From Foundation Analysis and Design, 5th edition, by Joseph E. Bowles, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996.

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L1 / 2 .

then: K1 = (L1/2) ks B = K2 . If ks is constant for the element. K1 and K2 only include the contribution of the subgrade modulus for the element.Note: In this elemental ASAT matrix.

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Page 534 .

Page 535 .

Page 536 .

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