Because She was a Girl.doc | Postcolonialism | Jacques Lacan

‘ “Because she was a girl”: Gender Identity and the Postcolonial in James Joyce’s Eveline’, in Studies: Celebrating James

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That postcolonial studies has become a seminal part of academic life is now beyond debate. Indeed, the very term ‘postcolonial’ has become the latest ‘catchall term’ to ‘dazzle the academic mind’ (Jacoby, 1 !, "#$ by becomin% part of the

‘intellectual&academic industry ta'in% as its topic the colonial division of the world’ ((myth, 1 !, )*$. +t an epistemolo%ical level, however, there has been considerable

debate as to the epistemolo%ical status of postcolonialism,
such has been the elasticity of the concept postcolonial that in recent years some commentators have be%un to e-press an-iety that there may be a dan%er of it implodin% as an analytic concept with any real cuttin% ed%e. (.oore/0ilbert, 1 *, 11$

+ further level of comple-ity is introduced into this debate when the matter of Ireland is considered. 1u'e 0ibbons has speculated that the problem with Ireland and postcolonial studies is simply that ‘a native population which happened to be white was an affront to the very idea of 2white man’s burden3, and threw into disarray some of the constitutive cate%ories of colonial discourse’ (0ibbons, 1 academic opinion has diver%ed considerably on this issue.1 There has been on%oin% debate about this topic within the academy, with some theorists, notably 7ill +shcroft, 0areth 0riffiths and 6elen Tiffin, in The Empire Writes Back, Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures and in The PostColonial Studies Reader, ar%uin% that Ireland was complicit in the colonizin% of other 4, 15 $. 6owever,

if postcolonial writin% is not to leave itself open to a tu quoque char%e of settin% up its own. (0raham. ?erhaps this is the 'ey to the point at issue. 1iam 9ennedy ma'es a similar point. in effect. 5$. Bhile Aeats can be seen as a poet of empire.dward (aid’s su%%estion that while Aeats has been almost completely assimilated into the canons of ‘modern ) . especially the wor' of the canonical writers Aeats and Joyce.oloney and 6elen Thompson have made the relevant su%%estion that.anichean alle%ory. and ma'es it difficult for ‘colonized peoples outside 7ritain to accept their identity as post/colonial’ (+shcroft et al.mpire’ (9ennedy 1 4. )##1. which ma'es postcolonial theory an essential critical tool for understandin% Irish culture. while criticisin% the homo%eneity of ideolo%y. he can also be sees. 9iberd’s point is well ta'en. inverted . The matter of Ireland. The point here is that the complicity of Irish soldiers in the ‘7ritish colonial enterprise’ ma'es the Irish seem more colonizer than colonized. ) then the complications involved in the constitution of any form of hybridity or liminality must be ta'en into account. There can be no doubtin% the value of postcolonial theory as an instrument of criti@ue. <eclan 9iberd. passes over the Irish case very swiftly. has profound implications for the epistemolo%ical status of the postcolonial paradi%m. )###. ‘Ireland. 1 4. demurs from this position. as demonstrated by . "$. as a central part of the canon of . in order for Ireland to be considered ‘part of the postcolonial paradi%m. =olin 0raham ma'es the valid point that.oloney and Thompson. 1*4$. !$. su%%estin% that. 6owever.uropeans too stran%e an instance to :ustify their sustained attention’ (9iberd. and to prioritise cultural interchan%e within a colonial structure. University of Limerick cultures and hence cannot be seen as part of the postcolonial paradi%m.‘because she was a girl’: Eugene O’Brien. It is these abilities to read culture as ideolo%ical. and =aitr>ona . the paradi%m itself must chan%e’ (. perhaps because the authors find these white . Mary Immaculate College . was a :unior partner in that vast e-ploitative enterprise 'nown as the 7ritish .n%lish literature. notin% that ‘The Empire Writes Back. 1 8 . ""$. however.

