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hallucogenic plants
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Clockwise from lower left: fly agaric mushroom, sinicuichi, morning glory, tree datura, peyote, cannabis.

What are hallucinogenic plants? How do they affect mind and body? Who uses them - and why? This uni ue !olden !uide sur"eys the role of psychoacti"e plants in primiti"e and ci"ili#ed societies from early times to the present. The first nontechnical guide to both the cultural significance and physiological effects of hallucinogens, H$%%&C'()!*('C +%$(T, will fascinate general readers and students of anthropology and history as well as botanists and other specialists. $ll of the wild and culti"ated species considered are illustrated in brilliant full color. ',-(-.-/.0-12/31-4 The files at this &5% are transmitted under the 67air &se6 rulings regarding the 4803 Copyright $ct for ()(-profit academic and general information purposes.

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H$%%&C'()!*('C +%$(T,
by RICHARD EVANS SHULTES Illustrated by ELMER W. SMITH
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GOLDEN PRESS - NEW YORK 1976 Western Publishing Co !"n#$ %n&' S&"nning "n( 'ht b# lo!lo!$ )ug *99 FOREWORD Hallucino enic !lants "a#e been used by $an %or t"ousands o% years& !robably since "e be an at"erin !lants %or %ood. T"e "allucino ens "a#e continued to recei#e t"e attention o% ci#ili'ed $an t"rou " t"e a es. Recently& (e "a#e one t"rou " a !eriod durin ("ic" so!"isticated Western society "as )disco#ered) "allucino ens& and so$e sectors o% t"at society "a#e ta*en u!& %or one reason or anot"er& t"e use o% suc" !lants. T"is trend $ay be destined to continue. It is& t"ere%ore& i$!ortant %or us to learn as $uc" as (e can about "allucino enic !lants. A reat body o% scienti%ic literature "as been !ublis"ed about t"eir uses and t"eir e%%ects& but t"e in%or$ation is o%ten loc*ed a(ay in tec"nical +ournals. T"e interested lay$an "as a ri "t to sound in%or$ation on ("ic" to base "is o!inions. T"is boo* "as been (ritten !artly to !ro#ide t"at *ind o% in%or$ation. No $atter ("et"er (e belie#e t"at $en,s inta*e o% "allucino ens in !ri$iti#e or so!"isticated societies constitutes use& $isuse& or abuse& "allucino enic !lants "a#e undeniably !layed an e-tensi#e role in "u$an culture and !robably s"all continue to do so. It %ollo(s t"at a clear understandin o% t"ese !"ysically and socially !otent a ents s"ould be a !art o% $an,s eneral education. R. E. S. RICHARD EVANS SCHULTES& .".D.& /.L.S.& is !ro%essor o% natural sciences and director o% t"e 0otanical Museu$ at Har#ard Uni#ersity. An internationally *no(n botanist s!eciali'in in narcotic& $edicinal and !oisonous !lants& Dr. Sc"ultes s!ent so$e 12 years in Sout" A$erica li#in a$on Indian tribes in order to in#esti ate directly t"eir uses o% suc" !lants. Dr. Sc"ultes is t"e reci!ient o% nu$erous "onors& a$on t"e$ a decoration %ro$ t"e o#ern$ent o% Colo$bia %or "is (or* in t"e A$a'on& and is a $e$ber o% se#eral A$erican and %orei n acade$ies o% science& includin t"e National Acade$y o% Sciences. He is editor o% t"e +ournal Econo$ic 0otany and t"e aut"or o% $any scienti%ic !a!ers3 (it" Albert Ho%$ann "e (rote T"e 0otany and C"e$istry o% Hallucino ens. ELMER W. SMITH& a ne( En land 4an*ee by birt" and inclination& is a %ree5lance artist& sel%5tau "t in art& (it" an M.S. de ree %ro$ t"e Uni#ersity o% Massac"usetts. He illustrated t"e 6olden 6uide 7RCHIDS& and "as tra#eled and collected in t"e A$a'on (it" "is %riend and collea ue t"e aut"or o% HALLUCIN76ENIC .LANTS. S$it",s (or* a!!ears in c"ildren,s boo*s as (ell as in scienti%ic +ournals& and "e "as illustrated nu$erous te-tboo*s in t"e %ield o% biolo y. Currently "e is an artist at t"e 0otanical Museu$ o% Har#ard Uni#ersity. 67LDEN .RESS 8 NEW 47R9

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CONTENTS . W"at Are Hallucino enic .lants: ......................................; Hallucino ens in .ri$iti#e Societies .................................< Use in Modern Western World ........................................1= /a$ily Tree o% t"e .lant 9in do$ ...................................1> Distribution o% Hallucino ens ..........................................12 C"e$ical Co$!osition ....................................................1? .seudo"allucino ens ......................................................>= Ho( Hallucino ens Are Ta*en .........................................>1 7ld World Hallucino ens .................................................>> /ly A aric Mus"roo$& >2 8 A ara& Ereriba& >@ 8 9(as"i& 6alan a& >A 8 Mari"uana& B= 8 Tur*estan Mint& 2> 8 Syrian Rue& 2B 8 9anna& 22 8 0elladonna& 2? 8 Henbane& 2@ 8 Mandra*e& ;= 8 D"atura& ;> 8 Ibo a& ;2 8 Ne( World Hallucino ens ................................................;? .u%%balls& ;< 8 Mus"roo$s& ;@ 8 Ra!C dos Indios& <> 8 S(eet /la & <B 8 Virolas& <2 8 Mas"a5"ari& @B 8 Dure$a& @2 8 4o!o& @? 8 Vilca& A> 8 6enista& AB 8 Mescal 0ean& A2 8 Colorines& A? 8 .iule& A< 8 Aya"uasca& A@ 8 S"ans"i& 1=< 8 Sinicuic"i& 1=@ 8 San .edro& 11= 8 .eyote& 112 8 )/alse .eyotes&,, 1>2 8 Hierbo Loca& 1>? 8 Sacred Mornin 6lories& 1>@ 8 Ho+as de la .astora& 1B< 8 Coleus& 0orrac"era& Arbol de los 0ru+os& 1B@ 8 C"iric5 Cas!i& 12= 8 Daturas& 12> 8 Tree Daturas& 12; 8 Culebra 0orrac"era& 12@ 8 S"anin& 9eule& TaiEue& 1;= 8 Tu!a& Facatec"ic"i& 1;> 8 .syc"o!"ar$acolo y ...................................................&..1;2 7t"er Hallucino enic .lants .........................................&..1;? More In%or$ation .........................................................&.1;< Inde- ............................................................................1;@

Hallucinogenic plants ha"e been featured on many postage stamps: 94, 3: Amanita muscaria, 91: fruit of Peganum harmala, 9/: Atropa belladonna, 92: Pancratium trianthum, 9;: Rivea corymbosa, 90: Datura stramonium, 9<: Datura candida, 98: Hyoscyamus niger.

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a "io#a $ndian. We call t"ese !lants "allucino ens& because t"ey distort t"e senses and usually !roduce "allucinations 5 e-!eriences t"at de!art %ro$ reality.syc"edelic is $ost (idely used in t"e United States& but it co$bines t(o 6ree* roots incorrectly& is biolo ically unsound& and "as acEuired !o!ular $eanin s beyond t"e dru s or t"eir e%%ects. Alt"ou " $ost "allucinations are #isual& t"ey $ay also in#ol#e t"e senses o% "earin & touc"& s$ell& or taste 5 and occasionally se#eral senses si$ultaneously are in#ol#ed.WHAT ARE HALLUCINOGENIC PLANTS? In "is searc" %or %ood& early $an tried all *inds o% !lants. called "Morning Prayer in a Peyote eremony. entral fire and crescent shaped alter are flan!ed by ceremonial eagle feather fans% feathers symboli&e morning. Strictly and ety$olo icolly s!ea*in & a narcotic is any substance t"at "as a de!ressi#e e%%ect& ("et"er sli "t or reat& on t"e central ner#ous syste$. A %e(& to "is sur!rise& "ad stran e e%%ects on "is $ind and body& see$in to carry "i$ into ot"er (orlds. Paramount among the hallucinogens of religious significance is the peyote cactus. T"eir %antastic e%%ects $ade t"e$ sacred to !ri$iti#e $an and $ay e#en "a#e been res!onsible %or su estin to "i$ t"e idea o% deity. T"e actual causes o% suc" "allucinations are c"e$ical substances in t"e !lants. In t"e "istory o% $an*ind& "allucino ens "a#e !robably been t"e $ost i$!ortant o% all t"e narcotics. So$e nouris"ed "i$& so$e& "e %ound& cured "is ills& and so$e *illed "i$. No one ter$ %ully satis%ies scientists& but "allucino ens co$es closest. T"ese substances are true narcotics. These $ndians are ritual users of peyote. . - . This illustration. rising prayers. Narcotics t"at induce "allucinations are #ariously called "allucino ens G"allucination eneratorsH& !syc"oto$i$etics G!syc"osis $i$ic*ersH& !syc"otara-ics G$ind disturbersH& and !syc"edelics G$ind $ani%estersH. and the birds. Contrary to !o!ular o!inion& not all narcotics are dan erous and addicti#e." is adapted from a painting by Tsa To!e.

or&es' Conse2uentl#$ "n# 3 e(i&ine3 th"t &"n tr"ns!ort "n to the s!irit 1orl( is &onsi(ere( b# "n# "borigines to be better th"n one 1ith !urel# !h#si&"l e. h"llu&inogeni& !l"nts "re !"rti&ul"l# i !ort"nt in !ri iti/e so&ieties' )borigin"l !eo!le "ttribute si&0ness "n( he"lth to the 1or0ing o.6 unearthed in Tlalmanalco on the slopes of the "olcano +opocatepetl and now on display in the >useo (acional in >e?ico City. OTHER ABORIGINAL USES o% "allucino ens #ary %ro$ one !ri$iti#e culture to anot"er. MEDICAL AND RELIGIOUS USES o. T"ey !lay roles in "ealt" and sic*ness& !eace and (ar& "o$e li%e and tra#el& "untin and a riculture3 t"ey a%%ect relations a$on indi#iduals& #illa es& and tribes.ro b"r0 o. the or"&le o.. %abels indicate probable botanical interpretations of styli#ed glyphs.or e5" !le$ "re thought to h"/e been in(u&e( through h"llu&inogens' 6"0un" %n(i"n e(i&ine "n un(er in. Del!hi$ . T"ey are belie#ed to in%luence li%e be%ore birt" and a%ter deat".luen&e o.tatue of =ochipilli. &""!i 7"#"hu"s&" or #"8e9 !re!"re( . T"e Al onEuin Indians a#e an : . the $#tec 6+rince of 7lowers. s!irit .e&ts' Ps#&hi& !o1ers h"/e "lso been "ttribute( to h"llu&inogens "n( h"/e be&o e "n integr"l !"rt o. Banisteriopis caapi' . Many "allucino enic !lants are basic to t"e initiation rituals o% adolescents. !ri iti/e religions' )ll o/er the 1orl( h"llu&inogeni& !l"nts "re use( "s e(i"tors bet1een "n "n( his go(s' 4he !ro!he&ies o.HALLUCINOGENS IN PRIMITIVE SOCIETIES Hallucino ens !er$eate nearly e#ery as!ect o% li%e in !ri$iti#e societies.

T"e "allucino enic !ro!erties o% Datura "a#e been t"orou "ly e-!loited& !articularly in t"e Ne( World.into-icatin $edicine& (ysoccan& to t"eir youn $en& ("o t"en beca$e #iolently deran ed %or >= days. T"e ibo a root in 6abon and caa!i in t"e A$a'on are also used in suc" rituals.s identity. In Sout" A$erica& $any tribes ta*e aya"uasca to %oresee t"e %uture& settle dis!utes& deci!"er ene$y !lans& cast or re$o#e s!ells& or insure t"e %idelity o% t"eir (o$en. Indians o% eastern 0ra'il drin* +ure$a to "a#e lorious #isions o% t"e s!irit (orld be%ore oin into battle (it" t"eir ene$ies. T"e Wai*Is o% 0ra'il and Vene'uela snu%% t"e !o(dered resin o% a +un le tree to rituali'e deat"& induce a trance %or dia nosin disease& and t"an* t"e s!irits %or #ictory in (ar. Durin t"is !eriod& t"ey lost all $e$ory& startin $an"ood by %or ettin t"ey "ad been boys. In Me-ico and in t"e Sout"(est& Datura is used in di#ination& !ro!"ecy& and ritualistic curin . T"e Mi-tecs o% Me-ico eat !u%%balls to "ear #oices %ro$ "ea#en t"at ans(er t"eir Euestions.) .eru#ian $edicine $en drin* ci$ora to $a*e t"e$sel#es o(ners o% anot"er. Modern Me-ican Indians #alue certain $us"roo$s as sacra$ents and use $ornin lories and t"e !eyote cactus to !redict t"e %uture& dia nose and cure disease& and !lacate ood and e#il s!irits. Sensations o% deat" and se!aration o% body and soul are so$eti$es e-!erienced durin a drea$li*e trance. 6 . T"e Witotos o% Colo$bia eat t"e sa$e !o(er%ul resin to )tal* (it" t"e little !eo!le.

@etail of a painting of a primiti"e ayahuasca "ision by Aando del 5ios. T"e (ides!read and e-!andin use o% "allucino ens in our society $ay "a#e little or no #alue and $ay so$eti$es e#en be "ar$%ul or dan erous. W"et"er dru 5induced ad#entures can be identical (it" t"e $eta!"ysical insi "t clai$ed by so$e $ystics& or are $erely a counter%eit o% it& is still contro#ersial. Many !eo!le belie#e t"ey can ac"ie#e )$ystic) or )reli ious) e-!erience by alterin t"e c"e$istry o% t"e body (it" "allucino ens& seldo$ reali'in t"at t"ey are $erely re#ertin to t"e a e 5 old !ractices o% !ri$iti#e societies. contemporary peru"ian artist 7 . In any e#ent& it is a ne(ly i$!orted and su!eri$!osed cultural trait (it"out natural roots in Western tradition.USE IN MODERN WESTERN WORLD 7ur $odern society "as recently ta*en u! t"e use& so$eti$es ille ally& o% "allucino ens on a rand scale.

T"e "allucino enic co$!ounds (it" nitro en in t"eir structure are al*aloids or related bases. All al*aloids are o% !lant ori in& t"ou " so$e !rotoal*aloids occur in ani$als. ALKALOIDS are a di#erse rou! o% so$e .$olecular structures. All "allucino ens %ound in !lants are or anic co$!oundsJt"at is& t"ey contain carbon as an essential !art o% t"eir structure and (ere %or$ed in t"e li%e !rocesses o% #e etable or anis$s. T"ey are classi%ied into series . T"ose (it" nitro en are %ar $ore co$$on.CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Hallucino ens are li$ited to a s$all nu$ber o% ty!es o% c"e$ical co$!ounds. No inor anic !lant constituents& suc" as $inerals& are *no(n to "a#e "allucino enic e%%ects.&=== co$!ounds (it" co$!le. T"ey contain nitro en as (ell as carbon& o-y en& and "ydro en. . Hallucino enic co$!ounds $ay be di#ided con#eniently into t(o broad rou!sK t"ose t"at contain nitro en in t"eir structure and t"ose t"at do not. T"e $ost i$!ortant o% t"ose lac*in nitro en are t"e acti#e !rinci!les o% $ari"uana& ter!eno!"enolic co$!ounds classed as diben'o!yrans and called cannabinolsJin !articular& tetra"ydrocannabinols. All are sli "tly al*aline& "ence t"eir na$e.

H but also in t"e #arious er oline al*aloids Ger ine and ot"ersH& in t"e ibo aine al*oloids& and in t"e L5carboline al*aloids G"ar$ine& "ar$aline& etc. G!a e 1@H 9 . E-a$!les o% (idely #alued al*aloids are $or!"ine& Euinine& nicotine& stryc"nine& and ca%%eine. Many "allucino enic al*aloids are indoles Gsee belo(H or are related to indoles& and t"e $a+ority "a#e or $ay "a#e ori inated in t"e !lant %ro$ t"e a$ino acid *no(n as try!to!"an.H.based on t"eir structures. It is co$!osed o% !"enyl and !yrrol se $ents Gsee dia ra$ %ollo(in H. Serotonin !lays a $a+or role in t"e bioc"e$istry o% t"e central ner#ous syste$. 7t"er al*aloidsJt"e isoEuinolines& tro!anes& Euinoli'idines& and iso-a'olesJare $ore $ildly "allucino enic and $ay o!erate di%%erently in t"e body. 7ne reason %or t"e si ni%icance o% t"e indolic "allucino ens $ay be t"eir structural si$ilarity to t"e neuro"u$oral try!ta$ine serotonin G. It is $ost sur!risin t"at o% t"e $any t"ousands o% or anic co$!ounds t"at act on #arious !arts o% t"e body so %e( are "allucino enic. A study o% t"e %unctionin o% "allucino enic try!ta$ine $ay e-!eri$entally "el! to e-!lain t"e %unction o% serotonin in t"e body. Lyser ic acid diet"yla$ide GLSDH "as an indole nucleus. INDOLES are "allucino enic al*aloids or related bases& all o% t"e$ nitro en5containin co$!ounds. A c"e$ical relations"i! si$ilar to t"at bet(een indolic "allucino ens and serotonin e-ists bet(een $escaline& an "allucino enic !"enylet"yla$ine base in !eyote& and t"e neuro"or$one nore!ine!"rine. Most $edicinal and to-ic !lants& as (ell as "allucino enic !lants& o(e t"eir biolo ical acti#ity to al*aloids.73HH rou!s in t"e !"enyl rin . T"e indole nucleus o% t"e "allucino ens %reEuently a!!ears in t"e %or$ o% try!ta$ine deri#ati#es.5"ydro-ydi$et"yltry!ta$ineH& !resent in t"e ner#ous tissue o% (ar$5blooded ani$als. T"ese c"e$ical si$ilarities bet(een "allucino enic co$!ounds and neuro"or$ones (it" roles in neuro!"ysiolo y $ay "el! to e-!lain "allucino enic acti#ity and e#en certain !rocesses o% t"e central ner#ous syste$. T"e indole rin Gs"o(n in red in t"e dia ra$H is e#ident not only in t"e nu$erous try!ta$ines Gdi$et"yltry!ta$ine& etc. Try!ta$ines $ay be )si$!le)Jt"at is& (it"out substitutionsJor t"ey $ay "a#e #arious )side c"ains) *no(n as "ydro-y G7HH& $et"o-y GCH3H& or !"os!"o lo-y G7.

PSEUDOHALLUCINOGENS T"ese are !oisonous !lant co$!ounds t"at cause ("at $i "t be called secondary "allucinations or !seudo"allucinations. Many !lants "a#in suc" co$!onents are e-tre$ely dan erous to ta*e internally& es!ecially i% in ested in doses "i " enou " to 1< . T"ou " not true "allucino enic a ents& t"ey so u!set nor$al body %unctions t"ot t"ey induce a *ind o% deliriu$ acco$!anied by ("at to all !ractical !ur!oses are "allucinations. So$e co$!onents o% t"e essential oilsJt"e aro$atic ele$ents res!onsible %or t"e c"aracteristic odors o% !lants Ja!!ear to act in t"is (ay. Co$!onents o% nut$e oil are an e-a$!le.

Li*e s$o*in & snu%%in is a Ne( World custo$. Researc" "as not yet s"ed $uc" li "t on t"e *ind o% !syc"oacti#ity !roduced by suc" c"e$icals. 7ne curious $et"od o% inducin narcotic e%%ects is t"e A%rican custo$ o% incisin t"e scal! and rubbin t"e +uice %ro$ t"e onionli*e bulb o% a s!ecies o% Pancratium across t"e incisions. Virola resin& %or e-a$!le& is lic*ed unc"an ed& is usually !re!ared in snu%% %or$& is occasionally $ade into !ellets to be eaten& and $ay so$eti$es be s$o*ed. More %reEuently& a be#era e $ay be drun*K aya"uasca& caa!i& or ya+C %ro$ t"e bar* o% a #ine3 t"e San . HOW HALLUCINOGENS ARE TAKEN Hallucino enic !lants are used in a #ariety o% (ays& de!endin on t"e *ind o% !lant $aterial& on t"e acti#e c"e$icals in#ol#ed& on cultural !ractices& and on ot"er considerations. 7ccasionally a !lant deri#ati#e $ay be eaten& as (it" "as"ees". T"us& in $a*in t"e aya"uasca& caa!i& or ya+C drin*s& !re!ared 11 .induce "allucinations. PLANT ADDITIVES or ad$i-tures to $a+or "allucino enic s!ecies are beco$in increasin ly i$!ortant in researc". T"is $et"od is a *ind o% !ri$iti#e counter!art o% t"e $odern "y!oder$ic $et"od. Narcotics ot"er t"an tobacco& suc" as tu!a& $ay also be srno*ed. A %e( Ne( World Indians "a#e ta*en "allucino ens rectally 5 as in t"e case o% Anadenanthera.edro cactus3 +ure$a (ine3 ibo a3 lea#es o% toloac"e3 or crus"ed seeds %ro$ t"e Me-ican $ornin lories. PLANTS MAY BE EATEN& eit"er %res" or dried& as are !eyote and teononacatl& or +uice %ro$ t"e crus"ed lea#es $ay be drun*& as (it" Salvia divinorum Gin Me-icoH. Se#eral $et"ods $ay be used in t"e case o% so$e "allucino enic !lants. 7ri inally !eculiar to Ne( World cultures& ("ere it (as one (ay o% usin tobacco& s$o*in is no( a (ides!read $et"od o% ta*in cannabis. SNUFFING is a !re%erred $et"od %or usin se#eral "allucino ens 5 yo!o& e!ena& sCbil& ra!C dos indios. Subsidiary !lants are so$eti$es added to t"e !re!aration to alter& increase& or len t"en t"e narcotic e%%ects o% t"e $ain in redients. Man& in !ri$iti#e societies e#ery("ere& "as s"o(n reat in enuity and !ers!icacity in bendin "allucino enic !lants to "is uses.

