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Study Guide by Narendran Sairam, Steven Kraplin and Rajat Goyal

LECTURE NOTES (NARENDRAN SAIRAM)

CELL THEORY

In 1838 Schleiden and Schwann came up with cell theory. In 1838 cell theory consisted of three parts:
a. The cell is a structure of physiology and organization.
b. Cells have a dual existence:
1. as an entity
2. as a building block of live.
c. Cells form from free cell formation also called spontaneous generation.

CELLS
Cells have two types of differences;
a. Morphological differences: Have to do with structural differences.
Eg. Eukayotes have a nucleus while prokaryotes have no true nucleus.
b. Phylogenetic differences: Have to do with genetic differences.
Eg. Bacterial, Eukaryan and Archean cells have phylogenetic differences.

PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES


Three shapes:
Coccus: ball shaped
Basilicus: Rod shaped.
Spirilum: spiral
• The cell walls of the prokaryotes are made up of carbohydrates and proteins. These molecules
are called peptiglycans. The plasma membrane pressurizes the cell wall and helps it retain its
shape. The plasma membrane and the cell wall help protect the cell.
• Most bacteria have a single large circular chromosomes but some have linear chromosomes
• Ribosomes are made up of three different types of RNA molecules and more than 50 types of
proteins.
• Plasmids are circles of DNA that are twisted. Plasmids are capable of changing rapidly
according to their environment.
• Flagellum: These, in prokaryotes, serve the same function the serve in eukaryotes.
• Cytoskeleton: this made up of cytoplasm and stiff fibers. In prokaryotes, the cytoskeleton is
very complex in comparison to eukaryotes.
Eukaryotes Prokaryotes
Membrane bound organelles No organelles
5-100 micro meters 1-10 micrometers
Nuclear envelope delineates the nucleus No true nucleus
Complex cytoskeleton Simple Cytoskeleton.

Reasons/advantages of having organelles:


1. To get things done faster(improves efficiency)
2. Compartmentalization (keeps different reactions separate from one another)

All structures in a eukaryotic cell are membrane bound.


MEMBRANE STRUCTURE
©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin
The Achaean phospholipids:
• The Archaean membrane is made up of Phosphate(PO4-2), glycerol and isoprene.

The Eukaryan/ Bacterial phospholipids:


• Made up of serine, Phosphate group, a glycerol group and a bunch of fatty acids.
• Serine is and amino acid that attracts water very well. This is because both, water and serine are
polarized. Essentially serine is Hydrophilic (water liking).
• The fatty acids on the other hand are hydrophobic (don’t like water) because they are not
charged.

Actual Structure:
The membrane is made up of two phospholipids placed back-to-back. This makes it a phospholipids
bilayer. The chemicals and the food get into the cell through the bilayer. This process is called
diffusion. Diffusion is basically a change in the concentration gradient. The diffusion of water through
a membrane is called osmosis.

MEMBRANE PROTIENS

There are three types of membrane


proteins;
a. Transport proteins: There are
three types of transport
proteins:
• Carrier proteins: These
proteins move molecules
through a membrane. Eg
C6H12O6. This is done by
diffusion.
• Channel proteins: these
allow movement of ions
through a membrane.
• Pumps: These allow
movement of ions
against the concentration
gradient (opposite of
diffusion).
b. Receptor Proteins
The Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Golgi apparatus c. Cell to cell recognition
proteins: These are also called
glycoprotein. They have Carbohydrates sticking out of their cell. This carbohydrate helps
recognize other proteins of the same body or organ.

ORGANELLES
• Endoplasmic Reticulum(E.R.):
1. Rough ER: Cytoprotein (cellular protein) synthesis takes place in the membrane of the
©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin
Rough ER. Once the proteins are made they are compartmented and left in the cytoplasm.
2. Smooth ER: Regulates C (Carbon) ion concentration. They make phospholipids
and other non-protein based molecules that help in killing toxins.
The biochemical reactions that produce proteins and phospholipids are very complex. Proteins that are made in the
Rough ER are transported to the cytoplasm ribosomes and to the Golgi apparatus for activation.

• Golgi apparatus: This organelle is made up of three parts. A flat membrane sac called the
cisternae. This cisternae holds the lumen (everything inside itself).
1. Cisface: This part is close to the ER and receives the transport vesicles that carry
the proteins.
2. The Medieval Region: This the space between the cis and trans faces (not shown
in the picture). Acts as a transport between the extreme faces of the Golgi
apparatus.
3. Transface: This part is closest to the Plasma membrane. It packs the altered and
activated molecules and transports them to the membrane and other parts of the
body.
The Golgi apparatus produces lysosomes (organelles that produce digestive enzymes).
They also modify proteins and activate them. The proteins are put in the lysosomes and
are transported to other parts of the body.

• Chloroplasts: This is made up of two membranes; inner and outer membrane. There is a
space between the two membranes. This space is called intermembranal space. This
organelle is only found in plants and protists. It is the site of photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis:
The thylocoids capture the photons with the help of chlorophyll and carotenoids
on their membranes and house the conversion machinery.
Equation:
6CO2+6H2O  C6H6O12 + 6O2
This reaction is divided into two parts. During photosynthesis, plants take Carbon Dioxide
from their surroundings and use it to make glucose. a)
Photophosphorylation or light-dependent reaction and b)Calvin’s cycle
or light-independent reaction. Photophosphorylation coverts light
energy into chemical energy. Calvin's cycle uses the stored energy,
water and CO2 to give glucose.
Since glucose (C6H12O6 ) has bonds that require a lot of energy and since
CO2 's carbon-oxygen bonds don't have too much potential energy, their
potential energy must be increased in order to make glucose. This
energy is acquired from the photons of light. In order to use the energy
of the photons the energy must be converted into chemical form to be stored. This process is called
Photophosphorylation.
Photo ("light") phosphorylation ("the addition of phosphate to a molecule") basically adds a phosphate
to ADP to make it ATP and there by stores energy in ATP. The process takes place in the grana
(Figure1), within the tylakoids. The environment within the grana is suitable for chemiosmosis (process
where ADP is synthesized to ATP). The photons of light are captured by the antennae called photo
systems and are brought into the reaction center where they are converted into chemical energy.
• Mitochondrion: This organelle is found in both, plants and animals. Its function is to
produce energy by producing ATP. It converts Glucose to ATP. The mitochondrion, like
the chloroplast has two membranes and space between those membranes. The outer
membrane separates the cytocol(the jelly like part of the cytoplasm) from the inside. The
©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin
only things that enter the mitochondrion are enzymes, proteins, glucose and oxygen.
The actual reaction takes place in the matrix. This reaction is called cellular respiration.
There are two types of cellular respiration:
a. Aerobic respiration( respiration in the presence of oxygen). The steps in aerobic
respiration are:

Glycolysis:
occurs in
the

cytoplasm of a cell. This converts the 6 Carbon atoms in C6H6O12 (Glucose)


to 2C3(Pyruvate).
• Kerb’s Cycle: This part of the cycle requires oxygen. It starts with Pyruvate
and O2 and produces 4CO2 and ATP.
In the end the number of ATPs produced are approximately 32-36.
b. Anaerobic respiration: Since this reaction takes place in the absence of air there is no
Kerb’s cycle. Therefore anaerobic respiration only produces 4 ATP which results in
muscle burn and lactic acid buildup.

• Nucleus: The nucleus is an organelle that has a double membrane and pores in between
the membranes. This is where the DNA is coded. The stuff inside the nucleus is called
Chromatin. There are two types of Chromatin; Heterochromatin and euchromatin.
Heterochromatin is chromatin that is dense and is not being coded while euchromatin is
less dense and is being coded for.
©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin
ANIMAL FORM AND FUNCTION TERMS

 Tissue: a collection of cell working together to perform a specific function.


