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Identification of Possible Migration of Contaminants in Groundwater at a Landfill – A Case Study of Oman.pdf

Identification of Possible Migration of Contaminants in Groundwater at a Landfill – A Case Study of Oman.pdf

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.

10* 2%13

www.iiste.org

Identification of Possible Migration of Contaminants in Groundwater at a Landfill – A Case Study of Oman
+ahad S. ,aawain1-,.hmed +. .l-/utaisi2 1. 0enter for Environmental Studies and 1esearch 0ES.1#* Sultan 2a3oos 4niversit5* +uscat (man 2. 6e"artment of 0ivil and .rchitectural Engineering* Sultan 2a3oos 4nviersit5* +uscat* (man - E-mail of the corres"onding author7 msa38s9u.edu.om Abstract In this stud5 e:"lorator5 3orehole drilling along with soil core sam"ling* chemical anal5sis* "ie;ometer construction* field and la3orator5 h5drochemical anal5ses and "um"ing test were a""lied. <he main aim was to understand the e:tent of contamination and contaminant movement in the unsaturated ;one and groundwater at a dum"ing site in Northern "art of (man ,ar=a dum"ing site#. >ater sam"les were anal5;ed for inorganic* organic and 3iological characteri;ation to identif5 an5 "otential contamination of groundwater from ,ar=a dum"ing site. 1esults showed elevated concentration of <6S* Na* 0a* +g* al=alinit5* chloride and total hardness. <hus* indicated that the groundwater 3elow the dum"ing site is strongl5 affected 35 leachate originated from li9uid lagoons located in and around the landfill. /urthermore* micro3iological "arameters showed that groundwater 3eneath ,ar=a dum"ing site is largel5 influenced 35 3acterial contamination with total coliform and E.coli. Keywords: ,orehole drilling? dum"ing site? groundwater contamination? unsaturated ;one? contaminant trans"ort ! Introduction @roundwater contamination from landfills often results from lea=ing Aleachate*A water that has "ercolated through waste and accumulated various ions in solution. +odern sanitar5 landfills include cla5 and "lastic 3arriers 3eneath the waste* as well as leachate collection and "rocessing s5stems* to "revent leachate lea=age. (lder landfills in Euro"e and North .merica* as well as most landfills in the develo"ing world toda5* have no such 3arriers* and allow leachate see"age into the surrounding a9uifers. Identification* characteri;ation and monitoring of contaminant "lumes in the unsaturated ;one and groundwater are a3solutel5 vital for ma=ing decisions regarding the future land use at contaminated sites* and for choosing a""ro"riate remediation measures. In addition* evaluation of contaminant concentration is necessar5 for the determination of natural attenuation rates of 3iodegrading contaminants. In general* investigation of contaminated sites* for e:am"le landfills or dum"ing sites* have 3een carried out 35 utili;ing distinguished methods such as h5drogeological ma""ing* geo"h5sical surve5* e:"lorator5 3orehole drilling* "ie;ometer construction* field and la3orator5 h5drochemical anal5ses* "um"ing test* etc +ac= and +aus*1&'6? .hmed and Sulaiman* 2%%1? .3u-1u=ah and .l-Bofahi * 2%%1? ,urnle5* 2%%C? Sharma and +c,ean* 2%%C? <er;ic et.al* 2%%C#. In this stud5* e:"lorator5 3orehole drilling along with soil core sam"ling* chemical anal5sis* "ie;ometer construction* field and la3orator5 h5drochemical anal5ses and "um"ing test were a""lied in a dum"ing site in Northern "art of (man ,ar=a dum"ing site# to understand the e:tent of contamination and contaminant movement in the unsaturated ;one and groundwater. <he term integral "um"ing re"resent the "um"ing test in which the contaminant concentration versus "um"ing time is assessed. <he state of groundwater "ollution can 3e also evaluated from the "um"ed-water contaminant anal5sis. Several investigations a""lied "um" test for ca"ture ;one delineation* a9uifer "arameter determination* groundwater flow "ath and travel time* "oint concentration "rofile studies* identification of different water mi:ing* etc Dantush* 1&$6? 4hl and Joshi* 1&'6? ,um3 and 1amesh* 1&&2? Bamra et.al* 2%%2? Elliot and Eounger* 2%%C? (stendorf et.al* 2%%C#. Schwar; et al. 1&&'# em"lo5ed a method for delineating and 9uantif5ing contaminant flu: from a source ;one 35 inversion of concentration data measured during "um"ing test. 1.1 Study Area ,ar=a is located northwest of the ca"ital cit5 E%$'&C'4 and N261%6&$#* +uscat* (man and has an area of 1*3$% =m2. <he Sea of (man creates a natural 3order in North* while watershed of Ja3al .l-.=dar and Na=hal mountains limits the South* which serves as a recharge ;one of the stud5 region. <he hills in the southern "art of the stud5 region have stee" slo"es with little soil cover and no vegetation. In general* the stud5 area e:"eriences dr5 climatic conditions with high rates of eva"otrans"iration. <he long-term annual average air tem"erature is 2'.$°0 in the coastal area and 1C.'°0 in the mountains. 1ainfall is e:tremel5 varia3le with res"ect to s"ace and time. 1.2 Barka landfill ,ar=a landfill is a ver5 large unregulated landfill and it is located a3out ' =m to the south of ,ar=a and near to '6

Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

www.iiste.org

the road connecting ,ar=a and Na=hal. It covers an area of '% ha. Fandsca"e of this area is flat and crossed 35 a wadi at one edge. ,ar=a landfill is also locaed in the mountainous region. @eologicall5* the stud5 location is underlain 35 the alluvial de"osits of wadi alluvium and su3 recent alluvial fans and terraces. Near the landfill* the de"th to water ta3le varies 3etween 6' to C% m3gl. <he groundwater flow direction is usuall5 from south to north. ,ar=a landfill receives different t5"es of wastes from three main cities7 ,ar=a* Na=hal and >adi .l+aawil. 6is"osal of li9uid wastes such as domestic sewage water* chic=en "oultr5 wastewater and oil-sewage mi:ture "roduced large "onds in the landfill* and the "ond water mi: with other solid wastes during rain5 events. .3out 4%%*%%% gallon ca"acit5 wastewater treatment "lant is o"erating in the landfill* although* the ca"acit5 is not enough to handle the entire sewage water and not e9ui""ed to handle the sewage-oil mi:ture and other industrial li9uid wastes. 1ecentl5* the treatment "lant is modified and receiving the li9uid waste for treatment. <herefore* the direct dis"osal of sewage li9uid waste in the lagoon is 3anned since 2%%6. Dowever* the treated wastewater is still dis"osed in the lagoons. Solid waste dum"ing is active and receiving different t5"es of waste li=e wood* ceramic* construction waste* "oultr5* meat* etc. ,ar=a landfill is located on recharge area of maGor a9uifer. <herefore* the groundwater 3elow the landfill and downstream are highl5 susce"ti3le to "ollution 35 the landfill leachate and direct infiltration of li9uid waste dis"osed in the landfill. .dditionall5* streams and wadies that traverse landfill can translocate the waste residues to the downstream and even to sea during the rain5 season. <he foremost "ollutants re"orted 35 +inistr5 of >ater 1esources are heav5 metals* organics* oils* grease and "athogens. /urther* landfill gas emissions are another threat to the environment and near35 residents. Even though there is no settlement close to the landfill* to:ic gases and smo=e affect the trans"orters directl5 or indirectl5 in the ,ar=a to Na=hal connecting road and occasionall5 reach ,ar=a and >adi .l-+aawil. "! Materials and Met#ods 2.1 Soil core sampling and analysis In ,ar=a dum"ing site* si: 3oreholes five "ie;ometers and one "um"ing well# were constructed /igure 1#. Soil core sam"les were collected at different de"ths from five "ie;ometer 3oreholes. <he soil cores were wra""ed in trans"arent "lastic sheets immediatel5 after collection to "revent eva"orative water loss* and then stored in the core 3o: and trans"orted to the la3 on same da5. In addition to core sam"ling* soil "rofiles trial "its# were e:cavated close to active and old li9uid lagoons u" to $ m de"th from surface using mechanical e:cavator. In total* si: trial "its were e:cavated* and soil sam"les were collected at different de"th directl5 from the hori;ons. Soil sam"les were stored in the "lastic 3ags and trans"orted to the la3 on same da5. ,oth core sam"les and soil "rofiles sam"les were air dried in the room tem"erature* sieved utili;ing H2mm sieves and grounded to "ass through a 2$%-mm mesh sieve for chemical anal5sis. 2.2 Groundwater sampling and analysis @roundwater sam"les were collected from drilled "ie;ometers from the ,ar=a dum"ing site /igure 1#. .fter removing 3 well volumes of water from "ie;ometers* with the hel" of 3ailers* water sam"les were collected for inorganic* organic and micro3iological anal5sis. .ll tests were conducted according to the Standard +ethod for the E:amination of >ater and >astewater Eaton et al.* 2%%$#. 2.3 Pump test !um" test was carried out in the newl5 drilled 3ore well. <he aim of this test is to estimate the a9uifer characteristics as well as monitor the contaminant concentrations with time. <he "um" test was conducted for 24 hours and water sam"les were collected ever5 2% minutes interval for first 6 hour then ever5 one hour. In total* 3' sam"les were collected for 3iological* organic and inorganic anal5ses. 6uring "um"ing* "arameters such as E0* "D* Eh* tem"erature* dissolved o:5gen and salinit5 were measured as a function of time in the discharged groundwater. $! %esults and &iscussion 3.1 Groundwater quality @roundwater 9ualit5 in ,ar=a dum"ing location is given in <a3les 1* 2 and 3. In the newl5 drilled wells !1-!$#* the electric conductivit5 E0# varied 3etween 11&% µSIcm and 2$32 µSIcm and total dissolved solids <6S# ranges from CC4 mgIF to 1646 mgIF <a3le 1#. .s "er the "D* groundwater sam"les were found slightl5 acidic to al=aline in nature. !i"er diagram illustrates that groundwater sam"les collected from newl5 drilled wells are 0a-+g-0l t5"e /igure 2#. .mong the "ie;ometers !1* !3* !4 J !$#* !1 contains elevated concentration of <6S* Na* 0a* +g* al=alinit5* chloride and total hardness. <his fact suggests that leachate originated from the li9uid lagoon a""ears to 3e 3lending with groundwater. +oreover* !1 is located near the old li9uid lagoon. +unici"alit5 wells %%2I%C'* 212I%6%#* e:isted near the 3oundar5 of the dum"ing site* show low E0* <6S* 0a* +g* B* al=alinit5 and 0l* and high concentrations of nitrate and sul"hate. <his o3servation suggests that groundwater 3elow the dum"ing site is greatl5 affected 35 leachate originated from li9uid lagoons rather than solid waste dis"osal in the region.