0ut $uc" $ore needs to be done in t"e study o% "allucino ens and t"eir uses in t"e Eastern He$is!"ere. or >= s!ecies used in t"e Eastern He$is!"ere& t"e s!ecies used "allucino enically in t"e Western He$is!"ere nu$ber $ore t"an 1==M 4et so$e o% t"e 7ld World "allucino ens today "old !laces o% !ri$acy t"rou "out t"e (orld. W"y& t"en& s"ould t"ere be suc" dis!arity: Has $an in t"e 7ld World si$!ly not disco#ered $any o% t"e nati#e "allucino enic !lants: Are so$e o% t"e$ too to-ic in ot"er (ays to be utili'ed: 7r "as $an in t"e 7ld World been culturally less interested in narcotics: We "a#e no real ans(er. bre(sJ"enbane& ni "ts"ade& belladonna& and $andra*eJ reatly in%luenced Euro!ean !"iloso!"y& $edicine& and e#en "istory %or $any years. At e#ery turn& its e-tent and de!t" are beco$in $ore e#ident. So$e !layed an e-traordinarily #ital reli ious role in t"e early Aryan cultures o% nort"ern India. G!a e >1H OLD WORLD HALLUCINOGENS E-istin e#idence indicates t"at $an in t"e 7ld World JEuro!e& Asia& A%rica& and AustraliaJ"as $ade less use o% nati#e !lants and s"rubs %or t"eir "allucino enic !ro!erties t"an "as $an in t"e Ne( World. 0ut (e do *no( t"at t"e 7ld World "as %e(er *no(n s!ecies e$!loyed "allucino enically t"an does t"e Ne( WorldK co$!ared (it" only 1. inebrians& se#eral additi#es are o%ten t"ro(n inK lea#es o% Psychotria viridis or Banisteriopsis rusbyana& ("ic" t"e$sel#es contain "allucino enic try!ta$ines3 or Brunfelsia or Datura& bot" o% ("ic" are "allucino enic in t"eir o(n ri "t.basically %ro$ Banisteriopsis caapi or B. G!a e >>H 1+ . T"e se#eral solanaceous in redients o% $edie#al (itc"es. Cannabis& undoubtedly t"e $ost (ides!read o% all t"e "allucino ens& is !er"a!s t"e best e-a$!le. T"ere is little reason to belie#e t"at t"e #e etation o% one "al% o% t"e lobe is !oorer or ric"er in s!ecies (it" "allucino enic !ro!erties t"an t"e ot"er "al%. T"e role o% "allucino ens in t"e cultural and social de#elo!$ent o% $any areas o% t"e 7ld World is only no( bein in#esti ated.

/ly a aric $us"roo$s ro( in t"e nort" te$!erate re ions o% bot" "e$is!"eres.FLY AGARIC MUSHROOM& Amanita muscaria $ay be one o% $an. T"e use o% t"is $us"roo$ as an or iastic and s"a$anistic inebriant (as disco#ered in Siberia in 1<B=. T"ere are also c"e$ical di%%erences bet(een t"e t(o& %or t"e Ne( World ty!e is de#oid o% t"e stron ly "allucino enic e%%ects o% its 7ld World counter!art. It "as been su ested t"at !er"a!s its stran e e%%ects contributed to $an.s oldest "allucino ens. T"e Eurasian ty!e "as a beauti%ul dee! oran e to blood5red ca! %lec*ed (it" ("ite scales. . SubseEuently& its utili'ation "as been noted a$on se#eral isolated rou!s o% /inno5U rian !eo!les G7stya* and Vo ulH in (estern Siberia and t"ree 1. A$anita $uscaria ty!ically occurs in association (it" birc"es.s early ideas o% deity. T"e ca! o% t"e usual Nort" A$erican ty!e #aries %ro$ crea$ to an oran e5yello(.

T"ese tribes "ad no ot"er into-icant until t"ey learned recently o% alco"ol. $ siberian Chukchee man with wooden urine "essel. T"ousands o% years a o& Aryan conEuerors& ("o s(e!t across India& (ors"i!ed so$e& drin*in it in reli ious cere$onies. T"e use o% so$a e#entually died out& and its identity "as been an eni $a %or >&=== years. T"e nature o% t"e into-ication #aries& but one or se#eral $us"roo$s induce a condition $ar*ed usually by t(itc"in & tre$blin & sli "t con#ulsions& nu$bness o% t"e li$bs& and a %eelin o% ease c"aracteri'ed by "a!!iness& a desire to sin and dance& colored #isions& and $acro!sia Gseein t"in s reatly enlar edH. T"ese Siberians in est t"e $us"roo$ alone& eit"er sun5dried or toasted slo(ly o#er a %ire& or t"ey $ay ta*e it in reindeer $il* or (it" t"e +uice o% (ild !lants& suc" as a s!ecies o% Vaccinium and a s!ecies o% Epilobium. muscaria& is stren t"ened by t"e re%erence in t"e #edas to cere$onial urine drin*in & since t"e $ain into-icatin constituent& $usci$ole G*no(n only in t"is $us"roo$H& is t"e sole natural "allucino enic c"e$ical e-creted unc"an ed %ro$ t"e body. W"en eaten alone& t"e dried $us"roo$s are $oistened in t"e $out" and s(allo(ed& or t"e (o$en $ay $oisten and roll t"e$ into !ellets %or t"e $en to s(allo(. Many "y$ns in t"e Indian Ri 5Veda are de#oted to so$a and describe t"e !lant and its e%%ects. Recent studies su est t"at t"is $us"roo$ (as t"e $ysterious 6od5 narcotic so$a o% ancient India.!ri$iti#e tribes GC"uc*c"ee& 9orya*& and 9a$c"adalH in nort"eastern Siberia. T"e acti#e !rinci!les !ass t"rou " t"e body and are e-creted unc"an ed or as still acti#e deri#ati#es. about to recycle and e?tend into?ication from Amanita muscaria. A #ery old and curious !ractice o% t"ese tribes$en is t"e ritualistic drin*in o% urine %ro$ $en ("o "a#e beco$e into-icated (it" t"e $us"roo$. 1- . ConseEuently& a %e( $us"roo$s $ay inebriate $any !eo!le.artici!ants are so$eti$es o#erta*en by curious belie%s& suc" as t"at e-!erienced by an ancient tribes$an ("o insisted t"at "e "ad +ust been bornM Reli ious %er#or o%ten acco$!anies t"e inebriation. Violence i#in (ay to a dee! slee! $ay occasionally occur. . Recent et"nobotanicol detecti#e (or*& leadin to its identi%ication as A. Durin t"e !ast century& $ore t"an 1== !lants "a#e been su ested& but none ans(ers t"e descri!tions %ound in t"e $any "y$ns.

7nly in t"e last %e( years& too& "as t"e c"e$istry o% t"e into-icatin !rinci!le been *no(n. /or a century& it (as belie#ed to be $uscarine& but $uscarine is !resent in suc" $inute concentrations t"at it cannot act as t"e inebriant. It is no( reco ni'ed t"at& in t"e dryin or e-traction o% t"e $us"roo$s& ibotenic acid %or$s se#eral deri#ati#es. 7ne o% t"ese is $usci$ole& t"e $ain !"ar$acolo ically acti#e !rinci!le. 7t"er co$!ounds& suc" as $usca'one& are %ound in lesser concentrations and $ay contribute to t"e into-ication. /ly a aric $us"roo$ is so called because o% its a e5old use in Euro!e as a %ly *iller. T"e $us"roo$s (ere le%t in an o!en dis". /lies attracted to and settlin on t"e$ (ere stunned& succu$bin to t"e insecticidal !ro!erties o% t"e !lant.

>ap of (orthern *urasia shows regions of birches and pines, where Amanita muscaria typically grows, and areas inhabited by ethnic groups that use the mushroom as a hallucinogen.

AGARA GGalbulimima BelgraveanaH is a tall %orest tree o% Malaysia and Australia. In .a!ua& nati#es $a*e a drin* by boilin t"e lea#es and bar* (it" t"e lea#es o% ereriba. W"en t"ey i$bibe it& t"ey beco$e #iolently into-icated& e#entually %allin into a dee! slee! durin ("ic" t"ey e-!erience #isions and %antastic drea$s. So$e >@ al*aloids "a#e been isolated %ro$ t"is tree& and alt"ou " t"ey are biolo ically acti#e& t"e !syc"oacti#e !rinci!le is still un*no(n. A ara is one o% %our s!ecies o% Galbulimima and belon s to t"e Hi$ontandraceae& a rare %a$ily related to t"e $a nolias. ERERIBA& an undeter$ined s!ecies o% Homalomena& is a stout "erb re!orted to "a#e narcotic e%%ects ("en its lea#es are ta*en (it" t"e lea#es and bar* o% a ara. T"e acti#e c"e$ical constituent is un*no(n. Ereriba is a $e$ber o% t"e aroid %o$ily& Araceae. T"ere are so$e 12= s!ecies o% Homalomena nati#e to tro!ical Asia and Sout" A$erica.

1:

KWASHI GPancratium trianthumH is considered to be !syc"oacti#e by t"e 0us"$en in Dobe& 0ots(ana. T"e bulb o% t"is !erennial is re!utedly rubbed o#er incisions in t"e "ead to induce #isual "allucinations. Not"in is *no(n o% its c"e$ical constitution. 7% t"e 12 ot"er s!ecies o% Pancratium& $ainly o% Asia and A%rica& $any are *no(n to contain !syc"oacti#e !rinci!les& $ostly al*aloids. So$e s!ecies are !otent cardiac !oisons. Pancratium belon s to t"e a$aryllis %a$ily& A$aryllidaceae. GALANGA or MARABA G aempferia galangaH is an "erb ric" in essential oils. Nati#es in Ne( 6uinea eat t"e r"i'o$e o% t"e !lant as an "allucino en. It is #alued locally as a condi$ent and& li*e ot"ers o% t"e <= s!ecies in t"e enus& it is used in local %ol* $edicine to brin boils to a "ead and to "asten t"e "ealin o% burns and (ounds. It is a $e$ber o% t"e in er %a$ily& Fin iberoceae. ."ytoc"e$ical studies "a#e re#ealed no !syc"oacti#e !rinci!le.

16

Hemp field in Afghanistan, sho#ing partly harvested crop of the short, conical annabis indica gro#n there.

MARIHUANA& HASHEESH& or HEMP Gs!ecies o% t"e enus !annabisH& also called 9i%& 0"an & or C"aras& is one o% t"e oldest culti#ated !lants. It is also one o% t"e $ost (idely s!read (eeds& "a#in esca!ed culti#ation& a!!earin as an ad#entitious !lant e#ery("ere& e-ce!t in t"e !olar re ions and t"e (et& %orested tro!ics. Cannabis is t"e source o% "e$! %iber& an edible %ruit& an industrial oil& a $edicine& and a narcotic. Des!ite its reat a e and its econo$ic i$!ortance& t"e !lant is still !oorly understood& c"aracteri'ed $ore by ("at (e do not *no( about it t"an by ("at (e *no(. Cannabis is a ran*& (eedy annual t"at is e-tre$ely #ariable and $ay attain a "ei "t o% 1@ %eet. /louris"in best in disturbed& nitro en5ric" soils near "u$an "abitations& it "as been called a )ca$! %ollo(er&) oin (it" $an into ne( areas. It is nor$ally dioeciousJt"at is& t"e $ale and %e$ale !arts are on di%%erent !lants. T"e $ale or sta$inate !lant is usually (ea*er t"an t"e %e$ale or !istillate !lant. .istillate %lo(ers ro( in t"e lea% a-ils. T"e into-icatin constituents are nor$ally concentrated in a resin in t"e de#elo!in %e$ale %lo(ers and ad+acent lea#es and ste$s.

Cannabis lea"es are palmately di"idedBnormally into /-0 leaflets occasionally into 44-4/. %eaflets "ary in length from 1 to 3 inches. CLASSIFICATION OF CANNABIS is dis!uted by botanists. T"ey disa ree about t"e %a$ily to ("ic" it belon s and also about t"e nu$ber o% s!ecies. T"e !lant is so$eti$es !laced in t"e %i or $ulberry %a$ily GMoraceaeH or t"e nettle %a$ily GUrticaceaeH& but it is no( usually se!arated& to et"er (it" t"e "o! !lant GHumulusH& into a distinct %a$ilyK Cannabaceae. It "as been (idely t"ou "t t"at t"ere is one s!ecies& Cannabis sati#a& ("ic"& !artly as a result o% selection by $an& "as de#elo!ed $any )races) or )#arieties&) %or better %iber& %or $ore oil content& or %or stron er narcotic content. Selection %or narcotic acti#ity "as been es!ecially notable in suc" areas as India& ("ere into-icatin !ro!erties "a#e "ad reli ious si ni%icance.. En#iron$ent also "as !robably in%luenced t"is biolo ically c"an eable s!ecies& es!ecially %or %iber e-cellence and narcotic acti#ity.

17

ruderalis. indica and !.Current researc" indicates t"at t"ere $ay be ot"er s!eciesK !. 1. All Cannabis is nati#e to central Asia. .

19 .

+< .

T"e Scyt"ians& ("o t"re( cannabis seeds and lea#es on "ot stones in stea$ bat"s to !roduce an into-icatin s$o*e& re( t"e !lant alon t"e Vol a B&=== years a o. by the !reek naturalist Herodotus. ("ic" e#ery("ere in C"ina si ni%ies cannabis. In 1Bt" century Asia Minor& or ani'ed $urderers& re(arded (it" "as"ees"& (ere *no(n as "as"is"ins %ro$ ("ic" $ay co$e t"e ter$ assassin in Euro!ean lan ua es.. "a#e been %ound in Tur*ey. In ancient T"ebes& t"e !lant (as $ade into a drin* (it" o!iu$5li*e e%%ects.D.C. Indian $edical (ritin & co$!iled be%ore 1=== 0. He$! %abrics %ro$ t"e late @t" century 0.cythian custom of breathing cannabis fumes in the steam bath was mentioned about . Literally t"is $eans an adult $an& and by e-tension $ay si ni%y reat or tall. HISTORY OF CANNABIS USE dates to ancient ti$es. Controlled studies are basic to any !ro ress.. He$! as a source o% %iber (as introduced by t"e .ortu uese to t"eir colonies in t"e Ne( World. S!eci$ens "a#e turned u! in an E y!tian site nearly 2&=== years o% a e. The . 1?=& t"at eneral use o% "e$! in ca*es !roduced narcotic e%%ects.C. Carboni#ed hemp seeds were found nearby. It (as listed in t"e United S"tes Pharmacopoeia until t"e 1AB=. It "as been de$onstrated recently t"at t"e $ain e%%ects are attributable to delta 515 tetra"ydrocannobinol. in the $ltai >ountains and the border between 5ussia and )uter >ongolia. Its lon "istory o% use in %ol* $edicine is si ni%icant& and it "as been included $ore recently in Western !"ar$aco!oeias.cythians. It re!resents a %iber !lant& literally a clu$! o% !lants& ro(in near a d(ellin .& re!orts t"era!eutic uses o% cannabis.. Hence& t"e t(o sy$bols to et"er $ean )t"e tall %iber !lant&. The small.) T"e 6ree* !"ysician 6alen (rote& about A. Many or anic co$!ounds "a#e been isolated& so$e (it" narcotic !ro!erties and ot"ers (it"out. +1 . ) T"e C"inese re%erred to cannabis as )liberator o% sin) and )deli "t i#er. C"inese tradition !uts t"e use o% t"e !lant bac* 2&@== years. T"at t"e early Hindus a!!reciated its into-icatin !ro!erties is attested by suc" na$es as )"ea#enly uide) and soot"er o% rie%. THE CHEMISTRY OF CANNABIS is co$!le-. THE MEDICINAL VALUE OF CANNABIS "as been *no(n %or centuries. T"ese are no( !ossible (it" t"e recent synt"esis o% t"e co$!ound& a $a+or ad#ance in studyin t"e $ec"anis$ o% !"ysiolo ical acti#ity o% t"is into-icant. MA.C"inese c"aracters TA MA& t"e oldest *no(n na$e %or cannabis. The two-handled pot contained cannabis fruits. tepee-like structure was co"ered with a felt or leather mat and stood o"er the copper censer 9four-legged stool-like obCect:. -. )bCects connected with the use of cannabis were found in fro#en tombs of the ancient .il ri$s to Ne( En land and by t"e S!anis" and . 0ecause t"e crude cannabis !re!arations nor$ally used as a narcotic #ary reatly in t"eir c"e$ical co$!osition& any correlations o% t"eir biolo ical acti#ity (ould be relati#ely $eanin less. T"ey are not al*aloids& alt"ou " traces o% al*aloids "a#e been re!orted in t"e !lant. Until recently& little (as *no(n about t"e e%%ects o% !ure tetra"ydrocannabinol on $an.C.s as #aluable& es!ecially in t"e treat$ent o% "ysteria. T"e tetra"ydrocannabinols& ("ic" %or$ an oily $i-ture o% se#eral iso$ers& are non5 nitro enous or anic co$!ounds deri#ed %ro$ ter!enes Gsee !a e 1?H. TA G!ronounced DAH. T"e !ro ress $ade in $odern researc" encoura es t"e belie% t"at so !roli%ic a c"e$ical %actory as !annabis $ay indeed o%%er !otential %or ne( $edicines. A %res" !lant yields $ainly cannabidiolic acids& !recursors o% t"e tetra"ydrocannabinols and related constituents& suc" as cannabinol& cannabidiol& tetra"ydrocannabinol5 carbo-ylic acid& stereoiso$ers o% tetra"ydroconnabinol& and cannabic"ro$ene.

T"e narcotic use o% cannabis in t"e United States dates %ro$ t"e 1A>=. ++ .s and see$s to "a#e started in Ne( 7rleans and #icinity.) Has"ees"& t"e resin %ro$ t"e %e$ale !lant& is eaten or s$o*ed& o%ten in (ater !i!es& by $illions in Mosle$ countries o% nort"ern A%rica and (estern Asia.$ssortment of cannabis pipes and water pipes.s use as an inebriant in Western countries& es!ecially in urban centers& "as led to $a+or !roble$s and dile$$as %or Euro!ean and A$erican aut"orities. We do not yet "a#e t"e $edical& social& le al& and $oral in%or$ation on ("ic" to base a sound +ud $ent. NARCOTIC USE OF CANNABIS "as ro(n in !o!ularity in t"e !ast 2= years as t"e !lant "as s!read to nearly all !arts o% t"e lobe. Asiatic Indians re ularly e$!loy t"ree !re!arations narcoticallyK b"an consists o% !lants t"st are at"ered reen& dried& and $ade into a drin* (it" (ater or $il* or into a candy G$a+unH (it" su ar and s!ices3 c"aras& nor$ally s$o*ed or eaten (it" s!ices& is !ure resin3 an+a"& usually s$o*ed (it" tobacco& consists o% resin5ric" dried to!s %ro$ t"e %e$ale !lant. METHODS OF USING CANNABIS #ary. T"e sub+ect is debated "otly& usually (it" li$ited *no(led e. Increase in t"e !lant. As one (riter "as said& t"e $ari"uana !roble$ needs )$ore li "t and less "eat. In A% "anistan and .a*istan& t"e resin is co$$only s$o*ed. Many o% t"ese unusually !otent !re!arations $ay be deri#ed %ro$ !. In t"e Ne( World& $ari"uana G$acon"a in 0ra'ilH is s$o*edJ t"e dried& crus"ed %lo(erin ti!s or lea#es& o%ten $i-ed (it" tobacco in ci arettes& or )ree%ers. T"ere is a s"ar! di#ision o% o!inion as to ("et"er t"e (ides!read narcotic use o% cannabis is a #ice t"at $ust be sta$!ed out or is an innocuous "abit t"at s"ould be !er$itted le ally.) Controlled& scienti%ically #alid e-!eri$ents (it" cannabis& in#ol#in lar e nu$bers o% indi#iduals& "a#e not as yet been $ade. indica.

DDreefersDD 9smaller than commercial tobacco cigarettes:. +. T"e dru . Material %ro$ !lants o% di%%erent a es $ay t"us #ary in narcotic e%%ect. Nor$al t"ou "t is interru!ted& and ideas are so$eti$es !lenti%ul t"ou " con%used. An e-a eration o% sound& out o% all relation to t"e real %orce o% t"e sound e$itted& $ay be acco$!anied by a curiously "y!notic sense o% r"yt"$.erce!tion o% ti$e is al$ost in#ariably altered.Contemporary $merican cannabis shoulder patches. In !redo$inantly Mosle$ countries& Cannabis is usually s$o*ed in (ater !i!es so$eti$es called "oo*a"s. ond compressed kilo bricks. T"e !rinci!al narcotic e%%ect is eu!"oria. EFFECTS OF CANNABIS& e#en $ore t"an o% ot"er "allucino ens& are "i "ly #ariable %ro$ !erson to !erson and %ro$ one !lant strain to anot"er. Alt"ou " t"e occasional #i#id #isual "allucinations $ay "a#e se-ual colorin & t"e o%ten5re!orted a!"rodisiac !ro!erties o% t"e dru "a#e not been substantiated. A %eelin o% e-altation and inner +oy $ay alternate& e#en dan erously& (it" %eelin s o% de!ression& $oodiness& uncontrollable %ear o% deat"& and !anic. ' >arket forms of cannabis include finely ground or 6manicured6 marihuana. 7#er a !eriod o% ti$e& %or e-a$!le& t"e inacti#e cannabidiolic acid con#erts to acti#e tetra"ydrocannabinols and e#entually to inacti#e cannabinol& suc" c"e$ical c"an es usually ta*in !lace $ore ra!idly in tro!ical t"an in cooler cli$ates. In $any !arts o% Asia t"e use o% cannabis !re!arations is bot" socially and le ally acce!table. T"e !lant is so$eti$es not classi%ied as "allucino enic& and it is true t"at its c"aracteristics are not ty!ically !syc"oto$i$etic. . Soon a%ter ta*in t"e dru & a sub+ect $ay %ind "i$sel% in a drea$y state o% altered consciousness. pure hasheesh. T"is #ariability co$es $ainly %ro$ t"e unstable c"aracter o% so$e o% t"e constituents. T"e illustration s"o(s an A% "ani usin one o% t"e $any *inds o% (ater !i!es seen in Asia. T"ey consist o% a rise in !ulse rate and blood !ressure& tre$or& #erti o& di%%iculty in $uscular coordination& increased tactile sensiti#ity& and dilation o% t"e !u!ils. E#eryt"in %ro$ a $ild sense o% ease and (ell5bein to %antastic drea$s and #isual and auditory "allucinations are re!orted. . 0eauti%ul si "ts& (onder%ul $usic& and aberrations o% sound o%ten entrance t"e $ind3 bi'arre ad#entures to %ill a century ta*e !lace in a $atter o% $inutes. Alt"ou " cannabis is de%initely not addicti#e& !syc"olo ical de!endence $ay o%ten result %ro$ continual use o% t"e dru .s acti#ities beyond t"e central ner#ous syste$ see$ to be secondary. W"et"er cannabis s"ould be classi%ied !ri$arily as a sti$ulant or de!ressant or bot" "as ne#er been deter$ined.

T"e caltro! %a$ily& Fy o!"yllaceae& to ("ic" Syrian rue belon s& co$!rises about t(o do'en enera +- . SYRIAN RUE GPeganum harmalaH ro(s %ro$ t"e Mediterranean to nort"ern India& Mon olia& and Manc"uria. E#ery("ere it "as $any uses in %ol* $edicine. W"et"er or not it !roduces t"e !syc"oacti#e e%%ects o% t"e ("ole !lant is un*no(n. T"e estee$ in ("ic" t"e !eo!les o% Asia "old t"e !lant is so e-traordinary t"at it $i "t indicate a %or$er reli ious use as an "allucino en& but t"e !ur!ose%ul use o% t"e !lant to induce #isions "as not yet been establis"ed t"rou " t"e literature or %ield (or*. A crystalline co$!ound isolated %ro$ t"e !lant and na$ed la oc"iline "as !ro#ed to be aditer!ene. Me$bers o% t"e $int %a$ily& Labiatae& t"ey are nati#e %ro$ central Asia to Iran and A% "anistan. Valued as a %ol* $edicine and included in t"e @t" edition o% t"e Russian !"ar$aco!oeia& it is used to treat s*in disease& to "el! c"ec* "e$orr"a es& and to !ro#ide sedation %or ner#ous disorders. T"ere are so$e B2 ot"er s!ecies o% "agochilus.TURKESTAN MINT G"agochilus inebriansH is a s$all s"rub o% t"e dry ste!!es o% Tur*estan. /or centuries it "as been t"e source o% an into-icant a$on t"e Ta+i*& Tartar& Tur*o$an& and U'be* tribes$en. Honey and su ar are o%ten added to reduce t"eir intense bitterness. Its seeds "a#e been e$!loyed as a s!ice& and its %ruits are t"e source o% a red dye and an oil. Dryin and stora e increase t"eir aro$atic %ra rance. T"e lea#es& at"ered in 7ctober& are toasted& so$eti$es $i-ed (it" ste$s& %ruits& and %lo(ers. T"e seeds !ossess *no(n "allucino enic al*aloids& es!ecially "ar$ine and "ar$aline.