 Organ: A collection of tissues working together to perform a specific function.
 Organ Systems: A collection of Organ working together to perform a specific function.
 Multicellular: consisting of more than one cell.
 Connective tissue: cells closely arranged in a solid, jellylike or liquid extra cellular Matrix (e.g.
Blood, bone.)
 Cartilage: a connective tissue with a firmer extra cellular matrix.
 Bone: a connective tissue with a firm extra cellular matrix.
 Blood: a connective tissue that has a liquid extra cellular matrix. Its cells are surrounded by
Plasma.
 Nervous tissue: tissue made of cells that are called neurons or nerve cells. Part of the nervous
system.
 Muscle tissue: Made of fibers that only contract.
 Striated muscle: Muscle that helps move the skeleton and keeps it in place.
 Cardiac muscle: makes up the walls of the heart.
 Smooth muscle: line the walls of the blood vessels.
 Epithelial tissue: lines the surface of the body (skin).
 Volume increases more rapidly than surface area.
 Metabolic rate: over all rate at which energy is consumed by an organism.
 Basal metabolic rate: amount of oxygen consumed by and organism while at rest with an
empty stomach and under normal conditions.
 Allometry: occurring where change in body size are accompanied by disproportional changes in
anatomical structures.
 Homeostasis: the relatively standard and constant physical and chemical conditions within an
animal cell and tissue.
 Thermoregulation: The control of the body temperature.
 Endotherm: Organism that produces its own heat.
 Ectotherm: gains heat from its environment.
 Homeotherm: these have constant body temperature.
 Heterotherms: fluctuate body temperature.
 Torpor: condition where metabolic rate is reduced.
 Hibernation: state of extended or persisting torpor.
 Conduction: gaining heat by contact.
 Convection: Change of temperature during movement of water air of through body surface.
 Radiation: transfer of heat without physical contact.
 Evaporation: phase change between liquid to gas.
 Counter current heat exchange: an arrangement where blood vessels are arranged in an anti
parallel fashion that enables heat exchange between organisms.

ORGAN SYSTEMS

 Excretory system: gets rid of metabolic wastes.


 Skeletal system: provides structural support for body.
©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin
 Endocrine system: produces hormones for growth, development and reproduction.
 Circulatory system: pumps and carries blood throughout the body.
 Immune system: defends the body from foreign objects and organisms.
 Integumentary system: creates a protective barrier between the body and the environment.
 Lymphatic system: deals with excess water from the excretory system and provides places for
the storage of the lymphocytes.
 Digestive system: breaks down food and absorbs nutrient and eliminates wastes.
 Nervous system: sends and receives signals from the environments and controls all the bodily
functions.
 Respiratory system: exchanges gases (mainly O2, H2O and CO2) with the environment.
 Reproductive system: produces gametes and provides organs for fetal development in females.

Notes

 Blastula is a ball of cells that goes through a process called


gastrulation and produces a gatrula.
 The Gastrula has three parts to it endoderm, ectoderm and
sometimes mesoderm.
 Before the final stages of gastrulation take places the cells are
'told' weather they are going to become ectoderms, mesoderms
or enoderms.
 The ectoderm forms the brain, nerves and spinal chord and
skin.
 The mesoderms form the internal organs and the skletons.

 ***most protostomes and deuterostomes have three germ
layers.

©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin


THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

The skin is and up of three types of epithelial tissues.


a. columnar epithelial tissue:

b. cuboidal epithelial tissue:

©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin


c.squamous epithelial tissue:

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

There are two types of circulatory systems:


a. Open Circulatory Systems are circulatory systems where all the bodily fluids are dumped into one
cavity inside the organism. Some mollusks and arthropods have this kind of a circulatory system. These
creatures do not posses blood. Instead they have hemolymph which is a mixture of blood, lymph and
byproducts. This hemolymph is dumped into a cavity and then drained through the porous layers of the
cavity. The hemolymph helps transport nutrients throughout the body.
b. Closed Circulatory System are circulatory systems where the blood and the bodily fluids stay in the
vascular tubes. These organisms have hemoglobin which is four proteins held together by a Fe or iron
molecule.

The Blood
The human body has 4.2-5.4 million cells per µl (micro liter). There are three types of cells in blood.
a. RBCs (RedBloodCells): these are the cells that carry oxygen and carbohydrates throughout the body.
These are the most common type of blood cells in the body.
b. Platelets: these are cells that are no longer functional and are essential in the clotting of blood.
c. WBCs(WhiteBloodCells): there are five types of white blood cells.White blood cells or leukocytes
are cells of the immune system defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign
materials. Several different and diverse types of leukocytes exist, but they are all produced and derived
from a multi potent cell in the bone marrow. Leukocytes are found
throughout the body, including the blood.
 Neurophils: these are phagocycotic cells that eat
harmful bacteria by engulfing them.
 Eosynaphils: these cells respond to the presence of
proteins. They multiply rapidly in an allergic reaction
to fight and overwhelm the unwanted proteins.
 Basophils: these prevent unnecessary clotting. They
prevent clotting by producing heparin. Heparin
reduces your ability to clot and increases your ability
to break down clots. They also produce histamine.
Histamine contracts the affected tissue and pushes the
fluids into the neighboring tissues and there by causes
swelling.
 Lympocytes: these responds and attack specific

©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin


antigens or proteins. Every antigen has its own antibody so that every time the organism
is exposed to the antigen the antibody reacts and annihilates the antigen.
 Monocytes: these circulate in blood for a day and produce macrophages(largest WBCs)
that eat and destroy everything it their path
including cells and bacteria.

The Heart

The heart is an organ that pumps the blood to the body. The
blood leads away from the heart in arteries. These tubes are
big enough to be seen with a naked eye. As the go deeper and
farther away from the heart the size down and become
arterioles. These arterioles go into the capillaries where the
exchange of nutrients takes place. Then the deoxygenized
blood goes into the ventrioles and then in to the veins and
then finally back to the heart where the blood is pumped to
the lungs for exchange.

LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

This system returns fluids to the circulatory system. It originates in ones endpoints like the tips of
fingers and toes. Therefore they are present in all parts of ones body. The Circulatory system looses
water through the capillaries. Since not all of the water is regained the extra fluids are picked up by the
lymphatic system are emptied into veins near the heart. The fluid carried by the lymphatic system is
called lymph. The lymph goes through lymph nodes that filer the lymph by using phagocycotic cells
and organisms. The lymphocytes are stored in the spleen, the tonsils and the thalamus glands.

IMMUNE SYSTEM

The immune system give two different kinds of responses: specific and non-specific.
 Nonspecific response: the infection is kept out of ones body by barriers like the skin. The other
pores in ones body are lined with mucus to purify the entering substances. Nonspecific response
also occurs at a cellular level. These responses are initiated by phagocycotic cells.
NK cells: these are Natural Killer cells that respond to any cells that have been altered.

Heal(all metabolization) + redness(RBC) + fluid(capillaries expand)= inflammation


 Specific response of the immune system to a foreign particles is initiated by antigens. The
antibodies bind to the antigen that are usually proteins. There are two types of antibodies:
 B cells: these cells become plasma cells in the Bone Marrow. This produces a bit of E.R
and ribosomes. The plasma cells produce antibodies that are released into the body.
 T cells: these cells are called T-cells because they are produced in the Thymus
glands.There are three types of T-cells:

©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin


Cytotoxic: these recognize
any cells that have been
altered. These have
antibodies on the surface that
produce perfarin to penetrate
the membrane of the antigen.
This process slows the
reproduction of the
pathogens or antibodies.
 Helper: these cells also
recognize the altered cells
and signal to intiate the
production of the B-cells and
the cytotoxic T-cells. These
are the cells that are first
invaded by HIV.
 Suppressor: these T-cells stop
the production of the T-cells
and the B-cells.
If a person has an organ transplant then the immune
system rejects the organ. This rejection can be
reduced in two ways:
1. matching the donors and the recipient: blood is
take from both and the Histocompability is
consulted.
2. The reduction of the specific immune system.

