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Permissible level of voltage fluctuations for a motor

Permissible level of voltage fluctuations for a motor

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In this guide, a design engineer has to advise his industrial customer who plans to connect a new induction motor to the power supply system. Using the permissible level of voltage fluctuations, his methodology is described.
In this guide, a design engineer has to advise his industrial customer who plans to connect a new induction motor to the power supply system. Using the permissible level of voltage fluctuations, his methodology is described.

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07/06/2013

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Guide for electrical design engineers

Power Quality
Krzysztof Piatek
AGH-University of Science & Technology

Voltage drop calculation: permissible level of voltage fluctuations for a motor
Supply system line Lz

400 V Z PPC UN ZL U PPC

Tr PPC 400 V line L1

Zr

Power Quality

M

Power Quality
http://www.leonardo-energy.org

Problem
An industrial customer plans to connect a new induction motor to the power supply system as shown in the diagram. Power supply system parameters: - feeder line Lz impedance (at 0.4 kV level): - supply line L impedance: Transformer data: - rated power - short-cir cuit voltage - reactance to resistance ratio Motor data: - rated voltage: - rated power: - starting power factor: - starting overload coefficient: UN = 400 V PN =75 kW PFr = 0.3 kr =7 kVA/kW SN =1MVA u% =5% X R =5 ZLz =1.55 + j1.66 mΩ ZL = 25 + j 60 mΩ, ZL = 65 mΩ

Supply system line Lz

Tr PPC 400 V line L1

M

Using the permissible level of voltage fluctuations as a criterion, determine whether the motor should be installed. For the planned number of 20 starts per hour the voltage change: Kmax = 3%

Solution
First, calculate the motor impedance during start then, employing Kirchhoff voltage law, find the voltage drop during start. The voltage drop value relative to the rated voltage at PCC is the sought coefficient; it has to be compared with the coefficients given for 20 starts per hour. The apparent power during start Sr = kr PN = 7⋅75 = 525 kVA The motor impedance during start Zr =
2 UN (cos ϕr + j sin ϕr ) Sr

where ϕrozr is the phase shift angle during start, and cosϕr = PFr is the starting power factor. Thus we obtain Zr = 0.4 2 (0.3 + j 0.954 ) = 91.43 + j 290.74 mΩ 525 Z r + ZL Zr + ZL + ZPPC

The voltage drop at PCC is calculated from the voltage divider in the figure. The voltage at PCC is UPPC = UN

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Voltage drop calculation: permissible level of voltage fluctuations for a motor
http://www.leonardo-energy.org

i.e. the relative voltage drop is ZΣ U ku = PPC = UN Z Σ + ZPPC where Z Σ = Zr + ZL =116.43 + j 350.74 mΩ The power system impedance at PCC equals the sum of the feeder line Lz and the transformer Tr impedances ZPPC = Z Tr + ZLz The transformer impedance Z Tr = Z Tr (cos ϕ Tr + j sin ϕ Tr ) where
2 u% UN 0.4 2 = 0.05⋅ = 8 mΩ 100 SN 1 whereas the angle ϕ Tr can be determined from the X/R ratio X tan ϕ Tr = = 5, ϕ Tr = 78.69 R Inserting the calculated values to the transformer impedance formula, we obtain

400 V Z PPC UN ZL U PPC

Z Tr =

Zr

Z Tr = 8 (0.196 + j 0.98 ) =1.57 + j 7.84 mΩ Summing up with the feeder line Lz impedance, we obtain ZPPC = 3.12 + j 9.5 mΩ Inserting the calculated impedances to the voltage divider formula, we obtain ku = 116.43 + j 350.74 369.56 = = 0.9736 , ku = 97.36% 3 119.55 + j 360.24 379.56

The relative voltage change coefficient is defined as ΔU K u = PPC UN where ΔUPPC is the voltage drop at PCC during starting. It can be determined directly as ΔUPPC = UN − kuUN = 400 (1− 0.9736 ) =10.56 V and, finally: 10.56 = 0.026 , K u = 2.6% 400 Since this coefficient does not exceed the limit value of 3% the motor can be directly connected to the network. Ku =

This publication is subject to copyright and a disclaimer. Please refer to the Leonardo ENERGY website.

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