0y ta*in t"e substance to e-cess& t"ey lost consciousness and %ell into a terrible deliriu$. KANNA G#esembryanthemum e$pansum and #. +: . More t"an t(o centuries a o& it (as re!orted t"at t"e Hottentots c"e(ed t"e root o% *anna& or c"anna& *ee!in t"e c"e(ed $aterial in t"e $out"& (it" t"ese resultsK )T"eir ani$al s!irits (ere a(a*ened& t"eir eyes s!ar*led and t"eir %aces $ani%ested lau "ter and aiety. T"ere is stron e#idence t"at one or bot" (ere used by t"e Hottentots o% sout"ern A%rica as #ision inducin narcotics. tortuosumH is t"e co$$on na$e o% t(o s!ecies o% Sout" A%rican !lants. T"ousands o% deli "tso$e ideas a!!eared& and a !leasant +ollity ("ic" enabled t"e$ to be a$used by si$!le +ests. In t"e drier !arts o% Sout" A%rica& t"ere are alto et"er 1&=== s!ecies o% #esembryanthemum % $any& li*e t"e ice !lant& o% bi'arre %or$.) Since t"e narcotic use o% t"ese t(o s!ecies "as not been obser#ed directly& #arious botanists "a#e su ested t"at t"e "allucino enic *anna $ay actually "a#e been cannabis or ot"er into-icatin !lants& suc" as se#eral s!ecies o% Sclerocarya o% t"e cas"e( %a$ily. T"ese t(o s!ecies o% #esembryanthemum do "o#e t"e co$$on na$e *anna& "o(e#er& and t"ey also contain al*aloids t"at "a#e sedati#e& cocaine5 li*e !ro!erties ca!able o% !roducin tor!or in $an.nati#e to dry !arts o% t"e tro!ics and subtro!ics o% bot" "e$is!"eres. About t(o do'en s!ecies& includin t"e t(o described "ere& are considered by so$e botanists to re!resent a se!arate enus& Sceletium. All belon to t"e car!et(eed %a$ily& Ai'oaceae& $ainly Sout" A%rican& and are belie#ed to be related to t"e !o*e(eed& !in*& and cactus %a$ilies.

+6 . T"e na$e belladonna G)beauti%ul lady) in ItalianH co$es %ro$ a curious custo$ !racticed by italian (o$en o% "i " society durin $edie#al ti$es. 0elladonna is a co$$ercial source o% atro!ine& an al*aloid (it" a (ide #ariety o% uses in $odern $edicine& es!ecially as an antis!as$odic& an antisecretory& and as a $ydriatic and cardiac sti$ulant. 0elladonna is nati#e to Euro!e and Asia Minor. T"e $ain acti#e !rinci!le in belladonna is t"e al*aloid "yoscya$ine& but t"e $ore !syc"oacti#e sco!ola$ine is also !resent. It entered into t"e %ol*lore and $yt"olo y o% #irtually all Euro!ean !eo!les& ("o %eared its deadly !o(er. T"e attracti#e s"iny berries o% t"e !lant still o%ten cause it to be accidentally eaten& (it" resultant !oisonin . T"ere are %our s!ecies o% Atropa distributed in Euro!e and %ro$ central Asia to t"e Hi$alayas. It (os one o% t"e in redients o% t"e truly "allucino enic bre(s and oint$ents concocted by t"e so5called (itc"es o% $edie#al Euro!e. Atro!ine "as also been %ound& but ("et"er it is !resent in t"e li#in !lant or is %or$ed durin e-traction is not cleor.BELLADONNA GAtropa belladonnaH is (ell *no(n as a "i "ly !oisonous s!ecies ca!able o% inducin #arious *inds o% "allucinations. Atropa belon s to t"e ni "ts"ade %a$ily& Solanaceae. T"ey (ould dro! t"e sa! o% t"e !lant into t"e eye to dilate t"e !u!il enor$ously& inducin a *ind o% drun*en or lassy stare& considered in t"at !eriod to en"ance %e$inine beauty and sensuality. T"e al*aloids occur t"rou "out t"e !lant but are concentrated es!ecially in t"e lea#es and roots. Until t"e 1At" century& co$$ercial collection (as !ri$arily %ro$ (ild sources& but since t"at ti$e culti#ation "as been initiated in t"e United States& Euro!e& and India& ("ere it is an i$!ortant source o% $edicinal dru s.

+7 .

T"ey are nati#e to Euro!e& nort"ern A%rica& and (estern and central Asia. Medieval #itches coo!ing "magic" bre# #ith toad and henbane. T"e !rinci!al al*aloid o% "enbane is "yoscya$ine& but t"e $ore "allucino enic sco!ola$ine is also !resent in si ni%icant a$ounts& alon (it" se#eral ot"er al*aloids in s$aller concentrations. Henbane is one o% >= s!ecies o% Hyoscyamus& $e$bers o% t"e ni "ts"ade %a$ily& Solanaceae. bre(s and ot"er to-ic !re!arations o% $edie#al Euro!e to cause #isual "allucinations and t"e sensation o% %li "t. .HENBANE GHyoscyamus nigerH (as o%ten included in t"e (itc"es. +. An annual or biennial nati#e to Euro!e& it "as lon been #alued in $edicine as a sedati#e and an anodyne to induce slee!.

T"e su!erstitious "old o% t"is !lant in Euro!e !ersisted %or centuries. In %act& it (as undoubtedly one o% t"e $ost !otent in redients in t"ose co$!le.ro!ane al*aloids "yoscya$ine& sco!ola$ine& and ot"ers& (as an acti#e "allucino enic in redient o% $any o% t"e (itc"es. +9 . T"e root o% $andra*e (as li*ened to t"e %or$ o% a $an or (o$an3 "ence its $a ic.MANDRAKE G#andragora officinarumH& an "allucino en (it" a %antastic "istory& "as lon been *no(n and %eared %or its to-icity. Mandra*e (as a !anacea. bre(s o% Euro!e."istory as a $a ic "y!notic in t"e %ol*lore o% Euro!e cannot be eEualed by any s!ecies any("ere.!re!arations. I% a $andra*e (ere !ulled %ro$ t"e eart"& accordin to su!erstition& its uneart"ly s"rie*s could dri#e its collector $ad. (st edition Mayence. ()*+ Mandra*e& (it" t"e . Its co$!le. 'oodcuts from Hortus sanitatis. Its %ol* uses in $edie#al Euro!e (ere ine-tricably bound u! (it" t"e )Doctrine o% Si natures&) an old t"eory "oldin t"at t"e a!!earance o% an ob+ect indicates its s!ecial !ro!erties. Mandra*e and %i#e ot"er s!ecies o% #andragora belon to t"e ni "ts"ade %a$ily& Solanaceae& and are nati#e to t"e area bet(een t"e Mediterranean and t"e Hi$alayas. In $any re ions& t"e !eo!le clai$ed stron a!"rodisiac !ro!erties %or $andra*e.

' .< .

T"e !lant contains "i "ly to-ic al*aloids& t"e !rinci!al one bein sco!ola$ine. Sco!ola$ine is %ound also in t"e Ne( World s!ecies o% Datura G!!. T"e narcotic !ro!erties o% t"is !ur!le5%lo(ered $e$ber o% t"e deadly ni "ts"ade %a$ily& Solanaceae& "a#e been *no(n and #alued in India since !re"istory.DHATURA and DUTRA GDatura metelH are t"e co$$on na$es in India %or an i$!ortant 7ld World s!ecies o% Datura. And it is undoubtedly t"e !lant t"at A#icenna& t"e Arabian !"ysician& $entioned under t"e na$e +ou'$at"el in t"e 11t" century. fastuosaH are s$o*ed (it" cannabis or tobacco in $any !arts o% A%rica and Asia. Early C"inese (ritin s re!ort an "allucino en t"at "as been identi%ied (it" t"is s!ecies. T"is "allucino en is !resent in "ea#iest concentrations in t"e lea#es and seeds. 12>512<H.1 .<@. T"e !lant (as "eld sacred in C"ina& ("ere !eo!le belie#ed t"at ("en 0udd"a !reac"ed& "ea#en s!rin*led t"e !lant (it" de(. Ne#ert"eless& t"e utili'ation o% Datura !re!arations in Asia entailed $uc" less ritual t"an in t"e Ne( World. T"e !lant "as a lon "istory in ot"er countries as (ell. Datura metel is co$$only $i-ed (it" cannabis and s$o*ed in Asia to t"is day. So$e (riters "a#e credited it (it" bein res!onsible %or t"e into-icatin s$o*e associated (it" t"e 7racle o% Del!"i. . Its use as an a!"rodisiac in t"e East Indies (as recorded in 1. Datura fero$& a related 7ld World s!ecies& not so (ides!read in Asia& is also #alued %or its narcotic and $edicinal !ro!erties. Lea#es o% a ("ite5 %lo(ered %or$ o% t"e !lant Gconsidered by so$e botanists to be a distinct s!ecies& D. In $any !arts o% Asia& e#en today& seeds o% Datura are o%ten $i-ed (it" %ood and tobacco %or illicit use& es!ecially by t"ie#es %or stu!e%yin #icti$s& ("o $ay re$ain seriously into-icated %or se#eral days.

+ .IBOGA G&abernanthe ibogaH& nati#e to 6abon and t"e Con o& is t"e only $e$ber o% t"e do bane %ancily& A!ocynaceae& *no(n to be used as an "allucino en. Entrance into t"e cult is conditional on "a#in )seen) t"e od !lant 0(iti& ("ic" is acco$!lis"ed t"rou " t"e use o% ibo a.Ibo aine is t"e !rinci!al indole al*aloid a$on a do'en ot"ers %ound in ibo a. Lar e doses induce un(orldly #isions& and )sorcerers) o!en ta*e t"e dru to see* in%or$ation %ro$ ancestors and t"e s!irit (orld.Photo by -. . Hunters use it to *ee! t"e$sel#es a(a*e all ni "t. T"e dru & disco#ered by Euro!eans to(ard t"e $iddle o% t"e last century& "as a re!utation as a !o(er%ul sti$ulant and a!"rodisiac. T"e !lant is o% ro(in i$!ortance& !ro#idin t"e stron est sin le %orce a ainst t"e s!read o% C"ristianity and Isla$ in t"is re ion. T"e yello(is" root o% t"e ibo a !lant is e$!loyed in t"e initiation rites o% a nu$ber o% secret societies& t"e $ost %a$ous bein t"e 0(iti cult. In addition to bein an "allucino en& ibo oine in lar e doses is a stron central ner#ous syste$ sti$ulant& leadin to con#ulsions& !aralysis& and arrest o% res!iration. 'Payment of the Ancestors(' ta)ing place bet*een t*o shrubby bushes of tabernanthe iboga in the +ang !ult of B*iti( !ongo. . +ernande/ 0 . T"e !"ar$acolo y o% ibo aine is (ell *no(n..

More t"an ninety s!ecies are e$!loyed %or t"eir into-icatin !rinci!les& co$!ared to %e(er t"an a do'en in t"e 7ld World. T"e acco$!lis"$ents o% abori inal A$ericans in t"e use o% $i-tures "a#e been e-traordinary. Many "allucino enic !re!arations called %or t"e addition o% !lant additi#es ca!able o% alterin t"e into-ication. Alt"ou " tobacco and coca& t"e source o% cocaine& "a#e beco$e o% (orld(ide i$!ortance& none o% t"e true "allucino ens o% t"e Western He$is!"ere "as assu$ed t"e lobal si ni%icance o% t"e 7ld World cannabis.. T"e $ost curious as!ect o% t"e studies& "o(e#er& is ("y& in #ie( o% t"eir #ital i$!ortance to Ne( World . . Une-!ected disco#eries "a#e co$e %ro$ studyin t"e "allucino enic use o% Ne( World !lants. No et"nolo ical study o% A$erican Indians can be considered co$!lete (it"out an in5de!t" a!!reciation o% t"eir "allucino ens.NEW WORLD HALLUCINOGENS In t"e Ne( WorldJNort"& Central& and Sout" A$erica and t"e West IndiesJt"e nu$ber and cultural i$!ortance o% "allucino ens reac"ed a$a'in "ei "ts in t"e !astJand in !laces t"eir role is undi$inis"ed. W"ile *no(n Ne( World "allucino ens are nu$erous& studies are still unco#erin s!ecies ne( to t"e list. Cultures in Nort" A$erica and t"e West Indies used %e(er "allucino ens& and t"eir role o%ten see$ed secondary. It (ould not be an e-a eration to say t"at so$e o% t"e Ne( World cultures& !articularly in Me-ico and Sout" A$erica& (ere !ractically ensla#ed by t"e reli ious use o% "allucino ens& ("ic" acEuired a dee! and controllin si ni%icance in al$ost e#ery as!ect o% li%e.

PUFFBALLS G"ycoperdon mi$tecorum and ". ". T"ere is a!!arently no cere$ony connected (it" !u%%balls& and t"ey do not en+oy t"e !lace as di#inatory a ents t"at t"e $us"roo$s do in 7a-aca. marginatum& ("ic" "as a stron odor o% e-cre$ent is *no(n as i5i5sa5(a& $eanin . ..cultures& t"e botanical identities o% $any o% t"e "allucino ens re$ained un*no(n until co$!arati#ely recent ti$es.%un us o% t"e second Euality.- . mi$tecorum is t"e stron er o% t"e t(o. A%ter eatin t"ese %un i& a nati#e "ears #oices and ec"oes.%un us o% t"e %irst Euality. Most o% t"e esti$ated .. Alt"ou " into-icatin substances "a#e not yet been %ound in t"e !u%%balls& t"ere are re!orts in t"e literature t"at so$e o% t"e$ "a#e "ad narcotic e%%ects ("en eaten. It is called i5i5(a& $eanin .) ". T"ey belon to t"e Lyco!erdaceae& a %a$ily o% t"e 6astero$ycetes.= to 1== s!ecies o% "ycoperdon ro( in $ossy %orests o% t"e te$!erate 'one. marginotumH are used by t"e Mi-tec Indicins 7% 7a-aca& Me-ico as auditory "allucino ens.

T"ey belon to %our eneraK !onocybe and Panaeolus& al$ost cos$o!olitan in t"eir ran e3 Psilocybe& %ound in Nort" and Sout" A$erica& Euro!e& and Asia3 and Stropharia& *no(n in Nort" A$erica& t"e West Indies& and Euro!e. B==& "a#e desi ns su esti#e o% $us"roo$s. centers in the mountains of southern Me.D.C. T"e ot"er5 (orldly e-!erience induced by t"ese $ysterious %or$s o% !lant li%e could easily "a#e su ested a s!iritual !lane o% e-istence. ?=H& e-ca#ated in lar e nu$bers %ro$ "i "land Maya sites in 6uate$ala and datin buc* to 1=== 0. Me-ican %rescoes& oin bac* to A.The use of hallucinogenic mushrooms.: . Detail %ro$ a %resco at a Te!antitla GTeoti"uacIn Me-icoH re!resentin Tloloc& t"e od o% clouds& rain& and (aters. Note t"e !ale blue $us"roo$s (it" oran e ste$s and also t"e )colorines. #hich dates bac! several thousand years. GA%ter Hei$ and Wasson. E#en $ore re$ar*able are t"e arti%acts called $us"roo$ stones G!. 5 t"e dar*er blue& bean5s"a!ed %or$s (it" red s!ots. No( inter!reted as a *ind o% icon connected (it" reli ious rituals& t"ey indicate t"at B&=== years a o& a so!"isticated reli ion surrounded t"e sacra$ental use o% t"ese %un i. Consistin o% a ste$ (it" a "u$an or ani$al %oce and sur$ounted by an u$brella5s"a!ed to!& t"ey lon !u''led arc"aeolo ists. MUSHROOMS o% $any s!ecies (ere used as "allucino ens by t"e A'tec Indians& ("o colled t"e$ teonanacotl& $eanin )%les" o% t"e ods) in t"e Na"uatl Indian lan ua e. T"ese $us"roo$s& all o% t"e %a$ily A aricaceae& are still #alued in Me-ican $a ic or eli ious rites. MUSHROOM WORSHIP see$s to "a#e roots in centuries o% nati#e tradition. See !a es A= and A< %or discussion o% colorines and !iule. It "as been su ested t"at !er"a!s $us"roo$s (ere t"e earliest "allucino enic !lants to be disco#ered.H .ico.

) A (or* o% A'tec $edicine $entions t"ree *inds o% into-icatin $us"roo$s.. ..6 .. . So$e do not (ant to eat but sit do(n .s& a%ter t"e conEuest o% Me-ico& re%erred %reEuently to t"ose $us"roo$s ) ("ic" are "ar$%ul and into-icate li*e (ine& ) so t"at t"ose ("o eat t"e$ )see #isions& %eel a %aintness o% "eart and are !ro#o*ed to lust.3 t"e nati#es )("en t"ey be in to et e-cited by t"e$ start dancin & sin in & (ee!in . years in !uatemala. EARLY USE OF THE SACRED MUSHROOMS is *no(n $ainly %ro$ t"e e-tensi#e descri!tions (ritten by t"e S!anis" clerics..$us"roo$s) t"at see$ to be e$er in %ro$ t"e $out" o% a od& !ossibly t"e Sun 6od.. Wit" ni "t5 lon #i ils are t"ey sou "t& a(eso$e and terri%yin . 4et ot"ers are not less desired by !rinces %or t"eir %esti#als and banEuets& and t"ese %etc" a "i " !rice. and see t"e$sel#es dyin in a #ision3 ot"ers see t"e$sel#es bein eaten by a (ild beast3 ot"ers i$a ine t"at t"ey are ca!turin !risoners o% (ar& t"at t"ey are ric"& t"at t"ey !ossess $any sla#es& t"at t"ey "ad co$$itted adultery and (ere to "a#e t"eir "eads crus"ed %or t"e o%%ense. 7ne c"ronicler& (ritin in t"e $id51.Typical icons associated with mushroom cults dating back /... ' Detail %ro$ %resco at Sacuala& Teoti"uacIn& Me-ico& s"o(in %our reenis" . brin be%ore t"e eyes all sorts o% t"in s& suc" as (ars and t"e li*eness o% de$ons.==. /or t"is (e o(e t"e$ a reat debt. 7ne& tey"uintli causes ) $adness t"at on occasion is lastin & o% ("ic" t"e sy$!to$ is an uncontrollable lau "ter3 t"ere are ot"ers ("ic" . .. .) .

H IDENTIFICATION OF THE SACRED MUSHROOMS (as slo( in co$in . T"e ne( reli ion& C"ristianity& "ad not"in so attracti#e to o%%er "i$. Not until t"e 1AB=. Dri#en into "idin by t"e S!aniards& t"e $us"roo$ cult (as not encountered in Me-ico %or %our centuries. Durin t"at ti$e& alt"ou " t"e Me-ican %lora (as *no(n to include #arious to-ic $us"roo$s& it (as belie#ed t"at t"e A'tecs "ad tried to !rotect t"eir real sacred !lantK t"ey "ad led t"e S!aniards to belie#e t"at teonanacatl $eant $us"roo$& ("en it actually $eant !eyote. Tryin to sta$! out t"e use o% t"e $us"roo$s& t"e S!aniards succeeded only in dri#in t"e custo$ into t"e "interlands& ("ere it !ersists today. (ors"i! o% !a an deities (it" t"e sacra$ental aid o% $us"roo$s (as stron .SPANISH OPPOSITION to t"e A'tecs. A 1?t"5century illustration o% teononacatl GaH& t"e into-icatin $us"roo$ o% t"e A'tecs& still #alued in . It (os !ointed out t"at t"e sy$!to$s o% $us"roo$ into-ication coincided re$ar*ably (it" t"ose described %or !eyote into-ication and t"at dried $us"roo$s $i "t easily "a#e been con%used (it" t"e s"ri#eled bro(n "eads o% t"e !eyote cactus.7 . Later (or* "as s"o(n t"at $ore t"an >= s!ecies o% $us"roo$s are si$ilarly e$!loyed a$on se#en or ei "t tribes in sout"ern Me-ico.s (ere botanists able to identi%y s!eci$ens o% $us"roo$s %ound in actual use in di#inatory rites in Me-ico. Alt"ou " t"e S!anis" conEuerors o% Me-ico "ated and attac*ed t"e reli ious use o% all "allucino ens 5 !eyote& ololiuEui& toloac"e& and ot"ers 5 teonanocatl (as t"e tar et o% s!ecial (rat". Not only did it !ersist& but t"e ritual ado!ted $any C"ristian as!ects& and t"e $odern ritual is a !a an5C"ristian blend. T"eir reli ious %anaticis$ (as dra(n es!ecially to(ard t"is des!ised and %eared %or$ o% !lant li%e t"at& t"rou " its #ision5 i#in !o(ers& "eld t"e Indian in a(e& allo(in "i$ to co$$une directly (it" "is ods. 0ut t"e nu$erous detailed re%erences by care%ul (riters& includin $edical $en trained in botany& ar ued a ainst t"is t"eory. G/ro$ t"e #agliabecchiano !ode$& 0iblioteca Na'ionole& /lorence. T"e !a an od o% t"e under(orld s!ea*s t"rou " t"e $us"roo$& teononocatl& as re!resented by a Me-ican artist in t"e 1?t" century.