In the 1769 Edward Jenner observed that women


who milked cows did not get small pox. Cow pox exposed people did not get small pox. He was the
first person to introduce a vaccination.

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

There are some requirements for the exchange of gases:


 surface must be moist. Gases dissolve in a liquid before entering the membrane by
diffusion.
 The epithelial cells must be extremely thin in order to facilitate diffusion.
 The surface itself must be thin.
The lungs are contained in an air tight and water tight sac called the pleura.
The esophagus is the only hole through the diaphragm. As the diaphragm contracts the ribcage expands
and the pleura expands allowing the air to rush into the lungs. When the diaphragm expands the ribcage
contracts and the pleura contracts pushing the air out of the lungs.

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

The digestive system performs the following functions;


Ingestion
Digestion
Absorption
©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin
Elimination

The digestive system follows the tube inside a tube structure

Body wall

Coelom

Digestive tract

Ectotherm makes up body wall.


Endotherm makes up digestive tract.
Mesoderm makes up organs in the coelom.

Path of Food Inside an Earthworm

Mouth-Pharynx-Esophagus-Crop(storage sac)-Gizzard(muscular organ that grinds food)-Intestine-


Anus.

Path of Food inside a Vertebrate

Mouth-Pharynx-Esophagus- Small Intestine- Large Intestine-Anus.

Human Digestion

Mouth:
Mechanical and chemical digestion takes place here. The mechanical digestion occurs with help of the
teeth, tongue and jaw muscles. Mammals have four types of teeth:
Incisors;Canines;Premolar;Molar. Once the food is ground, saliva and other juices are mixed with the
it.

Pharynx & Esophagus:


Serve as tubes to transport food. The food is taken to your stomach, through the esophagus, by a series
of contractions by the tube. This process is called peristalsis and the food, while in the esophagus, is
called bolus.

Sphincter Muscle:
A muscle at the end of the esophagus that relaxes to let the food pass through it into the stomach.
©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin
Stomach:
The stomach perform these functions:
a. mix food with the gastric juices.
b. Churns the food.
The food comes in through the sphincter muscle and forces the stomach to expand. The gastric glands
in the stomach produce HCl (Hydro-Chloric acid) and pepsinogen. The HCl denatures proteins in the
food. In the presence of HCl and Pepsigen becomes active and is called pepsin. Pepsin shortens the
proteins that are denatured by HCl. When the food leaves the stomach it is called chyme. The chyme
passes through the pyloric sphincter at the end of the stomach and goes into the small intestine.

Small Intestine:
The inside of the small intestine looks like fur since it is covered with tiny hair like projections. These
increase the surface area for the absorption of nutrients. The small intestine receives bile and enzymes.
The bile reduces the fats into tiny droplets in a process called emulsifying. The enzymes actually break
down the fats and proteins. Almost all the nutrients absorbed by the digestive system are absorbed by
the small intestine.

Large Intestine:
The large intestine is considerably larger than the small intestine. The undigested chyme passes through
the large intestine. The large intestine absorbs water and sodium from the chyme. Then the useless
chyme is eliminated.

EXCRETORY SYSTEM(RAJAT GOYAL)

2 primary functions:
• Osmoregulation-regulates water

• Removal of metabolic wastes

Osmosis: Diffusion of water from a high point of concentration to low concentration point.
Osmotic Potential: Amount of salt in water

Osmosis occurs in order of the osmotic potential, because the amount of water is the same on both
sides of the membrane.

Metabolic wastes:
• Nitrogen wastes 
ammonia, urea, uric
acid

• Carbon Dioxide
wastes(CO2) wastes

• Water(H2O) Wastes

- Ammonia (NH4) is highly toxic so it is conver-


ted into urea or uric acid.
©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin
o Uric acid is crystallized form of urea

- Uric acid is produced by reptiles birds, and insects

- Animals that live in hot and dry regions need to convert urea into uric acid to conserve water.

- Endotherms produce their own hear, so therefore they have lots of cells that produce things and therefore
endotherms have more waste products. Endotherms deal with more nitrogenous waste.

LAB WORK (Steven Kraplin)

Mylohyoid: moves floor of mouth during respiration


Rectus Abdominus: holds the sternum and viscera in place
Pectoralis: moves forelimbs
External Oblique: constricts abdomen and holds viscera in place

Ventral Surface

Thigh
Triceps femoris-adducts thigh, extends leg
Sartorius-flexes leg,adducts thigh
Gracilis major-adducts thight, flexes
leg
Gracilis minor-adducts thigh, flexes
leg

Lower leg
Gastrocnemius-flexes leg, extends foot
Tibialis anticus-extends leg, flexes foot

Dorsal Surface
Thigh
Triceps femoris-adducts thigh, extends
leg
Semimembranosus- adducts thigh,
flexes leg
Gracilis minor-adducts thigh, flexes
leg

©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin


Lower leg
Gastrocnemius-flexes leg, extends foot
Peroneus-extends leg
Tibialis anticus-extends leg, flexes foot

Muscles
Origin: End of muscle attached to the stationary
Insertion: End of muscle attached to bone that moves, usually distal.
Flexor: Muscle that bends a part
Extensor: Muscle that straightens a part.
Adductor: Muscle that moves a part toward the midline.
Abductor: Muscle that moves a part away from the midline.

PECTORAL AND PELVIC GRIDLES

Table Of Comparisons of Animal Bones.

Pectoral Perch Frog Turtle Bird Cat


Scapula Fused to the Easily spot able The scapula seems to Scapula is parallel to the Scapula is very
coracoids. in frog. be well protected back bone of the bird. prominent.
Extended to be inside the shell.
called the
superscapula.
Sternum Absent Connected to the Absent Fused to the ribs to aid in Is structured a
scapula. protection of the internal lot like a
organs. human
Sternum.
Humerus Absent Joined to the Protected inside shell. Connected to the corcoids. Connected to
coradoids. Kind of bent. the scapula.
Elongated
Radius Absent Fused to the Standard Standard Elongated
Ulna
Ulna Absent Fused to the Standard Standard Elongated
Radius
Carpals Absent Normal Standard Only two are present as Normal
bones. The others are either
absent or fused to some other
bone.
Metacarpals Absent A little longer normal Called carpometacarpus. Raised in a
than normal. way as to help
the jumping
and running.
Phalanges Absent normal Normally structured. Only one in each wing.
Clavicle Absent Readily seen Absent Absent Tiny bones no
connected to
any other
bones.
©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin
Pelvic Frog Turtle Bird Cat Perch
Ischium Prominently seen Standard Present Completely normal Absent
Ilium Prominently seen
Pubis Normal
Femur ‘Typical’ Fairly Called tibiotarsus
Tibia Fused to the fibula to Normal Fused to the
Fibula form the tibiofibula tibiotarsus
Tarsals Absent Absent
Metatarsals Elongated to provide a Make up the foot.
Phalanges large surface area to push
off while swimming and
jumping.