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

www.iiste.org

(:idation reduction "otential Eh# of the groundwater sam"les indicated reducing environment* which ma5 "romote decreased reactions in this a9uifer. 6e"leted nitrate and sul"hate concentrations together with a smell of h5drogen su""lied have 3een o3served during the sam"ling. <his fact suggests the incident of reducing ;one of the redo: "lume and indicates the li=elihood of reduction reactions such as denitrification and sul"hate reduction. +icro3iological "arameters show that groundwater 3eneath ,ar=a dum"ing site is mostl5 influenced 35 3acterial contamination? "articularl5 total coliform and E.coli <a3le 2#. <he dissolved o:5gen 6(# contents are generall5 H 2 mgIF in the groundwater and suggest the reducing environment. ,esides* high al=alinit5 o3served in the "ie;ometers and "um"ing well highlights im"act of waste dum"ing activities. >hen the leachate mi:ing with groundwater* dissolved organic matter will first remove the dissolved o:5gen and nitrate followed 35 a large amount of 0(2 out"ut Schwar; et al* 1&&'#. Dence* in the dum"ing site* al=alinit5 would 3e antici"ated from two maGor sources* dissolution of 0(2 generated from micro3iologicall5 mediated degradation of organic matter* and weathering of car3onate minerals* "articularl5 calcite and dolomite. If the natural weathering of car3onate minerals is res"onsi3le for al=alinit5 in the groundwater* the water sam"les collected from the "ie;ometers should show more or less similar al=alinit5 concentrations since the distance 3etween the "ie;ometers are not so far. ,ut* !1 shows elevated al=alinit5 and maGor ions with low "D and 6( <a3les 1 and 2#. <his fact reveals that leachate caused 35 the 3iological degradation of organic com"onents mostl5 from li9uid lagoons* which enhances mineral weathering and su3se9uentl5* increases the solute load in the groundwater. Digh chloride contents and 3acteria recorded in the "ie;ometers com"ared to the munici"alit5 wells o3viousl5 indicating the influence of surface contamination sources <a3le 1#. <a3le 3 shows the trace metals concentrations in the groundwater sam"les and most of the metals are 3elow detection limits. In the anal5;ed metals* /e* +n and Kn are "resented in su3stantial 9uantit5* which are sensitive to the redo: reactions <a3le 3#. .s discussed earlier* micro3iological data e:hi3it the occurrence of reducing ;one 3eneath the ,ar=a dum"ing site. In the anaero3ic environment* an iron and manganese o:ide in the soil undergoes reduction and releases a large amount of /e2L and +n2L in the water .""elo and !ostma* 1&&4#. Dence* the mi:ing of leachate with groundwater creates anaero3ic environment* which enhances the concentrations of these metals in groundwater. In contrast* low concentrations of other metals reveal the natural attenuation "rocess in the unsaturated ;one e:"ected organic or inorganic sor"tion and "reci"itation with car3onates or sul"hates ,elevi and ,accini* 1&'&? /l5hammer* 1&&$? Erses and (na5* 2%%3#. Dowever* the concentrations of other metals Gustif5 the direct surface origin li=el5 from li9uid lagoons. 