T"is s!ecies is *no(n to contain an "allucino enic !rinci!le.) T"ey belie#e t"at t"e $us"roo$ s!rin s u! $iraculously and t"at it $ay be sent %ro$ outer real$s on t"underbolts. It is !ossible& too& t"at Psilocybe s!ecies are used as inebriants outside o% Me-ico. As one Indian !ut it !oeticallyK )T"e little $us"roo$ co$es o% itsel%& no one *no(s ("ence& li*e t"e (ind t"at co$es (e *no( not ("en or ("y. P. . Scene is ty!ical o% t"e all5ni "t $us"roo$ cere$ony.s Historia general de las cosas de 1ueva Espana& Val.eru as t"e source o% a !otent into-icatin be#era e. Curandera is under t"e in%luence o% t"e $us"roo$s. THE MODERN MUSHROOM CEREMONY o% t"e Ma'atec Indians o% nort"eastern 7a-aca illustrates t"e i$!ortance o% t"e ritual in !resent5day Me-ico and "o( t"e sacred c"aracter o% t"ese !lants "as !ersisted %ro$ !re5conEuest ti$es.nti5si5t"o& $eanin )(ors"i!%ul ob+ect t"at s!rin s %ort". T"e nati#e na$es are color%ul and so$eti$es si ni%icant. T"eir stran e ro(t" !attern "el!s $a*e $us"roo$s $ysterious and a(eso$e to t"e Ma'atec& ("o call t"e$ . caerulescens #ar. Curandera (it" Ma'atec !atient and dis" o% sacred $us"roo$s. yungensis "as been su ested as t"e $ysterious )tree $us"roo$) t"at early Desuit $issionaries re!orted as bein e$!loyed by t"e 4uri$a ua Indians o% A$a'onian .. Psilocybe a/tecorum is called )c"ildren o% t"e (aters)3 P..Me-ican $a ico5reli ious rites3 identity o% GbH is un*no(n. ??5?<H. Stropharia cubensis and Psilocybe me$icana $ay be t"e $ost co$$only e$!loyed& but "al% a do'en ot"er s!ecies o% Psilocybe as (ell as !onocybe siliginoides and Panaeolus sphinctrinus are also i$!ortant. T"e s!irit o% re#erence c"aracteristic o% t"e $us"roo$ cere$ony is as !ro%ound as t"at o% any o% t"e (orld. Seasonal und re ional a#ailability also "a#e a bearin on t"e c"oice. /ield (or* in $odern ti$es& "o(e#er& "as not disclosed t"e narcotic use o% any $us"roo$s in t"e A$a'on area.s reat reli ions.) GSee illustrations on !!. /ro$ Sa"a un. T"e !ossibility e-ists t"at ot"er "allucino enic s!ecies o% $us"roo$s are also used. 7%ten a curin rite ta*es !lace durin ("ic" t"e !ractitioner& t"rou " t"e )!o(er) o% t"e sacred $us"roo$s& co$$unicates and intercedes (it" su!ernatural %orces. T"ere is no Euestion o% t"e #ibrant rele#ance o% t"e $us"roo$ rituals to $odern Indian li%e in sout"ern Me-ico. T"e di#ine $us"roo$s are at"ered durin t"e ne( $oon on t"e "illsides be%ore da(n by a #ir in3 t"ey are o%ten consecrated on t"e altar o% t"e local Cat"olic c"urc". IV G/lorentine Code-H.) T"e all5ni "t Ma'atec cere$ony& led usually by a (o$an s"a$an GcuranderaH& co$!rises lon & co$!licated& and curiously re!etitious c"ants& !ercussi#e beats& and !rayers. None o% t"e attraction o% t"ese di#ine $us"roo$s "as been lost as a result o% contact (it" C"ristianity or $odern ideas. KINDS OF MUSHROOMS USED by di%%erent s"a$ans are deter$ined !artly by !ersonal !re%erence and !artly by t"e !ur!ose o% t"e use. . /apotecorum& )cro(n5o%5t"orns $us"roo$)3 and P. nigripes& )$us"roo$ o% su!erior reason.

9 ..

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A ("ite crystalline try!ta$ine o% unusual structure 5 an acidic !"os!"oric acid ester o% 25 "ydro-ydi$et"yltry!ta$ine 5 (as isolated. . At t"e !ea* o% t"e into-ication . . . "ad acEuired a !urely Indian e-!ression. . T"ey are %ollo(ed by lassitude& $ental and !"ysical de!ression& and alteration o% ti$e and s!oce !erce!tion. W"ile !silocybin "as been %ound also in Euro!ean and Nort" A$erican $us"roo$s& a!!arently only in Me-ico and 6uate$ala "a#e !silocybin 5 containin $us"roo$s been !ur!ose%ully used %or cere$onial into-ication. . A%ter about si. e-ce!t t"e scenes o% your e#eryday li%e.THE EFFECTS OF THE MUSHROOMS include $uscular rela-ation or li$!ness& !u!il enlar e$ent& "ilarity& and di%%iculty in concentration. . So$e o% t"e $us"roo$s also contain $inute a$ounts o% anot"er indolic co$!ound 5 !silocin 5 ("ic" is unstable. t"e be$us"roo$ed !erson is !oised in s!ace& a dise$bodied eye& in#isible& incor!oreal& seein but not seen . T"e user see$s to be isolated %ro$ t"e (orld around "i$3 (it"out loss o% consciousness& "e beco$es ("olly indi%%erent to "is surroundin s& and "is drea$li*e state beco$es reality to "i$. T"e $us"roo$s cause bot" #isual and auditory "allucinations. . . . . GT"e #isions $ay be o%H al$ost anyt"in . T"is indole deri#ati#e& na$ed !silocybin& is a ne( ty!e o% structure& a 25substituted try!ta$ine (it" a !"os!"oric acid radical& a ty!e ne#er be%ore *no(n as a naturally occurrin constituent o% !lant tissue.) As (it" ot"er "allucino ens& t"e e%%ects o% t"e $us"roo$s $ay #ary (it" $ood and settin . 7ne in#esti ator ("o ate $us"roo$s in a Me-ican Indian cere$ony (rote t"at )your body lies in t"e dar*ness& "ea#y as lead& but your s!irit see$s to soar . . . T"is !eculiarity o% t"e into-ication $a*es it interestin to !syc"iatrists. . . I %elt $y return to e#eryday reality to be a "a!!y return %ro$ a stran e& %antastic but Euite really e-!erienced (orld into an old and %a$iliar "o$e. . "e is t"e %i#e senses dise$bodied . . . . Visions are breat"ta*in ly li%eli*e& in color& and in constant $otion. . )All your senses are si$ilarly a%%ected3 t"e ci arette . . .s descri!tion o% "is e-!erience a%ter eatin B> dried s!eci$ens o% .) CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION o% t"e "allucino enic $us"roo$s "as sur!rised scientists. . . . A scientist. . W"at you are seein and . W"en t"e doctor su!er#isin t"e e-!eri$ent bent o#er $e .s sin in . . "e (as trans%or$ed into an A'tec !riest& and I (ould not "a#e been astonis"ed i% "e "ad dra(n an obsidian *ni%e ."ours& t"e drea$ ca$e to an end . . . your soul is %ree& loses all sense o% ti$e& alert as it ne#er (as be%ore& li#in an eternity in a ni "t& seein in%inity in a rain o% sand . it a$used $e to see "o( t"e 6er$anic %ace . "earin a!!ear as one3 t"e $usic assu$es "ar$onious s"a!es& i#in #isual %or$ to its "ar$onies& and ("at you are seein ta*es on t"e $odalities o% $usicJt"e $usic o% t"e s!"eres. . -1 . s$ells as no ci arette be%ore "ad e#er s$elled3 t"e lass o% si$!le (ater is in%initely better t"an c"a$!a ne . . t"e rus" o% interior !ictures& $ostly abstract $oti%s ra!idly c"an in in s"a!e and color& reac"ed suc" an alar$in de ree t"at I %eared t"at I (ould be torn into t"is ("irl!ool o% %or$ and color and (ould dissol#e.silocybe $e-icana (as as %ollo(sK ). and (it" t"e s!eed o% t"ou "t to tra#el ("ere it listet"& in ti$e and s!ace& acco$!anied by t"e s"a$an.

s du Me. grown from spores.i/ue: CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION o% t"e Me-ican $us"roo$s (as di%%icult until t"ey could be culti#ated. Culti#ation o% edible $us"roo$s is an i$!ortant co$$ercial enter!rise and (as !racticed in /rance early in t"e se#enteent" century. $ laboratory culture of +silocybe me?icana. T"e laboratory& in t"is case& beca$e an e%%icient substitute %or nature. T"is acco$!lis"$ent re!resents a !"ase in t"e study o% "allucino enic !lants t"at $ust be i$itated in t"e in#esti ation o% t"e c"e$istry o% ot"er narcotics. Culti#ation %or laboratory studies is a $ore recent de#elo!$ent. T"e clari%ication o% t"e c"e$istry o% t"e Me-ican $us"roo$s (as !ossible only because $ycolo ists (ere able to culti#ate t"e !lants in nu$bers su%%icient to satis%y t"e needs o% t"e c"e$ists. 0y !ro#idin suitable conditions& scientists "a#e learned to ro( $any s!ecies in arti%icial culture. -+ . 9$fter Heim E Wasson: -es hampignons Hallucinogen.silocin is belie#ed by so$e bioc"e$ists to be t"e !recursor o% t"e $ore stable !silocybin. T"ey are al$ost ("olly (ater and reat Euantities o% t"e$ are needed %or c"e$ical analyses because t"eir c"e$ical constitution is so e!"e$eral. an inno"ation that speeded analysis of the ephemeral mushroom..

T"ere is so$e indirect e#idence t"at Indians o% nort"ern Canada& ("o e$!loy t"e !lant as a $edicine and a sti$ulant& $ay c"e( t"e rootstoc* as an "allucino en. T"e into-icatin !ro!erties $ay be due to a5asorone and L5asarone& but t"e c"e$istry and !"ar$acolo y o% t"e !lant are still !oorly understood. A $e$ber o% t"e aru$ %a$ily& Araceae& it is one o% t(o s!ecies o% Acorus. In e-cessi#e doses& it is *no(n to induce stron #isual "allucinations. .SWEET FLAG GAcorus calamusH& also called s(eet calo$el& ro(s in da$! !laces in t"e nort" and sout" te$!erate re ions. -.

Colombian 'ndians using a snuffing tube fashioned from a bird bone. VIROLAS GVirola calophylla& V. T"e best *no(n $e$ber o% t"e %a$ily is #yristica fragrans& an Asiatic tree t"at is t"e source o% nut$e and $ace. In Colo$bia& t"e s!ecies $ost o%ten used %or "allucino enic !ur!oses are Virola calophylla and V. Virola trees are nati#e to t"e Ne( World tro!ics. T"e into-icatin !rinci!les are in t"e blood5red resin yielded by t"e tree bar*& ("ic" $a*es a !o(er%ul snu%%. -- . colophylloidea& and V. T"ese +un le trees o% $ediu$ si'e "a#e lossy& dar* reen lea#es (it" clusters o% tiny yello( %lo(ers t"at e$it a !un ent aro$a. theiodoraH are a$on t"e $ost recently disco#ered "allucino enic !lants. calophylloidea& ("ereas in 0ra'il and Vene'uela t"e Indians !re%er V. T"ey are $e$bers o% t"e nut$e %a$ily& Myristicaceae& ("ic" co$!rises so$e B== s!ecies o% trees in 1@ enera. theiodora& ("ic" see$s to yield a $ore !otent resin.

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An ant"ro!olo ist ("o obser#ed t"e 4e*(ana Indians o% Vene'uela in t"eir !re!aration and use o% t"e snu%% in 1A=A co$$entedK )7% s!ecial interest are cures& durin ("ic" t"e (itc" doctor in"ales "a*udu%"a. .AN INTOXICATING SNUFF is !re!ared %ro$ t"e bar* o% Virola trees by Indians o% t"e nort"(estern A$a'on and t"e "ead(aters o% t"e 7rinoco. )T"is sedi$ent is toasted in t"e !ot o#er a sli "t %ire and is t"en %inely !o(dered (it" t"e blade o% a *ni%e. Ne-t& "e snu%%s& ("ilst& (it" t"e sa$e reed& "e absorbs t"e !o(der into eac" nostril successi#ely. T"en t"e sorcerer blo(s a little o% t"e !o(der t"rou " a reed . -6 . . T"is is a $a ical snu%% used e-clusi#ely by (itc" doctors and !re!ared %ro$ t"e bar* o% a certain tree ("ic"& !ounded u!& is boiled in a s$all eart"en(are !ot& until all t"e (ater "as e#a!orated and a sedi$ent re$ains at t"e botto$ o% t"e !ot. into t"e air.

Alt"ou " t"e use o% t"e snu%% a$on t"e Indians o% Sout" A$erica "ad been described earlier& its source (as not de%initely identi%ied as t"e Virola tree until 1A. T"e snu%% is t"en ready %or use. PREPARATION OF VIROLA SNUFF #aries a$on di%%erent Indians. -7 . WaikF 'ndian scraping Girola resin into pot. To t"is $ay be added t"e !o(dered lea#es o% a s$all& s(eet5scented (eed& -usticia& and t"e as"es o% a$asita& t"e bar* o% a beauti%ul tree& Eli/abetha princeps. T"e s"a#in s are stored %or later use. A$on nu$erous tribes in eastern Colo$bia& t"e use o% Virola snu%%& o%ten called ya*ee or !arica& is restricted to s"a$ans. So$e scra!e t"e so%t inner layer o% t"e bar* and dry t"e s"a#in s ently o#er a %ire. preparatory to cooking it.) Stri! o% bar* %ro$ Virola tree& s"o(in oo'in resin. T"e $edicine $en o% t"ese tribes ta*e t"e snu%% to induce a trance t"at is belie#ed to aid t"e$ in dia nosin and treatin illness. W"en t"e snu%% is needed& t"e s"a#in s are !ul#eri'ed by !oundin (it" a !estle in a $ortar $ade %ro$ t"e %ruit case o% t"e 0ra'il5 nut tree. T"e resultin !o(der is si%ted to a %ine& !un ent bro(n dust. A$on t"e Wai*I or 4anona$o tribes o% t"e %rontier re ion o% 0ra'il and Vene'uela& e!ena or nya*(ana& as t"e snu%% is called& is not restricted to $edicine $en& but $ay be snu%%ed cere$onially by all adult $ales or e#en ta*en occasionally (it"out any ritual basis by $en indi#idually.2.)T"e "a*udu%"a ob#iously "as a stron sti$ulatin e%%ect& %or i$$ediately t"e (itc" doctor be ins to sin and yell (ildly& all t"e ("ile !itc"in t"e u!!er !art o% "is body bac*(ards and %or(ards.

T"e sa$e resin& a!!lied directly to arro("eads and con ealed in s$o*e& is one o% t"e Wai*a arro( !oisons. A SNUFF-TAKING CEREMONY is conducted annually by $any Wai*I tribes to $e$oriali'e t"ose ("o "a#e died t"e !re#ious year. Still ot"er Indians *nead t"e inner s"a#in s o% %res"ly stri!!ed bar* to sEuee'e out all t"e resin and t"en boil do(n t"e resin to et a t"ic* !aste t"at is sun5dried and !re!ared into snu%% (it" as"es added. As"es o% se#eral bar*s and t"e lea% !o(der o% -usticia $ay or $ay not be added. Waika 'ndian si#ing ground Hustica lea"es to make fine powder for additi"e to Girola snuff. T"e cere$ony ta*es !lace in a lar e round "ouse. It see$s to be as !otent as t"e snu%% itsel%. . Endocannibalis$ co$!rises !art o% t"e rite3 t"e as"es o% calcined bones o% t"e de!arted are $i-ed into a %er$ented banana drin* and are s(allo(ed (it" t"e be#era e. W"en su!!lies o% snu%% are used u! in cere$onies& t"e Indians o%ten scra!e t"e "ardened resin %ro$ arro( ti!s to use it as a substitute.@ried Husticio lea"es are ground before being added to snuff 7t"er Indians %ell t"e tree& stri! o%% and ently "eat t"e bar*& collect t"e resin in an eart"en(are !ot& boil it do(n to a t"ic* !aste& sun5dry t"e !aste& crus" it (it" a stone& and si%t it. /ollo(in initial c"antin by a $aster o% cere$ony& t"e $en and older boys %or$ rou!s and blo( "u e a$ounts o% snu%% t"rou " lon tubes into eac" -.

tal* (it" t"e s!irit !eo!le)3 t"e into-ication be ins %i#e $inutes a"er in estion. Alt"ou " t"is !unis"$ent& in retribution %or real or i$a ined rie#ances& o%ten dra(s blood& t"e e%%ects o% t"e narcotic are so stron t"at t"e $en do not %linc" or s"o( si ns o% !ain. T"ey t"en be in to dance and to run (ildly& s"outin & brandis"in (ea!ons& and $a*in estures o% bra#ado. Many ot"er !lants are e$!loyed in Sout" A$erica in !re!arin arro( !oisons& $ost o% t"e$ $e$bers o% t"e %a$ilies Lo aniaceae and Menis!er$aceae. T"e c"e$ical constituent o% t"e resin res!onsible %or t"is action is still un*no(n. T"e o!!onents t"en sEuat& t"ro( t"eir ar$s about eac" ot"er& and s"out into one anot"er. .airs or rou!s en a e in a stran e ritual in ("ic" one !artici!ant t"rusts out "is c"est and is !ounded %orce%ully (it" %ists& clubs& or roc*s by a co$!anion& ("o t"en o%%ers "is o(n c"est %or reci!rocation. Macro!sia 5 t"e sensation o% seein t"in s reatly enlar ed 5 is c"aracteristic and enters into Wai*I belie%s about "e*ulas& t"e s!irit %orces d(ellin in t"e Virola tree and controllin t"e a%%airs o% $an. USE OF VIROLA AS AN ARROW POISON by t"e Wai*I Indians is one o% t"e recent disco#eries in t"e study o% curare. Durin t"e into-ication& $edicine $en o%ten (ildly esticulate& %i "tin t"ese i antic "e*ulas.s nostrils G!. All be in "o!!in and cra(lin across t"e %loor in i$itation o% ani$als. T"e Witoto& 0ora& and Muinane o% Colo$bia !re!are little !ellets %ro$ t"e resin& and t"ese are eaten ("en& to !ractice (itc"cra%t or dia nose disease& t"e $edicine $en (is" to . .ot"er. -9 . E#entually all succu$b to t"e dru & losin consciousness %or u! to "al% an "our. Wai*I snu%% !re!ared e-clusi#ely %ro$ t"e resin o% Virola theiodora "as u! to @ !ercent o% try!ta$ines& $ainly t"e "i "ly acti#e . T"ere is so$e #a ue e#idence t"at certain Vene'uelan nati#es $ay s$o*e t"e bar* to et t"e into-icatin e%%ects. <2H. OTHER WAYS OF TAKING VIROLA RESIN besides snu%%in it are so$eti$es e$!loyed. It is interestin t"at alt"ou " t"e arro(s are ti!!ed ("ile t"e "allucino enic snu%% is bein !re!ared %ro$ resin %ro$ t"e so$e tree& t"e t(o o!erations are carried out by di%%erent $edicine $en o% t"e sa$e tribe.ai)a round house in clearing in Ama/on forest. EFFECTS OF VIROLA SNUFF are %elt (it"in $inutes %ro$ t"e ti$e o% initial use.s ears. CAUSE OF THE NARCOTIC EFFECT o% Virola "as been s"o(n by recent studies to be an e-ce!tionally "i " concentration o% try!ta$ine al*aloids in t"e resin. T"e red resin %ro$ t"e bar* o% Virola theiodora is s$eared on an arro( or dart& ("ic" is t"en ently "eated in t"e s$o*e o% a %ire Gs"o(n in t"e illustration belo(H to "arden t"e resin. /irst t"ere is a %eelin o% increasin e-citability. T"is is %ollo(ed by a nu$bness o% t"e li$bs& a t(itc"in o% t"e %ace& a lac* o% $uscular coordination& nasal disc"ar es& nausea& and& %reEuently& #o$itin .5$et"o-y5N& N5 di$et"yltry!ta$ine T(o ne( al*aloids o% a di%%erent ty!eJ&05carbolinesJ "a#e also been %ound in t"e resin3 t"ey act as $onoa$ine o-idase in"ibitors and $a*e it !ossible %or t"e try!ta$ines to ta*e e%%ect ("en t"e resin is ta*en orally. T"e !ri$iti#e no$adic Ma*u o% Colo$bia o%ten $erely scra!e resin %ro$ t"e bar* o% t"e tree and lic* it in crude %or$. Hallucinations are said to be e-!erienced durin t"is ti$e. T"e *illin action o% t"e !oison is slo(.

T"e aro$atic lea#es are occasionally dried& !o(dered& and $i-ed (it" t"e "allucino enic snu%% $ade %ro$ resin o% t"e Virola tree. stenophyllaH is a s$all "erb culti#ated by t"e Wai*I Indians o% t"e 0ra'ilian5 Vene'uelan %rontier re ion. MASHA-HARI G-usticia pectoralis #ar. 7t"er s!ecies o% #imosa are also locally called +ure$a. JUREMA G#imosa hostilisH is a !oorly understood s"rub& t"e roots o% ("ic" !ro#ide t"e )$iraculous +ure$a drin*&) *no(n in eastern 0ra'il as a+uca or #in"o de +ure$a. applied by dipping or spreading #ith fingers.an*arurN& Tus"a& and /ulnio 5 consu$e :< . T"e B== s!ecies o% -usticia& $e$bers o% t"e acant"us %a$ily& Acant"aceae& ro( in t"e tro!ics and subtro!ics o% bot" "e$is!"eres.erna$bucoJt"e 9ariri& . Hallucino enic constituents "a#e not yet been %ound in -usticia& but i% any s!ecies o% t"e enus is utili'ed as t"e only in redient o% an into-icatin snu%%& t"en one or $ore acti#e constituents $ust be !resent.'ai!0 $ndian holding poison darts in smo!y fire to congeal 1irola resin. 7t"er s!ecies o% -usticia "a#e been re!orted to be e$!loyed in t"at re ion as t"e sole source o% a narcotic snu%%. Se#eral tribes in .

. Dure$a is nati#e only to t"e dry re ions o% eastern 0ra'il. . Most o% t"e$ are A$erican& alt"ou " so$e occur in A%rica and Asia. Since t"e try!ta$ines are not acti#e ("en ta*en orally unless in t"e !resence o% a $onoa$ine o-idase in"ibitor& it is ob#ious t"at t"e +ure$a drin* $ust contain in redients ot"er t"an #.= years a o. hostilis "as nearly disa!!eared in recent ti$es. T"ey (ould see ) lorious #isions o% t"e s!irit land .) it a!!ears& "o(e#er& t"at t"e "allucino enic use o% #. . T"e enus #imosa& closely allied to Acacia and Anadenanthera& co$!rises so$e . GorH catc" a li$!se o% t"e clas"in roc*s t"at destroy souls o% t"e dead +ourneyin to t"eir oal or see t"e T"underbird s"ootin li "tnin %ro$ a "u e tu%t on "is "ead and !roducin cla!s o% t"under .t"e be#era e in cere$onies. . T"e $i$osas belon to t"e sub%a$ily Mi$osoideae o% t"e bean %a$ily& Le u$inosae. Early c"e$ical studies indicated an acti#e al*aloid i#en t"e na$e ni erine but later s"o(n to be identical (it" N. :1 . hostilis or t"at t"e !lant itsel% $ust contain an in"ibitor in its tissues. Usually connected (it" (ar%are& t"e "allucino en (as used by no( e-tinct tribes o% t"e area to )!ass t"e ni "t na#i atin t"rou " t"e de!t"s o% slu$ber) +ust !rior to sallyin %ort" to (ar. N5di$et"yltry!"$ine.== s!ecies o% tro!ical and subtro!ical "erbs and s$all s"rubs. Little is *no(n about t"e "allucino enic !ro!erties o% t"is !lant& ("ic" (as disco#ered $ore t"an 1.