VOCABULARY(Rajat Goyal)
Definition

Words
1. Domain Any of three divisions of living systems, consisting of the eukaryotes, bacteria, and
archaea.
2. Prokaryotic Cell These cells have no nuclear envelope, no nucleus, and they have plasmids. They are 1-10
nanometers in size (10 times smaller then eukaryotic cells) and they rarely have internal
membrane structures. They also have a simple cytoskeleton.
3. Eukaryotic Cell These cells do have a nuclear envelope, and also have a nucleus. They are 5-100
nanometers in size (10 times larger then prokaryotic cells) These cells also have very
complex cytoskeletons.
4.Eukarya One of three domains, on the evolutionary tree they are the last and most developed
organisms, they are eukaryotes, fungi, plants and animals.
5.Archaeabacteria (Archae) One of three domains, on the evolutionary tree these were the second kind of organisms
and contain prokaryotes.
6. Eebacteria (bacteria) One of three domains, on the evolutionary tree these were the first kind of organisms and
contain prokaryotes.
7. Plasmid Circular pieces of DNA, it makes bacteria adaptable.
8.Cytoplasm Gelatinous substance within cell.
9. Hydrophobic Repels water
10. Flagella Whip like processes used for locomotion in some microorganisms.
11. Cell Wall The rigid outermost cell layer found in plants cells but not animal cells.
12. Plasma Membrane Encloses the cytoplasm in a cell, found in both animal and plant cells.
13. Ribosome A cell structure that is not membrane bound. It is the site of protein synthesis within a cell
14. Centrioles One of two cylindrical cellular structures that are composed of nine triplet microtubules
©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin
and form the asters during mitosis.
15. Chloroplast Site of photosynthesis in plant cells.
16. Chromosomes A threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic
cells that carries the genes and functions in the transmission of hereditary information.
17. Diffusion The transport of matter from one point to another by random molecular motions. It occur
in gases, liquids, and solids.
18. Osmosis Diffusion of water through membrane.
19. Hydrophilic Attracts water
20. Phospholipid Bilayer Composed of two layers of phospholipids positioned such that their polar hydrophilic
heads face outward and their nonpolar hydrophobic tails are directed inward, blocking
entry of water and water-soluble material into the cell.
21. Protein Are integral, meaning bound to the hydrophobic interior of the membrane, or peripheral,
meaning not bound in this way.
22. Carbohydrate Any of a group of organic compounds that includes sugars, starches, celluloses.
23. Cytoskeleton The internal framework of a cell composed largely of actin filaments and microtubules.
24. Channel Protein Protein forming an aqueous pore spanning the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane which
when open allows certain solutes to traverse the membrane.
25. Transport Protein Is a protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such
as another protein across a biological membrane.
26. Sodium-potassium Pump Keeps sodium on one side of your membrane and potassium on the other.
27. Membrane Thin, pliable layer of tissue covering surfaces or separating or connecting regions,
structures, or organs of an animal or a plant.
28. Membrane Proteins Is a protein molecule that is attached to, or associated with the membrane of a cell or an
organelle. More than half of all proteins interact with membranes. Membrane proteins can
be classified into two groups, based on the strength of their association with the
membrane.
29. Phospholipid Any of various phosphorus-containing lipids, such as lecithin and cephalic, that are
composed mainly of fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a simple organic molecule. 2
kinds, 1 found in Achaea and the other found in Eukarya/Bacteria
30. Fats Any of various soft, solid, or semisolid organic compounds constituting the esters of
glycerol and fatty acids and their associated organic groups.
31. Lysosomes Is a membrane bound organelle that contains digestive enzymes.
32. Cell The smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of independent functioning,
consisting of one or more nuclei, cytoplasm, and various organelles, all surrounded by a
cell membrane.
33. Plant Cell Contain Chloroplasts and Cell walls which animal cells do not. Also contain nuclear
envelope, nucleolus, chromatin rough E.R., Smoot E.R., ribosomes, Golgi apparatus,
vacuole (lysosomes), peroxisome, mitochondrion, plasma membrane, and a cytoskeleton
element.
34. Animal Cell Contain centrioles which plant cells do not. Also contain nuclear envelope, nucleolus,
chromatin rough E.R., Smoot E.R., ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, vacuole (lysosomes),
peroxisome, mitochondrion, plasma membrane, and a cytoskeletal element.
35. Nucleolus A small, typically round granular body composed of protein and RNA in the nucleus of a
cell. It is usually associated with a specific chromosomal site and involved in ribosomal
RNA synthesis and the formation of ribosomes.
36. Cell Wall Rigid shell that is not found on animal cells.
37. Enzymes Bring things closer together by bringing them in smaller amounts of space. Enzymes have
a binding cite for all molecules it has to bring together.

©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin


38. Mono-unsaturated Fats Fats that is good for you.
39. Saturated Fat A fat, most often of animal origin, that is solid at room temperature and whose fatty acid
chains cannot incorporate additional hydrogen atoms. An excess of these fats in the diet i
thought to raise the cholesterol level in the bloodstream.
40. Endoplasmic Reticulum Makes proteins and lipids which exports throughout cell.
(E.R.)
41. Smooth Endoplasmic Regulates calcium and ion concentration. Synthesis of membrane phospholipids. It also
Reticulum (E.R.) makes lipids.
42. Rough Endoplasmic Site of protein synthesis. Exports large quantities of proteins(ribosomes)
Reticulum (E.R.)
43. Golgi Apparatus Involved in creation of lysosomes
44. Cisface Receives transport vesicles from E.R.
45. Transface Closer to plasma membrane the E.R. It packages molecules into vesicles and transports
them to the Golgi apparatus.
46. Mitochondrion Creates energy by producing ATP.
47. Krebs Cycle A series of enzymatic reactions in aerobic organisms involving oxidative metabolism of
acetyl units and producing high-energy phosphate compounds, which serve as the main
source of cellular energy.
48. Glycolysis An ATP-generating metabolic process that occurs in nearly all living cells in which
glucose is converted in a series of steps to pyruvic acid.
49. Actin A protein found in muscle that together with myosin functions in muscle contraction.
50. Polymerization Formation of anything that has repeated units in it.
51. Cytoplasmic Streaming Flow of cytoplasm specific to plants and fungi
52. Intermediate Filaments Any of several classes of cell-specific cytoplasmic filaments of 8-12 nanometers in
diameter; protein composition varies from one cell type to another.
53. Keratin Tough, insoluble protein substance that is the chief structural constituent of hair, nails,
horns, and hooves.
54. Lamin Fibrous proteins having structural function in the cell nucleus.
55. Microtubules Cylindrical hollow structures that are distributed throughout the cytoplasm of eukaryotic
cells, providing structural support and assisting in cellular locomotion and transport.
56. Tissue A collection of cells working together.
57. Organ A differentiated part of an organism, such as an eye, wing, or leaf, that performs a specifi
function.
58. Organ System A group of organs in the human body that work together to carry out a vital body-
function.
59. Multicellular Consisting of more than one cell
60. Connective Tissue Cells closely arranged in a liquid, jelly like, or sold extra cellular matrix.
61.Cartilage A connection tissue with a firmer extra cellular matrix. It works with the bones to provide
structure.
62. Blood Connective tissue that has cells surrounded by plasma.
63. Nervous Tissue Tissue consisting of nerve cells or neurons
64. Neurons Nerve cells that deliver electromagnetic signals
65.Muscle Tissue Made up of fibers that contract
66.Muscle Fiber A cylindrical, multinucleate cell composed of numerous myofibrils that contracts when
stimulated.
67. Striated Muscles Moves the skeleton.
68.Cardiac Muscle Makes up the wall of the heart
69. Epithelia Gland
©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin
70. Metabolic Rate Overall rate of energy consumed by an organism
71.Basal Metabolic Rate Amount of oxygen taken in by an organism while at rest with an empty stomach at norma
condition.
72.Homeostatis Is the relatively constant chemical and physical conditions in a n animal cell
73. Thermoregulation Maintenance of a constant internal body temperature independent from the environmenta
temperature
74. Endotherm An organism that generates heat to maintain its body temperature, typically above the
temperature of its surroundings
75. Ectotherm Organism that regulates its body temperature largely by exchanging heat with its
surroundings
76. Homeotherm Maintaining a relatively constant and warm body temperature independent of
environmental temperature
77. Hetereotherm of animals except birds and mammals; having body temperature that varies with the
environment
78. Torpor A state of mental or physical inactivity or insensibility.
79. Hibernation Condition of dormancy and torpor found in cold-blooded vertebrates and invertebrates.
80. Allometry The study of the change in proportion of various parts of an organism as a consequence o
growth.

