DBMS Normalization

Normalization

•The concept of normal forms is used to design and judge the quality of design of databases. •The higher numbered normal forms have all the goodness qualities of the lower forms.

First Normal Form (1 NF)
If data is stored in tables then 1st Normal Form

or 1 NF is achieved.

2 NF
A Database is in second normal form if it is in

first normal form and every attribute (field) is fully dependent on the primary key.
A 1 NF record with a single field primary key is

already in 2 NF.

3 NF
A record is in 3 NF if it is in 2 NF and NO non-

key field is dependent on another non-key field.

Relationships
One : One (1:1)
ONE Student has only ONE Roll no. ONE Computer has only ONE mac address ONE Person has only ONE Pan Card

One : Many (1:M)
ONE Mother has MANY children ONE Book has MANY pages ONE House has MANY windows

Many : Many (M:M)
ONE Institute has MANY faculty members & ONE faculty member teaches in MANY institutes. ONE Bank has MANY account holders & ONE account holder holds accounts in MANY Banks.

Structured Query Language (SQL)
SQL is the most popular declarative language

used to work with Relational Databases. Originally developed by IBM There are two parts of SQL
DDL DML

Data Definition Language (DDL) of SQL that is used to define DDL is a subset
tables (database structure) and other metadata related things. Few basic commands include:
CREATE DATABASE CREATE TABLE DROP TABLE ALTER TABLE

Data Manipulation Language (DML)
manipulation.
INSERT SELECT UPDATE DELETE

Standard subset of SQL that is used for data

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