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So$eti$es t"e beans are allo(ed to %er$ent be%ore bein rolled into a !aste. 0u%otenine& also !resent in A. Its use& ("ic" "as died out in t"e West Indies& (as undoubtedly introduced to t"e Caribbean area by Indian in#aders %ro$ Sout" A$erica. 6ray5blac* ("en ri!e& t"e seed !ods brea* o!en& e-!osin %ro$ t"ree to about ten %lat seeds& or beans. THE PREPARATION OF YOPO SNUFF #aries so$e("at %ro$ tribe to tribe. peregrina seeds& a!!arently is not "allucino enic. N5di$et"yltry!ta$ine& N5 $ono$et"yltry!"$ine& . peregrina seeds include N.5$et"o-ydi$et"yltry!ta$ine& and se#eral related bases. :. So$e Indians toast t"e beans and crus" t"e$ (it"out $oldin t"e$ into a !aste& rindin t"e$ usually on an ornate slab o% "ard(ood $ade es!ecially %or t"e !ur!ose.YOPO or PARICA GAnadenanthera peregrina or Piptadenia peregrinaH is a Sout" A$erican tree o% t"e bean %a$ily& Le u$inosae. T"e snu%%& no( used $ainly in t"e 7rinoco basin& (as %irst re!orted %ro$ His!aniola in 12A?& ("ere t"e Taino Indians called it co"oba. Elucidation o% t"e c"e$ical $a*e5u! o% t"e seeds o% t"e yo!o tree "as only recently been acco$!lis"ed. T"e "allucino enic !rinci!les %ound in A. T"e !ods& ("ic" are borne !ro%usely on t"e yo!o tree& are %lat and dee!ly constricted bet(een eac" seed. /uture studies $ay increase our *no(led e o% t"e acti#e !rinci!le o% t"ese seeds. A%ter t"e toastin & t"e "ardened !aste $ay be stored %or later use. A !otent "allucino enic snu%% is !re!ared %ro$ t"e seeds o% t"is tree. T"ese are at"ered durin Danuary and /ebruary& usually in lar e Euantities and o%ten cere$onially. . T"ey are %irst sli "tly $oistened and rolled into a !aste& ("ic" is t"en roasted ently o#er a slo( %ire until it is dried out and toasted.

. T"e addition o% t"e as"es !robably ser#es a $erely $ec"anical !ur!oseK to *ee! t"e snu%% %ro$ ca*in in t"e "u$id cli$ate. in "is ti$e& o% course& t"e !resence o% acti#e try!ta$ines in t"e beans (as un*no(n.. it is not to be belie#ed t"at t"e nio!o acacia !ods are t"e c"ie% cause o% t"e sti$ulatin e%%ects o% t"e snu%% .Se#eral early e-!lorers described t"e !rocess. :- . ("ic" is "eld bet(een t"e %in ers and t"u$b o% t"e ri "t "and. In 1@. A!!arently& t"e as"es are $ade %ro$ a reat #ariety o% !lant $aterialsK t"e burned %ruit o% t"e $on*ey !ot& t"e bar* o% $any di%%erent #ines and trees& and e#en t"e roots o% sed es.) T"e resultin rayis"5 reen !o(der is al$ost al(ays $i-ed (it" about eEual a$ounts o% so$e al*aline substance& ("ic" $ay be li$e %ro$ snail s"ells or t"e as"es o% !lant $aterial. T"e e%%ects are due to %res"ly con%ined li$e. . In 1@=1 Ale-ander #on Hu$boldt& t"e 6er$an naturalist and e-!lorer& detailed t"e !re!aration o% yo!o by t"e Mai!ures o% t"e 7rinoco.1& Ric"ard S!ruce& an En lis" e-!lorer& #isited t"e 6ua"ibos& anot"er tribe o% t"e 7rinoco& and (roteK ) in !re!arin t"e snu%%& t"e roasted seeds o% nio!o are !laced in a s"allo( (ooden !latter t"at is "eld on t"e *nee by $eans o% a broad "andle ras!ed %ir$ly (it" t"e le%t "and3 t"en crus"ed by a s$all !estle o% t"e "ard (ood o% !ao d. T"e addition o% li$e or as"es to narcotic or sti$ulant !re!arations is a #ery (ides!read custo$ in bot" "e$is!"eres. . In t"e case o% yo!o snu%%& t"e al*aline ad$i-ture see$s not to be essential. years a o& $ista*enly stated t"at ). . . T"ey are o%ten added to betel c"e(& !ituri& tobacco& e!ena snu%%& coca& etc. So$e Indians& suc" as t"e 6ua"ibos& $ay occasionally ta*e t"e !o(der alone.arco . . T"e e-!lorer Ale-ander #on Hu$boldt& ("o encountered t"e use o% yo!o in t"e 7rinoco 1<.

T"e e%%ects be in al$ost i$$ediatelyK a t(itc"in o% t"e $uscles& sli "t con#ulsions& and lac* o% $uscular coordination& %ollo(ed by nausea& #isual "allucinations& and disturbed slee!.4o!o snu%% is in"aled t"rou " "ollo( bird5bone or ba$boo tubes. . be turned u!side do(n and t"at $en are (al*in on t"eir %eet in t"e air'3 :: . . An abnor$al e-a eration o% t"e si'e o% ob+ects G$ocro!siaH is co$$on. In an early descri!tion& t"e Indians say t"at t"eir "ouses see$ to ).

@?H. peregrine does not occur. peregrina Gsee !. A.outh $merican 'ndians of the upper )rinoco region in characteristic gesticulating postures while under the influence of yopo snuff. colubrina seeds are *no(n to !ossess t"e sa$e "allucino enic !rinci!les as A. . VILCA and SEBIL are snu%%s belie#ed to "a#e been !re!ared in t"e !ast %ro$ t"e beans o% Anadenanthera colubrina and its #ariety c2bil in central and sout"ern Sout" A$erica& ("ere A. The seeds of this tree are the source of a potent hallucinogenic snuff. :6 .$ yopo tree 9Anadenanthera peregrina: in $ma#onian -ra#il.

An early . T"e al*aloid "as ne#er been !"ar$acolo ically de$onstrated to "a#e "allucino enic acti#ity& but it is *no(n to be to-ic and to cause nausea& con#ulsions& and deat" t"rou " %ailure o% res!iration. Rarely does any nonindi enous !lant %ind its (ay into t"e reli ious and $a ic custo$s o% a !eo!le. So$e s!ecies are "i "ly orna$ental3 so$e are !oisonous. About @= s!ecies o% !ytisus& belon in to t"e bean %a$ily& Le u$inosae& are *no(n in t"e Atlantic islands& Euro!e& and t"e Mediterranean area.lants o% t"e enus !ytisus are ric" in cytisine& an al*aloid o% t"e lu!ine rou!. 9no(n also by t"e scienti%ic na$e Genista canariensis& t"is s!ecies is t"e ) enista) o% %lorists. MESCAL BEAN GSaphora secundifloraH& also called red bean or coralillo& is a s"rub or s$all tree (it" sil#ery !ods containin u! to si.or se#en red beans or seeds. 0e%ore t"e !eyote reli ion s!read nort" o% t"e Rio 6rande& at least 1> tribes o% Indians in nort"ern Me-ico& Ne( Me-ico& and Te-as !racticed t"e :7 .eru#ian re!ort& dated about 1. Since t"ese Indian cultures "a#e disa!!eared& our *no(led e o% #ilca snu%%s and t"eir use is li$ited. GENISTA G!ytisus canariensisH is e$!loyed as an "allucino en in t"e $a ic !ractices o% 4aEui $edicine $en in nort"ern Me-ico. . Nati#e to t"e Canary Islands& t"e !lant (as introduced into Me-ico.<1& states t"at Inca $edicine $en %oretold t"e %uture by co$$unicatin (it" t"e de#il t"rou " t"e use o% #ilca& or "uilca. In Ar entina& t"e early S!aniards %ound t"e Co$ec"in Indians ta*in sebil )t"rou " t"e nose) to beco$e into-icated& and in anot"er tribe t"e sa$e !lant (as c"e(ed %or endurance.

Mescal beans "a#e been %ound at sites datin be%ore A. So!"ora co$!rises about . :. 11 2H led t"e nati#es to abandon t"e Red 0ean Dance. 3aponica& is $edicinally i$!ortant as a ood source o% rutin& used in $odern $edicine %or treatin ca!illary %ra ility. An early S!anis" e-!lorer $entioned $escal beans as an article o% trade in Te-as in 1. Sacred ele$ents do not o%ten disa!!ear co$!letely %ro$ a culture3 today t"e seeds are used as an adorn$ent on t"e uni%or$ o% t"e leader o% t"e !eyote cere$ony.#ision5see*in Red 0ean Dance centered around t"e in estion o% a drin* !re!ared %ro$ t"ese seeds. 7ne s!ecies& S. 9no(n also as t"e Wic"ita& Deer& or W"istle Dance& t"e cere$ony utili'ed t"e beans as an oracular& di#inatory& and "ollucino enic $ediu$. T"e $escal bean is a $e$ber o% t"e bean %a$ily& Le u$inosae. 0ecause t"e red bean drin* (as "i "ly to-ic& o%ten resultin in deat" %ro$ o#erdoses& t"e arri#al o% a $ore s!ectacular and sa%er "allucino en in t"e %or$ o% t"e !eyote cactus Gsee !. It causes nausea& con#ulsions& and deat" %ro$ as!"y-iation t"rou " its de!ressi#e action on t"e dia!"ra $.BA. T"e al*aloid cytisine is !resent in t"e beans. Arc"aeolo ical e#idence t"us !oints to t"e e-istence o% a !re"istoric cult or cere$ony t"at used t"e red beans. .= s!ecies t"at are nati#e to tro!ical and (ar$ !arts o% bot" "e$is!"eres.C.== 0.D. 1===& (it" one site datin boc* to 1.

Seeds o% so$e s!ecies o% 4hynchosia "a#e i#en !ositi#e al*aloid tests& but t"e to-ic !rinci!les "o#e still not been c"aracteri'ed. T"e bri "t red beans o% t"ese !lants rese$ble $escal becans Gsee !. So$e s!ecies o% Erythrina contain al*aloids o% t"e isoEuinoline ty!e& ("ic" elicit acti#ity rese$blin t"at o% curare or arro( !oisons& but no al*aloids *no(n to !ossess "allucino enic !ro!erties "a#e yet been %ound in t"ese seeds.AH& su estin "allucino enic use. 0ot" beans are so$eti$es sold $i-ed to et"er in "erb $ar*ets& and t"e $escal bean !lant is so$eti$es called by t"e sa$e co$$on na$e& colorin. :9 . So$e B== s!ecies o% 4hynchosia& belon in to t"e bean %a$ily& Le u$inosae& are *no(n %ro$ t"e tro!ics and subtro!ics.= s!ecies o% Erythrina& $e$bers o% t"e bean %a$ily& Le u$inasce& ro( in t"e tro!ics and subtro!ics o% bot" "e$is!"eres. So$e .COLORINES Gse#eral s!ecies o% ErythrinaH $oy be used as "allucino ens in so$e !arts o% Me-ico. T"e seeds o% so$e s!ecies are i$!ortant in %ol* $edicine in se#eral countries. PIULE Gse#eral s!ecies o% 4hynchosiaH "a#e beauti%ul red and blac* seeds t"at $ay "a#e been #alued as a narcotic by ancient Me-icans. . A2H& lon used as a narcotic in nort"ern Me-ico and in t"e A$erican Sout"(est. B==52== Gsee !. Modern Indians in sout"ern Me-ico re%er to t"e$ as !iule& one o% t"e na$es also a!!lied to t"e "allucino enic $ornin 5 lory seeds.D. W"at a!!ear to be t"ese seeds "a#e been !ictured& to et"er (it" $us"roo$s& %allin %ro$ t"e "and o% t"e A'tec rain od in t"e Te!antitla %resco o% A.

7t"er local na$es %or t"e #ines or t"e drin* $ade %ro$ t"e$ are do!a& nate$a& !inde& and ya+e. Li*e t"e a!!ro-i$ately 1== ot"er s!ecies in t"e enus& t"eir botany is !oorly understood. So$e tribes add ot"er !lants to alter or to increase t"e !otency o% t"e drin*. T"e drin* is intensely bitter and nauseatin . In so$e !arts o% t"e 7rinoco& t"e bar* is si$!ly c"e(ed. T"ey belon to t"e %a$ily Mal!i "iaceae.eru& Ecuador& and 0oli#ia.AYAHUASCA and CAAPI are t(o o% $any local na$es %or eit"er o% t(o s!ecies o% a Sout" A$erican #ineK Banisteriopsis caapi or B. An "allucino enic drin* $ade %ro$ t"e bar* o% t"ese #ines is (idely used by Indians in t"e (estern A$a'onJ0ra'il& Colo$bia& . inebrians.eru and Ecuador& t"e drin* is $ade by ras!in t"e bar* and boilin it. Recent e#idence su ests t"at in t"e nort"(estern A$a'on t"e !lants $ay be used in t"e %or$ o% snu%%. In . 6< . 0ot" are i antic +un le lionas (it" tiny !in* %lo(ers. Aya"uasca is !o!ular %or its )tele!at"ic !ro!erties&) %or ("ic"& o% course& t"ere is no scienti%ic basis. In Colo$bia and 0ra'il& t"e scra!ed bar* is sEuee'ed in cold (ater to $a*e t"e drin*.

1=BH indicatin t"e !resence o% al*aloids. It is (idely *no(n in t"e A$a'on but t"e ("ole story o% t"is !lant is yet to be unra#eled.EARLIEST PUBLISHED REPORTS o% aya"uasca date %ro$ 1@. S!ruce also re!orted t"at t"e 6ua"ibos alon t"e 7rinoco Ri#er in Vene'uela c"e(ed t"e dried ste$ %or its e%%ects instead o% !re!arin a drin* %ro$ t"e bar*.1 Ric"ard S!ruce& an En lis" e-!lorer& "ad disco#ered t"e !lant %ro$ ("ic" t"e into-icatin drin* (as $ade and described it as a ne( s!ecies.@ but in 1@. S!ruce collected %lo(erin $aterial and also ste$s %or c"e$ical study. So$e (riters "a#e e#en con%used aya"uasca (it" co$!letely di%%erent narcotic !lants. In t"e years since S!ruce. Interestin ly& t"ese ste$s (ere not analy'ed until 1A?A& but e#en a%ter $ore t"an a century& t"ey a#e results G!.s disco#ery& $any e-!lorers and tra#elers ("o !assed t"rou " t"e (estern A$a'on re ion (rote about t"e dru . 61 .

The ceremonial "essel used in the ayahuasca ritual is always hung by the 'ndians under the ea"es at the right side of a house. In addition& !re!aration o% t"e drin* #aries %ro$ one re ion to anot"er& and #arious !lant additi#es $ay also alter t"e e%%ects. In e-cessi#e doses& t"e dru brin s on ni "t$aris" #isions and a %eelin o% rec*less abandon. EFFECTS o% drin*in aya"uasca ran e %ro$ a !leasant into-ication (it" no "an o#er to #iolent reactions (it" sic*enin a%ter 5 e%%ects. In %act& dancin is a $a+or !art o% t"e aya"uasca cere$ony in so$e tribes. it is ne"er washed. Consciousness is usually not lost& nor is t"ere i$!air$ent o% t"e use o% t"e li$bs.Colorado 'ndian from *cuador rasping the bark of -anisteriopsis a step in preparation of the narcotic ayahuasca drink. T"e into-ication ends (it" a dee! slee! and drea$s. $lthough occasionally redecorated. An aya"uasca into-ication is di%%icult to describe. Usually t"ere are #isual "allucinations in color. 6+ . T"e e%%ect o% t"e acti#e !rinci!les #aries %ro$ !erson to !erson.

CEREMONIAL USES o% aya"uasca are o% $a+or i$!ortance in t"e li#es o% Sout" A$erican Indians. . Ho(e#er& it a!!ears t"at bot" s!ecies o(e t"eir "allucino enic acti#ity !ri$arily to "ar$ine& t"e $a+or &05carboline al*aloid in t"e !lants. To t"e$& e#eryday li%e is unreal& and ("at caa!i brin s t"e$ is t"e true reality. Early c"e$ical studies isolated t"ese se#eral al*aloids but did not reco ni'e t"eir identity. 6. T"ey (ere i#en na$es as )ne() al*aloids. In t"e %a$ous 4uru!ari cere$ony o% t"e Tu*anoan Indians o% A$a'onian Colo$bia 5 a cere$ony t"at initiates adolescent boys into $an"ood 5 t"e dru is i#en to %orti%y t"ose ("o $ust under o t"e se#erely !ain%ul ordeal t"at %or$s a !art o% t"e rite.eru& $edicine $en ta*e t"e dru to dia nose and treat diseases. In Colo$bia and 0ra'il& t"e dru is e$!loyed in dee!ly reli ious cere$onies t"at are rooted in tribal $yt"olo y. The 'ndians are blowing sacred bark flutes. 7ne o% t"ese na$esJ tele!at"ineJis an indication o% t"e (ides!read belie% t"at t"e drin* !re!ared %ro$ t"ese #ines a#e t"e Indian $edicine $en tele!at"ic !o(ers. Har$aline and tetro"ydro"ar$ine& al*aloids !resent in $inor a$ounts& $ay also contribute to t"e into-ication. orb ceremony in the Colombian $ma#on in"ol"es ritual ayahuasca into?ication. T"e into-ication o% aya"uasca or caa!i a$on t"ese Indians is t"ou "t to re!resent a return to t"e ori in o% all t"in sK t"e user )sees) tribal ods and t"e creation o% t"e uni#erse and o% $an and t"e ani$als. T"is e-!erience con#inces t"e Indians o% t"e reality o% t"eir reli ious belie%s& because t"ey "a#e )seen) e#eryt"in t"at underlies t"e$. In eastern . CHEMICAL STUDIES o% t"e t(o aya"uasca #ines "a#e su%%ered %ro$ t"e botanical con%usion surroundin t"e$.The Auru.

) Called oco5ya+C in t"e (estern$ost A$a'on re ion o% Colo$bia and Ecuador& t"e liana is culti#ated %or t"is !ur!ose& alon (it" B. caapi and B. Se#eral are no( *no(n to be acti#e t"e$sel#es and to alter e%%ecti#ely t"e !ro!erties o% t"e basic drin*. (. rusbyana& it "as been %ound recently to contain t"e stron ly "allucino enic N.inebrians alkaloids. N5di$et"yltry!ta$ine. Li*e B.Chemical formulas of 2anisteriopis caapi and 2. T"e lea#es Gbut not t"e bar*H o% a t"ird s!ecies o% Banisteriopsis % B. PLANTS ADDED TO AYAHUASCA by so$e Indians in t"e !re!aration o% t"e "allucino enic drin* are a$a'in ly di#erse and include e#en %erns. 7#er a $uc" (ider area& includin A$a'onian 0ra'il& Colo$bia& Ecuador& and .H and a s!ecies o% Brunfelsia G!. T(o additi#es& e$!loyed o#er a (ide area by $any tribes& are es!ecially si ni%icant. viridis % are added. 12=HJbot" $e$bers o% t"e ni "ts"ade %a$ily& Solanaceae& and bot" containin acti#e !rinci!les. A$on t"ese are Datura suaveolens G!. T"is >=5%oot %orest treelet belon s to t"e co%%ee %a$ily& Rubioceae.eru& t"e lea#es o% se#eral s!ecies o% Psychotria % es!ecially P. (-@imethyltryptamine 9@>T: 6- . 'ndole nucleus is shown in red. inebrians. rusbyana 5 are o%ten added to t"e !re!aration )to len t"en and bri "ten t"e #isions. 12.

T"e drin* is #ery bitter and "as an unusual yello( "ue. T"ere is no ot"er !lant in redient. 7ne rou! o% Ma*u Indians o% t"e nort"(estern$ost !art o% t"e 0ra'ilian A$a'on !re!ares a cold5(ater drin* %ro$ t"e bar*. methystica !roduces e%%ects identical (it" t"ose o% Banisteriopsis caapi& (e still *no( not"in o% its c"e$istry.ANOTHER KIND OF CAAPI is !re!ared %ro$ &etrapteris methistica& a %orest #ine also belon in to t"e %a$ily Mal!i "ioceae. 6: . Ho(e#er& it is closely related to 0anisterio!sis and t"ere is e#ery !robability t"at si$ilar or identical al*aloids are !resent. T"ere are A= s!ecies o% &etrapteris 5 #ines and s$all trees %ound t"rou "out t"e "u$id A$erican tro!ics. T"is $ay be t"e ) second *ind) o% caa!i $entioned by se#eral e-!lorers as caa!i5!ini$a& $eanin )!ainted caa!i.) Alt"ou " &.

T"e resultin +uice is !ut in t"e sun to 66 . It "as recently been re!orted as one o% t"e !lants used as an "allucino en by !easants in Ecuador. S"ans"i is t"eir na$e %or t"e !lant. Its lea#es& sli "tly (ilted& are crus"ed and soa*ed in (ater. !orioria is t"e only *no(n enus in t"e %a$ily& Corioriaceae. T"e %ruits are eaten %or t"eir into-icatin e%%ects& ("ic" include t"e sensation o% %li "t. T"ey are %ound in t"e $ountains %ro$ Me-ico to C"ile& %ro$ t"e Mediterranean area east(ard to Da!an& and also in Ne( Fealand. T"e (eird e%%ects are due !ossibly to an unidenti%ied lycoside& but t"e c"e$istry o% t"is s!ecies is still !oorly understood.SHANSHI G!oriaria thymifoliaH is a (ides!read Andean s"rub lon reco ni'ed as #ery !oisonous to cattle. SINICUICHI GHeimia salicifoliaH is a !oorly understood but %ascinatin auditory "allucinco en o% central Me-ico. S"ans"i is one o% 1. s!ecies o% !oriaria& $ost o% ("ic" are s"rubs.

T"is !ro#ides us (it" anot"er e-a$!le o% t"e o%ten a!!reciable di%%erence bet(een t"e e%%ects o% dru s ta*en as natural !roducts and t"e e%%ects o% t"eir !uri%ied c"e$ical constituents. Sinicuic"i is a na$e i#en also to ot"er !lants t"at are i$!ortant bot" $edically and as into-icants in #arious !arts o% Me-ico.%er$ent into a sli "tly into-icatin drin* t"at causes iddiness& dar*enin o% t"e surroundin s& s"rin*a e o% t"e (orld& and dro(siness or eu!"oria. 7nly in Me-ico& "o(e#er& is t"e "allucino enic use i$!ortant. . . T"ey belon to t"e Euinoli'idine rou!. Hei$ia belon s to t"e loosestri%e %o$ily& Lyt"roceae& and re!resents an A$erican enus o% t"ree "ardly distin uis"able s!ecies t"at ran e in t"e "i "lands %ro$ sout"ern United States to Ar entina. myrtifolia& it "as interestin uses in %ol* $edicine.arta*ers clai$ t"at un!leasant a%ter5 e%%ects are rare& but e-cessi#e drin*in o% t"e into-icant can be Euite "ar$%ul. Eit"er dea%ness or auditory "allucinations $ay result& (it" #oices or sounds distorted and see$in to co$e %ro$ a distance. Wit" t"e closely related H.al*aloids in Heimia salicifolia. 7t"er into-icatin sinicuic"is are Erythrina& 4hynchosia& and Piscidia& but Heimia salicifolia co$$ands t"e reatest res!ect. 7ne& cryo enine or #ertine& a!!ears to be t"e $ost acti#e& alt"ou " t"e "allucino enic e%%ects %ollo(in in estion o% t"e total !lant "a#e not yet been du!licated by any o% t"e al*aloids isolated t"us %ar. 67 .resence o% "allucino enic !rinci!les (as un*no(n in t"is %a$ily& but c"e$ists "a#e recently %ound si.

T"e nati#es& ("o also call it a uacolla& or i anton& reco ni'e se#eral )*inds&) ("ic" di%%er $ainly in t"e nu$ber o% ribs& t"e $ost co$$on ty!e "a#in se#en. 7nly recently "a#e researc"ers beco$e a(are o% t"e i$!ortance o% t"e )secondary) !lant in redients o%ten e$!loyed by !ri$iti#e societies. T"is cactus is so$eti$es !lanted alon %ields as a %ence ro( to *ee! s"ee! and cattle %ro$ ra'in . T"ese include t"e cactus 1eoraimondia macrostibas& an Andean s!ecies t"e c"e$istry o% ("ic" "as not yet been deter$ined3 t"e s"rub Pedilanthus tithymaloides o% t"e castor oil %a$ily3 and t"e ca$!anulaceous 5sotoma longiflora. . S"ort len t"s o% t"e ste$& o%ten sold in nati#e $ar*ets& are sliced li*e loa#es o% bread and t"en boiled in (ater %or se#eral "ours& so$eti$es (it" su!erstitious ob+ects suc" as ce$etary dust and !o(dered bones.SAN PEDRO G&richocerous pachanoiH is a lar e colu$nar cactus (idely culti#ated as a "allucino en in t"e Andes o% . T"e %act t"at $escaline occurs in t"e San .eru& Ecuador& and 0oli#ia. 6.edro cactus does not $ean t"at t"e drin* !re!ared %ro$ it $ay not be altered by t"e addition o% ot"er !lants& alt"ou " t"e si ni%icance o% t"e additi#es in c"an in t"e "allucino enic e%%ects o% t"e bre( is still not %ully understood. All t"ese !lants $ay "a#e biodyna$ic constituents.edro alone& se#eral %ield researc"ers indicate t"at a #ariety o% ot"er !lants $ay so$eti$es be added to t"e bre(. 7n occasion& ot"er $ore ob#iously !otent !lants are added 5 Datura& %or e-a$!le. Alt"ou " ci$ora is o%ten $ade %ro$ San . An into-icatin drin* called ci$ora is $ade %ro$ t"e San !edro cactus.

0ut t"e !o(ers o% San . 69 .edro but %ro$ anot"er s!ecies o% &richocereus. T"ere is no reason to su!!ose t"at t"e use o% t"e San . &richocereus co$!rises about 2= s!ecies o% colu$nar cacti t"ot ro( in subtro!ical and te$!erate !arts o% t"e Andes. Alt"ou " San .edro cult& ("ic" is connected inti$ately (it" $oon $yt"olo y& leads us to belie#e t"at it re!resents an aut"entic a$al a$ o% !a an and C"ristian ele$ents. An obser#er "as described t"e !lant as )t"e catalyst t"at acti#ates all t"e co$!le%orces at (or* in a %ol* "ealin session& es!ecially t"e #isionary and di#initory !o(ers) o% t"e nati#e $edicine $an.eru. pachanoi. 0ut t"e o#erall conte-t o% t"e ritual and our $odern understandin o% t"e San . T"ese in%luences are e#ident e#en in t"e na$in o% t"e cactus a%ter Saint . C"e$ical studies o% &richocereus are #ery recent& and t"ere%ore it is !ossible t"at additional al*aloids $ay yet be %ound in &. We $ust reco ni'e& certainly t"at t"e $odern use "as been a%%ected reatly by C"ristian in%luences.edro is not closely related botanically to !eyote& t"e sa$e al*aloid& $escaline& is res!onsible %or t"e #isual "allucinations caused by bot". Mescaline "as been isolated not only %ro$ San .eter "olds t"e *eys to "ea#en. Its use see$s to be s!readin in .Ci$ora is t"e basis o% a %ol* "ealin cere$ony t"at co$bines ancient indi enous ritual (it" i$!orted C"ristian ele$ents.edro are su!!osed to e-tend beyond $edicine3 it is said to uard "ouses li*e a do & "a#in t"e ability to ("istle in suc" uneart"ly %as"ion t"at intruders %lee in terror.eter& !ossibly ste$$in %ro$ t"e C"ristian belie% t"at Saint .edro cactus in "allucino enic and di#inatory rituals does not "a#e a lon "istory.

Cawe or Pachycereus pecten3aboriginum. T"e Indians cut o%% t"e cro(ns to sun5dry into bro(n& discoidal )$escal buttons) t"at last lon !eriods and can be s"i!!ed to distant !oints %or use. W"en t"e to! is se#ered& t"e !lant o%ten s!routs ne( cro(ns so t"at $any5"eaded !eyotes are co$$on. 7< . .an +edro cactus by the Tarahumare of >e?ico. is one of the plants combined with the . PEYOTE Glophophora *illiamsiiH& an unobtrusi#e cactus t"at ro(s in roc*y deserts& is t"e $ost s!ectacular "allucino enic !lant o% t"e Ne( World. T"e A'tecs used it& callin it !eyotl. It rarely e-ceeds <51O> inc"es in len t" or B inc"es across.eyote is a s$all& %les"y& s!ineless cactus (it" a rounded ray5 reen to!& tu%ts o% ("ite "air& and a lon carrotli*e root. It is also one o% t"e earliest *no(n. 't is not definitely known whether this tall organ cactus is hallucinogenic.

It "as been i#en $any ot"er tec"nical na$es. and called Echinocactus *illiamsii. T"e one used $ost co$$only by c"e$ists "as been Anhalonium le*inii. 71 . Many s!ecies are #alued as "orticultural curiosities& and so$e "a#e interestin %ol* uses a$on t"e Indians. *illiamsii and t"e local ". T"ere are t(o s!eciesK t"e (ides!read ". diffusa in PuerCtaro.eyote (as %irst described botanically in 1@2.eyote is nati#e to t"e Rio 6rande #alley o% Te-as and nort"ern and central !arts o% t"e Me-ican !lateau.= enera& nati#e !ri$arily to t"e drier !arts o% tro!ical A$erica. Most botanists no( a ree !eyote belon s in a distinct enus& "ophophora. .= to 1. It belon s to t"e cactus %a$ily& Cactaceae& co$!risin so$e >&=== s!ecies in ..

satanic tric*ery.eyotlJ(al*s on t"e "ills ("ere !eyote ro(s. Des!ite constitutional uarantees se!aratin c"urc" and state& "o(e#er& a %e( states "a#e en%orced re!ressi#e la(s a ainst e#en t"e reli ious use o% !eyote. U!set by t"e reli ious "old t"at !eyote "ad on t"e Indians& t"e S!anis" tried& (it" reat #i or but little success& to sta$! out its use. T"ere is continuin o!!osition in certain reli ious or ani'ations in t"e United States to t"e Indians. Today it is so stron ly anc"ored in nati#e lore t"at e#en C"ristiani'ed Indians belie#e t"at a !atron saintJEl Santo NiQo de .USE OF PEYOTE BY THE AZTECS (as described by S!anis" c"roniclers.) Recent arc"aeolo ical %inds o% !eyote buttons in t"e state o% Te-as are a!!ro-i$ately 1 &=== years old. 7ne early S!anis" c"urc" docu$ent li*ened t"e eatin o% !eyote to cannibalis$.) In 1. T"ose tribes li#in %ar %ro$ sources o% !eyoteJso$e as %ar nort" as CanadaJcan le ally i$!ort $escal buttons by $ail. 7+ . HernInde'& t"e !"ysician to t"e 9in o% S!ain& described t"e cactus as Peyotl /acatecensis and (rote o% its )(onder%ul !ro!erties. 0y 1<>=& t"e eatin o% !eyote (as !ro"ibited t"rou "out Me-ico. Ne#ert"eless& t"e %ederal o#ern$ent "as ne#er seriously Euestioned or inter%ered (it" t"e !ractice since it is essentially a reli ious one. use o% !eyote as a cere$onial sacra$ent. ) Dr. OPPOSITION TO THE USE OF PEYOTE by t"e A'tecs (as stron a$on t"e S!anis" conEuerors..A1& anot"er c"ronicler (rote t"at t"e nati#es ("o eat it )lose t"eir senses& see #isions o% terri%yin si "ts li*e t"e de#il& and are able to !ro!"esy t"eir %uture (it" .) He too* note o% its s$all si'e and described it by sayin t"at )it scarcely issues %ro$ t"e eart"& as i% it did not (is" to "ar$ t"ose ("o %ind and eat it. 0ut des!ite %our centuries o% ci#il and ecclesiastical !ersecution& t"e use and i$!ortance o% !eyote "a#e s!read beyond its early li$ited con%ines. 7ne re!orted t"at t"ose ("o ate it sa( %ri "t%ul #isions and re$ained drun* %or t(o or t"ree days3 t"at it (as a co$$on %ood o% t"e C"ic"i$eca Indians& )sustainin t"e$ and i#in t"e$ coura e to %i "t and not %eel %ear nor "un er nor t"irst3 and t"ey say t"at it !rotects t"e$ %ro$ all dan er.

s ills and (oes3 t"ot !eyote sin s and tal*s as it ro(s3 t"at ("en at"ered it sin s "a!!ily in its ba s all t"e (ay "o$e3 and t"at 6od s!ea*s t"rou " t"e !lant in t"is (ay. T"e Tara"u$are belie#e t"at ("en /at"er Sun le%t eart" to d(ell abo#e& "e le%t !eyote& or "i*uli& to cure $an. . T"e !il ri$s $ust con%ess in order to beco$e s!irit and enter into t"e sacred country t"rou " t"e ate(ay o% clas"in clouds& a +ourney ("ic"& accordin to t"eir tradition& re!eats t"e )+ourney o% t"e soul o% t"e dead to t"e under(orld. It $i "t be estee$ed $erely as an e#eryday $edicine& but it "os been e-alted to a !osition o% near5di#inity. T"e !eyote5collectin tri! o% t"e Huic"ols& %or e-a$!le& is "i "ly reli ious& reEuirin !il ri$s to %ore o adult e-!eriences& es!ecially se-ual& %or it reenacts t"e %irst !eyote Euest o% t"e di#ine ancestors.) 7.Huichol 'ndian art indicating the importance of peyote in a trinity in"ol"ing man and the mai#e plant. RELIGIOUS IMPORTANCE OF PEYOTE !ersists a$on t"e Taro"u$are& Huic"ol& and ot"er Me-ican Indians. Many le ends about t"e su!ernatural !o(ers o% !eyote underlie its reli ious i$!ortance.

It considers !eyote a sacra$ent t"rou " ("ic" 6od $ani%ests Hi$sel% to $an. T"e $ost s!ectacular o% t"e $any e%%ects is t"e *aleidosco!ic !lay o% indescribably ric"& colored #isions..s re!utation as a !anacea and all5!o(er%ul )$edicine) 5 bot" in !"ysical and !syc"ic sense 5 $ay be eEually res!onsible %or its s!read. A ty!ical .eyote. Wors"i!ers sit in a circle around a "al%5$oon altar o% sand Gsee !. Hallucinations o% "earin & %eelin & and taste o%ten occur as (ell. 0y 1A>=& t"e !eyote cult nu$bered o#er 1B&=== %ait"%ul in $ore t"an B= tribes in Nort" A$erica. Ho( t"e use o% !eyote di%%used %ro$ Me-ico nort"& %ar beyond t"e natural ran e o% t"e cactus& is not %ully *no(n.=&=== $e$bers. ?H on ("ic" a lar e s!eci$en called a )/at"er . Use o% !eyote "ad been recorded earlier& in 1<>=& in Te-as.eyote) is set and at ("ic" a sacred %ire burns.+araphernalia used in a typical +lains 'ndian peyote ceremony.s& $any Indian $issionaries (ere acti#e in s!readin t"e !eyote cere$ony %ro$ tribe to tribe. consists o% c"antin acco$!anied by rattle and dru$& alternatin (it" !rayers& lessons& testi$onies& and occasionally a curin ritual.. (ote the blend of Christian and pagan symbols on the smoke-stick. It (as le ally or ani'ed& !artly %or !rotection a ainst %ierce C"ristian 5 $issionary !ersecution& into t"e Nati#e A$erican C"urc"& ("ic" no( clai$s >. THE PEYOTE RITUAL as !racticed by Indians in t"e United States #aries so$e("at %ro$ tribe to tribe. T"e cere$ony& led by a )road$an&.lains Indian cere$ony ta*es !lace (ee*ly in an all5ni "t $eetin in a tee!ee. T"e into-ication $ay be di#ided into t(o !eriodsK one o% content$ent and e-trasensiti#ity& %ollo(ed by arti%icial cal$ and $uscular slu is"ness at ("ic" ti$e t"e sub+ect be ins to !ay less attention to "is surroundin s and increase "is intros!ecti#e )$editation. T"e as"es are s"a!ed into t"e %or$ o% a t"underbird. . 0e%ore #isions a!!ear& so$e t"ree "ours a%ter eatin !eyote& t"ere are %las"es and scintillations in colors& t"eir de!t" and saturation de%yin descri!tion. T"e #isions o%ten %ollo( a seEuence %ro$ eo$etric %i ures to un%a$iliar and rotesEue ob+ects t"at #ary (it" t"e indi#idual. T"is cult& a co$bination o% C"ristian and nati#e ele$ents& teac"es brot"erly lo#e& "i " $oral !rinci!les& and abstention %ro$ alco"ol. Durin t"e 1@@=. EFFECTS OF PEYOTE on t"e $ind and body are so utterly un(orldly and %antastic t"at it is easy to understand t"e nati#e belie% t"at t"e cactus $ust be t"e residence o% s!irit %orces or a di#inity.lains Indians. USE OF PEYOTE IN THE UNITED STATES %irst ca$e to !ublic attention about 1@@= ("en t"e 9io(a and t"e Co$anc"e Indians establis"ed a !eyote cere$ony deri#ed %ro$ t"e Me-ican but re$odeled into a #isionEuest ritual ty!ical o% t"e . At ni "t dried !eyote to!s G$escal buttonsH are 7- . T"ou " t"e colored #isual "allucinations undoubtedly underlie t"e ra!id s!read o% t"e use o% !eyote& es!ecially in t"ose Indian cultures ("ere t"e Euest %or #isions "as al(ays been i$!ortant& $any nati#es assert t"at #isions are )not ood) and lac* reli ious si ni%icance.

. T"e ritual ends (it" brea*%ast at do(n ("en t"e tee!ee is "auled do(n. Sil#ery (ater !ourin do(n(ard& suddenly %lo(in u!(ard . . .. . Mo#in & scintillatin scre(3 "undreds o% scre(s.. . So%t& dee! dar*ness (it" $o#in ("eels and stars in .: A PEYOTE VISION (as described by a scientist ("o e-!erienced it as %ollo(sK ) . T"e u!!er !art o% a $an (it" a !ale %ace and red c"ee*s& risin slo(ly %ro$ belo(. . 7: . e-!lodin s"ells turn into stran e %lo(ers . T"ey are $ainly al*aloids o% t(o ty!esK !"enylet"yla$ines and isoEuinolines. . . Head and le s are lac*in .$oistened and s(allo(edJ%ro$ 2 to B= or $ore. . Stran e ani$al turns into a !iece o% (ood in "ori'ontal !osition. . Nuns in sil#er dress . . !leasant colors. Muc" !"ar$acolo ical and !syc"olo ical researc" "os been done on $escaline& t"e al*aloid res!onsible %or t"e colored #isions& but t"e e%%ects o% $ost o% t"e ot"er constituents& alone or in co$bination& are not (ell understood. 4ello( $oss li*e salt(ater ta%%y !ierced by t(o teet". A rotatin ("eel in t"e center o% a sil#ery round . Autu$n lea#es turnin into $escal buttons . . 'ndian painting of +eyote 6roadman6Bleader of the +eyote ceremony.. A seEuence o% ra!idly c"an in ob+ects in a reeable colors. clouds . . More t"an B= acti#e constituents "a#e been %ound in t"e !eyote tissues. . . . . A dra(in o% a "ead turns into a $us"roo$& t"en a s*eleton in lateral #ie( . Euic*ly disa!!earin . . 0eads in di%%erent colors . . 7il o% !"easant turns into bri "t yello( star3 star into s!ar*s.) THE CHEMISTRY OF PEYOTE is e-tre$ely interestin and is still sub+ect to intense study by c"e$ists and !"ar$acolo ists.tephen >opope. . . W"ile I a$ t"in*in o% a %riend& t"e "ead o% an Indian a!!ears. . so bri "t t"at I doubt $y eyes are closed. 9)riginal painting is by . Man in reenis" #el#et +u$!in into a dee! c"as$. Iickapoo 'ndian artistJ in collection of Har"ard -otanical >useum. Collection o% bluis" in* bottles (it" labels. Red& bro(nis"& and #iolet t"reads runnin to et"er in t"e center.

FALSE PEYOTES are ot"er s!ecies o% cactus used by t"e Tara"u$are and Huic"ol Indians o% nort"ern Me-ico. 7ne& called "i*uli $ulato& is belie#ed to $a*e t"e eyes so lar e and clear t"at t"e user can see 76 .

Pelecyphora aselliformis& anot"er )%alse !eyote&) "as recently been %ound to contain al*aloids. 77 . A$on t"e Huic"ol& tsu(iri GAriocarpus retususH is considered dan erous to eat3 it is belie#ed ca!able o% sorcery and dece!tion& dri#in a $an $ad in t"e desert i% "e "as not been !ro!erly instructed by t"e s"a$an or is not in a state o% ritual !urity t"at allo(s "i$ to %ind t"e true !eyote !lant. T"is s$all cactus "as been identi%ied as Epithelantha micromeris. Hi*uli (alula saelia$i& $eanin )"i*uli o% reatest aut"ority&) is so rare t"at it "as not yet been identi%ied& but it is re!utedly t"e $ost !o(er%ul o% all "allucino enic cacti. A s!ecies *no(n as "i*uli suna$i GAriocarpus fissuratusH is said to be $ore !o(er%ul t"an !eyote G"i*uliH& and t"e Tara"u$are belie#e t"at robbers are !o(erless to steal ("en t"is cactus calls soldiers to its aid.sorcerers. Se#eral to-ic al*aloids& es!ecially an"alonine& "a#e been %ound in Ariocarpus& but $escaline is a!!arently absent. Not"in is *no(n o% t"e c"e$istry o% Epithelantha.

T"ou " t"e c"e$istry o% t"ese and ot"er s!ecies o% Pernettya needs %urt"er study& it see$s t"at t"e to-icity $ay be due to andro$edoto-in& a resinoid& or to arbutin& a lycoside. 7.HIERBA LOCA and TAGLLI GPernettya furens and P. T"e into-ication rese$bles t"at %ollo(in t"e in estion o% Datura. . 0ot" co$!ounds are rat"er co$$on in t"is !lant %a$ily. parvifoliaH are t(o o% about >. Pernettya furens& ("ic" in C"ile is called "ierba loca G)$addenin !lant)H or "ued"ued& "as %ruits t"at& ("en eaten& can cause $ental con%usion& $adness& and !er$anent insanity. T"e %ruit o% ta ili& o% Ecuador& is (ell reco ni'ed as !oisonous& ca!able o% inducin "allucinations and ot"er !syc"ic alterations as (ell as a%%ectin t"e $otor ner#es. T"ese !lants belon to t"e "eat" %a$ily& Ericaceae& alon (it" t"e cranberry& blueberry& Scotc" "eat"er& r"ododendron& and trailin arbutus. s!ecies o% Pernettya& $ostly #ery s$all subs"rubs t"at ro( in t"e "i "lands %ro$ Me-ico to C"ile& t"e 6alI!a os and /al*land islands& Tas$ania& and Ne( Fealand. Se#eral s!ecies are *no(n to be to-ic to cattle and $an& but only t"ese t(o are *no(n de%initely to be e$!loyed as "allucino ens.

79 .

HernFnde#. W"ereas $uc" (as (ritten about ololiuEui& tlitlilt'in (as $erely $entioned in t"e ancient (ritin s. Alt"ou " t"e $ornin lory %a$ily& Con#ol#ulaceae& "as been i$!ortant as t"e source o% se#eral $edicines and $any orna$entals& only in recent years "as it been disco#ered t"at so$e o% t"e 1&<== te$!erate and tro!ical s!ecies contain "i "ly into-icatin !rinci!les. About a t"i$ble%ul o% t"e seedsJo%ten t"e $a ic nu$ber is 1B J is $easured out. PRESENT USE o% t"e sacred Me-ican $ornin lory seeds di%%ers little %ro$ ancient !ractices. A%ter $ore !rayers& "e lies do(n (it" so$eone by "is side ("o listens to ("at "e says ("ile into-icated. and ololiu ui to benumb the flesh and lose all fear. physician to the Iing of . for it is "ery powerful. wrote that 6when the priests wanted to commune with their gods and recei"e messages from them. T"e seeds are used %or di#ination& !ro!"ecy& and dia nosis and treat$ent o% illness by $any tribes& es!ecially t"e C"atinos& C"inantecs& Ma'atecs& and Fa!otecs. . 5pomoea violacea (as %ound >= years later in cere$onial use a$on t"e Fa!otecs o% t"e sa$e re ion and identi%ied as tlitlilt'in. In ot"er !arts o% t"e (orld t"e concentration o% t"ese !rinci!les $ay be "i "er t"an in t"e Me-ican $ornin lories& yet t"ey see$ ne#er to "a#e been used as "allucino ens. . Se#eral crude dra(in s in t"e c"ronicles indicated t"at ololiuEui (as a $ornin lory. they ate this plant to induce a delirium. $#tec priests rubbed themsel"es with an ointment of the ashes of insects. 12>H& a *no(n "allucino en still used in Me-ico.SACRED MEXICAN MORNING GLORIES o% t(o s!ecies G4ivea corymbosa and 5pomoea violaceaH !ro#ide Me-ican Indians (it" "allucino enic seeds.6 The seeds were "enerated and placed in the idols of 'ndian ancestors. T"e seeds are round by a #ir in& usually a c"ild& in a s!ecial ritual acco$!anied by co$!le. appeared to them. Mainly on t"e basis o% si$ilarity o% t"e %lo(ers& it (as su ested early in t"e 1A==. )fferings were made to them under the strictest secrecy in places unknown to persons not in"ol"ed in the worship.pain. T"ese (ere recently identi%ied res!ecti#ely as t"e seeds o% 4ivea corymbosa and 5pomoea violacea. -efore making sacrifices. 4arliest illustration of Rivea corymbosa. In al$ost all 7a-acan #illa es& t"e seeds ser#e t"e Indians )as an e#er !resent "el! in ti$e o% trouble.6 $nother contended that 6the nati"es communicute in this way with the de"il. Me-ican botanists identi%ied it as suc" as early as 1@. and a thousand "isions . S"ortly a%ter t"e conEuest o% Me-ico& S!anis" c"roniclers re!orted t"at ololiuEui and tlitlilt'in (ere i$!ortant di#inatory "allucino ens o% A'tec reli ion& $a ic& and $edicine. Water is added& t"e resultin be#era e is strained& and t"e !atient drin*s it at ni "t in silence. .6 )ne early chronicler wrote that ololiu ui 6depri"es of his senses him who has taken it. IDENTIFICATION o% ololiuEui and tlitlilt'in as $ornin lories "ad to (ait %or %our centuries& because e%%orts o% t"e S!anis" to eradicate t"e use o% t"ese sacred "allucino ens dro#e t"e$ into t"e "ills. )loliu ui is presumed to ha"e pain-killing properties. T"e nati#e ("o is to be treated collects t"e seeds "i$sel%. Not until 1ABA (ere actual s!eci$ens o% 4ivea corymbosa used in Ma'atec Indion di#inatory rituals collected in 7a-aca and identi%ied as t"e ololiuEui o% t"e ancient A'tecs. tobacco.< .!rayer. (6+(7. Since botanical no$enclature in t"is %o$ily is not al(ays clear& t"ese t(o s!ecies are so$eti$es called &urbina corymbosa and 5pomoea tricolor& res!ecti#ely. for they usually talk when drunk with ololiu ui and are decei"ed by the hallucinations which they attribute to the deity residing in the seeds.2.) T"e $odern cere$ony& %eaturin t"e use o% $ornin lory seeds to treat an illness& is a curious blendin o% old Indian belie%s and C"ristianity. 7loliuEui is a s$all& round& bro(nis" seed %ro$ a #ine& coatl5-o-ou"Eui G )sna*e !lant) H& (it" "eart5s"a!ed lea#es and ("ite %lo(ers3 tlitlilt'in is a blac*& an ular seed.s t"at ololiuEui (as not a $ornin lory but a Datura G!. also !no#n as ololiu/ui 5Hernande&% Rome. T"is deter$ines t"e cause o% "is troubles. MEDICAL AND RELIGIOUS USES of the morning glory called ololiu ui were of maCor importance to the $#tecs. 0ut doubts !ersisted because t"e $ornin lory %a$ily (as t"ou "t to be de#oid o% into-icatin !rinci!les& and no $e$ber o% t"e %a$ily "ad e#er been seen e$!loyed as an "allucino en.