81. Immune System Defends against foreign objects and organisms


82. Circulatory System Pumps and carries blood throughout the body
83.Respiratory System Exchanges gases (mainly O2, CO2 and H2O) with the environment
84. Lymphatic System Deals with access water from circulatory system, also produces and stores lymphocytes
85. Digestive System Breaks down food and absorbs nutrients and eliminates waste.
86. Skeletal System Provides structural support for body
87. Muscular System Allows movement of body and heart.
88. Endocrine System Makes hormones for growth, development, and reproduction
89. Excretory System Gets rid of metabolic waste.
90. Reproductive System Produces gametes and provides organs for fetal development in a female.
91. Integumentary System Creates protective barrier between the body and its environment
92. Nervous System Sends and receives signals from the environment. Controls all bodily functions.
93. Red Blood Cells (RBC) A cell in the blood of vertebrates that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from
the tissues. In mammals, the red blood cell is disk-shaped and biconcave, contains
hemoglobin, and lacks a nucleus.
94. White Blood Cells Any of various blood cells that have a nucleus and cytoplasm, separate into a thin white
(WBC) layer when whole blood is centrifuged, and help protect the body from infection and
disease. White blood cells include neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and
monocytes.
95. Cephalopods Any of various marine mollusks of the class. They include octopus, squid, cuttlefish, or
nautilus.

96. Echinoderms Any of numerous radially symmetrical marine invertebrates of the phylum
Echinodermata, which includes the sea star, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers

97. Annelids Any of various worms or wormlike animals of the phylum Annelida, characterized by an
elongated, cylindrical, segmented body and including the earthworm and leech.
98. Hemoglobin Four proteins held together by on iron atom.
©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin
99. Platelets Gives pigment in skin. Essential in blood clotting and forms the clot.
100. Eosinophils Respond to presence of protein that does not belong in your system. Fights foreign
proteins in your system.
101. Basophils Prevent inappropriate clotting (inside the circulatory system) by producing heparin.
Produces histamine.
102.Anti Histamines Reduces swelling, histamine is a haling mechanism.

103. Axis It is defined by each pair of opposite ends


104. Anterior Before (rostal or cranial)
105. Posterior After (Caudial=tail)
106. Cranial Skull
107. Rostral Beak
108. Cephalic Head
109. Caudal Tail
110. Dorsal Back
111. Ventral Abdomen
112. Lateral To the side
113. Medial Middle
114. Proximal Nearest
115. Distal To stand away from
116. Appendage A structure that extends from main body
117. Ipsi Self/Same
118. Contra Against
119. Superficial Surface
120. Deep Farther from superficial parts
121. Intermediate Between two other structures (inter, between and medius, middle)
122. Visceral organs within the body's cavities
123. Longitudinal Axis Defined by points at the opposite ends of the organism.
124. Transverse Axis Defined by points on opposite sides of the organism.
125. Anterior End The end that usually points in the direction of the organism's locomotion
126. Posterior End Opposite of anterior end
127. Opical End End farthest away from bascal end.
128.Oral End The end of the organism with the mouth
129. Aboral End Opposite oral end
130. Superior End The head end
131.Inferior End The feet
132. Anterior Front end
133.Posterior Back
134.Peripheral Farthest away from the attachment, related to appendages
135. Centeral Closest to attachment, related to appendages
136. Saggital Plane Divides body into left and right parts.
137. Coronal (frontal) Plane Divides body into anterior and posterior ends.
138. Transverse Plane Also known as an axial plane or cross-section, divides the body into cranial and caudal
(head and tail) portions.
139. Anemia Disease when you do not have enough red blood cells
140. Phagocytotic When a cell engulfs another thing to eat them.
141.Cell Theory 1. All life is made up of cells

©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin


2. Cells are the structural and functional units of an organism
3. All cells come from other cells

142.Schleiden Zoologist
143.Schwann Botanist

Words Definition
147. Fat Bodies Spaghetti shaped structures that have a bright orange or
yellow color, if you have a particularly fat frog, these fat
bodies may need to be removed to see the other
structures. Usually they are located just on the inside of
the abdominal wall.
148. Peritoneum A spider web like membrane that covers many of the organs, you may have to carefully
pick it off to get a clear view
149.Liver The largest structure of the body cavity. This brown colored organ is composed of three
parts, or lobes. The right lobe, the left anterior lobe, and the left posterior lobe. The liver
is not primarily an organ of digestion; it does secrete a digestive juice called bile. Bile is
needed for the proper digestion of fats.
150.Heart At the top of the liver, the heart is a triangular structure. The left and right atrium can be
found at the top of the heart. A single ventricle located at the bottom of the heart. The
large vessel extending out from the heart is the conus arteriosis.
151.Lungs Locate the lungs by looking underneath and behind the heart and liver. They are two
spongy organs.
152.Gall Bladder Lift the lobes of the liver, there will be a small green sac under the liver. This is the gall
bladder, which stores bile.
153.Stomach Curving from underneath the liver is the stomach. The stomach is the first major site of
chemical digestion. Frogs swallow their meals whole. Follow the stomach to where it
turns into the small intestine. The pyloric sphincter valve regulates the exit of digested
food from the stomach to the small intestine.
154.Small Intestine Leading from the stomach. The first straight portion of the small intestine is called the
duodenum; the curled portion is the ileum. The ileum is held together by a membrane
called the mesentery. Note the blood vessels running through the mesentery; they will
carry absorbed nutrients away from the intestine. Absorption of digested nutrients occurs
in the small intestine.
155.Large Intestine As you follow the small intestine down, it will widen into the large intestine. The large
intestine is also known as the cloaca in the frog. The cloaca is the last stop before wastes,
sperm, or urine exit the frog's body. (The word "cloaca" means sewer)
156.Spleen Return to the folds of the mesentery, this dark red spherical object serves as a holding area
for blood.
157.Esophagus Return to the stomach and follow it upward, where it gets smaller is the beginning of the
esophagus. The esophagus is the tube that leads from the frog’s mouth to the stomach.
Open the frog’s mouth and find the esophagus, poke your probe into it and see where it
leads.
158. Right Lobe 1 of the 3 parts of a frogs heart
159. Left anterior Lobe 1 of the 3 parts of a frogs heart
160.Left Posterior Lobe 1 of the 3 parts of a frogs heart
161. Cloaca The common cavity into which the intestinal, genital, and urinary tracts open in

©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin


vertebrates such as fish, reptiles, birds, and some primitive mammals.

The posterior part of the intestinal tract in various invertebrates.


162. Mesentery Any of several folds of the peritoneum that connect the intestines to the dorsal abdominal
wall, especially such a fold that envelops the jejunum and ileum.
163. Duodenum The beginning portion of the small intestine, starting at the lower end of the stomach and
extending to the jejunum.
164. Ileum The terminal portion of the small intestine extending from the jejunum to the cecum.
165. Pyloric sphincter valve Regulates the exit of digested food from the stomach to the small intestine.
166. Conus arteriosis The large vessel extending out from the heart
167. Ventricle The chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium
and contracts to force it into the aorta.

The chamber on the right side of the heart that receives venous blood from the right
atrium and forces it into the pulmonary artery.
168. Left atrium Can be found at the top of the heart. The left upper chamber of the heart that receives
blood from the pulmonary veins.

The left atrium is one of the four chambers in the human heart. It receives oxygenated
blood from the pulmonary veins, and pumps it into the left ventricle.
169. Right atrium Can be found at the top of the heart. The right upper chamber of the heart that receives
blood from the vena cava and coronary sinus.