3.2 Effect of pumping on groundwater quality <a3les 4 and $ along with /igures 3* 4* $* 6* and C shows the groundwater 9ualit5 variation during "um"ing "eriod. <he electrical conductivit5 E0# varied from 211% to 23&$ MSIcm with a mean value of 2312 MSIcm and "D ranges from 6.&6 to C.3. Farge variations were o3served in the standard deviations of E0* <6S* Na* al=alinit5* chloride* total hardness <D# and 3acteria. <his fact reveals that these elements are highl5 fluctuated during "um"ing and "ossi3l5 drawn from diverse formation waters. /igure 3 illustrates that E0 ra"idl5 increases while "um"ing and reaches stead5 state after 14 hours. /urther* "D and Eh show that initiall5 3oth are high and then sta3ili;ed after & hours. +icro3iological "arameters showed high fluctuations in the first 6 hours during "um"ing /igure 4#. 6issolved o:5gen content indicated reducing environment throughout the "eriod of "um"ing and fluctuates 3etween %.' mgIF and 1.34 mgIF. (ther "arameters such as 0(6* ,(6 and 3acteria also indicate that "ea= concentrations are recorded within few hours H ' hours# and then* mostl5 unchanging. Similar results were o3served in main ions /igures $ and 6#. .s mentioned earlier* redo: "lume a""ears to 3e "resent in this a9uifer due to mi:ing of leachate originated from li9uid lagoon. <he Eh value also shows strong reducing environment and it varies from -22.' mv to -2.4 mv. Dence* during "um"ing* e:isting and contaminated water a""ears to 3e discharged in the first cou"le of hours followed 35 the fresh water re"resenting the a9uifer. /igure C illustrates the variation of metal contents during "um"ing "eriod. <he metals have varia3le times of "ea= concentrations and 0u* Ni* 0d and 0r dis"la5 multi"le "ea=s throughout the course of "um"ing. /urther* /e and Kn e:hi3it high concentrations at ;ero hour. Digh standard deviation in the concentrations of Ni* Kn and /e reflected the variation during "um"ing <a3le $#. Several factors such as different adsor"tion characteristics* natural heterogeneit5* etc decide the concentrations of metals in groundwater. <he variation in chloride concentration during "um"ing "eriod causes uncertaint5 a3out the origin whether from dum"ing site or seawater u"coning "rocess. 1egional water level circulation indicates that the groundwaterseawater interface seem to 3e a""eared 3eside the ,ar=a dum"ing site /igure 3#. <he ionic ratio such as total cationIchloride <0I0l# and m,rI0l ma5 3e useful to differentiate the source of origin. <he <0I0l ratio varies from 1.6$ to 1.&$ with a mean value of 1.C6 and higher than the seawater ratio 1.12#. Similarl5* m,rI0l ratio ranges from %.%%2&4 to %.%%434 with a mean value of %.%%3&6 and greater than seawater %.%%3$# /igure 6#. .ccording to +urad and Brishnamurth5 2%%4#* animal waste com"rises a su3stantial amount of 3romide 2'.$ mgI=g#. <hese facts reveal that salinit5 and most of the contaminants originated from dum"ing sites rather than

