism, increased productivity, reduced operating costs and enhanced performance. Knowledge management (KM) is another novel discipline that has emerged as one of the major dimensions in improving the performance of employees. In the present scenario of turbulent competition, with the management of human resources, it has become vital in many aspects to manage the available knowledge for meeting the organizational goals and demands. Knowledge in the perspective of job design is human-based: that is, it is brainpower, experience, skills and competence. KM involves the creation of knowledge and leveraging knowledge in the decision-making process. KM involves human and social interaction, where the available knowledge is mentally processed, interpreted, and applied at the workplace. For this, an employee has to be motivated to unleash their knowledge, abilities and skills for the achievement of organizational goals. Apart from this, for the purpose of managing knowledge and motivating employees for high performance, employees need to be psychologically empowered down the hierarchy so as to perform their job on their own. Free and informal interactions must be encouraged between managers and employees to share the available knowledge. With this sharing of knowledge, employees are highly motivated to perform better in rational decision-making. Today, the emergence of HRM-TQM has created joint consultative committees (JCCs) where management and employees form a task committee to share the available information to generate ideas
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and innovative business plans (Anand, 2001). Thus, the system should be created in a fashion that enables the dissemination, sharing and creation of knowledge, encouraging the participative management of employees, leading to increased levels of motivation in employees. Another aspect that has been discussed in reference to job design is HPI (Swanson, 1999). This is the systemic and systematic approach to identify barriers that prevent people from achieving top performance, solving performance problems, and improving opportunities in the workplace. This process involves five fundamental steps:
1. Performance analysis: This aims at the understanding and validation of

perceived performance problems. A detailed assessment of performance is carried out and appropriate interventions are made so as to increase the performance of employees.
2. Root-cause analysis: This underlines the causes of performance problems such

as lack of complete information; lack of environmental support; lack of incentives or rewards, skills, knowledge, and attitudes, motivation and expectations; and individual capacity. Identification of any root cause leads to the construction of an appropriate strategy, thereby enhancing the performance of the employees as well as that of the organization.
3. Intervention selection and design: At this level, the nature of the problem and

its root cause are assessed, and the selection of an intervention or a combination of interventions is required. At this stage, instructional interventions are designed to promote knowledge and skill acquisition, small group activities and workshops are organized, and training is imparted through various media (distance learning, computer-based and video-based). In addition, on-the-job training (OJT) is facilitated for knowledge and skill mastery in the environment, hence motivating employees towards better performances to meet performance gaps. Moreover, non-instructional interventions are also designed which include personnel selection, incentive systems, cultural change initiatives, knowledge management, and intellectual capital management. With these interventions, employees are under complete
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assessments which motivate employees to improve their performance for the achievement of organizational goals.
4. Implementation: This adequate resources, change management strategy and

business processes and procedures to increase organizational effectiveness.
5. Evaluation: This involves interpretation of organizational outcomes. This

involves

evaluation

of

the

various

interventions

made

for

improving

performance in the workplace, to decide whether to terminate or continue an intervention and to study the impact of decision-making and business planning and how far the business plans have or have not been supportive of organizational learning. Hence, with these interventions, we can keep pace with the changes occurring in the organizational landscape. Finally, we come to the most important aspect of our design and that is leadership style and organizational culture. Leaders play a vital role in motivating the performance of employees. Leaders are the only source of trust in employees that managers are trustworthy, benevolent and prefer fairness in work processes. Leaders motivate people to follow a participative design of work in which they are responsible for controlling and coordinating their work, hence making them responsible for their performance. But this is feasible only when there is openness and trust between leaders and employees (Tanner, 1998). In the context of leadership style, another stream of research has emerged that has focused on transformational leadership and transactional leadership styles. Although both forms of leadership are apt for any organization, transformational leadership style is more suitable as the leader of a particular group pays more attention to the concerns and needs of individual employees, and creates awareness among employees to look at old problems in new ways. They motivate and inspire employees towards the achievement of organizational goals by providing vision and a sense of mission among employees and also induce intellectual stimulation, which opens vistas for employees in terms of career development and new ways to make enhance their performance.
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Finally there is organizational culture, which involves the socialization process, psychological empowerment, and workplace spirituality. Motivating employees towards high performance is very much influenced by the prevalence of the culture in the organization. Socialization must be induced within organizations: this can be achieved through social interaction between employees and employers, where the information gathered is easily shared and disseminated. Also, employees have the chance of emotional release, creating a culture of trust and openness. Last comes workplace spirituality (Ashmos and Duchon, 2000), which recognizes that employees have both a mind and a spirit and seek to find meaning and purpose in their work, and a desire to connect with other human beings and be part of a community, hence making their jobs more meaningful and motivating employees to perform at a high level with a view to personal and social development. Thus, the proposed model of job design, created with a view towards motivating employees to higher performance, will definitely help in achieving organizational goals with full zest and will definitely lead to proactive outcomes or performance.

Outcomes
The use of available resources and available technology along with various training programs will definitely lead to increased productivity and increased levels of motivation at individual level, group level, and social level. Also, considering the labor market on the basis of variable-pay programs and flexible schedules will definitely lead to heightened motivation and productivity, which in return leads to the creation of social capital, assisting in meeting the structural, relational, and cognitive demands of the organization. Designing jobs under consideration of internal organizational factors, it can be seen that following appropriate management strategies will help in the creation of opportunities for career development, skill acquisition and creativity for employees. Performance evaluations will help employees to know their levels of motivation and
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make efforts to improve them. Moreover, designing jobs ergonomically will help in the creation of safe working conditions, avoiding musculoskeletal injuries and awkward postures. In other words, the involvement of anatomy, physiology, and psychology in designing jobs ergonomically will lead to high performance and reduced levels of stress in employees. Knowledge management will also lead to proactive outcomes or performance. Once knowledge dissemination, utilization and acquisition are required in a linear fashion, learning organizations can be created where novel ideas and thoughts are developed, interpreted, and implemented and knowledge is transformed throughout the system with the objective of achieving organizational goals efficiently and creating autonomy in performing jobs, hence motivating employees towards high performance. Finally, following a transformational leadership style in motivating employees will definitely lead to collective representations and collective emotional experiences, hence leading to the creation of a collectivistic culture within organizations as well as the creation of a high performing environment. In other words, appropriate job design will lead to proactive performance and finally to learning and developing nations.