The right atrium is one of four chambers (two atria and two ventricles) in the human heart.
It receives de-oxygenated blood from the superior and inferior vena cava and the coronary
sinus, and pumps it into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve.
170. Anus The large intestine leads to this part
171. Arteries Any of the muscular elastic tubes that form a branching system and that carry blood away
from the heart to the cells, tissues, and organs of the body.
172. Lymphocytes Any of the nearly colorless cells found in the blood, lymph, and lymphoid tissues,
constituting approximately 25 percent of white blood cells and including B cells, which
function in humoral immunity, and T cells, which function in cellular immunity.
173. Monocytes A large, circulating, phagocytic white blood cell, having a single well-defined nucleus and
very fine granulation in the cytoplasm. Monocytes constitute from 3 to 8 percent of the
white blood cells in humans.
174. Perforins A protein in killer cells and natural killer cells that causes lysis of target cells on contact.
175. Lymph node Any of the small bodies located along the lymphatic vessels, particularly at the neck,
armpit, and groin, that filter bacteria and foreign particles from lymph fluid. During
infection, lymph nodes may become swollen with activated lymphocytes. Also called
lymph gland.
176. Spleen Organ found withen the mesentry that stores blood.
177. Natural killer cells NK cells is their abbreviation. A lymphocyte that is activated by double-stranded RNA or
lymphokines and fights off viral infections and tumors without evident antigenic
specificity.
178. Mucus Prevents bacteria from multiplying. It is clean and watery. Openings in your body are
covered with mucus.
179. Alveolus Surface is thin. Exchange of Oxygen and CO2 happens here.
180. Edward Jenner In 1769 observed that women who milked cow from a early age did not get small pox, but
did get cow pox. Cowpox was not fatal. He used this as a vaccination through villages and
©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin
had young people milk cows and this way they would not catch small pox and therefore
not die. He also coined the work Vaccination
181. Vaccination Vaccination is the use of vaccines to prevent specific diseases. Vacca means Cow in
Italian. Word coined by Edward Jenner.
182. Antigen A substance that when introduced into the body stimulates the production of an antibody.
Antigens include toxins, bacteria, foreign blood cells, and the cells of transplanted organs.
183. Esophagus The muscular membranous tube for the passage of food from the pharynx to the stomach;
the gullet.
184. Venule A small vein, especially one joining capillaries to larger veins.
185. Bronchiole Any of the fine, thin-walled, tubular extensions of a bronchus.
186. External Oblique Constricts abdomen and holds viscera in place.
187. Pharynx The section of the alimentary canal that extends from the mouth and nasal cavities to the
larynx, where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.
188.Nasal Cavity Either of a pair of cavities separated by a septum and located between the nasopharynx
and anterior nares.
189.Epiglottis The thin elastic cartilaginous structure located at the root of the tongue that folds over the
glottis to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea during the act of swallowing.
190. Larynx The part of the respiratory tract between the pharynx and the trachea, having walls of
cartilage and muscle and containing the vocal cords enveloped in folds of mucous
membrane.
191. Trachea A thin-walled, cartilaginous tube descending from the larynx to the bronchi and carrying
air to the lungs. Also called windpipe.
192. Glottis The opening between the vocal cords at the upper part of the larynx.
193. Cytotoxic T Cells Recognize any cell that has been altered by antigens.
194.Suppressor T Cells Opposite of Helper T cells. Suppreser T Cells stop the production of cytotoxic T Cells and
B cells. No one knows how this is done
195.Helper T Cells Recognize the altered cells and signal to the production of B cells and cytotoxic T cells.
196. T Cells Any of the lymphocytes that mature in the thymus and have the ability to recognize
specific peptide antigens through the receptors on their cell surface. Also called T
lymphocyte. There are 3 types, Helper T cells, Suppressor T cells and Cytotoxic T cells.
197. Epithelial Cell Form the epithelial tissue that lines both the inner and outer surfaces of the body; serve a
protective function and also aid in absorption and secretion.
198. Aorta The main trunk of the systemic arteries, carrying blood from the left side of the heart to
the arteries of all limbs and organs except the lungs.
199. Mylohyoid Moves floor of mouth during respiration.
200.Rectus Abdominus Hold the sternum and viscera in place
201.Pectoralis Moves forelimbs
202.Active transport Transport against the concentration gradient. Example pumps.
203. Alveolus Ball filled with capillaries in the lungs. They are found at the ends of the bronchioles.
They are also called air sacs. They are the site of the exchange of gasses.
204. Anus An opening through which feces are pushed out.
205. appendicular skeleton Part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral and the pelvic griddle. Excludes the bones of
the trunk.
206. Arm(microscope) Essentially the backbone of a microscope.
207. ATP Result of respiration. Produced by chloroplasts and mitochondrion. Also known as
Adenosine Triphosphate.
208. Atrium One of the chambers of the heart that receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.
209. Autotroph Organism that manufactures its own food.
©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin
210. axial skeleton The frame work of what is referred to as the bones of the trunk(torso). Includes ribs and
sternum. Basically the skull the bones in the chest and the vertebrate.
211.Bird heart 4 chambered heart.
212. Blastula The hollow ball of cells that goes through gastrulation to form a gastrula.
213. Bronchioles Sub-divisions of the bronchi. These lead to the alveoli.
214. Bronchus Sub-division of the trachea or the wind pipe. There are two of these, each one leading into
its own lung.
215. Calvin cycle Takes place in the stroma in the Chloroplast. Also called the light- independent reaction or
the dark reaction.
216. Canaculi
217.Canines one of the pointed conical teeth located between the incisors and the first bicuspids.
218. Capillary The smallest blood vessel in the body. So small that only one can pass through it at once.
Molecules diffuse through its thin membrane and get absorbed by the surrounding tissues.
219. Salivary Glands Glands in the mouth that secrete saliva in order to begin chemical digestion of starches.
220. Liver Produces bile which emulsifies fats in the small intestine. Excess bile is stored in the gall
bladder.
221. Pancreas Produces enzymes that aid in chemical digestion in the small intestine.
222. Gall Bladder Stores excess bile that is secreted by the liver.
223. Carpal Bones that constitute the wrist. To do with the carpus(wrist)
224. cell wall Found only in plant cells. Provides rigid structure and protection.
225. cilia Short hair-like structures on a cell or microorganism, the movement of which aids
mobility of the cell and transfer of materials across its surface.
226. clavicle The collar bone.
227. cloaca The large intestine and a passage used for eliminating fecal, urinary and reproductive discharges.
228. Closed circulatory A vascular system in which the body fluids stay inside the tubes at all times.
system
229. Conus arteriosus A pouch above the right ventricle from which the pulmonary artery rises.
230. Cristae (singular crista) The multiply-folded inner membrane of a cell's mitochondrion that are
finger-like projections. The walls of the cristae are the site of the cell's energy production
(it is where ATP is generated).
231. Dark reaction Also know as the Calvins cycle.
232. Dermis Inner layer of the skin
233. diaphragm The thin muscle below the lungs and heart that separates the chest from the abdomen.
234. elimination The getting rid of metabolic wastes after digestion.
235.epidermis The top layer of the skin.
236. epiglottis The flap that closes over the glottis so that the food does not get in to the respiratory
system.
237. Esophagus The food pipe. A pipe that transports food to the stomach.
238. Eustachian tubes A tube that leads to the stomach.
239. excretion The dumping of wastes out side the body.
240. External carotid artery the branch of the carotid artery that supplies blood to the face and tongue and external
parts of the head
241. External oblique The external oblique muscle (of the abdomen) (also external abdominal oblique muscle) is
the largest and the most superficial (outermost) of the three flat muscles of the lateral
anterior abdomen. Basically a muscle in your tummy.
242. Extracellular matrix The Extracellular matrix (ECM) is the extracellular part of animal tissue that usually
provides structural support to the cells in addition to performing various other important
functions.
©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin
243. Femur Thigh bone.
244. Fibula The calf bone.
245. Fish heart Three chambered heart.
246. gastrulation The process through which the blastula changes into a gatrula.
247. glottis The opening into the wind pipe.
248. Gracilis major A frog leg muscle. Flexes leg and adducts thigh.
249. Heart Organ that pumps blood to the entire body.
250. The hepatic portal a group of veins that carry blood from the capillaries of the stomach, intestine, spleen, and
system pancreas to the sinusoids of the liver
251.Heterotroph An organism that does not make its own food.
252. Hormone the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which
it has a specific effect
253. Humerus bone extending from the shoulder to the elbow
254. Hypodermis A tissue or layer of cells beneath the epidermis.
255. Iliac Artery One of the large arteries supplying blood to the pelvic region and legs.
256. Ilium The broad, upper portion of either hipbone.
257. incisors A tooth adapted for cutting or gnawing, located at the front of the mouth along the apex of
the dental arch.
258. internal carotid artery the branch of the carotid artery that supplies blood to the brain and eyes and internal parts
of the head
259. ion pump These are modes of active transport. They move the ions against the concentration
gradient.
260. ischium The lowest of the three major bones that constitute each half of the pelvis
261. Kidney One of a pair of organs in the body which remove waste matter from the blood and
produce urine.
262. Lacunae One of the numerous minute cavities in the substance of bone.
263. larynx A muscular and cartilaginous structure lined with mucous membrane at the upper part of the trachea in
humans, in which the vocal cords are located.
264. ligament a band of tissue, usually white and fibrous, serving to connect bones, hold organs in place, etc.
265. light reaction The photosynthetic reaction that takes place in the chloroplasts of plants ( only in the
presence of light.)
266. lung either of the two saclike respiratory organs in the thorax of humans and the higher
vertebrates.
267. lymph a clear yellowish, slightly alkaline, coagulable fluid, containing white blood cells in a
liquid resembling blood plasma, that is derived from the tissues of the body and conveyed
to the bloodstream by the lymphatic vessels.
268. lymph node any of the glandlike masses of tissue in the lymphatic vessels containing cells that become
lymphocytes.
269.lymphatic System Deals with access water from circulatory system, also produces and stores lymphocytes
270.lymphocyte a type of white blood cell having a large, spherical nucleus surrounded by a thin layer of
nongranular cytoplasm.
271.lysosome a cell organelle containing enzymes that digest particles and that disintegrate the cell after
its death.
272.macrophages Any of various large white blood cells that play an essential immunologic role in
vertebrates and some lower organisms by eliminating cellular debris and particulate
antigens, including bacteria, through phagocytosis. Macrophages develop from circulating
monocytes that migrate from the blood into tissues throughout the body, especially the
spleen, liver, lymph nodes, lungs, brain, and connective tissue. Macrophages also
participate in the immune response by producing and responding to inflammatory
©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin
cytokines.
273. mammalian heart A 4 chamber heart.
274. matrix the intercellular substance of a tissue.
275. mechanical stage a stage on a compound microscope equipped with a mechanical device for moving a slide
lengthwise and crosswise or for registering the slide's position by vernier for future exact
repositioning
276.membrane a thin, pliable sheet or layer of animal or vegetable tissue, serving to line an organ,
connect parts, etc.
278.mesoderm the middle germ layer of a metazoan embryo.
279.metacarpal Any of the bones of the metacarpus.
280.metatarsal Any of the bones of the metatarsus.
281.microfilament Microfilaments are the thinnest filaments of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of all
eukaryotic cells.
282.microtubule Cylindrical hollow structures that are distributed throughout the cytoplasm of eukaryotic
cells, providing structural support and assisting in cellular locomotion and transport.
283.mitochondrion Creates energy by producing ATP.
284.molars Any of the teeth located toward the back of the jaws, having broad crowns for grinding
food. Adult humans have 12 molars.
285.mouth the opening through which an animal or human takes in food. The start of the Digestive
System.