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

www.iiste.org

seawater u"coning. '! Conclusion @roundwater sam"les were collected from the a9uifer that e:ists 3eneath ,ar=a dum"ing site using drilled "ie;ometers and a "um"ing well. >ater sam"les were anal5;ed for inorganic* organic and 3iological characteri;ation. It was o3served that the well !1* which is close to the lagoons* com"rises increased concentration of <6S* Na* 0a* +g* al=alinit5* chloride and total hardness. <his o3servation suggests that groundwater 3elow the dum"ing site is highl5 influenced 35 leachate originated from li9uid lagoons located within the landfill. 6e"leted nitrate and sul"hate concentrations together with a stin= of h5drogen sul"hide* o3served during the sam"ling* strongl5 suggest the occurrence of reducing ;one of the redo: "lume and "ossi3ilit5 of reduction reactions such as denitrification and sul"hate reduction. +icro3iological "arameters show that groundwater 3eneath ,ar=a dum"ing site is largel5 influenced 35 3acterial contamination with total coliform and E.coli. <he concentrations of trace metals in the groundwater sam"les of this stud5 are 3elow detection limits. <his low concentration of metals reveals that the natural attenuation "rocess in the unsaturated ;one e:"ected to have organic or inorganic sor"tion and "reci"itation with soils 3efore reaching groundwater. . functional structure made u" of holons is called holarch5. <he holons* in coordination with the local environment* function as autonomous wholes in su"ra-ordination to their "arts* while as de"endent "arts in su3ordination to their higher level controllers. >hen setting u" the >(KI!* holonic attri3utes such as autonom5 and coo"eration must have 3een integrated into its relevant com"onents. <he com"utational scheme for >(KI! is novel as it ma=es use of several manufacturing "arameters7 utilisation* distur3ance* and idleness. <hese varia3les were at first se"aratel5 forecasted 35 means of e:"onential smoothing* and then conGointl5 formulated with two constant "arameters* namel5 the num3er of machines and their ma:imum utilisation. .s validated through moc=-u" data anal5sis* the "ractica3ilit5 of >(KI! is encouraging and "romising. Suggested future wor=s include develo"ing a software "ac=age to facilitate the >(KI! data in"ut and conversion "rocesses* e:"loring the use of >(KI! in the other forms of la3our-intensive manufacturing e.g. flow-line "roduction and wor=-cell assem3l5#* and attaching a costing framewor= to determine the s"ecific cost of each resource or to hel" minimise the aggregate cost of "roduction. (! Ac)nowledgement <he authors would li=e to ac=nowledge the financial su""ort received from Sultan 2a3oos 4niversit5 through Dis +aGest5 Strategic 1esearch @rant num3er S1IEN@I0.E6I%4I%1. %eferences .hmed* ..+.* Sulaiman >.N. 2%%1#*NEvaluation of groundwater and soil "ollution in a landfill area using electrical resistivit5 imaging surve5O* Environmental anagement* 2' $#7 6$$-663. .3u-1u=ah* E.* .l-Bofahi* (. 2%%1#* N<he assessment of the effect of landfill leachate on groundwater 9ualit5 a case stud5* El-.=ader landfill site-North JordanO* !ournal of Arid Environments" 4&7 61$-63%. .""elo* 0...J.* !ostma* 6. 1&&4#* N@eochemistr5 @roundwater and !ollutionO* .... ,al=ema !u3lishers* Feiden* <he Netherlands* 311-313. ,elevi* D.* ,accini* !. 1&'&#* NFong-term 3ehavior of munici"al solid waste landfillsO. #aste anagement $esearc%* C7 43P$6. ,urnle5* S. J. 2%%C#* N<he use of chemical com"osition data in waste management "lanning-. case stud5O* >aste management &'ew (ork" '.(.)* 2C7 32C-336. ,um3* ..0.* 1amesh* +.S. 1&&2#* N.utomated anal5sis of "um" test data for lea=5 confined a9uifersO* Environmental Software" C7 41-4'. Eaton* ..E.* 0lesceri* F.S.* 1ice* E.>.* @reen3erg* ..E. 2%%$#* NStandard +ethod for the e:amination of water and wastewaterO* 21st edition. Elliot* <.* Eounger* !.F. 2%%C#* ND5dro chemical and isoto"ic tracing of mi:ing d5namics and water 9ualit5 evolution under "um"ing conditions in the mineshaft of the a3andoned /rances 0ollier5* ScotlandO* Applied Geoc%emistry* 22 12#7 2'34-2'6%. Erses* S.* (na5* <.<. 2%%3#* NIn situ heav5 metal attenuation in landfills under methanogenic conditionsO* !ournal of *a+ardous aterials" &&7 1$&P1C$. /l5hammer* !. 1&&$#* NDeav5 metals in the environment* anal5sis of the cadmium flu: in Sweden with s"ecial em"hasis on landfill leachateO* Journal of Environmental. ,uality* 247 612-621. Dantush* +.S. 1&$6#* N.nal5sis of 6ata /rom !um"ing <ests in Fea=5 .9uiferO* -rans. Am. Geop%ys. .nion* 3C7 C%2PC14. Bamra* S.B* Fal* B.* Singh* (.!.* ,oonstra* J. 2%%2#* NEffect of "um"ing on tem"oral changes in groundwater