Future implications of the model
Traditional outcomes such as job satisfaction, motivation and performance will certainly remain central to the agenda. But, some wider developments are yet to be incorporated besides these general agendas. Job autonomy would be associated with greater organizational commitment, which in turn was linked to safer working. Thus, safety has been one of the most ignored aspects of job designs which in future can become one of the salient features of job design, hence, leading to a better quality of work life (QWL). In today's world, to survive in the turbulent marketplace, creativity, innovation, skill and knowledge acquisition have become major aspects in improving the performance of employees and creating virtuous circles for organizations to reach the pinnacle, as they lead to improved decision-making and goal setting.
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Finally, in terms of practical recommendations, empowerment is an effective strategy for promoting expertise. It creates an effective and safe environment within which individuals can acquire skills. Importantly, empowerment provides an opportunity for employees to apply new skills, which is likely to reinforce the values of personal development. It can be regarded as an effective means of improving skills and can be regarded as an effective strategy for managing knowledge in two respects:
1. The provision of information systems and support from technical experts

represents a systematic practice for disseminating knowledge through an organization; and
2. Enhanced decision-making responsibility has the potential to tap into

employees' existing knowledge and skills, drawing on their personal experiences and ideas to improve the effectiveness of work systems. In other words, empowerment can be viewed as a means of eliciting or unlocking the knowledge possessed by an organization. When it comes to job design in the Indian context, employers can give a quick response to their job by enabling employees to use their tact and local language to solve problems. Besides this, knowledge creation and employee learning and development among employees will be promoted with the perspective consistent with the German action theory, of which the basic tenet is that work is action-oriented. It has also been proposed in the model that designed roles promote mastery, which in turn helps people learn to cope with the stresses of the job, also leading to higher intensive motivation, which in turn leads to increased growth needs strength, providing environmental certainty and centralized decision-making. Thus, implication of the model is that the job characteristics model can be practically applied with the desirable performance and satisfaction results. Some well-known companies such as 3M, AT&T, Xerox and Motorola are also among those who have actually implemented job design changes in accordance with the job characteristics model.

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Equation 1

Fig: 1 Approaches to job design

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Fig: 2 Hackman-Oldham job characteristics model

Fig: 3The proposed model of job design

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Fig: 4 Outcome of the proposed model of job design

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2.3 History of Banks
2.3.1 The Bank
The term “BANK” is derived from an Italian word “BANKO” which means “Bench” that is where people meet and solve their financial matters. The term bank is being used for a long time yet it has no precise definition. The basic reason is that the banks perform not just one but many types of functions originally the banks were supposed to make short term loans to the traders only. The banks now not only make short term loans to the formers, traders, industrialist etc. But also invest in a wide variety of long term earning assets. The commercial banks also undertake and execute trust, deal in stock, shares and debentures, issue guaranties and indemnities underwrite and sell new securities, and deal in foreign exchange etc.

2.3.2 Banking in Pakistan
At the time of independence there were 487 offices of schedules banks if Pakistan. However the banks including those having their registered offices in Pakistan, transferred them to India. By 30th time June 1948 the no offices of scheduled banks in Pakistan declined from 487 to only 195 There were 19 non Indian foreign banks with the status of small branches office while there were only 2 Pakistan bank i.e. Habib Bank and Australian Bank.

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HABIB BANK LIMITED (HBL)

Company Introduction:
HBL plays a central role in Pakistan's financial and economic development. It has come a long way from its modest beginnings in Bombay in 1941 when it commenced operations with a fixed capital of 25,000 rupees.

Company Description:
HABIB BANK LIMITED not only has made investment in industry but also in small-scale industry but also in small-scale industry as well. HABIB BANK LIMITED has efficient & less bureaucratic setup.

History of the Company:
HBL was the first Muslim Bank in the Subcontinent. Habib Bank is the premier and the oldest bank in the country. Impressed by its initial performance, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah asked the Bank to move its operations to Karachi after the creation of Pakistan. HBL established itself in the Quaid's city in 1943 and became a symbol of pride and progress for the people of Pakistan.

Operational Structure:
Habib Bank has been a pioneer in providing innovative banking services. These have included the installation of the first mainframe computer in Pakistan followed by the first ATM and more recently, internet banking facilities in all our 1425 domestic branches.

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UNITED BANK LIMTED (UBL)

Company Introduction:
UBL was set up in 1959 and is today one of Pakistan's major banks in terms of deposits and advances with a huge domestic and international network. Its salient features are:

Company Description:
UBL is a Banking Company, which is engaged in Commercial & Retail Banking and related services domestically and overseas.

History of the Company:
UBL was established in 1959 and is one of the major commercial banks of Pakistan. The Bank is making every effort to meet the up-coming challenges through strategic planning and making the best use of the resources at its command. A professional team was appointed in mid 1997 to restructure the bank and to commence rightsizing. The management is also in the process of rationalizing the branch network and identifying and recovering its doubtful and classified portfolio. It has planned to institute major improvements in customer services and internal systems to improve efficiency. It also intends to launch innovative products. The bank is increasing resource mobilization through regular deposit campaigns and accelerating the process of recovery of outstanding advances and non-performing assets.

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Operational Structure:
UBL operates 1375 domestic and a subsidiary viz. United Executors and Trustees Company Ltd. as on 30.06.2000. It has 20 overseas branches situated in the UK, USA, UAE, Yemen, Bahrain and Qatar. It also operates one offshore branch in the Export Processing Zone, Karachi and it has representative offices in Cairo-Egypt and TehranIran. It also has a joint venture – Oman United Exchange Co., Oman Muscat and a subsidiary – United Bank A.G. Zurich, Switzerland set up in 1968. It has 21 ATMs with 8 in the UAE, 3 in Bahrain, 1 in Doha, 7 in Islamabad and 2 in Karachi.

Domestic and International Network
• • Major Local Market Presence: UBL is one of the largest commercial banks in Pakistan representing approximately 09% of the deposits of the banking sector. A Household Name: UBL's brand name is well established. It has an extensive domestic network of 1,375 branches reaching virtually every segment of the Pakistani economy. • A Full Service Bank: UBL provides its customers a complete range of banking products and services including retail banking, corporate and institutional banking, trade finance and consumer finance.

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Saudi-Pak Commercial Bank (Silk Bank)
Company Introduction:
Saudi Pak Bank now known as Silk Bank activated its commercial banking in 1992 in
Pakistan. During 1993, two more business divisions i.e. Corporate Banking and Financial Services were added.