1 81. This is a form of criti@ue which has been advocated by Jac@ues <errida. University of Limerick . a point that will become clear on an even cursory e-amination of any of the stories. ?erhaps the most interestin% conclusion that can be drawn from (aid’s ar%ument is that there can really be no simple either&or choice underlyin% the postcolonial paradi%m if that paradi%m is to perform any sort of transformative criti@ue of current and past colonial enterprises. in ‘the process of e-posin% the ideolo%ical and historical functionin% of such binaries. can nevertheless be seen as belon%in% to the tradition of ‘the colonial world ruled by .uropean hi%h modernism. In a boo' whose structure has been the topic of much discussion.veline’. one can loo' no further than Joyce to problematize the epistemolo%ical status of the postcolonial while at the same time enhancin% the validity of postcoloniality as an informed mode of criti@ue. specifically in the fourth story from that collection. différance. 1 8.%. between colonizer and colonized. Instead of this either&or choice. who. spea'in% about his early neolo%ism. 1 #.‘because she was a girl’: Eugene O’Brien. Mary Immaculate College . In terms of an investi%ation of postcoloniality. 1#5$.uropean imperialism’ ((aid. " . The focal point of this essay will be Joyce’s e-ploration of female sub:ectivity in u!liners. we are in dan%er of reproducin% them’ (1oomba. 4 $. The notion that postcoloniality is some form of all/embracin% metanarrative is deconstructed alon% %ender lines in this boo' as the e-perience of the male characters is vastly different from that of the female characters." +s +nia 1oomba notes. 141$. notes that it is ‘neither this nor thatC but rather this and that (e. the act of differin% and of deferrin%$ without bein% reducible to a dialectical lo%ic either’ (<errida. what is needed is a more nuanced form of interaction between selfhood and alterity. ‘. the role of the female characters has been surprisin%ly ne%lected.n%lish 1iterature’ and ‘. the @uestion is now bein% as'ed of postcolonial theory as to whether.

‘I always find my desire outside of me. or to put it more correctly misreco%nition ( méconnaissance$. desire is the prime a%ency of human sub:ective development. sub:ectivity is centred on the interaction of the developin% e%o with what he terms the ‘other’. 1acan postulates a child seein% its ima%e in a mirror and becomin% fi-ated on the ima%e. 5 . a process which 1acan sees as seminal to the ima%inary order. an ima%e of such wholeness. 1acan su%%ests that self/ reco%nition. Dor 1acan. Dor 1acan. Mary Immaculate College . is constitutive of the development of the human sub:ect. the identity of the human sub:ect comes about throu%h a number of interactions between the individual and two orders of meanin% which he has termed the ima%inary and the symbolic. which is both unified and coherent. because what I desire is always somethin% that I lac'. Dor 1acan. the very nature of desire means that it is always unfulfilled. and it is always directed at some form of otherness.‘because she was a girl’: Eugene O’Brien. the ima%e is also two/dimensional as opposed to three/ dimensional. and this should stri'e a chord with the postcolonial paradi%m %iven its particularist stance and its reluctance to accept overarchin% totalizations. and desires to be li'e. +s he puts it. Jac@ues 1acan. 1 **. University of Limerick There has been comparatively none %iven to the development of female sub:ectivity in u!liners. The fra%mented infant identifies with. !8$. that is other to me’ ((arup. the Drench psychoanalytic theorist. In the mirror sta%e. as opposed to the child’s own inchoate motor development. Bhat we will see is that Joyce is in the process of tracin% how the e-perience of women within the le!ens"elt of colonial <ublin differed from that of men. writin% about ‘The function and field of speech and lan%ua%e in psychoanalysis’. Dor 1acan. 5 The importance of lan%ua%e in the construction of sub:ectivity is a concern shared by Joyce and one of his more influential critics. 6owever. ‘the first ob:ect of desire is to be reco%nized by the other’ (1acan.

this desi%nation refers to the ‘mother.veline 6ill. 1 8 . and it becomes clear that her position is far worse than that of her male family members. )5$. 6er sense of self is predicated on a reflection in the men of her life at present. Dran'. In terms of the mirror sta%e.‘because she was a girl’: Eugene O’Brien. In the world of <ubliners. 48/4 $. is defined in terms of her own personal and social other. at the be%innin% of life. %iven 1acan’s oft/@uoted ma-im that ‘what the psychoanalytic e-perience discovers in the unconscious is the whole structure of lan%ua%e’ (1acan. 15*$. and lan%ua%e is the material dimension where such development can ta'e place. the notion of the other be%ins with an identification with an ob:ect different from itself. and finally any number of bodies or fi%ures of authority. ! . her desire to be of some worth is located throu%h the male %aze. the eponymous heroine of the fourth story in u!liners. 1 **. ‘it is this moment that decisively tips the whole of human 'nowled%e into mediatization throu%h the desire of the other’ (1acan. this other is very different for men and women. =onsider the case of . Initially. then both parents. her life. later one’s peers. in 1acanian terms. 6er sub:ectivity. it is the %rowth and development of our notion of the other that structures the type of identity which we develop. Drom infancy. 1 ". whether that of her brother. we see' to be desired and loved by the Ether. by the end of the story. (ociety and nature’ (7racher. This is true at both a conscious and an unconscious level. a term which. 1acan says. and in reflected memories of her past in terms of women and children. includin% 0od. her father or her ‘fellow’. University of Limerick 1 ). In the establishment of the e%o the desire for some form of identity is paramount. (pea'in% of the moment at which the mirror sta%e comes to an end. In a parallel of the Dreudian repetition comple-. alters as we develop. Dor 1acan. Mary Immaculate College . will be seen to repeat many of the destructive patterns of her mother’s before her. 4$. In many ways. as 7racher notes.

a process symbolic of the identification with the ‘ideal/I’. in terms of a validation of her selfhood. Dor 1acan.veline watchin% ‘the evenin% invade the avenue’ (Joyce. 1 5. 1 5. the breast of the mother is lost to her child and never can be re%ained. there is an o!#et petit a. In 1acanian desire. 14$. the initial ob:ect of desire is the identification with the ima%e of the self in the mirror. Mary Immaculate College . the possibility of fulfillin% desire throu%h the procurement of a needed ob:ect falls away. University of Limerick usually the mother. 1 84. with a seated . the si%nifier throu%h which she comes to a form of full identity as herself. Dran' is both her ob:ect of desire and at the same time. )8/ $. )4$. The demand for love always e-ceeds the possibility of its satisfaction. In a manner redolent of $thello. Thus. )8$. and then develops into the ‘(ymbolic other. ‘GfHirst of all it had been an e-citement for her to have a fellow and then she had be%un to li'e him’ (Joyce. of how he started as a ‘dec' boy at a pound a month on a ship of the +llan 1ine %oin% out to =anada’. throu%h his %ender/sanctioned role. and you are left with desire of the ‘other’ in and of itself.veline could not be star'er. to 4 . or an ob:ect that satiates need. 1 5. he is active while she is passive I he has the ability. desire can never be satisfied by the ob:ect of its need. Thus . The lost character of the o!#et petit a means that the sub:ect can never re%ain the feelin% of bein% whole. Dor instance. In other words. which is already lost. Dran' woos her by tellin% stories of adventures in far/flun% destinations.‘because she was a girl’: Eugene O’Brien.veline desired to have a boyfriend before she desired Dran' personally. Be are reminded of how the story be%ins.a%ellan and he told her stories of the terrible ?ata%onians’. how he had ‘sailed throu%h the (traits of . and how he had fallen on his feet in 7uenos +ires (Joyce. 6er desire is achieved in bein% the ob:ect of Dran'’s desire. the notion that she is now seen as mature. or the real father’ (Fa%land (ullivan. and its ob:ect is always elsewhere. The contrast of this much/ travelled male with the static .

‘the pitiful vision of her mother’s life laid its spell on the very @uic' of her bein% I that life of commonplace sacrifices closin% in final * . he sees the metaphor of the Jame of the father substitutin% for the desire of the mother. with these characters standin% as metonyms for the %endered mediation of the postcolonial e-perience.veline’s memories of her mother are specifically related to illness and death. Mary Immaculate College . The final hours of her mother’s life repeat in . and the sense of loss may be the reason for her perceived passivity.! It is interestin% that the role of the father is so important in this story as for 1acan.veline’s mind. This relationship has also been temporally frozen. the Jame/of/the/Dather substitutes for the presence of the mother. where the child. . with the attendant sense of unfulfilled desire. In postcolonial terms. 6ere the repression of woman in this society becomes almost a pattern.‘because she was a girl’: Eugene O’Brien. specifically as she sits ponderin% her own decision. Thus. University of Limerick escape from colonial Ireland.veline. Dor . In what is basically a lin%uistic reinterpretation of the Dreudian Eedipus =omple-. his ran%e of options and choices is far %reater than hers. in the ima%inary order. identifies with both its own ideal ima%e and with the mother as the satisfier of all infantile demands. her relationship with her mother has been foreclosed by death. and this in turn reminds her of the life her mother lead. and thus the %ender aspect of the postcolonial paradi%m is brou%ht to the fore. The sound of the or%an reminds her of the same sound at the time of her mother’s death. the development of sub:ectivity throu%h lan%ua%e is predicated on the what he terms the ‘Jame/of/the/Dather’. while her only ‘escape’ is to %o to the (aturday evenin% mar'et to buy food for the family. the initial mirror sta%e. havin% mana%ed to wrin% some of her own money bac' from an increasin%ly abusive father. Bith the advent of entry into the (ymbolic order.

Bhen they were %rowin% up he had never %one for her. because she was a %irlC but latterly he had be%un to threaten her and say what he would do to her only for her dead mother’s sa'e. In a very real sense.4 Dor . (he would not be treated as her mother had been. or else to become the wife of another man who is lar%ely un'nown to her. Just as she 8 . a violent man who had driven her mother to her death. her desire to be loved by her father is an important aspect of her sub:ective development. namely. University of Limerick craziness’ (Joyce. who was in the church decoratin% business. li'e he used to %o for 6arry and . Dran' provides the means throu%h which . she is at the same time ma'in% e-cuses. thou%h she was over nineteen. The :u-taposition of the pronoun and proper noun in the above @uotation ‘she. . Then she would be married I she. Enly then will she achieve that sense of wholeness that 1acan sees as essential to our sub:ectivity. . . (he 'new it was that that had %iven her the ?alpitations. when evidence of her self/delusional lo%ic is brou%ht to the fore. (he 'new it was that that had %iven her the ?alpitations. . (Joyce. ?eople would treat her with respect then. 1 5. )*$ +s noted earlier. li'e he used to %o for 6arry and . 1 5.rnest.veline’ enacts the sense of ima%inary fullness that she believes marria%e will brin%.ven now. because she was a %irlC but latterly he had be%un to threaten her and say what he would do to her only for her dead mother’s sa'e.rnest.veline can satisfy her desire.rnest was dead and 6arry. The cause of that craziness has been hinted at earlier in the story. thou%h she was over nineteen.‘because she was a girl’: Eugene O’Brien. reflected in the mirror of a father who was first introduced as wieldin% a ‘blac'thorn stic'’ (Joyce. she sometimes felt herself in dan%er of her fatherKs violence. Mary Immaculate College .veline is a commodity in this story. 6er star' choice here is to remain the dau%hter of one man. . Bhen they were %rowin% up he had never %one for her. is passive in the e-treme. ) /"#$. to be married. she sometimes felt herself in dan%er of her father’s violence.ven now. )4/*$ 6er sense of self. only throu%h becomin% Dran'’s wife can she completely valorise her female identity. a desire that has been societally enculturated within her. +nd now she had nobody to protect her.ven as she describes an obviously violent man.veline. Enly then would she %et ‘respect’. . .veline. )4$. 1 5. was nearly always down somewhere in the country. (Joyce. 1 5.

is based on fear.veline. despite her best efforts in attenuatin% his levels of violence.‘because she was a girl’: Eugene O’Brien. Mary Immaculate College . does she value herself hi%hly. and secondly. havin% handed her father her total wee'’s wa%es (seven shillin%s$ she had to endure a haran%uin% about thrift from her father before he would dei%n to return some of that money to her so she could shop for %roceries. are both seen as powerful and %enerous. nevertheless. Interestin%ly. 6er relationship with her father. she was a%ain in the close. it is . . which she ‘%ives up’ to her father (Joyce. This passivity is further underscored by the wee'ly row over money when. ‘<amned ItaliansL comin% over hereL’ (Joyce. as males. =learly.of self worth. . despite the fact that . her father and Dran'.veline wor's in ‘the (tores’ and earns ‘seven shillin%s’ a wee'. Bhat we see here is the desire to be valued by the other. . +s already noted. once in the wee'ly wran%le with . and that her father is no lon%er depicted as havin% any earnin% power.veline is not interested in Dran' qua Dran'C rather is she interested in havin% ‘a fellow and then she had be%un to li'e him’. so her father is seen as active an dynamic. %iven that this is her sense of selfhood. dar' room at the other side of the hall and outside she heard a melancholy air of Italy. )8$. while she is in need of protection. Dran' is a different mirror ima%e with whom she can identify. as he returns a portion of hr wa%es to her. =learly their .veline is not hi%hly prized by him. (he remembered her father struttin% bac' into the sic'/room sayin%. 6er passivity is a%ain fore%rounded as her brothers. her father is seen twice in the story %ivin% money. who bou%ht the tic'ets for the boat. at first. 1 5. were in the position of escapin% from the violent attentions of her father. in the memory of the last ni%ht of her mother’s illness. 1 5.eanwhile. nor. The or%an/player had been ordered to %o away and %iven si-pence. University of Limerick is compared with the dynamic Dran'.veline who is depicted as havin% to as' for money to %o shoppin% for %roceries on a (aturday ni%ht. ) $ In terms of the power of money as an inde.

into precisely the role re@uired of a youn% Irishman by the 7ritish .elbourne now. +ll of these characters are wor'in% class. ‘6e is in . by placin% men in a he%emonic position. University of Limerick ran%e of choices is lar%er than that of .veline’s function is to dust this picture.r 6ill become cruel and violent.veline’s father maintains his sense of selfhood throu%h the threat of violence and a mi-ture of miso%ynistic and -enophobic attitudes. 1 5. in becomin% a sailor. In terms of livin% in a colonial society. or in 7uenos +ires with Dran'. )*$ . 6e also attempts to e-ert a form of epistemolo%ical as well as financial control over . attempts to displace any form of rebellion by allowin% men far more freedom than women. Mary Immaculate College . there is very little overt reference to be found in either this story or the collection as a whole. Dran' has. throu%h emi%ration. +nd yet durin% all those years she had never found out the name of the priest whose yellowin% photo%raph hun% on the wall above the bro'en harmonium beside the coloured print of the promises made to 7lessed . in turn. in an +lthusserian sense. and also by placin% men in the position of authority over women. repressed by a colonial and class system which condemns them to menial :obs. who still has never been told the name of the priest whose photo%raph has been on the wall since her birth. Dran' has become interpellated.‘because she was a girl’: Eugene O’Brien.veline who can 'eep house for her father in <ublin. Bhenever he showed the photo%raph to a visitor her father used to pass it with a casual word. and all have become comodified by the colonial process. mana%ed to escape some of the claustrophobic atmosphere which has made .mpire. .mpire I merchant navy canon fodder. Thus. the women in these stories are repressed by their men who are. but not to be part of its epistemolo%ical conte-t. 6e had been a school friend of her father. albeit to different de%rees.veline.’ (Joyce. of course. 6e is 1# .ar%aret .ary +laco@ue. This e-ample stresses that there are subtle hierarchies of power to be found within this seemin%ly amorphous body of wor'in% class <ubliners. .

veline’s brother.veline’s father is of his comin% to end the play of the children. in the openin% lines. Eur first view of . choice throu%hout the story.veline.‘because she was a girl’: Eugene O’Brien. 1i'e 6arry. . Drom the outset. (he is seen sittin% down. )*$. Mary Immaculate College .veline in the end. The choices of women. 6arry.veline is passive. leanin% a%ainst a window. a memory process itself which is maimed.veline. Dran' e-ercises 5. finally choosin% to leave . The e-perience of . and dwellin% on the past of her childhood. . University of Limerick providin% the manpower for the on%oin% rulin% of the waves by 7ritannia.veline’s own life/choices by interpellatin% her into the traditional role of carer by as'in% her to ‘'eep the home to%ether for as lon% as she could’ (Joyce. . on the other hand. when he itemises how %rowth is predicated on a development of the ‘other’ in our lives. Dran' is defined in terms of selfhood by his :obC %ender definition is not enou%h. the mail characters have choices. ) $.veline’s mother has circumscribed . ?erhaps the most si%nificant de%ree of %ender difference pointed up in this story is in the area of choice. and in so doin%. Dor . part of her reflective mirror is that hauntin% promise made to a dyin% womanC it has fi-ed her in a passive state and refuses to allow her to develop alon% the lines cited by 7racher above. 1 5. 11 . 1 )8$. is not. there must be a more %raded sense of selfhood associated with occupation. e-ercise levels of control over the choices of the women in their lives. and more importantly. This is abundantly clear in her comments on the son% about the ‘lass that loved a sailor’ (Joyce. a fact instantiated in the circular lo%ic of the story.veline. e-ercises the choice of movin% away from the home ‘somewhere down the country’ (Joyce. the church/painter. are clearly attenuated. Dran' is defined by his social occupation while . on the other hand. achievin% more personal freedom and empowerment than will ever be open to .veline is %ender/defined. his stic' standin% as a metonym of the violence throu%h which he holds sway in his family. 1 5.

veline sees her %ender role as a blessin%. "#$. To attempt to translate these lines into Irish is futile. so in this world. li'e a helpless 1) . is a %raphic account of the dialectics and hierarchies of power that accrue in a wor'in% class. 6er story ends as she %rips ‘with both hands at the iron railin%’ of the Jorth Ball harbour terminal. colonial culture. )*$. +s Dran' leaves. as central to sub:ectivity. because she was a %irl’ (Joyce.‘because she was a girl’: Eugene O’Brien. and the oscillation between the ima%inary and symbolic orders. Just as 1acan sees lan%ua%e. 1 5. Bhat a 1acanian and postcolonial readin% of this te-t reveal are the nuances delineated by Joyce in terms of the %ender politics of the time. in the face of the crises of their lives. Bhatever problems are faced by the men in the story. 6er complete inability to communicate with Dran' at this crucial :uncture ‘amidst the seas she sent a cry of an%uish’ is eerily redolent of her mother’s final words. lan%ua%e itself loses its ability to communicate and becomes almost autistic. in actual fact. the final picture of . Mary Immaculate College .rnest. the men and women of u!liners each inhabit different discursive and e-istential re%imes.veline is less than human. as her father had never ‘%one for her li'e he used to %o for 6arry and . as both mother and dau%hter re%ress into incomprehension and non/verbal sound respectively. passive. ‘she set her white face to him. and totally misses the point of the Joycean encapsulation of the e-perience of women in this story. choices and personal development. refusin% to move. both women are reduced to an inability to communicate. where such development is forcibly stunted in the case of women. University of Limerick featurin% ima%es of violence and physical disability. Dar from bein% an undifferentiated %roup. the oft cited ‘<erevaun (eraunL <erevaun (eraunL’ (Joyce 1 5. Bhat Joyce has %iven us in this e-emplary te-t. it completely circumscribes her actions. Thou%h .

1u'e. =aitriona. 7ill. 1crits . in Fichard 9earney (ed. 1" . )###.* Selection% Translated by +lan (heridan.$ 1 !. +shcroft.dinbur%hC . <errida. . ‘.ssue) . Mary Immaculate College . 7art. 1 81. . )##1. and . )###. . (1 8!$ 1). econstructin( . pa%es ! /8*. States of +ind. Jac@ues.reland) . 0riffiths. 1 8 . 1 Feturns. 1ondon. Introduction by +nthony 7ur%ess.dentity' Theory' Culture. 1 *.nquiry. 1 4.*.oore/0ilbert. 0ibbons. Eri%inally published as ‘The . 1 **. 9ennedy.dentities' Te-ts' Cultures. "#/"*. . 1acan. Foutled%e. 1ondon. 6owe (eds$. Tavistoc'. pa%es 18/)".anchester Mniversity ?ress.ohamed. +nia. Oerso. Ointa%e. Jacoby. =ambrid%e Mniversity ?ress.reland as Postcolonial. . The Empire Writes Back. 1 "1$C and this is. (prin%. 1 4. 7racher. 7elfast. Joyce. Foutled%e. 0areth and 6elen (eds$. 1ondon and Jew Aor'. <ere'.anchester. 1 !. . The Trouble with ?ostcolonial Theory’.anichean +lle%ory’.conomy of the . 1.anichean +lle%ory.‘because she was a girl’: Eugene O’Brien. Jac@ues. 1acan.ranca. (ec'er and Barbur%. 1oomba.ditor John <ra'a'is. =or'. u!liners. ‘The . (eptember&Ectober. 0areth and 6elen Tiffin (eds$. 1ondon. 1ondon. . /e" Critical idiom Series. Ithaca. The Dunction of Facial <ifference in =olonialist 1iterature’. 1ondon. ialo(ues "ith Contemporary Continental Thinkers. . Transformations in . and 6elen Thompson (eds$. . ‘<econstruction and the Ether’. 1 8.reland . 5. Foutled%e. 1 5. +bdul.1. Colonialism' Reli(ion and /ationalism in . James. 1 8 . Tendencies. Semicolonial &oyce.oloney. Postcolonial Theory) Conte-ts' Practises' Politics . 0riffiths. 1 !. Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures% 1ondon. 1 ". Johns 6op'ins ?ress. Critical . Colonialism2Postcolonialism. Fussell. 7ill.conomy of the .dinbur%h Mniversity ?ress. =ornell Mniversity ?ress. Jo. <eclan. "/15. 0areth 0riffiths and 6elen Tiffin. =olin. 7altimore.unction of Lan(ua(e in Psychoanalysis% Translated by +nthony Bilden. University of Limerick animal. 0raham.reland) The Literature of a +odern /ation .ar'. Dirst published 1 15. The Nueen’s Mniversity of 7elfast. because she was a %irl. ‘Introduction. 1 !. 6er eyes %ave him no si%n of love or farewell or reco%nition’ (Joyce. 1iam. so the story would indicate. Lin(ua . The Lan(ua(e of the Self) The . 1ondon. =ambrid%e. =or' Mniversity ?ress in association with Dield <ay.ethuen. The Postcolonial Studies Reader 1 !. Ool. Jac@ues.n0entin( . . Lacan' iscourse and Social Chan(e) * Psychoanalytic Cultural Criticism. +ttrid%e. The Post-Colonial Studies Reader. 27order Traffic3 ’ &ournal of Common"ealth and Postcolonial Studies) Special . Bor's =ited. 9iberd. Jan. edited by 7ill +shcroft.rish Culture.

Seamus 3eaney and the Place of Writin(. )##". (arup. ‘Aeats and <ecolonization’.‘because she was a girl’: Eugene O’Brien. )!/ ) . 0erry.u%ene. the ?ost. and the Mtterly =han%ed. . Bed%e *(8$ (Binter&(prin%$ .llie. 1 8!. 1 !. /ationalism' Colonialism' and Literature. 0ainesville. Mary Immaculate College . Mniversity ?ress of Dlorida. 1 #. University of Limerick E’7rien.dward. (peculations on Bidow (acrifice’. (myth.adan (1 )$ Jac@ues 1acan. Intellectual Fesponsibility and Irish =ultural =riticism’.innesota ?ress. pa%es 1)#/1"#. 0ayatri =ha'ravorty. . ‘=an the (ubaltern (pea'P. 1 84. . (aid.inneapolis. 6emel 6empsted. .1#. (piva'. Irish (tudies Feview. =room 6elm. Mniversity of . 1ondon. 15 . Fa%land/(ullivan. ‘The ?ast. 6arvester Bheatsheaf. . &acques Lacan and the Philosophy of Psychoanalysis . 4 / !. Jo.

Indeed.conomy of the . The ori%inal focus on this most essentialist silencin% of a %endered subaltern has often been lost in the on%oin% success of (piva'’s ar%ument. and thus Jan. Ene of the 'ey %enerative te-ts of the postcolonial paradi%m is 0ayatri =ha'ravorty (piva'’s much/antholo%ized essay ‘=an the (ubaltern (pea'’. then ipso facto. this essay has %iven a name to a particular sub/%enre of postcolonialism. Jan. It is also to predicate one’s theoretical premises on the past as opposed to the future. 6u%h 9enner has famously su%%ested that the destination that Dran' has in mind is more li'ely to be 1iverpool rather than 7uenos +ires. Ene of the 'ey %enerative te-ts of the postcolonial paradi%m is 0ayatri =ha'ravorty (piva'’s much/antholo%ized essay ‘=an the (ubaltern (pea'’. (peculations on Bidow (acrifice’. society and culture are limited by this reified definition of self and other. intersection and ultimately. 1 $.ohamed’s seminal article. 6owever. developments in the fields of politics. (peculations on Bidow (acrifice’. 1 !. ‘=an the (ubaltern (pea'P. %iven the e-amples cited.ohamed’s thesis (referrin% to a " rd century ?ersian cult which saw 0od and (atan as absolutely separate and loc'ed in eternal conflict$ is that colonial literature subverts ‘the traditional dialectic of self and Ether’ (Jan. If the colonizer&colonized opposition is seen as definitive within a culture. Indeed. endorses such a fi-ed binary opposition. namely. transformation. interaction. 1 !. namely (ubaltern (tudies. 6owever. 1"8$.ohamed’s point is well ta'en. (uch a perspective narrows the theoretical scope of postcolonial discourse.1 ) " 5 ! 4 + thorou%h discussion of the usa%e of this term in a specifically Irish conte-t is to be found in Semicolonial &oyce% +bdul Jan.ohamed. namely (ubaltern (tudies.ohamed. =olonization. . ‘The . ‘=an the (ubaltern (pea'P. I thin'. power relationship and discourse. what is interestin% is that the full title of this essay is seldom seen. what is interestin% is that the full title of this essay is seldom seen. even thou%h. as an ideolo%y. underlinin% the almost complete lac' of information %iven about Dran' in this story. as in Ireland. Issues of identity are ultimately settled by reference to this terminus a quo from which all such identificatory politics derives. Dor an informative and wide/ran%in% discussion of Joyce and colonialism see Semicolonial &oyce. the initial acts of colonization occurred hundreds of years a%o. namely. that this is a real dan%er for the postcolonial paradi%m. To allow oppositions to become reified is to attenuate the possibilities of influence. 18$. The Dunction of Facial <ifference in =olonialist 1iterature’.anichean +lle%ory. )##". and oversimplifies comple. with the colonized self bein% defined in contradistinction to the colonized ‘other’.issues of interaction and influence (E’7rien. this essay has %iven a name to a particular sub/%enre of postcolonialism. and sets up a fetishized ‘nondialectical fi-ed opposition between the self and the native’ (Jan.

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