1 . from . "ol. a . 'G.. Indian patient drinking potion prepared from Ipomoea seeds.8. .ahagKnDs Historia de las Cosas de (ue"a *spaLa.$n illustration of ololiu ui in fruit.18-4.ahagKn.panish friar. . Indian girl from Oaxaca grinding Ipomoea seeds on a metate. book =l. wrote about the mar"els of the (ew World in the years 4.

.+ .

.@. His astonis"in disco#ery $et (it" (ides!read disbelie%& !artly because t"ese Iyser ic5acid deri#ati#es "ad "it"erto been *no(n in nature only in t"e !ri$iti#e %un us er ot G !laviceps purpureaH& a !arasite on t"e rains o% rye in Euro!e& ("en er ot (as accidentally round u! in a $ill (it" rye %lour and eaten in bread $ade %ro$ t"e %lour& it !oisoned ("ole to(ns& causin a terrible into-ication and leadin %reEuently to (ides!read insanity and deat". At t"at ti$e t"e c"e$ist ("o disco#ered LSD analy'ed t"e !lant and %ound se#eral al*aloids closely related to t"at !otently "allucino enic synt"etic co$!ound.EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES o% t"e narcotic $ornin lories be an in 1A. $lkaloids of the sacred >e?ican morning glorys. Hal% a do'en o% t"ese er oline al*aloids "a#e been %ound in seeds o% 4ivea corymbosa and 5pomoea violacea. showing their chemical relationship to %. T"e $ain "allucino enic constituents o% bot" seeds are er ine Gd5lyser ic acid diet"yla$ideH and isoer ine& but ot"er related beses occur in $inor a$ounts 5 c"ie%ly c"anocla#ine& ely$ocla#ine& and lyser ol. .s /ire and (ere attributed to 6od.. ("en a !syc"iatrist !ublis"ed notes on sel%5e-!eri$entation (it" 4ivea seeds& s"o(in t"at t"ey brou "t on an into-ication acco$!anied by "allucinations.s (rat". Ant"ony. In t"e Middle A es& be%ore causes (ere understood and !re#entati#e $easures ta*en& t"ese $ysterious $ass attac*s (ere called St.. T"is announce$ent !ro$!ted c"e$ists to e-a$ine t"e !lant& but no acti#e !rinci!le could be %ound until t"e 1A?=.s. W"ile t"ese al*aloids are not unco$$on in nu$erous $ornin lories around t"e (orld& a!!arently only in Me-ico "a#e t"e !lants been utili'ed as narcotics. T"e total al*aloid content o% I!o$oea #iolacea is %i#e ti$es t"at o% 4ivea corymbosa& ("ic" e-!lains ("y t"e nati#es use %e(er o% t"e 5pomoea seeds in !re!arin %or t"eir rituals.

) T"e lea#es are c"e(ed %res"& or t"e !lonts are round on a $etote& t"en diluted (it" (ater and %iltered %or drin*in . nervosaH& %or e-a$!le& "as been %ound to be "i "ly into-icatin .astora in t"eir nati#e ton ue& bot" na$es $eanin )lea#es o% t"e S"e!"erdess. 7t"er enera& notably Argyreia and Stictocardia& also contain t"ese substances.@H or $ornin lory seeds G!. 7r "a#e t"ey: HOJAS DE LA PASTORA GSalvia divinorumH& o% Me-ico& Is t"e only one o% <== s!ecies o% Sal#ia *no(n to be used as an "allucino en. It is c"aracteri'ed by t"ree5di$ensional colored desi ns in *aleidosco!ic $otion.early 6ates& /lyin Saucers& 0lue Stars& and Weddin 0ells& as (ell as ot"er #arieties o% 5pomoea& contain "allucino enic constituents. . T"e !lant is not *no(n in t"e (ild and rarely& i% e#er& de#elo!s %ro$ seed. 1>@H are scarce.- . T"e Ma'atecs call t"e !lant "o+as de la . In %act& "allucino enic co$!ounds are so !re#alent in t"is %a$ily& bot" eo ra!"ically and botanically& t"at it is di%%icult to e-!lain ("y t"e $ornin lories "a#e not been $ore (idely e$!loyed as narcotics by !ri$iti#e societies. C"e$ical studies "a#e as yet %ailed to isolate any !syc"oacti#e co$!onent. Seeds o% 5. carnea& ("ic" are *no(n to !ossess biodyna$ic constituents& are said to be used as "allucino ens in Ecuadorian %ol* $edicine. .MANY HORTICULTURAL VARIETIES o% 5pomoea violacea& includin t"e !o!ular orna$ents Hea#enly 0lue& . T"e Ma'atecs !lant t"is $int #e etati#ely in re$ote $ountain ra#ines& and $ost %a$ilies use it as a dru ("en t"e sacred $us"roo$s G!.astora in S!anis" and s"*a5. T"e Ha(aiian (ood rose GA. Ma'atec Indians o% 7a-aca e$!loy t"e lea#es as a di#inotory narcotic& "ence di#inoru$ G)o% t"e di#iners)H. It is co$$only belie#ed to be t"e "allucino enic !i!il'int'intli o% t"e ancient A'tecs. In estin lea#es o% t"e !lant "as been %ound e-!eri$entally to induce an into-ication si$ilar to t"at o% t"e sacred $us"roo$s but less stri*in and o% s"orter duration.

(note: the flower has white end, not purple.)

COLEUS G!oleus pumas and !. blumeiH is culti#ated by t"e Ma'atecs o% 7a-aca& Me-ico& ("o re!utedly e$!loy t"e lea#es in t"e so$e (ay as t"ey use t"e lea#es o% Salvia divinorum G see !. 1B<H . Indeed& t"e Indians reco ni'e t"e %a$ily relations"i! bet(een t"ese t(o enera o% $ints& bot" o% t"e %a$ily "abiatae. T"ey re%er to S. divinorum as la "e$bra G)t"e %e$ale)H and to !. pumilus as el $ac"o G)t"e $ale)H. T"ere are t(o %or$s o% !. blumei& ("ic" t"ey call el niQo G)t"e c"ild)H and el a"i+ado G)t"e odson)H. T"ese t(o s!ecies are nati#e to Asia& ("ere t"ey are #alued in %ol* $edicine but a!!arently "a#e not been used as "allucino ens. No "allucino enic !rinci!le "es yet been disco#ered in t"e 1;= *no(n !oleus s!ecies.

BORRACHERA Glochroma fuchsioidesH is one o% about t(o do'en s!ecies o% lochroma& all nati#e to t"e "i "lands o% Sout" A$erica. T"ere are sus!icions and uncon%ir$ed re!orts t"at se#eral s!ecies o% loc"ro$o are locally ta*en in "allucinatory drin*s& eit"er alone or $i-ed (it" ot"er narcotic !lants& by Indians in t"e Sibundoy Valley o% sout"ern Colo$bia. Alt"ou " no c"e$ical studies "a#e been $ade o% lochroma& it belon s to t"e ni "ts"ade %a$ily& Solanaceae& (ell reco ni'ed %or its to-ic and "allucino enic !rinci!les. ARBOL DE LOS BRUJOS G)sorcerers, tree)H or latuC G"atua pubifloraH is used by t"e Ma!uc"e Indian $edicine $en o% Valdi#ia& C"ile& to cause deliriu$& "allucinations& and occasionally !er$anent insanity. T"ere is no cult or ritual surroundin its use& but t"e tree is (idely %eared and res!ected. Dosa es are a closely uarded secret& and it is (idely belie#ed t"at a $adness o% any desired duration $ay be induced by a $edicine $an ("o *no(s "o( to $easure t"e doses !ro!erly. T"e nati#es e$!loy t"e %res" %ruits. T"e al*aloids "yoscya$ine and sco!ola$ine "a#e been isolated %ro$ t"e %ruit and are res!onsible %or its !otent e%%ects. T"e only s!ecies o% "atua *no(n& t"e tree is con%ined to coastal $ountains o% central C"ile. It belon s to t"e ni "ts"ade %a$ily& Solanaceae.

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CHIRIC-CASPI and CHIRIC SANANGO GBrunfelsiaH are t"e $ost co$$on o% t"e nati#e na$es %or se#eral s!ecies o% s"rubs t"at a!!ear to "a#e been i$!ortant "allucino ens a$on so$e Sout" A$erican Indian tribes. T"e use o% t"e na$e borrac"ero& ("ic" $eans ) into-icator&) indicates t"at t"e nati#es o% Colo$bia& Ecuador& and .eru reco ni'e t"e s"rub,s narcotic !ro!erties& and t"e s!ecial care ta*en in its culti#ation see$s to su est a %or$er reli ious or $a ic !lace in tribal li%e. Recently& real e#idence "as !ointed to t"e use o% se#eral s!ecies o% Brunfelsia eit"er as t"e source o% an "allucino enic drin*& as a$on t"e 9ac"inaua o% 0ra'il& or as an additi#e to ot"er "allucino enic drin*s& as a$on t"e DR#aro and 9o%In Indians o% Ecuador '

T"e s!ecies "allucino enically e$!loyed are B. grandiflora and B. chiricaspi. All s!ecies& "o(e#er& enter into %ol* $edicine& bein used es!ecially to reduce %e#ers and as antir"eu$atic a ents. B. uniflora Gas B. hopeanaH "as been included in t"e 0ra'ilian !"ar$aco!oeia. C"e$ical in#esti ation o% t"e acti#e co$!ounds in t"e #arious s!ecies o% Brunfelsia is still in t"e initial sta e& and ("at t"e acti#e !rinci!les $ay be "as not yet been deter$ined. T"e enus co$!rises 2= s!ecies o% s"rubs nati#e to tro!ical Sout" A$erica and t"e West Indies. It belon s to t"e ni "ts"ade %a$ily& Solonaceae.

;6

DATURAS GDaturaH %or$ a enus o% so$e >= s!ecies o% t"e ni "ts"ade %o$ily& Solanaceae. T"ey occur and are used as "allucino ens in bot" "e$is!"eres. T"e dru is usually !re!ared by dro!!in !ul#eri'ed seeds into %er$ented drin*s or by stee!in lea#es and t(i s in (ater. Use di%%ers (idely %ro$ tribe to tribe. Into-ication caused by t"e dru is c"aracteri'ed initially by e%%ects so #iolent t"at !"ysical restraint $ust be i$!osed until t"e !arta*er !asses into a sta e o% slee! and "allucinations. T"e $edicine $an inter!rets t"e #isions as #isitations o% t"e s!irits and is su!!osedly t"us able to dia nose disease& a!!re"end t"ie#es& and !ro!"esy t"e %uture. So$e o% t"e Indians in t"e Andes o% sout"ern Colo$bia culti#ate a nu$ber o% clones o% "i "ly atro!"ied )#arieties&) !er"a!s inci!ient s!ecies. T"ey $ay be t"e result o% $utations induced by #iruses. 0iolo ical $onstrosities& t"eir identi%ication to s!ecies is o%ten di%%icult.. Medicine $en $aintain t"at t"ey di%%er in !otency %ro$ t"e usual Daturas& an indication t"at !er"a!s t"eir c"e$ical constitution as (ell as t"eir $or!"olo y "as been c"an ed. T"ey see$ to be con%ined to Sibundoy& a $ountain5 irt #alley in t"e "i " Andes o% Colo$bia. 0asically& all s!ecies o% Datura "a#e a si$ilar c"e$ical co$!osition. T"eir acti#e !rinci!les are $ainly "yossya$ine and sco!ola$ine& ("ic" are tro!ane al*aloids. Sco!ola$ine is o%ten t"e $a+or constituent. A nu$ber o% $inor& c"e$ically related al*aloids $ay be !resentK atro!ine& norsco!ola$ine& $eteloidine. T"e di%%erences a$on s!ecies are c"ie%ly in t"e relati#e concentrations o% t"ese #arious al*aloids. T"ou " "i "ly to-ic& $ost s!ecies "a#e been used e-tensi#ely in $edicine %ro$ early ti$es to t"e !resent. T"eir use in %ol* $edicine deri#es %ro$ t"eir "i " concentration o% al*aloids. JIMSON WEED or t"orn a!!le GDatura stramoniumH is an illscented (eedy annual (it" ("ite to !ur!lis" %lo(ers. .robably nati#e to Nort" A$erica& it no( ro(s in te$!erate and subtro!ical re ions around t"e (orld. All !arts o% t"e !lant& es!ecially t"e bro(nis"5blac* seeds& are to-ic. T"is s!ecies is belie#ed to "a#e been t"e c"ie% in redient o% (ysoccon& used by t"e Al onEuin Indians o% eastern Nort" A$erica be%ore t"e ritual o% initiation into $an"ood G !. AH. TORNA-LOCO GDatura ceratocaulaH is a %les"y !lant (it" t"ic*& %or*in ste$s t"at ro(s in $ars"es and s"allo( (aters. Its unusual "abitat and its stron narcotic !ro!erties earned it a s!ecial !lace a$on t"e ancient Me-ican "allucino ens. T"e A'tecs& ("o in#o*ed its s!irit in treatin certain diseases& re%erred to it as )sister o% ololiuEui&) one o% t"e $ornin lories Gsee !. 1>@H. Its $odern Me-ican na$e& tornaloco G)$addenin !lant)H& indicates its !otency as a narcotic.

;7

. T"e !riests !ut t"e !o(dered root in t"eir eyes3 also t"ey c"e( t"e root to co$$une (it" s!irits o% t"e dead& as*in intercession %or rain. meteloidesH& a coarser cli$bin annual nati#e to Me-ico and sout"(estern United States& "as a lon "istory o% use as an "allucino en. *rightii o% t"e sa$e re ion are si$ilarly used.. It (as e-tre$ely i$!ortant to t"e A'tecs& ("o called it toloat'in. 7nly t"e rain !riests are !er$itted to at"er it. Funis #alue t"e !lant as a narcotic& an anest"etic& and a !oultice %or treatin (ounds. .TOLOACHE GDatura ino$ia3 *no(n also as D. HernInde' recorded $any $edical uses but (arned t"at ta*en in e-cess it (ould dri#e a !atient to $adness. T"e LuiseQos use an in%usion o% toloac"e in an initiation cere$ony. T"e $odern Tara"u$ares still add t"e roots& seeds& and lea#es to t"eir $ai'e beer.s e%%ects. T"e youn !artici!ants ("o drin* it dance& screa$in li*e ani$als& until t"ey dro! and succu$b to t"e dru . discolor and D. 4o*uts use t"e dru in a s!rin cere$ony to assure ood "ealt" and lon li%e to t"e youn . 4u$ans ta*e it to induce drea$s& ain occult !o(ers& and !redict t"e %uture. T"e related D.

S!ecies %ro$ t"is re ion are D. aurea& D. sanguinea cere$onially in t"e Te$!le o% t"e Sun. Abori inal !eo!les %ro$ Colo$bia to C"ile #alue t"ese trees as sources o% ritualistic "allucino ens and $edicines. candida and D. At So o$o'a& Colo$bia& Indians too* D.eru& a!!ears to be t"e center o% t"e rou!.9 . sanguinea& and t"e ne(ly disco#ered D. arborea& D. vulcanicola Gsee !!.s ori in. T"e nort"ern Andes& %ro$ Colo$bia to .TREE DATURAS o% se#eral s!ecies are nati#e to Sout" A$erica ("ere t"ey o by suc" nati#e na$es as borrac"ero& ca$!anilla& $aicoa& %lori!ondia& "uanto& toC& and tan a. dolichocarpa& D. In Matucanas& . candida& D. In C"ile& t"e Ma!uc"e Indians use D.eru#ian nati#es still belie#e t"at ton a !er$its t"e$ to co$$unicate (it" ancestors or ot"er de!arted souls. T"e tree daturas are so$eti$es considered a distinct enusK Brugmansia. 12?512< %or e-a$!lesH. Datura suaveolens is indi enous to t"e (ar$er lo(lands. . aurea seeds to induce stu!or in t"e (i#es and sla#es o% dead (arriors and c"ie%tains be%ore t"ey (ere buried ali#e to acco$!any "usbands and $asters on t"e last tri!. Reco ni'ed as to-ic and narcotic& it is used as an "allucino en& alone or as an ad$i-ture. T"e Di#aros say t"at t"e s!irits o% t"eir ancestors ad$onis" recalcitrant c"ildren durin t"e "allucinations.eru& Indians say it (ill re#eal to t"e$ treasures !reser#ed in ancient ra#es& or "uacas& "ence t"e local na$e %or t"e !lantJ"uacacac"u G) ra#e !lant)H. All are culti#ated !lants& un*no(n in t"e truly (ild state and associated (it" $an since earliest ti$es. T"e narcotic !re!ared %ro$ t"is red5%lo(ered s!ecies is *no(n locally as ton a. Many . san uinea to correct unruly c"ildren. T"e ancient C"ibc"as o% 0o ota used D.

9< .

91 .

. %eet& is *no(n only %ro$ culti#ated trees in t"e 9a$sI Indian to(n o% Sibundoy& Colo$bia. E#en in s$all doses& t"is dru $ay cause e-cite$ent& "allucinations& and deliriu$. An in%usion o% t"e lea#es is said to be $ore !otent and dan erous to use t"an si$ilar !re!arations o% Datura.ibundoy 'ndion witch doctor collecting lea"es and flowers of Methysticodendron amesianum. T"is tree is t"e only s!ecies o% its enus and $ay re!resent an e-tre$ely aberrant %or$ o% a tree s!ecies o% Datura. T"e c"e$ical co$!osition e-!lains its reat !otencyK @= !ercent o% t"e se#eral ty!ical tro!ane al*aloids !resent is sco!ola$ine. T"e Indians also call it $its*(ay borrac"era G)sna*e into-icant)H. which has been characteri#ed as 6the most narcotic conscious area of the (ew World.6 CUIEBRA BORRACHERO G#ethysticodendron amesianumH& a tree reac"in a "ei "t o% >. Its 11 5 inc" ("ite %lo(ers di%%er %ro$ t"ose o% t"e tree daturas in "a#in t"eir bell5 s"a!ed corolla s!lit nearly to t"e base. T"e trees are t"e s!ecial !ro!erty o% certain $edicine $en ("o e$!loy t"e dru in di%%icult cases o% disease dia nosis& di#ination& !ro!"ecy& or (itc"cra%t. +erhaps nowhere in the (ew World does the importance of hallucinogens in nati"e magic and medicine ac uire such significance as in the Galley of . 9+ .ibundoy.

Alt"ou " an al*aloid o% un*no(n identity "os been re!orted %ro$ t"is s!ecies o% !etunia& !"ytoc"e$ical in#esti ation o% !etunias is ur ently needed. So$e 2= s!ecies o% !etunias ro( in Saut" A$erica and in (ar$er !arts o% Nort" A$erica. Culti#ated #arieties& (it" t"eir attracti#e& %unnel5s"a!ed bloo$s& are !o!ular arden %lo(ers t"at bloo$ !ro%usely t"rou "out t"e su$$er $ont"s. Petunia violacea as (ell as ot"er s!ecies are "orticulturally i$!ortant.SHANIN GPetunia violaceaH is one o% t"e $ost recently re!orted "allucino ens. It is ta*en by t"e Indians in Ecuador to induce t"e sensation o% %li "t. . 9. Me$bers o% t"e ni "ts"ade %a$ily& Solanaceae& t"ey are closely allied to t"e enus 1icotiana GtobaccoH.

T"e Ma!uc"e Indions o% C"ile are soid to eat t"e %ruit o% *eule& or "ual"ual& %or into-ication& but ("et"er t"e e%%ects are truly "allucino enic is not yet *no(n. TAI!UE GDesfontainia hoo)eriH is a s"rub o% Andean #alleys. So %ar& t"ere "a#e been no c"e$ical studies $ade o% t"is tree. It is t"e only s!ecies in a rare %a$ily& 6o$orte aceae& related to t"e nut$e %a$ily. 9- . A related %a$ily& Lo aniaceae& includes t"e !lants %ro$ ("ic" certain Sout" A$erican arro( !oisons are $ade. W"et"er t"eir e%%ects are truly "allucino enic is not *no(n& nor "as t"eir c"e$ical co$!osition been in#esti ated.KEULE GGomortega )euleH is a s$all tree restricted to about 1== sEuare $iles in central C"ile. Its lea#es& $ade !robably into a tea& are e$!loyed in sout"ern C"ile as a %ol* $edicine and as a narcotic. T"e enus Desfontainia contains one or t(o ot"er Andean s!ecies and belon s to t"e %a$ily Des%ontainiaceae.

T"ere are B== s!ecies o% "obelia& $ostly tro!ical and subtro!ical& and t"ey belon to t"e bluebell %a$ily& Ca$!anuloceae. In C"ile& t"e Ma!uc"e Indians s$o*e t"e dried lea#es o% t"is beauti%ul red5%lo(ered !lant %or t"eir narcotic e%%ects. 9: .TUPA Gtobelia tupa0& a tall& #ariable !lant o% t"e "i " Andes& is also called tabaco del diablo G)de#il. T"ey ta*e it to )clari%y t"e senses) and to enable t"e$ to co$$unicate #erbally (it" t"e s!irit (orld. It "as been used $edicinally and as a s$o*in deterrent. W"et"er t"ey are truly "allucino enic "as not yet been establis"ed. T"e sa$e al*aloid occurs in so$e Nort" A$erican s!ecies o% "obelia& es!ecially ". /ro$ earliest ti$es& t"e !lant.s intensely bitter taste G 'acatec"ic"i is t"e A'tec (ord $eanin )bitter rass)H "as $ade it a %a#orite %ol* $edicine %or %e#ers& nausea& and ot"er co$!laints. inflata& *no(n locally as Indian tobacco. ZACATECHICHI G!alea /acatechichiH& an incons!icuous s"rub ran in %ro$ Me-ico to Costa Rica& is a recently disco#ered "allucino en t"at see$s to be used only by t"e C"ontals o% 7a-aca. So$e are "i "ly !ri'ed as arden orna$entals.s tobacco)H. T"ey contain t"e al*aloid lobeline and se#eral deri#ati#es o% it.

A%ter drin*in a tea $ade %ro$ t"e s"rub. ollected in the field by the olombian anthropologist Dr. T"ey belon to t"e daisy %a$ily& Co$!ositae& and ro( on o!en or scrubby "illsides in tro!ical A$erica.ication. Recent studies indicate t"e !resence o% an unidenti%ied al*aloid t"at $ay be res!onsible %or t"e auditory "allucinations. depicting one of the images e. 96 . He *no(s t"at "e "as "ad enou " ("en "e %eels dro(sy and "ears "is o(n !ulse and "eartbeat. So$e s!ecies enter into %ol* $edicine. #ho studied the mythological significance of hallucinogens among the $ndians. 8erardo Reichel3Dolmotoff. T"ere are a "undred or $ore s!ecies o% !alea. rayon dra#ing by a Tu!anoan $ndian of Ama&onian olombia.s crus"ed dried lea#es& an Indian lies do(n in a Euiet !lace and s$o*es a ci arette $ade o% t"e dried lea#es.perienced during an aboriginal caapi into.

er$ ?'$ S)CRED N)RCO4%C PL)N4S O= 4?E NEW WORLD %ND%)NS$ ?". T"ey "a#e bot" !"ysical and !syc"ic acti#ity.) It $ust be re$e$bered t"at alteration o% t"e %unction o% t"e central ner#ous syste$ by c"e$icals is not ne(3 it is older t"an (ritten "istory.i&e$ W"shington$ D'C'$ 1967 E bo(en$ Willi" >'$ >r'$ N)RCO4%C PL)N4S$ 6"& ill"nl Co'$ Ne1 Yor0$ 197+ ?"rner$ N' >'$ ?)LLAC%NOGENS )ND S?)6)N%S6$ O5. So$e o% t"e e%%ects re!orted to "a#e been caused by t"e$ $ay be i$a inary3 ot"er re!orts $ay be outri "t "oa-es. ?o. ) eri&"n Ethnolog#$ @ulletin No' 1-.or( Ani/ersit# Press$ Ne1 Yor0$ 197. So$e !syc"iatrists belie#e t"at $ental disorders are t"e result o% an i$balance in body c"e$istryK )/or e#ery t(isted t"ou "t& t"ere is a t(isted $olecule. No reliable studies "a#e been $ade o% t"e "allucino enic !ro!erties o% suc" !lants.. W"et"er or not t"e use o% "allucino ens to create suc" $odel !syc"oses (ill be o% t"era!eutic #alue is still a Euestion& but t"ere is little doubt t"at "allucino ens $ay be o% e-!eri$ental "el! in understandin t"e %unctionin o% t"e central ner#ous syste$. T"eir e%%ects are usually s"ort5li#ed& lastin only as lon as t"e c"e$ical re$ains at t"e !oint o% action in t"e body.i&e$ W"shington$ D'C'$ 19-9 E. 97 . Alt"ou " $any $odern !syc"iatrists are critical o% c"e$ical !syc"oses as tools in treatin $ental aberrations& it is too early co$!letely to rule out t"eir !ossible $edical #alue. . ?"rt1i&h$ C'$ D%E 6ENSC?L%C?EN GENASS6%44EL$ Chr' ?er ' 4"u&hnitC$ Lei!Cig$ 1911 ?ei $ R'$ "n( R' Gor(on W"sson$ LES C?)6P%GNONS ?)LLAC%NOGENES DA 6ED%EAE$ E(it' 6us' ?ist' N"t'$ P"ris$ 19:. OTHER HALLUCINOGENIC PLANTS In addition to t"e "allucino enic !lants used by !ri$iti#e !eo!les& nu$erous ot"er s!ecies containin biodyna$ic !rinci!les are *no(n to e-ist..seudo"allucinations $ay o%ten be o% $uc" lon er duration t"an "allucinations.. I% a !lant contains an acti#e substance& its $edical !otential is o% interest to !"ar$acolo ists. Arti%icially induced !syc"oses "a#e lon been used as "ealin !ractices in !ri$iti#e cultures. Sco!ola$ine& "o(e#er& "as $edical uses not associated (it" t"e central ner#ous syste$K it is antis!as$odic and antisecretory& $ainly in t"e ali$entary canal and urinary tracts. Ne#ert"eless& $any o% t"ese !lants do "a#e a c"e$istry t"eoretically ca!able o% !roducin "allucinations. I% (e co$!are uses o% "allucino enic !lants in !ri$iti#e societies (it" t"e $edical #alue clai$ed %or t"e$ by so$e !syc"iatrists& (e see t"at $odel !syc"oses are not a ne( de#elo!$ent. Hallucino ens act directly on t"e central ner#ous syste$& but t"ey $ay also a%%ect ot"er !arts o% t"e body.or($ Willi" E'$ **N"r&oti& Plonts "n( Sti ul"nts o.syc"o!"ar$acolo y studies t"e e%%ects o% dru s& es!ecially "allucino ens& on t"e central ner#ous syste$. Many are co$$on "ouse"old #arieties li*e catni!& cinna$on& and in er. the )n&ient ) eri&"ns$ in )NNA)L REPOR4 O= 4?E S6%4?SON%)N %NS4%4A4%ON$ 1916$ W"shington$ D'C'$ 1917 S&hlei. T"ere are $any si$ilarities bet(een !syc"otic conditions& suc" as sc"i'o!"renia& and t"e $ental state induced by "allucino ens. In t"e !ast& es!ecially in !ri$iti#e societies& "allucino ens (ere e$!loyed in $a ico5reli ious and curin rituals& rarely %or !leasure. Ta*en in !ro!er doses& it into-icates& inducin a state bet(een consciousness and slee! and c"aracteri'ed by "allucinations.) So$e s!ecialists %or$erly t"ou "t and still $aintain t"at )$odel !syc"oses) 5 arti%icially induced states si$ilar to so$e abnor$al $ental conditions 5 $i "t be a #aluable analytic tool. In#esti ation $ay indicate t"at true "allucino enic co$!ounds "a#e #alue %or !ur!oses %ar re$o#ed %ro$ t"eir !syc"oacti#ity. .$ A'S' Go/ern ent Printing O. 7ne s!ecialist states t"at studies o% )#arious as!ects o% t"e nor$al and t"e abnor$al) $ay elucidate certain areas o% t"e )"interland o% c"aracter. 6ORE %N=OR6)4%ON Coo!er$ >ohn 6'$ **Sti ul"nts "n( N"r&oti&s$** in ?)ND@OOK O= SOA4? )6ER%C)N %ND%)NS$ >' ?' Se1"r( 7E('9$ @ure"u o.. All "a#e one c"aracteristic in co$$onK t"ey are biodyna$ic& a%%ectin nor$al $etabolis$ o% t"e ani$al body.ron$ D' ?' 7E('9$ E4?NOP?)R6)COLOGlC SE)RC? =OR PSYC?O)C4%BE DRAGS$ Publi& ?e"lth Ser/i&e Publ' No' 16-:$ A'S' Go/ern ent Printing O.N)RCO4%C )ND S4%6AL)4%NG DRAGSF 4?E%R ASE )ND )@ASE$ Routle(ge "n( Keg"n P"ul$ Lon(on$ 196Pelt$ >'-6'$ DROGAES E4 PL)N4ES 6)G%EAES$ ?oriCons (e =r"n&e$ Str"ssbourg$ 1971 S".ner Press$ Ne1 Yor0$ 197.PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY ..er$ )'$ "n( ?' Os un($ 4?E ?)LLAC%NOGENS$ )&"(e i& Press$ Ne1 Yor0$ 1967 Kee!$ W'$ DRAG )@ASE .CARREN4 CONCEP4S )ND RESE)RC?$ Ch"rles C' 4ho "s$ Publisher$ S!ring. An e-a$!le is sco!ola$ine& an al*aloid o% t"e ni "ts"ade %a$ily.seudo"allucinations 5 o%ten indistin uis"able to t"e lay$an %ro$ true "allucinations 5 $ay be caused by $any abnor$al conditions u!settin body "o$eostasis& or nor$al $etabolis$K %e#ers& %astin & lac* o% (ater %or lon !eriods& !oisons& etc. T"e e%%ects o% !syc"oacti#e a ents result %ro$ constituents t"at belon to $any classes o% c"e$icals. E-!eri$entation continues (it" !lants 5 co$$on and unco$$on 5 *no(n or sus!ected to be "allucino enic& and ne( ones are continually bein disco#ered. In so$e cultures& notably t"ose su%%erin acculturation& "allucino ens are so$eti$es used to en"ance social contacts or e#en %or e-!lainin $ental disorders.iel($ %ll'$ 197+ Le1in$ Louis$ P?)N4)S4%C) .

"nn$ 4?E @O4)NY )ND C?E6%S4RY O= ?)LLAC%NOGENS$ Ch"rles C' 4ho "s Publisher S!ring.iel($ %ll'$ 197. 4"#lor$ Nor "n$ =L%G?4 =RO6 RE)L%4Y$ Duell$ Slo"n "n( Pe"r&e$ Ne1 Yor0$ 19-9 W"sson$ R' Gor(on$ SO6)$ D%B%NE 6AS?ROO6 O= %66OR4)L%4Y$ ?"r&ourt$ Ne1 Yor0$ 1967 9. the ?"llu&inogens in )NNA)L REB%EW O= PL)N4 P?YS%OLOGY$ +1$ 197<' S&hultes$ Ri&h"r( E/"ns$ "n( )lbert ?o.S&hultes$ Ri&h"r( E/"ns 34he @ot"ni&"l "n( Che i&"l Distribution o. .

. 8/.... 3<. . 2. 422 Hierba loca. 4.. 42<-428 Curare.2 $gara. /< -orrachera.1-./. 42. 4/<-4/8 2rugmansia sp. 4/4 Cimora. 0. <3. . 0. 421-422 @aturas.8. /.6 .. . 14.-424 -ushmen 18 -witi cult. 'ndians of.pan.2-4. Charas. 1< $lgon uin 'ndians 9&. ..-24.2.4 7alse peyotes. 421.1 Desfontania hoo!eri. . 12.-24 Hawaiian wood rose. 0. 444 413. 03. 4/3. 441. 4/<. 441. 00. 44. . 1< 99 .-4..:... <4.< *urope. 4.2. 442. 42< @elphi. 1. 441. 2. 42. 8<-4. nati"es of. 4.1. *reriba...3 Anadenanthera sp. Coca. 11.. /. 412-41. 4. /<. 411-41/. 01..2. 41. 82 ytisus canariensis. 42. 31.2 Caapi. 14.3-4. 83. 23-20 $tropine. 4/2-4/.4. $#tecs..<. 0 religious uses. 4. /. 4.3 !alanga. 38.3 8omortega !eule. 4/3 Heimia sp. physician:. 4. 43.. 7ly agaric.-424 Christianity. 4. 8. 8. 14. 44< chemistry.-424 Chiric sanango. 34. how taken. 44<. 2<-28 HernFnde# 9. 8. 4. 31. 1< *rgot.4 @hatura. 448.3 . 4/4 Cytisine. 23-20 -hang. 'ndians of. 2<. phys. 8. 2. psychic powers from. 41. 30 oriaria thymifolia. 42. 42<.ignatures. 14..-. 44< and psychiatry. 4. /3.-44 in plant kingdom./ Canada.ee also >arihuana Catnip. /<-/8 8enista canariensis. 8. 0 (ew World. 4.. 4. 42<.. . 4.8. 4. 4... 412-41. 1<.1.3. 4/<-4/8 Colorines.3 Cawe. 2. 4. 2<. 0..1 Chiric-caspi. 4. 4/8. tree. . 14..0. 413-410 HoCas de la +astora. 13-10. 4. 8.3 oleus sp. 4pithelantha micromeris. 4/0. 23. 44. 21. 4. 412. <2.1 2anisteriopsis sp. . 8. 418. 21.. 'ndians of. 44. 8.3 Cocaine. 4/0. 4. 421. 3<.1. 43-48 defined. in primiti"e societies. 44. 4.. .2. 14. 4. 4... annabis sp. 418.. 0. 8<-4. 4. 4.-04. 80. 23. 1<.. 8. 81 $ndes. 4/0 Homalomena sp.1 $yahuasca. 22. 42. /4. 3/. @utra. 11-./. 413 Anhalonium le#inii. 441. 0/. 14. 4... 443. 44/ Central ner"ous system. 2. <3-84. 2. .1. 4.3 -ellladonna. 80 4. . 2..2. 11. 4. 44.3 and spirit world. 4/< $rbutin. 43.-24 Henbane. 3.:. 4..2. 41. 4/. 8<. /2 !anCah.. 421.<. 4. 4./ @iben#opyrans.2 defined. 11... 4/4. . 4/.3 laviceps purpurea. 3<. <2..1 -.:. /3. 40-48. 14.. 4. /<. 4. . Hallucinogens and deity. 41.<. Hallucinations.. 4li&abetha princeps.. 418. 4.. .4. 08. 2<. . 4.1. 424.. . . 411... 411-41/. /.. 422. 422.-420.3 alea &acatechichi. 11. 14. 3.. 14.1-. . . 34. 0< *ndocannibalism.Hallucino enic . China. 0. .0 Culebra borrachero. 4/3 Ariocarpus sp.:..1. 2/.. 0-8. /3.<. 83. $rbol de los bruCos. 4. 44<-448. medie"al. /. 4<. 00. 42. 83. 14. 4. 4/2 4rythrina sp. . . 8. 421-420 42< Datura 9)ld Warld sp. /< Chemistry of hallucinogens. 42<. 83 onocybe sp.8. 23. 4. 8. <. 12 7olk medicine. 2.:.0. 43 Amanita muscaria. 4. . 43-48. 44<-448. 443. 413 Argyreia sp. 1< !alen 9!r. 42/. 0/ $fghanistan.. . <1 Curing rituals.. 21 $frica. . 421 $"icenna. 42-4. 8/ !inger. <4.2. )racle of. 4. . 1.<.. 1/. /2. 14 in modern world. 4. 13-10. << 4pilobium. 2/.-441 Cinnamon. <. 14 medical uses. .0. 4. /<. 8/ @atura 9(ew World sp.1 defined and causes. /. 42. 18. 443. $sia. 4/<. 2.2. 0. 18 8albulimima belgraveana.1 audltory. 4. 23.8 Hemp..1 4chinocactus #illiamsii. . /. 82. 4. 18. 80 4. 42. 4. 3../ *ast 'ndies. $rrow poison. $ndromedoto?in. *pena. 8<-4. 2/ $lkaloids. 14.-24. 0/ Cannabinols. 1/-10 $ma#on.1./ )ld World. 0. 4/.<.2.. 41<.1 Atropa belladonna. <. 03.. . 4/2. 0.<-4. phys.. <1. 9$rab. 18. 8/.2.. 2runfelsia sp. 22. 43 6@octrine of . /4 Hasheesh. 421. ../ @aturas. 4/.lants IndeAcorus calamus.

422.. 4.0.2 'botenic acid.2-4. +seudohallucinations. 42. 4. 08. 11.. 44<. 18 Ianna.. 4. 1< +aricF. 14. /< +ancratium trianthum. 40 (utmeg. see $lkaloids. 02 >acropsia. 4. 3. 8. 82. 4. +harmacology. 4/. . Psilocybe sp. 2./ $ochroma fuchsiodes. 2<. 1.:. 48. 0<.2 >escal bean. worship.< +iule.. 8. 4/. 4..4 +eyote 3.0. 31 stones. <.. >i?tecs 9>e? :. 3<. 1. 10 'ncas.4. 32. 4/<.-4. . 4. -ycoperdon sp. 30. 4. 38 +silocybin. 13. . 42. 1. 442-41/ $#tec use. 'ndians of. 4/4. . 42/ Hurema. 41<-4/3.. 440. 44.. . 4/8 -obelia sp..3. 4. 81 'ndia. 82 65eefers. 4. 18 -agochilus inebrians.:.2.M.6 /<.. 23. 41<.1 Mimosa hostilis... 42/ $#tec use.. 32-3. 21 -atua pubiflora. 4/. 44<. >escaline. +sychotara?ics. defined.$.6 4. +lant kingdom. 443. 444 :epeta cataria. 4. +sychophormacology. 22-2. 444 Himson weed.. 41/. /4 effects.1 'ndoles. 31. 00. /<. 22 Huichol 'ndians 9>e?. /3 classification. 44< modern use in &. 440.4 Iif. . <. 4/. 4/2. 44<-448 ritual. 18 >arihuana. 33. /.:. 32-3.2-4..<-04. /2-/. (arcotic. 441.. 18 +apua. /4. 22-2. . 4. 444 Peganum harmala.0 6>odel psychoses. 4/3 >oslems. 4. :eoraimondia macrostibas. 411-41/ effects. 43. medical uses. /.0 >ace. 8/. 418. 14. 3<. 4/0. 42<-428 >e?ico. 418. . <.. 8. Pachycereus pectenoboriginum.. . . 82-8. 4. Methysticodendron amesianum. 443 religious importance. 1. /4 Hottentots.1-4. <<./ -ophophora sp. 412.. 422. 3. 13. 4<. 4/0 $#tec use. 01 5ed -ean @ance. 11. 80 +lains 'ndians 9&. Mesembryanthemum sp.1. 41<-4/3 $sotoma longiflora. 18 :icotiana sp. . 2.<.. . 4/0. 4/<. 8.6 412-41. /2.:. 34-3/ chemistry. </ >aya 'ndians 9!uat.lmedioperebea sclerophylla.:. Iwashi. 4.. Humboldt. $le?ander "on. 4/4. 418. 4/< >edical uses af hallucinogens... 411. Chemistry Piptadenia peregrina. 8. 3/.. .. 04 effects. +uffballs. opposition to. Mandragora officinarum.Hop. 01 )loliu ui. 41.@. 443 chemistry. . /3.< 5ig-Geda. 14. . 4/. 41. 4. Iiowa 'ndians 9&. 442. nati"es of.0 Nuinine.:.<.. <3-84 Pedilanthus tithymaloides. 4<. 80. 14. 41. Psychotria viridis. 4. 41<. . 6false...4 >apuche 'ndians 9. 48. .. 82.. "ision. . 8<. 41.<-3. 83. 443. 4. </ "aempferia galanga. 80.8 Myristica fragrans. 3.-.2 +seudohallucinogens. medicinal "alue. /< narcotic use. 2/ Pelecyphora aselliformis. 421. 4/<. <.. 41.<. opposition to.. 443 411 +eyotes. 41-4. 2. 44<. 4/4. 418 chemistry. history. . 1. 38 identification.1 )rinoco -asin 9. +sychotomimetics... <2-<. . 8. . 4.8. Pernettya sp. 82. 8. 23. 2/.3 >orning glories.2-. 'bogaine. 24 Rhynchosia sp. 1. 4/0. 41. 4/4 religious uses. 41. 0.. . .1. 41. 14. 40-48... 80.. 4/<. 448.. 421 Hyoscyamus niger. 44/ +akistan. 84. 0. /4 Hyoscyamine. 9usticia sp. 4. $.1 Ma/uira sclerophylla.2. /3 methods of using. 41. <2-<. 4/4 "arieties. 4. <0-<< Humulus. . 3/ modern >a#atec ceremony. <4.1 'ndian tobacco. 0. 42/ )racle of @elphi. (ew !uinea. 2. . 34.. 40 5apO dos indios. 44/. 13 1<< . 448. 4/8. 444. .. >ushrooms. 442-41/ %. 02 )a?aca 9>e? :. +sychedelics.4 >andrake. 8. . 4/2. /8 >asha-hari . <3-84 Piscidia. >a#atec 'ndians 9>e?. 2<-28 'boga. 412.. identification. 4/.-24 chemistry. <3. 2<.-. 14. 23. 2. . 83 >escal buttons. 4<. 4. Ieule.8. 01 >araba. 413-410 +etunia "iolacea. 3.-4. 14.1 . (icotine. 4<. 4/<-4/8 $pomoea sp. 8.. 4/.

44. .. 0.. 14. 4. 1.weet flag.ibunday Galley 9. Rivea corymbosa.hanin. 14.an +edro cactus. 30 . 4.. 82. Tetrapteris methystica. .. 21 Turkoman tribes. 4/< . <. 4/<. 81 . 4. 23. 4/3 Wysoccan. <2. 44. 08. 3.nuff.-44/ . 14. 81.. .4 TaCik tribes. 43. 44/. 02-<1. 42/ &rine drinking ritual. </ as poison..iberian tribes.-441 Tropanes. 8.:.. 14.yrian rue.-<4.. </ Girolas. 42< Tryptamines. 4<.oma. 422 Tartar tribes. 422 Torna-loco.3. 4..<. Gilca. 21 1accinium. 441. 44. 08.4 ./ Turbina corymbosa. 8.5io !rande Galley 9Te?. 14. WitchesD brews. 14. 01. /. . 21 &nited .1-4. <1 chemistry. 8. 42<. 31. 2. . . 0. 21 Teonanacatl. 41. 4. 4/<. 3. /3. 1. 4. 4. 4/8.2 .erotonin.4 Wood rose.2 Tupa. 4. 01. 4<.. 02 . <4 ritual. 12-10 .<. 0/ . <4. 3/ Terpenphenolic compounds. 4. 2<. &#bek tribes. 14. 0/ . <. 'ndies:. 8< . <3-<8.2-. 81. <3-84. <4 WaikF 'ndians 9. 42. 0. 02. 4. <. 81 1irola sp. Tobacco. 03-<4.t.3 Toloache.4. 4. 5ichard. .:. 14.cythians. . 4/2 <alvia divinorum. snuff.0 .. 2/ Tabernanthe iboga..:. </. 4. 42<. 4. 48 .2. </ West 'ndies.8 .4.3. /2.Obil. . <4 effects. <3 'isteria sinensis. <tictocardia.1 .. <3 Tai ue. 3. . 4. 4/< ..tates 'ndians. 42< . <3 . 23. 82-8. . 4<. 42/ Tree daturas. 03-<1.. 02-<1.:.4. 21 Tarahumare 'ndians 9>e?. . <2. Taglii.3 Tlitlilt#in.. 421.-4. 1. 83.$.1. 14. <<. 4. $nthonyDs 7ire.pruce./ 1<1 . 412.henshi. 4.outh $merican 'ndians. 2.$. 421. <3. 00.. 11. 14. 4/. . 2<. . 424. 44..weet calomel.1-4. 4/0.1 Pacatechichi.inicuichi. 44<. 8< Aopo 14. 44. 31. 413-410 Taino 'ndians 9W. 48. 42.1. 43 Tetrahydrocannabinols.copolomine.. 4. 42/ AaCO. 448. 14. 14. 41< Turkestan mint.orcererDs tree.03. 42. 41<.84 Aurupari ceremony. 13 <ophora sp. 41<-4/.0. 4/3 <tropharia sp.-420 Trichocereus sp..<-4.

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