286.mRNA
Messenger RNA. The form of RNA that mediates the transfer of genetic information from the cell
nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis. It is
synthesized from a DNA template during the process of transcription.

287.muscle tissue Made up of fibers that contract


288.muscular system Allows movement of body and heart.
289.mylohyoid A flat, triangular muscle that forms the floor of the mouth in a frog.
290.myosin the principal contractile protein of muscle.
291.nares An external opening in the nasal cavity of a vertebrate; a nostril.
292.nerve one or more bundles of fibers forming part of a system that conveys impulses of
sensation, motion, etc., between the brain or spinal cord and other parts of the body.
293.nervous system Sends and receives signals from the environment. Controls all bodily functions.
294.nervous tissue Tissue consisting of nerve cells or neurons
295.nictitating membrane A transparent inner eyelid in birds, reptiles, and some mammals that closes to protect and
moisten the eye. Also called third eyelid.
296.NK cells Natural Killer Cells. A lymphocyte that is activated by double-stranded RNA or
lymphokines and fights off viral infections and tumors without evident antigenic
specificity.
297.Non-specific immune re-
sponse
298.Nostrils The opening of your nose when your oxygen intake comes from, it is part of the respitory
system.
299.Nuclear envelope the double membrane surrounding the nucleus within a cell.
300.Nuclear pore An octagonal opening where the inner and outer membranes of the nuclear envelope are
continuous.
301.Nucleoid region area in a prokaryotic cell that contains the genetic material.

©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin


302.Nucleolus A small round body of protein in a cell nucleus; nucleoli contain rna and are involved in
protein synthesis.Part of the nucleus in eukaryotes that is set aside for the production and
transcription of rna.

303.Nucleus a specialized, usually spherical mass of protoplasm encased in a double membrane, and
found in most living eukaryotic cells, directing their growth, metabolism, and
reproduction, and functioning in the transmission of genic characters.
304.Objective lens A lens in the microscopes that you see through.
305.Ocular lens The lenses with magnification that you can change.
306.Open circulatory system
307.Organ systems
308.Organelle a specialized part of a cell having some specific function; a cell organ.
309.Organs A differentiated part of an organism, such as an eye, wing, or leaf, that performs a specific
function.
310.Osmosis
311.Osmotic regulation The regulation of water potential in an organism.
312.Outer membrane(3)
313.Ovaries One of two small oval bodies situated on either side of the uterus on the posterior surface
of the broad ligament. The structures in which the ova (eggs) are developed and released
during ovulation.
314.Oviducts The tubular tract in female animals through which eggs are discharged either to the
exterior or, in mammals, to the uterus.
315.Pectoral girdle
316.Pectoralis either of two muscles on each side of the upper and anterior part of the thorax, the action
of the larger (pectoralis major) assisting in drawing the shoulder forward and rotating the
arm inward, and the action of the smaller (pectoralis minor) assisting in drawing the
shoulder downward and forward.
317.Pelvic girdle
318.Peroneus any of several muscles on the outer side of the leg, the action of which assists in extending
the foot and in turning it outward.
319. Phagocytosis The engulfing and ingestion of bacteria or other foreign bodies by phagocytes.
320. Phalanges The finger bones (the singular is phalanx). There are three phalanges in each digit, except
the thumb which only has two.
321.Pharynx The cavity at the back of the mouth. It is cone shaped and has an average length of 76 mm
and is lined with mucous membrane. The pharynx opens into the esophagus at the lower
end. The passage to the stomach and lungs; in the front part of the neck below the chin
and above the collarbone. Opens either the larnyx or the esophagus canal.
322.Phospholipid any of a group of fatty compounds, as lecithin, composed of phosphoric esters, and
occurring in living cells.

323.Phospholipid bilayer a two-layered arrangement of phosphate and lipid molecules that form a cell membrane,
the hydrophobic lipid ends facing inward and the hydrophilic phosphate ends facing
outward.