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

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9ualit5O* .gricultural #ater anagement* $67 16&-2C'. +urad* ....* Brishnamurth5* 1.). 2%%4#* N/actors controlling groundwater 9ualit5 in Eastern 4nited .ra3 Emirates7 a chemical and isoto"ic a""roachO* Journal of *ydrology &Amsterdam)* 2'67 22C - 23$. +ac=* <. J.* +aus* !.E. 1&'6#* 6etection of contaminant "lumes in ground water of Fong Island* New Eor=* 35 electromagnetic terrain-conductivit5 surve5s* 4S@SO* #ater/$esources 0nvestigations* '6-4%4$7 ". 3&. (stendorf* 6.>.* 6e@root* 6.J.* 6unaG* !.J. 2%%C#* N>ater hammer dissi"ation in "neumatic slug testsO* #ater $esources $esearc%* 43* >%2413. doi71%.1%2&I2%%$>1%%4'1C. Sharma* +.* +c,ean* E. 2%%C#* N. methodolog5 for solid waste characteri;ation 3ased on diminishing marginal returnsO* #aste anagement* 2C7 33CP344. Schwar;* N.* @ra5son* 0.E.* Bnau"er* ,. 1&&'#* N/ormal features of rating scales and the inter"retation of 9uestion meaningO* 0nternational !ournal of Pu1lic 2pinion $esearc%* 1%7 1CC-1'3. <er;ic* J.* +arinovic-<er;ic* I.* I=eda* /.* 6i=ic* I. 2%%C#* N43i9uitin signals in the N/-=a""a, "athwa5O* Bioc%emical Society -ransaction* 3$7 &42P&4$. 4hl* ).>.).* Joshi* @. 1&'6#* N1esults of "um"ing tests in the 6eccan tra" 3asalts of central IndiaO* !ournal of *ydrology* '67 14CP16'. &r! Ma#ad S *aawain +,irst Aut#or- +ahad ,aawain is 6irector at the 0enter for Environmental Studies and 1esearch and an .ssociate !rofessor in the 6e"artment of 0ivil and .rchitectural Engineering* Sultan 2a3oos 4niversit5* (man. De o3tained his ,Sc in 0ivil Engineering from (man in 1&&'. <hen he continued his "ostgraduate studies in the area of Environmental Engineering where he o3tained +Sc from 4B in 2%%% and !h6 from 0anada in 2%%C. Dis research interest covers several areas among environmental engineering including fundamentals of water and wastewater treatment "rocesses* advanced o:idation "rocesses* water and wastewater reactors modeling* nanotechnolog5 a""lications for water and wastewater treatment* groundwater assessment and contaminant trans"ort* solid waste management and air "ollution modeling and management. &r! A#med Al.,utaisi +Second Aut#or- .hmed .l-/utaisi received his 4niversit5 6egree in 0ivil Engineering in 1&&4? he earned his +Sc and !h6 in Environmental Engineering from 4S. in 1&&C and 2%%2* res"ectivel5. Dis research interest covers several areas among environmental engineering including a""lied environmental geosciences* "h5sicall5-3ased "ore-scale modeling* +multi"hase flow in "orous media* h5drogeolog5 and h5droinformatics* contaminant fate and trans"ort* soil sor"tion to organics and heav5 metals. List of /ables <a3le 1. @roundwater 9ualit5 of "ie;ometer wells in ,ar=a dum"ing site
!1 6e"th >F <em" E0 <6S "D Eh Na 0a +g B .l= S(4 0l N(3 Silica N(2 !(4-/ ,r<D as 0a0(3 C$ C%.1 36.% 2$32 1646 6.C -14.' 14& 126 132 1% 4%% 2' 62' 2.%% 6.4 ,6F N. N. N. '$6 !>2 &% C2 34.C 211% 13%' C.3 -22.' 262 124 6' C 3%$ 1%6 4C1 16.' N. ,6F %.11 %.3& 1.6& $&% !3 C$ 6'.$ 34.% 1'C$ 121& C.4 -2&.C 1%C '2 1%6 & 2&& 46 42' 1.$% 6.%% ,6F N. N. N. 64% !4 C$ C%.6 34.& 1$%% &C$ C.3 -2$.% '$ '' C4 ' 21' 11% 314 2.%% C.2% ,6F N. N. N. $23 !$ C$ C2.' 36.4 11&% CC4 '.6 -1%2 &$ 44 36 31 33% 1% 2%6 1.$% 2.6% ,6F N. N. N. 2$' %%2I %C' N. $&.3 33.4 &4% 611 &.% N. 1%' 16 41 3 1$4 34 23$ %.%% 6.%% ,6F N. N. N. 2%C 212I %6% N. N. 3$.% 1%44 6C& C.6 N. &4 $2 6$ 3 2C' 1%& 143 1%.$& 26.% ,6F N. N. N. 3&6 6omesticI6rin=ing water standard (S<6 E!. +in +a:

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4nit P mgIl e:ce"t "D* Eh m)#* E0 µSIcm#* <em" °0#* 6e"th m# and >ater level >F# m 3gl#.

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

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<a3le 2. Statistical summar5 of micro3iological "arameters of "ie;ometer wells of ,ar=a 6um"ing site %%2I %C' 1.%' N. 32 3.2 3.2 212I %6% 3.3% N. % 1&.2 % Nil Nil 6omesticI6rin=ing water standard (S<6 E!. +in +a:

!1 6( mgIl# ,(6 mgIl# 0(6 mgIl# <.0oli +!NI1%%ml# E.0oli +!NI1%%ml# %.C6 12.% N. '%%% 1%%%

!>2 %.&4 1.12 C.6 2.%% 1.%%

!3 1.64 '.%% N. 6%%% &%%

!4 1.%C 1%.% N. $%%% C%%

!$ 1.34 '.%% N. 3%%% 4%%

<a3le 3. @roundwater 9ualit5 in ,ar=a dum"ing site P <race elements MgIl# !1 Ni 0u Kn 0d +n 0r 0o /e ,a !3 .r Se Dg • !>2 !3 !4 ,6F ,6F 1'%% ,6F 4%% ,6F ,6F '&%% ,6F ,6F ,6F ,6F ,6F !$ ,6F ,6F 4%% ,6F 2% ,6F ,6F &%% ,6F ,6F ,6F ,6F ,6F %%2I %C' ,6F N. N. ,6F N. 2&.% ,6F N. 21.% 4%.& N. N. N. 212I %6% ,6F N. N. ,6F N. ,6F ,6F N. 1%4 C.'2 N. N. N. 6omesticI6rin=ing standard (S<6 +in +a: 2% 1%%% 1$%% 3%%% $%%% 3 1%% $%% $% 3%% 1%%% C%% 1% water E!. 1%%% $%%% $ $% 1%% 3%% 2%%% 1$

,6F 1$4 ,6F ,6F 13 ,6F 3%% &3&3 1'%% ,6F % ,6F 1%%% 6% 3%% ,6F ,6F ,6F ,6F N. ,6F 13%%% &&6 $%%% ,6F N. ,6F ,6F ,6F ,6F ,6F N. ,6F ,6F N. ,6F ,6F N. ,6F ,6F P ,elow 6etecta3le Fevel

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

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<a3le 4. Effect of "um"ing on groundwater 9ualit5 in ,ar=a dum"ing site 6omesticI6rin=ing water standard (S<6 E!. +in +a:

+in +a: +ean +edian S<6 0ount <em" 26.C 3$.6 33.1 34.C 2.C 3' E0 211% 23&$ 2312 2333 C$.1 3' <6S 13C2 1$$C 1$%3 1$16 4'.' 3' '%% 1$%% $%% "D 6.&6 C.3 C.%2 C.%% %.%6 3' 6.$ &.% '.$% Eh -22.' -2.4 -$.&4 -$.2 3.42 3' Na 26% 313 2'4 2'2 13.$ 3' 2%% 4%% 0a 12% 14% 12' 13% $.6$ 3' +g 6$.$ '%.1 C3.6 C2.' 3.3$ 3' B 6.6 '.4 C.16 C.1$ %.32 3' .l= 2'% 31$ 2&C 2&' C.3$ 3' S(4 ''.% 114 &3.4 &1.% 6.66 24 2$% 4%% 2$% 0l 422 $6$ 4&6 4&$ 33.C 24 2$% 6%% 2$% N(3 16.' 3%.3 23.$ 23.$ 2.2& 24 $%.% 4$ Silica N. N. N. N. N. N. N(2 6.3' 6.3' 6.3' 6.3' 1 3 3.3 !(4-%.11 %.11 %.11 %.11 1 / %.21 %.$4 %.42 %.43 %.%& 21 1.$ 2 ,r1.43 2.43 1.&$ 1.&C %.2' 21 <D as $&% 64% 623 62% 16.1 3' 2%% $%% 0a0(3 6( %.' 1.34 1.%$ 1.%C %.13 3' ,(6 %.$' 1%.6 1.&2 1.26 1.'C 3$ 0(6 1.& 24.6 1%.& &.$% 6.$$ 3' -.3oli %.1 2$% 2'.2 4.2% $$.6 3' Nil E.3oli %.1 16$ 6.4% %.1% 2C.3 3' Nil • 4nit P mgIl e:ce"t "D* Eh m)#* E0 µSIcm#* <em" °0#* E.coli +!NI1%%ml# and -.coli +!NI1%%ml# • <a3le $. Effect of "um"ing on groundwater 9ualit5 in ,ar=a dum"ing site P <race elements MgIl# 6omesticI6rin=ing water standard (S<6 E!. +in +a: +ean +edian S<6 0ount +in +a: Ni ,6F 1%%2 13$ 11% 1C2 3' 2% 0u $ 6C 36 36 1' 3' 1%%% 1$%% 1%%% Kn 3C3 &3&3 66% 43$ 14$$ 3' 3%%% $%%% $%%% 0d 1$ '4 3& 36 1' 3' 3 $ +n 6 12& 22 1' 2% 3' 1%% $%% $% 0r 23 34 3% 31 $ 3' $% 1%% /e 24 &&6 21$ 1'' 1C3 3' 3%% 1%%% 3%% !3 ,6F ,6F ,6F ,6F ,6F 3' 1% 1$ • ,6F P ,elow 6etecta3le Fevel

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

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List of ,igures

,igure ! +a" shows the ,ar=a dum"ing site and locations of "ie;ometers !#* "um"ing well !># and trial "its <!#

,igure "! @roundwater 9ualit5 in the newl5 drilled wells in ,ar=a dum"ing site.

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

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,igure $! )ariation of in situ "arameters during "um"ing test in the newl5 drilled well in ,ar=a dum"ing site.

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

www.iiste.org

,igure '! )ariation of micro3iological "arameters during "um"ing test in the newl5 drilled well in ,ar=a dum"ing site.

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

www.iiste.org

,igure (! )ariation in the maGor cations during "um"ing test in the newl5 drilled well in ,ar=a dum"ing site.

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

www.iiste.org

,igure 0! )ariation in the maGor anions during "um"ing test in the newl5 drilled well in ,ar=a dum"ing site.

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Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 !a"er# ISSN 222$-%&4' (nline# )ol. 3* No.10* 2%13

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,igure 1! )ariation in the trace metals during "um"ing test in the newl5 drilled well

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