Company Description:
Saudi Pak Bank is the vision of a group of Pakistani professionals with extensive domestic and international banking and finance experience. Some of the foreign investors belong to a highly regarded, very sizeable and well diversified business group of Saudi Arabia.

History of the Company:
On July 3rd, 1916 a deal for purchase of land was executed between Graham property through its attorneys and Messrs Cox & Co. The lease was executed between Indian Premises Company Ltd & Cox & Co. on April 1st, 1921 for a period of 50 years ending March 31, 1971. The building construction was completed in March 1922. The building was built with Jodhpur stone and thickness of the wall is around two feet. The building is well maintained and keeping in view the history and its design, this building was brought under the rule of Sindh Heritage Ordinance by Government of Sindh in 1988. Under the Heritage rules, no changes are permitted at the exterior of the building. This building was purchased by Saudi Pak Commercial Bank Limited in 2002. The central office of the bank, the regional office South and the main branch Karachi will be housed in the premises.

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Operational Structure:
The branch network was expanded during the year through addition of eight branches increasing the network to twenty eight branches. The refurbishment work was completed in a number of branches to give them Saudi Pak identity and a friendly and service oriented look. During the year three branches were completely renovated while another three branches were shifted to new locations.

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3. Chapter METHODOLOGY
3.1 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to identify factors which play important role in job design so that it could best motivate the employees and in return they give best performance. The following factors of job design, motivation and performance were the subject of study: • • • • • • • • • Job content Job functions Working relationships with other employees Job rotation Job enlargement Job enrichment Rating scales Management by objectives (MBO) Peer or team evaluation

3.2 Objectives
This study was an effort to find out the impact of employee motivating factors while job designing in order to enhance job performance in the banking sector. This study countered following objectives:

Technical Feasibility: The job must not be beyond the reasonable limits of the worker’s skills and mental endurance. Economic Feasibility: The worker’s compensation and the cost of concomitant equipment and appropriate work environment must be reasonable. The job should foster a positive worker attitude by providing intrinsic rewards.
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3.3 Null Hypothesis
• •

Ho1: Job design and employee performance has strong relation with each other Ho2: Job design and motivation have a relation with each other.

Alternative/Research Hypothesis

Ho1: Motivated employees are high performer.

3.4 Data Collection and Analysis
3.4.1 Methodology
Research is a systematic method of finding solutions to problems. It is essentially an investigation, a recording and an analysis of evidence for the purpose of gaining knowledge. According to Clifford woody, “research comprises of defining and redefining problem, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, reaching conclusions, testing conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulated hypothesis”.

3.4.2 Design
We used both qualitative and quantitative methodology in data collection and data analysis.

3.4.3 Population
The population of our research project was all employees of banking sector in Pakistan performing their jobs at different designations at middle level. However sample was taken from the following banks by their branches situated in various areas of Lahore i.e.

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• •

United Bank Limited (UBL) Habib Bank Limited (HBL) Saudi-Pak Bank (Silk bank)

3.3.4 Sample Size
Sample of 50 respondents was obtained from each bank and they were 150 respondents in total.

3.3.5 Sampling
The procedure adopted in the present study was convenience sampling.

3.3.6 Data Collection: A. Sources:
There were two sources of data collection: • • Documents Surveys

B. Research Tool The tools we used in our research process were: Documents       Hierarchy Job Description Job Specification Recruitment form KPI TAT

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Surveys

We collected data thorough questionnaire.

C. Data Collection Strategy Following was the data collection strategy for our research: a. Questionnaire A well defined questionnaire that was used, effectively gathered information on both overall performance of the test system as well as information on specific components of the system. b. Nature of Questions Asked The questionnaire consisted of open ended, dichotomous, rating and ranking questions. c. Variables of the Study The direct variables of the study were job design, employee motivation and performance. Indirect variables were the Job content, Job functions, Working relationships with other employees, Job rotation, Job enlargement, Job enrichment, Rating scales, Management by objectives (MBO), Peer or team evaluations, incentives, interpersonal relations, career development opportunities and performance appraisal system. d. Presentation of Data The data has been presented through charts and tables.

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3.3.7 Data Analysis
The survey analyzed quantitatively, while interpretive analysis was used to analyze and examine further data in the research. Appropriate qualitative methodology, coding, memoing and graphic representation were used and the research report was written in narrative form. Correlation was used to test the hypothesis and draw inferences.

3.3.8 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
However we tried our best in collecting the relevant information for our research report, yet there are always some problems faced by the researcher. The prime difficulties which we faced in collection of information are discussed below:

1. Short time period: The time period for carrying out the research was short as a

result of which many facts have been left unexplored.
2. Lack of resources: Lack of time and other resources as it was not possible to

conduct survey at large level.
3. Small no. of respondents: Only 150 respondents have been chosen which is a

small number, to represent whole of the population

4. Unwillingness of respondents: While collection of the data many employees

were unwilling to fill the questionnaire. Respondents were having a feeling of wastage of time for them.

5. Small area for research: The area for study was only three banks located in

Lahore, which is quite a small area to represent job satisfaction level of whole of the population.

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3.3.9 Ethics
As MBA students, we were engaged in management research that added to the body of knowledge in our discipline. We are aware that our work will build on the shoulders of those who went before us – and in turn others will build on our work. We have tried our best to meet professional, institutional and social standards for conducting research. Informed-consent rule: All three of us voluntarily participated in the research with full knowledge of relevant risks and benefits Confidentiality and privacy: Upholding individuals' rights to confidentiality and privacy is a central tenet of every research work. During research we interviewed different employees of the three banks. We devised different ways to ask whether participants were willing to talk about sensitive topics (like their salary, family e.t.c) without putting them in awkward situations. We provided a set of increasingly detailed interview questions so that employees could stop if they felt uncomfortable. While obtaining different confidential documents from the banks (like their evaluation and appraisal forms), we gave them information about how their data will be used, what will be done with their documents and audio recordings, and secured their consent. Limits of the Internet: As a great part of our research was conducted through internet, we were very cautious when exchanging confidential information electronically. This is because we were aware of the limitations of internet that it might be possible for others to tap into data that we thought was properly protected. Intellectual Property Right: The articles that we used in the literature review section of our thesis are the ones that have previously been published and that have been given the copyright by the publisher.

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4. Chapter DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Data Analysis
For data analysis we conducted questionnaire surveys. Our questionnaire consisted of 20 questions which were filled in by employees of three banks. Sample size of 150 was taken, 50 employees from each bank. Banks that we selected were HBL, MCB and Saudi Pak as it has been mentioned earlier.

4.2 Data Analysis Results
The results were gathered from 150 questionnaires distributed in different banks. The results from employee survey are shown in tabulation and graphical method as under:

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1. I am satisfied with the benefits (Health insurance, life insurance, etc.) I get from the bank Agree Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Strongly Disagree Total 31 79 3 10 27 150 31/150x100 = 20.66667% 79/150x100 = 52.6667% 3/150x100 = 2% 10/150x100 = 6.66667% 27/150x100 = 18% 100%

Question one is about the satisfaction of employees from the benefits they get. From the above result we analyze that total 53% of employees are dissatisfied with the benefits, while only 28% are satisfied which is a very low ratio and 2% have no decision.

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

53%

21% 2%
Agree Disagree Undecided

18% 7%
Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree

2. I feel that my job is secured one
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Agree Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Strongly Disagree Total

59 13 29 47 2 150

59/150x100 = 39.3333% 13/150x100 = 8.66667% 29/150x100 = 19.33333% 47/150x100 = 31.33333% 2/150x100 = 1.33333% 100%

Question two is about the job security. From the above result we analyze that total 39% of the employees are confident about their job security and a minor percentage o employees disagree with it while some couldn’t come up with a decision.

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

39% 9%
Agree Disa gree

31% 19% 1%
U ndecided Strongly Agree Strongly Disa gree

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3. My job does not create any physical aliments Agree Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Strongly Disagree Total 96 21 14 13 6 150 96/150x100 = 64% 21/150x100 = 14% 14/150x100 = 9.33333% 13/150x100 = 8.66667% 6/150x100 = 4% 100%

Question three is about the physical aliments like stress, hypertension, pain etc which an employee can experience because of routine work. Results show that total 72% of employees are agreed that their jobs do not create any physical aliment, while total 18% are disagreed and 9% are confused.

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

64%

14%

9%
U ndecided

9%

4%

Agree

Disa gree

Strongly Agree Strongly Disa gree

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4. There is a clear and effective system of appraisal and career development Agree Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Strongly Disagree Total 72 19 22 21 16 150 72/150x100 = 48% 19/150x100 = 12.66667% 22/150x100 = 14.66667% 21/150x100 = 14% 16/150x100 = 10.66667% 100%

Question four is about the clear and effective system for career growth and total 64% of employees are agreed upon, while total 24% are disagreed and 15% couldn’t decide it.

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

48%

13%

15%

14%

11%

Agree

Disa gree

U ndecided

Strongly Agree Strongly Disa gree

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5. I would recommend my organization to others as a great place to work Agree Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Strongly Disagree Total 51 24 19 39 17 150 51/150x100 = 34% 24/150x100 = 16% 19/150x100 = 12.66667% 39/150x100 = 26% 17/150x100 = 11.33333% 100%

Question five is about the work place experience of employees and total 50% of employees are agreed to recommend their organization as a great work place, but 13% couldn’t make decision while total 27% are disagreed.

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

34% 16% 13%

26% 11%

Agree

Disa gree

U ndecided

Strongly Agree Strongly Disa gree

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6. I feel like continuing to work in my organization for the foreseeable future Agree Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Strongly Disagree Total 31 49 36 14 20 150 31/150x100 = 20.66667% 49/150x100 = 32.66667% 36/150x100 = 24% 14/150x100 = 9.33333% 20/150x100 = 13.33333% 100%

Question six is about the future concerns of the employees. Result shows that total 46% of employees wouldn’t want to continue with the current organization, while total 30% wants to and 24% are confused.

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

33% 21%

24% 9%

13%

Agree

Disa gree

U ndecided

Strongly Agree Strongly Disa gree

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7. I think there are some barriers that need to be eliminated to maximize my performance Agree Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Strongly Disagree Total 66 14 11 48 11 150 66/150x100 = 44% 14/150x100 = 9.33333% 11/150x100 = 7.33333% 48/150x100 = 32% 11/150x100 = 7.33333% 100%

Question seven is about the barriers that need to be eliminated for maximum performance and the result shows total 76% of employees are agreed, while total 16% are not and 7% couldn’t decide it.

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

44% 32% 9%
Agree Disa gree

7%
U ndecided

7%
Strongly Agree Strongly Disa gree

8. I feel my performance is truly contributing to the well being of the organization
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Agree Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Strongly Disagree Total

71 6 12 53 8 150

71/150x100 = 47.33333% 6/150x100 = 4% 12/150x100 = 8% 53/150x100 = 35.33333% 8/150x100 = 5.33333% 100%

Question eight is about reading the mindset of employees and result shows that total 82% of employees think that their performance is contributing to the well being of the organization, while 9% doesn’t think so and 4% are confused.

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

47% 35% 4%
Agree Disa gree

8%
U ndecided

5%
Strongly Agree Strongly Disa gree

9. I feel adequate opportunity for periodic changes in duties Agree 39
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39/150x100 = 26%

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Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Strongly Disagree Total

63 6 14 28 150

63/150x100 = 42% 6/150x100 = 4% 14/150x100 = 9.33333% 28/150x100 = 18.66667% 100%

Question nine is about the sufficient opportunities for periodic changes in duties. Results shows that total 61% of employees are disagreed, 35% are agreed and 4% couldn’t make decision. Periodic changes should be given.

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

42% 26% 4%
Agree Disa gree U ndecided

9%

19%

Strongly Agree Strongly Disa gree

.

10. I can make changes to the tasks assigned to me Agree 17 17/150x100 = 11.33333%

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Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Strongly Disagree Total

89 8 9 27 150

89/150x100 = 59.33333% 8/150x100 = 5.33333% 9/150x100 = 6% 27/150x100 = 18% 100%

Question ten asks about the control of employees on their assigned tasks. Result shows that total 77% of employees have no control to modify their tasks and total 17% are agreed which is quite low, while 8% are doubtful. Management should provide the employees certain level of control on their handled tasks. Now the employees are starting to take on more and more challenging projects with confidence. This leaves a manager to do what they need to do -- manage. It also builds employee self esteem and confidence. A confident employee is one who is easily motivated.

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

59%

11%

18% 5%
Disa gree U ndecided

6%
Strongly Agree Strongly Disa gree

Agree

11. I can use my own initiative to complete tasks that are not formally required as a part of my job Agree 21
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21/150x100 = 14%

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Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Strongly Disagree Total

61 26 9 33 150

61/150x100 = 40.66667% 26/150x100 = 17.33333% 9/150x100 = 6% 33/150x100 = 22% 100%

Question eleven is asking about the level of involvement from the employees and result shows that total 63% of employees are disagreed on getting such level of involvement, while total 20% are agreed and 17% hadn’t decided it yet. So, control on tasks can boost their level to such a point where employees can use their own initiatives to complete the tasks.

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

41% 14% 17% 6%
Disa gree U ndecided Strongly Agree Strongly Disa gree

22%

Agree

12. I am allowed to identify a variety of alternative solutions to organizational issues and problems Agree 29 29/150x100 = 19.33333%

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Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Strongly Disagree Total

67 19 16 19 150

67/150x100 = 44.66667% 19/150x100 = 12.66667% 16/150x100 = 10.66667% 19/150x100 = 12.66667% 100%

Question twelve is about the openness of organizations to new ideas. Result shows that total 66% of employees are disagreed, while 29% are agreed and 12% couldn’t decide it. Organizations should welcome new ideas and solutions, it can really make employees confident and motivated.

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

45% 19% 13% 13%

11%

Agree

Disa gree

U ndecided

Strongly Agree Strongly Disa gree

13. I think my knowledge, skills and abilities are matching job’s requirement Agree Disagree Undecided 71 46 10 71/150x100 = 47.33333% 46/150x100 = 30.66667% 10/150x100 = 6.66667%

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Strongly agree Strongly Disagree Total

19 4 150

19/150x100 = 12.66667% 4/150x100 = 2.66667% 100%

Question thirteen is KSA analysis o employees and result shows that total 60% of employees think that their job fits them, while total 32% are disagreed and 7% couldn’t come up with a decision. Right person at the right position is very necessary for the maximum performance. Manager can motivate his employees by assigning them tasks that they are best suited for. Everyone one has a unique set of skills and talents. These skills and talents are a huge resource for a savvy manager. By accentuating your employee’s strong points you make them feel good, and they are motivated because they can accomplish tasks best suited for them.

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

47% 31% 7%
Agree Disa gree U ndecided

13%

3%

Strongly Agree Strongly Disa gree

14. I feel satisfied with the hours worked each week Agree Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Strongly Disagree 34 57 9 11 39
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34/150x100 = 22.66667% 57/150x100 = 38% 9/150x100 = 6% 11/150x100 = 7.33333% 39/150x100 = 26%

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Total

150

100%

Question fourteen is about the working hours and result shows that total 64% of employees don’t feel satisfied, while 30% feel so and 6% couldn’t come up to a decision. Workload is the main factor of the performance, if employees are overburdened, they can't increase their productivity. Analyze the team’s strength as well as individual’s strength before assigning workloads.

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

38% 23% 6%
Agree Disa gree U ndecided

26% 7%
Strongly Agree Strongly Disa gree

15. I feel Flexibility in my scheduling Agree Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Strongly Disagree 21 61 10 19 39
Job Design w.r.t Employee Motivation and Job Performance (Pakistan’s Banking Industry)

21/150x100 = 14% 61/150x100 = 40.66667% 10/150x100 = 6.66667% 19/150x100 = 12.66667% 39/150x100 = 26%

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Total

150

100%

Question fifteen is about the flexibility in schedule. Result shows that 67% are disagreed, means they have a strict cyclic schedule, while 27% have flexibility and 7% didn’t decide. Strict cyclic schedules can make employees dull, so flexibility and change in schedule can make them fresh and can enhance their performance.

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

41% 26% 14% 7%
Disa gree U ndecided

13%

Agree

Strongly Agree Strongly Disa gree

16. I am satisfied with the location of work Agree Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Strongly Disagree Total 59 31 18 29 13 150
Job Design w.r.t Employee Motivation and Job Performance (Pakistan’s Banking Industry)

59/150x100 = 39.33333% 31/150x100 = 20.66667% 18/150x100 = 12% 29/150x100 = 19.33333% 13/150x100 = 8.66667% 100%

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Question sixteen is about the satisfaction of an employee from his/her work location. Result shows that total 58% of employees are satisfied from the locality of work, while total 30% are disagreed and 12% couldn’t come up with a decision. If employee's workplace is comfortable like it is a good area or area near to his house, he will feel very comfortable with the tasks.

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

39% 21% 12% 19% 9%

Agree

Disa gree

U ndecided

Strongly Agree Strongly Disa gree

17. I am satisfied with the amount of paid vacation time/sick leave offered Agree Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Strongly Disagree Total 19 59 4 20 48 150 19/150x100 = 12.66667% 59/150x100 = 39.33333% 4/150x100 = 2.66667% 20/150x100 = 13.33333% 48/150x100 = 32% 100%

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Question seventeen is about the fringe benefits. Result shows that total 71% are dissatisfied with the benefits they are getting from their organizations, while total 26% are satisfied and 3% are undecided.

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

39% 13% 13%

32% 3%

Agree

Disa gree

U ndecided

Strongly Agree Strongly Disa gree

18. My job description is clear Agree Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Strongly Disagree Total 59 36 8 36 11 150 59/150x100 = 39.33333% 36/150x100 = 24% 8/150x100 = 5.33333% 36/150x100 = 24% 11/150x100 = 7.33333% 100%

Question eighteen is about the clarity of the job description and total 63% of employees are agreed, while 31% are disagreed and 5% are confused.
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100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

39% 24% 5%
Agree Disa gree U ndecided

24% 7%
Strongly Agree Strongly Disa gree

19. I have the capability to achieve the targets in time Agree Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Strongly Disagree Total 58 18 19 39 16 150 58/150x100 = 38.66667% 18/150x100 = 12% 19/150x100 = 12.66667% 39/150x100 = 26% 16/150x100 = 10.66667% 100%

Question nineteen asks about the ability of an employee to manage work. Result shows that total 63% of employees are agreed on the suitable timelines of targets, while total 23% are disagreed and 13% are confused.

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100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

39% 26% 12% 13% 11%
Strongly Agree Strongly Disa gree

Agree

Disa gree

U ndecided

20. I have Variety of job responsibilities Agree Disagree Undecided Strongly agree Strongly Disagree Total 63 19 7 46 15 150 63/150x100 = 42% 19/150x100 = 12.66667% 7/150x100 = 4.66667% 46/150x100 = 30.66667% 15/150x100 = 10% 100%

Question twenty is about the roles of employee and result shows that total 53% of employees are agreed on the variety of roles they play as the responsibilities, while 23% are disagreed and 5% couldn’t come up with a decision.

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100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

42% 31% 13% 5%
U ndecided

10%
Strongly Agree Strongly Disa gree

Agree

Disa gree

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4.3 Findings

Employees are not completely satisfied with their job although their salary is good enough. Employees are not getting value to their work. Most of employees think that they are not on their actual path. There is negative comparison between peers especially regarding targets. They often feel overworked. Most of them satisfied to the working location of their work. Employees need frequent opportunities for periodic changes in their duties. Salaries are given on individual basis but the company should adopt the policy of performance base salary system. The performance appraisal has been done on traditional basis in many banks.(yearly basis) There is no proper job rotation in most of the banks in Pakistan. Some time the working time exceeds the limits of twelve hours. Most of the employees do not feel flexibility in their schedules. Some of the employees think that their knowledge, skills and abilities are not matching job’s requirement. Most of the employees facing empowerment issues. They think they are not allowed to identify a variety of alternative solutions to organizational issues and problems.

• • •

• • • • •
• •

Most of the employees think there are some barriers that need to be eliminated to maximize performance. People are best motivated when they are working toward personally meaningful goals whose attainment requires activity at a continuously optimal (intermediate) level of difficulty.

Providing pleasurable rewards creates eager and productive people. Appeal to people’s selfish nature. Give them the opportunity to earn more for themselves by earning more for you.
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5. Chapter
5.1 Conclusion
In this research thesis we have looked at different variables of job, job design, employee motivation, job performance and their impact on banking industry of Pakistan. We have considered social as well as psychological needs of job holders in our research. Although there is now much greater awareness of these aspects, those responsible for designing systems are often forced to operate within narrow parameters. The challenge facing managers now and in future is that of employing new technology with all its opportunities in ways which don’t meet the organization’s need but also the expectations and aspirations of employees. In order to achieve this more effectively there is the need to further develop these approaches to job and work organization design which facilitates these broader criteria being incorporated into the design process as well as the tools with which to achieve the task. There are various approaches that allow management to design jobs for employee motivation, increased productivity and future growth. In order for the job design to be effective, management needs to look at what aspects of the jobs are important and better fit the organizational goals. Thus, one of the major purposes of job design is to be able to discuss what is needed from the job and the employees. It is of current interest in establishing a link between human resource management (HRM) or high involvement practices and organizational performance with an increase in intrinsic motivation. The implication of the model finally leads to the positive affective state of “flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990), which is experienced by an individual in certain situations. It is the total attention and psychic energy devoted to the task in hand, and feelings of exhilaration, comfort and energy. An individual experiences this state when there is a
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match between an individual's perceived skills and tasks. Thus, effective job design has become one of the salient aspects of human resource management and organizational behavior so as to survive in the global workplace (see Figure 4). Thus, we can conclude that changes in the business environment profoundly affect organizations and the people working within them. The proposal has been made in the belief that we will be able to build a systematic, symbiotic, task-induced, and high performance environment. Job design is a tool for helping to motivate and challenge employees. Like all other motivational tools, it fails to provide a magical answer for all employees in all situations. Nevertheless, inattention to job analysis, job design, job enrichment and work scheduling means that motivation problems will be created that need not be created. Employees at banking sector are likely to appreciate an employer’s efforts to make their jobs as motivational and challenging as feasible. Many employees will welcome the opportunity to help improve their jobs. They will see the benefits for themselves and for the business. Traditional jobs can be changed. An employer’s imagination and creativity applied to job design have the potential to yield impressive results and create a maximum and desired job performance. There are various approaches that allow management to design jobs for employee motivation, increased productivity and future growth. In order for the job design to be effective, management needs to look at what aspects of the jobs are important and better fit the organizational goals. Thus, one of the major purposes of job design is to be able to discuss what is needed from the job and the employees. It is of current interest in establishing a link between human resource management (HRM) or high involvement practices and organizational performance with an increase in intrinsic motivation.

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The use of available resources and available technology along with various training programs will definitely lead to increased productivity and increased levels of motivation at individual level, group level, and social level. Also, considering the labour market on the basis of variable-pay programs and flexible schedules will definitely lead to heightened motivation and productivity, which in return leads to the creation of social capital, assisting in meeting the structural, relational, and cognitive demands of the organization. Designing jobs under consideration of internal organizational factors, it can be seen that following appropriate management strategies will help in the creation of opportunities for career development, skill acquisition and creativity for employees. Performance evaluations will help employees to know their levels of motivation and make efforts to improve them. Moreover, designing jobs ergonomically will help in the creation of safe working conditions, avoiding musculoskeletal injuries and awkward postures. In other words, the involvement of anatomy, physiology, and psychology in designing jobs ergonomically will lead to high performance and reduced levels of stress in employees. In other words, appropriate job design will lead to proactive performance and finally to learning and developing nations.

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5.2 Recommendations
After completing the analysis and interpretation we have suggested following recommendations to the employers of banking industry of Pakistan so that they could be able to design such a job which increases employee motivation and enhances their performance: • • • • •

Flexible work arrangements Training and other professional growth opportunities Opportunities to use one's talents and to be creative Opportunities to take responsibility and direct one's own work A stable, secure work environment that includes job security/continuity An environment in which workers are supported by an accessible supervisor who provides timely feedback as well as congenial team members Flexible benefits, such as child-care and exercise facilities Up-to-date technology Competitive salary and opportunities for promotion Make a job more challenging by making it more difficult. The job may be made more difficult, for example, by including more problem-solving, increasing the number of people with whom cooperation is necessary, increasing the complexity of tasks included in the job and providing less specific directions and rule:

• • • •

Assign challenging new tasks that the employee must learn to do through self study, off-site training, on-the-job training, experimentation and/or contact with others who have the necessary expertise.

Delegate responsibility and authority to an employee. Some examples include delegated responsibility and authority to: improve a part of the business like resolve a specific problem such as employee turnover or gather the necessary information for determining the best alternative.

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Provide the employee with performance reports about enterprises or major cost categories and ask that he or she provide analysis and suggestion on how to improve performance.

Given worker more latitude in deciding about such things as work method, sequences and pace or by letting them make decisions about accepting or rejecting materials.

• •

Giving workers a feeling of personal responsibility for their tasks. Taking steps to make sure that people can see how their tasks contribute to a finished products and the welfare of the enterprises. Giving people feedback on their job performance preferable before their supervisors get in and Involving workers in analysis and change of physical aspects of the worker environment such as lay out of office or plant, temperature, lighting and cleanliness.

Think about the personal stake of others. What do they need? By understanding this you’ll be able to keep people happy and productive.

No one likes to work with someone standing over their shoulder. Focus on outcomes — make it clear what you want and cut people loose to get it done on their own. Give them a bit space.

People are happy when they’re progressing towards a goal. Give them the opportunity to face new and difficult problems and they’ll be more enthusiastic.

Don’t expect everyone to do things your way. Allowing people to be creative creates a more optimistic environment and can lead to awesome new ideas.

Give people the opportunity to advance. Let them know that hard work will pay off.

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Mix it up. Don’t ask people to do the same boring tasks all the time. A stimulating environment creates enthusiasm and the opportunity for “big picture” thinking.

Many people are most productive right before a big deadline. They also have a hard time focusing until that deadline is looming overhead. This can be used as an advantage by the management by setting up a series of mini-deadlines building up to an end result.

5.3 Model of Job Design for Employees in Banking Sector
By undertaking above data we analyzed different approaches of job design for the employees in banking sector of Pakistan. While defining set criteria for job design we not only assessed job design approaches but different authors in the field of HR but also the results which we have fetched from questionnaire. Job design approaches helped us in identifying specific different variables required for job design and results from questionnaire provide us with information that what actually employees need in real time to excel efforts to their best. Below is the job design process which we would like to suggest to the employers of the banking sector of Pakistan. Attention will be given specifically to the psychological needs of workers and how they may be met. The technical aspects of design in which the normal techniques of industrial engineering and organization and methods are employed will not be considered here.

5.3.1 First Step
The first step in the design process is to specify the design principles to be applied in the particular situation. This first step requires those responsible for the design to form a view about the

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• • • •

skills, abilities, needs and Motivation of job incumbents.

The simple questionnaire tool can be used to elicit the views held by the members of the design team and help in formulating an acceptable model of human behavior. The particular results shown could be collected from a project group charged with designing/ redesigning a new/ existing facility in a company. The team could comprise members of management and supervision. At the design stage no operatives had been recruited.

5.3.2 Second Step
The next stage involved completing the questionnaire. The result, should be, agreement over the principles to be applied in the design of jobs and work organization in a particular situation. The concept of minimum critical specification of jobs to tasks in the design of group activity should be used. This approach enables the group to make decisions about the methods and organization of work. Along with this there should be an examination of sources of performance variation in the work system and a questioning of who should be responsible for monitoring and regulating the system. A process defects analysis can assist in this process. In carrying out this analysis the stages in the process have to be identified initially. Then sources of variances are listed relating to each stage. The relationships of sources of possible variances to problems at later stages in the process can be shown in the matrix form.

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Process defects analysis can identify the problems introduced in one stage of a work process flow can have an impact on the operations at later stages. Those involved in compiling the analysis chart considerably improve their understanding of the total process. This, however, would be a secondary benefit of the chart. The main benefit came about through rethinking the allocation of responsibilities and the steps taken to make the process/ system more responsive, thereby reducing losses. In the design process we have now looked at means for deciding the criteria to be adopted in designing jobs and work organization. We have also seen a method for identifying key decisions in the operation of the work system.

5.3.3 Final Step
Finally, a means for comparing alternative job and work organization designs is presented. This is in the form of a checklist which covers the areas of work content, • • • • work organization, working conditions, social opportunities and Career opportunities.

The method is illustrated in the Analysis of Job Design and Work Structure proforma. If the work in this section of this organization is expected to change, then the job design / work organization project team would use the analysis proforma. This would then form the basis of a discussion document for the project team and for consideration of feasible alternatives.

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An analysis of the proposed jobs or those to be redesigned can be carried out, so as to form a basis for discussion with the project team and later consideration of feasible alternatives. The design team now has a method for looking at broader aspects of the job beyond those normally considered in financial appraisals. They are in a better position to consider the implications on and for employee motivation of the proposed changes as well as considering other options. Example of CRO of HBL Change in banking system and size of operations is affecting the duties, responsibilities of job. Here is an example of Customer Representative Officer (CRO) of HBL: First Step • All customer service representatives in HBL interact with customers to provide information in response to inquiries about products or services and to handle and resolve complaints. Some customer service representatives handle general questions and complaints, whereas others specialize in a particular area. • Many customer inquiries at HBL involve routine questions and requests. In some cases, customer service representatives are required to follow up with an individual customer until a question is answered or an issue is resolved. • Customer service representatives at HBL help people decide what types of products or services would best suit their needs. • They keep records of transactions and update and maintain databases of information. • Customer service representatives of HBL use computers and telephones extensively in their work. However, at times, the customer service

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representative must transfer a call to someone who may be better able to respond to the customers’ needs. • Banks are crowded and noisy, and work is repetitious and stressful for CRO at HBL, with little time between calls. Also, long periods spent sitting, typing, or looking at a computer screen may cause eye and muscle strain, backaches, headaches, and repetitive motion injuries. Second Step On the basis of above information, following information regarding CROs of HBL is gathered: Skills: • • • • • Excellent communication skills (both oral and written) Excellent customer service skills Detail Oriented listening skills interpersonal,

Abilities: • • • • • • calm, active, spontaneous, Goal oriented. Team Player organize and plan effectively
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Proficient in MS Office and other Windows based software Friendly and courteous demeanor work in a fast paced environment

• Needs: • • • • • • • •

Appropriate environment Challenging work Personal growth and development Recognition Interaction and affiliation Independence Job security Fairness

Motivation of job incumbents: • • • Proper compensation, Timely job performance evaluation, Career growth.

Final Step Work Organization • HBL Iqbal Town Branch- Lahore - Pakistan

Working Conditions
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Hours: 9:00 a.m- 5:00 p.m

Work Environment • Branch office jobs, particularly teller positions, require continual

communication with customers, repetitive tasks, and a high level of attention to security. Tellers also work for long periods in a confined space. Social Opportunities • Equal opportunity for CRO and does not discriminate on grounds of gender, disability, color, age, race or ethnicity, or marital, social, religious or HIV status; • Provides the safest and healthiest possible workplaces, recognizing its responsibility to ensure all reasonable precautions are taken to protect human health and the environment • Compensates CROS’ at a level to enable them to meet at least their basic needs, and complies with relevant equal pay and working hours directives. It provides relevant training and opportunities for CROs’, and endeavors to assist them to achieve a work-life balance. Career Opportunities Officer Grade III

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Bibliography
During our research, we used the following sources for collecting information:

Books:


Robert N. Lussier. (2000).Human Relations in Organizations: Applications and Skill Building (5th Ed.). NY: McGraw-Hill Don Hellriegel; Slocum John W. Jr and Richard. W. Woodman (2001). Organizational Behavior. (9th Ed.) South Western Educational Publishing

Michael. R. Carrel; Daniel. F. Jennings and Christina Heavrin. (1997). Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior (International Edition). Prentice Hall International, Inc.

Harry R. Knudson; C. Patrick Fleenor and Robert E. Callahan. (1986). Understanding Organizational Behavior: A managerial viewpoint. Columbus, Ohio: C.E. Merrill Pub. Co.

Lyman Porter;Gregory Bigley and Richard M Steers. (2003). Motivation and work behavior. (7th Ed.). McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Joseph. J. Martocchio. (2004). Strategic Compensation: A Human Resource Management Approach. (3rd Ed.). Pearson Education.

Jerald Greenberg and Robert.A.Baron. (1995). Behavior in Organizations, (5th Ed.). Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd.

Thomas. S. Bateman and Scott. A. Snell (2002). Management: Competing in the New Era. (5th Ed.)

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Debra. L. Nelson & James Campbell Quick (2000) Organizational Behavior: Foundations, Realities & Challenges (3rd Edition) Taunton, MA South Western College Publishing

Stephen p. Robins; Timothy A. Judge & Seema Sanghi (2009) Organizational Behavior: (13th Edition) Pearson Prentice Hall; An Imprint of Pearson Education

Internet sites:
• • • • • • • • •

History of Banks: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank Habib Bank Limited (HBL): http://www.habibbankltd.com/ United Bank Limited (UBL): http://www.ubl.com.pk/ Saudi Pak Bank: http://www.saudipakbank.com/ www.google.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_behavior http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motivation www.pickthebrain.com/blog/21-proven-motivation-tactics/ honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/motivate.h tm – www.accel-team.com/motivation/index.html www.businessdictionary.com/definition/job-design.html www.accel-team.com/work_design/wd_02.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Job_design http://www.jobaccess.gov.au/JOAC/Employers/Recruiting_new_staff/The_recruit ment_process/Job_description_and_desig.htm http://www.openlearningworld.com http://unjobs.org/tags/job-design http://ezinearticles.com/?Job-Performance-and-Satisfaction&id=290072 www.usa.edu.pk/Web/Publications/PDF/Occupational%20stress%20and%20Job %20Performance

• • • • •

• • • •

Job Design w.r.t Employee Motivation and Job Performance (Pakistan’s Banking Industry)

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Appendices

Job Design w.r.t Employee Motivation and Job Performance (Pakistan’s Banking Industry)

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QUESTIONNAIRE
We are students of University of Central Punjab. The topic of our research thesis is “Job Design with Respect to Employee Motivation and Job Performance.” The information provided by you would be highly confidential and would be used only for academic purpose. Thanking to you in anticipation of a favorable request. Thanks!

Personal Background
1. Age : 2. Gender 3. Marital Status 4. Educational Qualification : 5. How many years are you working in the organization? 6. Monthly salary (Rs.) 7. Number of dependents in your family 8. You live in : 9. Working hours of Bank

: :

Male Single

Female Married

Divorced

: :

10,000-15,000 20,000-25,000

15,000-20,000 Above 25,000

:

3 / 4 / 5 and above Home provided by Bank/Self Accommodation/Rented/home loan

:

Rating Your Job Design
A = Agree DA = Disagree UD = Undecided SA = Strongly agree SDA = Strongly Disagree

Job Design w.r.t Employee Motivation and Job Performance (Pakistan’s Banking Industry)

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1. I am satisfied with the benefits (Health insurance, life insurance, etc.) I get from the bank A DA UD SA SDA

2. I feel that my job is secured one. A DA UD SA SDA

3. My job does not create any physical aliments. A DA UD SA SDA

4. There is a clear and effective system of appraisal and career development A DA UD SA SDA

5. I would recommend my organization to others as a great place to work. A DA UD SA SDA

6. I feel like continuing to work in my organization for the foreseeable future. A DA UD SA SDA

7. I think there are some barriers that need to be eliminated to maximize my performance. A DA UD SA SDA Page 88

Job Design w.r.t Employee Motivation and Job Performance (Pakistan’s Banking Industry)

8. I feel my performance is truly contributing to the well being of the organization. A DA UD SA SDA

9. I feel adequate opportunity for periodic changes in duties.

A

DA

UD

SA

SDA

10. I can make changes to the tasks assigned to me.

A

DA

UD

SA

SDA

11. I can use my own initiative to complete tasks that are not formally required as a part of my job. A DA UD SA SDA

12. I am allowed to identify a variety of alternative solutions to

organizational issues and problems. A DA UD SA SDA

13. I think my knowledge, skills and abilities are matching job’s

requirement. A DA UD SA SDA

14. I feel satisfied with the hours worked each week

A

DA

UD

SA

SDA Page 89

Job Design w.r.t Employee Motivation and Job Performance (Pakistan’s Banking Industry)

15. I feel Flexibility in my scheduling.

A

DA

UD

SA

SDA

16. I am satisfied with the location of work.

A

DA

UD

SA

SDA

17. I am satisfied with the amount of paid vacation time/sick leave offered.

A

DA

UD

SA

SDA

18. My job description is clear.

A

DA

UD

SA

SDA

19. I have the capability to achieve the targets in time.

A

DA

UD

SA

SDA

20. I have Variety of job responsibilities.

A

DA

UD

SA

SDA

Job Design w.r.t Employee Motivation and Job Performance (Pakistan’s Banking Industry)

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Job Design w.r.t Employee Motivation and Job Performance (Pakistan’s Banking Industry)

Page 91

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