324.Photosynthesis equation
325.Pituitary gland A small oval endocrine gland attached to the base of the vertebrate brain and consisting of
an anterior and a posterior lobe, the secretions of which control the other endocrine glands
and influence growth, metabolism, and maturation.
©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin
326.Plasma membrane The semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell.
327.Plasmid A segment of DNA independent of the chromosomes and capable of replication, occurring
in bacteria and yeast: used in recombinant DNA procedures to transfer genetic material
from one cell to another.
328.Pleura A delicate serous membrane investing each lung in mammals and folded back as a lining
of the corresponding side of the thorax.
329.Premolars One of eight bicuspid teeth located in pairs on each side of the upper and lower jaws
behind the canines and in front of the molars.
330. prokaryote any cellular organism that has no nuclear membrane, no organelles in the cytoplasm
except ribosomes, and has its genetic material in the form of single continuous strands
forming coils or loops, characteristic of all organisms in the kingdom Monera, as the
bacteria and blue-green algae.
331.Prokaryotic having cells that lack membrane-bound nuclei
332.Pubis that part of either innominate bone that, with the corresponding part of the other, forms the
front of the pelvis.
333.Pulmonary artery an artery conveying venous blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs.
334.Pulmonary circulation the circulation of blood from the heart to the lungs for oxygenation and back to the heart.
334.Phyloric sphincter A ring of smooth muscle fibers around the opening of the stomach into the duodenum.
335.Pyruvate(pyruvic acid) an ester or salt of pyruvic acid.
336.Radius the bone of the forearm on the thumb side.
337.Rectus abdominis a long flat muscle on either side of the linea alba extending along the whole length of the
front of the abdomen, arising from the pubic crest and symphysis, inserted into the
cartilages of the fifth, sixth, and seventh ribs, and acting to flex the spinal column, tense
the anterior wall of the abdomen, and assist in compressing the contents of the abdomen
338.Renal portal system Of, relating to, or in the region of the kidneys.
339.Reproductive system The bodily system of gonads, associated ducts, and external genitals concerned with
sexual reproduction.
340. Reptilian heart Three chambered heart
341. Respiration equation
342. Respitory system Exchanges gases (mainly O2, CO2 and H2O) with the environment.
343.Rib one of a series of curved bones that are articulated with the vertebrae and occur in pairs,
12 in humans, on each side of the vertebrate body, certain pairs being connected with the
sternum and forming the thoracic wall.
344.Ribosome a tiny, somewhat mitten-shaped organelle occurring in great numbers in the cell cytoplasm
either freely, in small clusters, or attached to the outer surfaces of endoplasmic reticula,
and functioning as the site of protein manufacture.
345.Right atrium the right upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the venae cavae and
coronary sinus
346.Right ventricle the chamber on the right side of the heart that receives venous blood from the right atrium
and pumps it into the pulmonary trunk
347.Rough ER Site of protein synthesis. Exports large quantities of proteins(ribosomes)
348.RNA A polymeric constituent of all living cells and many viruses, consisting of a long, usually
single-stranded chain of alternating phosphate and ribose units with the bases adenine,
guanine, cytosine, and uracil bonded to the ribose. The structure and base sequence of
RNA are determinants of protein synthesis and the transmission of genetic information.
Also called ribonucleic acid.
349.rRNA ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid

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350.Sartorius A thigh muscle in a frog on the ventral surface that flexes the leg and adducts the thigh.

351.Scapula ither of two flat, triangular bones, each forming the back part of a shoulder in humans;
shoulder blade.
352. Semimebranosus a large muscle of the inner part and back of the thigh that arises by a thick tendon from the
back part of the tuberosity of the ischium, is inserted into the medial condyle of the tibia,
and acts to flex the leg and rotate it medially and to extend the thigh
353.Sinus venosus The first chamber in the heart of fish, amphibians, and reptiles, which receives blood from
the veins and contracts to force the blood into the atrium.
354.Skeletal system The bodily system that consists of the bones, their associated cartilages, and the joints,
and supports and protects the body, produces blood cells, and stores minerals.
355.Skull the bony framework of the head, enclosing the brain and supporting the face; the skeleton
of the head.
356.Small intestine The narrow, winding, upper part of the intestine where digestion is completed and
nutrients are absorbed by the blood. It extends from the pylorus to the cecum and consists
of the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum.
357.Smooth ER Regulates calcium and ion concentration. Synthesis of membrane phospolipids. It also
makes lipids.
358.Squamous covered with or formed of squamae or scales.
359.Stage Part of a microscope that is the black raised platform.
360. Sternum a bone or series of bones extending along the middle line of the ventral portion of the
body of most vertebrates, consisting in humans of a flat, narrow bone connected with the
clavicles and the true ribs; breastbone.
361.Stomach a saclike enlargement of the alimentary canal, as in humans and certain animals, forming
an organ for storing, diluting, and digesting food.
362. Stroma the supporting framework or matrix of a cell.
363.Systemic circulation the circulatory system in general.
364.Tarsal a tarsal bone, joint, or the like.
365.Teeth One of a set of hard, bonelike structures rooted in sockets in the jaws of vertebrates,
typically composed of a core of soft pulp surrounded by a layer of hard dentin that is
coated with cementum or enamel at the crown and used for biting or chewing food or as a
means of attack or defense.
366.Testes the male gonad or reproductive gland, either of two oval glands located in the scrotum.
367.Thylakoid a flattened sac or vesicle lined with a pigmented membrane that is the site of
photosynthesis, in plants and algae occurring in interconnected stacks constituting a
granum of the chloroplast, and in other photosynthesizing organisms occurring either
singly or as part of the cell membrane or other structure.
368.Thylakoid membrane The membrane of the Thyakoid.
369.Tibia the inner of the two bones of the leg, that extend from the knee to the ankle and articulate
with the femur and the talus; shinbone.
370.Tibialis anticus A lower leg muscle of a frog on the Ventral Surface that extends the leg and flexes the
foot.
371.Tissue an aggregate of similar cells and cell products forming a definite kind of structural
material with a specific function, in a multicellular organism.
372.Tissues A large mass of similar cells that make up a part of an organism and perform a specific
function. The internal organs and connective structures (including bone and cartilage) of
vertebrates, and cambium, xylem, and phloem in plants are made up of different types of
tissue.
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373. Tongue the usually movable organ in the floor of the mouth in humans and most vertebrates,
functioning in eating, in tasting, and, in humans, in speaking.
374. Trachea the tube in humans and other air-breathing vertebrates extending from the larynx to the
bronchi, serving as the principal passage for conveying air to and from the lungs; the
windpipe.
375.Trans face Closer to plasma membrane the the E.R. It packages molecules into vesicles and
transports them to the golgi apparatus.
376.Transcription the act or process of transcribing.
377.Translation the process by which a messenger RNA molecule specifies the linear sequence of amino
acids on a ribosome for protein synthesis.
378.Tricep femoris A thigh muscle of a frog on its Dorsal side that adducts the thigh and extends the leg.
379.tRNA One of a class of RNA molecules that transport amino acids to ribosomes for
incorporation into a polypeptide undergoing synthesis. It is a transporter Ribonucleic
Acid
380.tympanic membrane the membrane in the ear that vibrates to sound
381.ulna the bone of the forearm on the side opposite to the thumb.
382.ureter a muscular duct or tube conveying the urine from a kidney to the bladder or cloaca.
383.urethra the membranous tube that extends from the urinary bladder to the exterior and that in the
male conveys semen as well as urine.
384.urinary bladder a distensible, muscular and membranous sac, in which the urine is retained until it is
discharged from the body.
385.vacuole a membrane-bound cavity within a cell, often containing a watery liquid or secretion.
386.ventricle either of the two lower chambers on each side of the heart that receive blood from the
atria and in turn force it into the arteries.
387.vertebrae any of the bones or segments composing the spinal column, consisting typically of a
cylindrical body and an arch with various processes, and forming a foramen, or opening,
through which the spinal cord passes.

388.vesicle A small, intracellular sac, bounded by a membrane, in which various substances are stored
or transported.
389.vomerine teeth The type of teeth frogs have.

©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin