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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Ship Resistance and Propulsion
- Estimation of Ship Resistance
- Chapter Vi Resistance Prediction
- Ship Resistance Notes
- Ship Resistance & Propulsion (Tutorial 1)
- Propellers
- CHAPTER v Bulbous Bow
- Basics of Ship Resistance
- Drag, Boundary Layer and Hull Roughness on Ship Hull Surface
- Ship Resistance calculation for a fishing vessel
- Resistance Holtrop
- Resistance Prediction
- Ship Resistance Calculation
- Propeller Cavitation
- PPT:-Components of Ship Resistance
- CourseWork Written Report
- Ship Hydrodynamics Lecture Notes Part 5 Propeller Theories4
- An Approximate Power Prediction by Holtrop & Mennen
- Manual Hullform
- Update on van Oortmerssen’s Resistance Prediction

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CHAPTER VIII

8.1 Introduction

Resistance test techniques used in this model experiment are based on three

similarities of the ship and that are, geometrical, dynamical and kinetic similarities.

These three similarities are used to make sure that the flow pattern along both the model

and ship are the same. The appendages of ship are also scaled in the same order as the

model, but normally to be added as a percentage of the naked hull total resistance.

73

Through the various method of extrapolation, the model resistance test results

can produce the resistance for the actual ship. The methods used to calculate resistance

are firstly introduced by William Froude as an original concept of resistance calculation.

In this method, the flat plate is used to consider the viscous form resistance, Rvisc.form

proportional to wave resistance, RW. The sum of these two resistances is referred to as

the residuary resistance, RR to give the following equations:

R T = RF + RR

corresponding speed such that VS / √LM = VM √LM

ii) Model frictional resistance is calculated, assuming the resistance to be the

same as that of a smooth flat plank of the same length and surface as the

model.

iii) Model residuary resistance is then calculated as follows

RRS = RRM x λ³

74

ship length.

vi) Finally the ship total resistance for naked hull is calculated as follows

Figure 8.1: Extrapolation of model results to ship using the form factor given by Hughes

75

1. Firstly, the displacement of model is determined according to the full load and

service condition of the ship.

2. Total displacement must be as same as calculated above when ballast weight

placed into the model.

3. Before doing all the procedures above, model should be ballasted and confirmed

its draft to make sure there is no trim and also to establish the location of center

of gravity (LCG and VCG).

4. The center of gravity of the model must be obtained on the swing frame.

5. Then, mark the lines when it’s on stable condition. Put 200 g of weight, on bare

swinging frame and mark again.

6. The model properly ballasted is then put onto the swinging frame at its location

of gravity center. Then, the ballast weight is moved aft or forward until the

swinging frame becomes stable to confirm the longitudinal gravity center (LCG).

7. Again, 200 g of weight was put on the swinging frame (without model) at one

end and state the degrees of inclination. Make sure the model with the ballast

weight having the same degrees with bare swinging frame inclination to confirm

the vertical gravity center (VCG).

8. Model with full load condition then transferred into the tank to check the

inclination (Taft = Tfwd) by using the water inclinometer.

9. After that, model is attached to the towing carriage.

10. The measurement of resistance is conducted in the towing tank with the different

corresponding speed.

11. After finished running at one speed, the models continue to run with other speed

after the water is calm.

12. Step (11) then will be repeated for four times with the difference speed.

13. This procedure is repeated when using model with bulbous bow.

76

Ship Speed

No. of Corresponding Model Speed, Vm

Fn

run (m/s)

VS (knots)

1 3 0.4880 0.1006

2 3.5 0.5693 0.1174

3 4 0.6507 0.1341

4 4.5 0.7320 0.1509

5 5 0.8133 0.1677

6 5.5 0.8947 0.1844

7 6 0.9760 0.2012

8 8 1.3013 0.2683

9 9 1.4640 0.3018

10 10 1.6267 0.3353

11 11 1.7893 0.3689

12 12 1.9520 0.4024

13 12.5 2.0333 0.4192

14 13 2.1147 0.4359

8.4 Method of Analysis Using International Towing Tank Test (ITTC) Friction

Line 1957

77

The ITTC 1957 method is one of the methods used to calculate resistance and is

based on Froude’s principal and based on the “ITTC 1957 model ship correlation line”.

This is a popular method used to calculate the frictional resistance followed by the total

resistance. In 1957, the ITTC (1959) decided that the line was given by the formula:

0.075

CF =

( LogRN − 2)

2

ship. Figure 8.3 illustrates the ITTC 1957 method. The total resistance coefficients for

the model are determined by the towing tests and from the formula:

RTM

C TM =

0.5.ρ mV m S m

2

78

line, the residuary resistance coefficients for the ship at the same Froude number is the

same as the model at corresponding Reynolds number.

CRS = CRM

Using the ITTC 1957 model-ship correlation line as an extrapolator, the total

resistance coefficients for smooth ship can be determined by:

79

taking into account and also the effect of the roughness of the ship. Usually, some model

tanks are using the same CA coefficient for all types of ship, for example, CA= 0.0004.

This value is obtained because it varies with the type and size of the ship. For a ship that

use length as a parameter, the variation of the incremental resistance can be as follows:

(

C A = 0.006 LWLS + 100 ) −0.16

− 0.00205 which valid for

TF

LWL

> 0.04

(

RS = CTS 0.5.ρ S .V 2 S .S S )

where VS is the ship speed and S S is the wetted surface of the ship, and ρS is the

density of the seawater.

80

friction line. This example is based on 12 knots ship speed. After obtaining the model

resistance from the tank test, the ship resistance can be calculated.

Procedure:-

VS

2. Model speed, VM = where λ = model scale

λ

6.1728

=

10

=1.9520 m / s

V M LWL M

3. Reynolds number (model), Rn =

υM

1.9520 x 2.3987

=

0.85409 x10 −6

= 5.4822 x10 6

81

resistance coefficient,

0.075

C FOM =

[ ( log10 Rn ) − 2] 2

0.075

=

[log (5.4822 x10 ) − 2]

10

6 2

= 3.3396 x10 −3

RTM

CTM =

0.5.ρ M .VM .S M

2

46 .9054

=

0.5 x996 .4 x1.9520 2 x1.5735

=1.5703 x10 −2

82

CVM = (1 + k )C FOM where (1+k) is the form factor which is determined at slow speed.

=1.1456 x10 −2

VS LWL S

Reynolds number (ship), R N =

υS

6.1728 x 23 .987

=

0.90331 x10 −6

=1.6392 x10 8

83

0.075

C FOS =

[ ( log10 Rn ) − 2] 2

0.075

=

[log (1.6392 x10 ) − 2]

10

8 2

=1.9419 x10 −3

=1.3398 x10 −2

84

TF 2.426

The ratio of = = 0.1011 > 0.04

LWL 23 .987

(

Therefore, C A = 0.006 LWLS + 100 ) −0.16

− 0.00205

−0.16

− 0.00205

= 7.2467 x10 −4

=1.4123 x10 −2

x157 .348 )

= 4.3294 x10 4 N

85

267 .25 kW

=

0.7457

= 358 .37 hp

86

Model

Ship Reynolds Cvm =

Model Model Ctm Froude Cfm Cwm

Speed, Number, Rn Cfm

Speed, Resistance, Number,

Vs -3

Vm (m/s) Rtm (N) (x10 ) Fn (x10-3) (x10-4)

(knots) (x106) (x10-3)

0.6507 4 1.8722 5.6410 1.8274 0.1341 4.1292 5.2511 3.8984

0.9760 6 4.6218 6.1893 2.7411 0.2012 3.8080 4.8427 13.466

1.3013 8 10.1120 7.6171 3.6548 0.2683 3.6024 4.5811 30.360

1.4640 9 17.5440 10.442 4.1116 0.3018 3.5229 4.4801 59.617

1.6267 10 23.8094 11.478 4.5685 0.3353 3.4541 4.3925 70.859

1.7893 11 32.0396 12.765 5.0253 0.3689 3.3935 4.3155 84.499

1.9520 12 46.9054 15.703 5.4822 0.4024 3.3396 4.2470 114.56

2.0333 12.5 57.8679 17.855 5.7106 0.4192 3.3148 4.2154 136.39

2.1147 13 68.2631 19.473 5.9390 0.4359 3.2912 4.1854 152.88

87

88

SHIP

Reynolds Ship

Ship Cws = Cfos =

Number, Cts Cts final Resistance,

Speed, Cwm Cvs

Rns Rts (N) Pe (kW) Pe(hp)

Vs -3 -3

(x10 ) (x10 )

(knots) (x10-4) 8

(x10-3)

(x10 ) (x103)

4 3.8984 0.54639 2.2783 2.6682 3.3928 1.1556 2.3778 3.188

6 13.466 0.81958 2.1447 3.4913 4.2159 3.2310 9.9721 13.372

8 30.360 1.0928 2.0568 5.0928 5.8175 7.9260 32.617 43.739

9 59.617 1.2294 2.0224 7.9842 8.7088 15.017 69.523 93.229

10 70.859 1.3660 1.9924 9.0782 9.8029 20.869 107.35 143.953

11 84.499 1.5026 1.9658 10.416 11.140 28.696 162.37 217.742

12 114.56 1.6392 1.9419 13.398 14.123 43.294 267.25 358.376

12.5 136.39 1.7075 1.9309 15.570 16.295 54.201 348.51 467.355

13 152.88 1.7758 1.9204 17.208 17.933 64.516 431.43 578.553

89

Model Ship

Model Ctm Rn Cfm

Speed, Speed,

Resistance, Fn Fn^4/Cfm Ctm/Cfm

Vm Vs -3 6 -3

Rtm (N) (x10 ) (x10 ) (x10 )

(m/s) (knots)

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0.4880 3 1.0071 5.39 1.37 0.1006 4.38 0.0234 1.2309

0.5693 3.5 1.5162 5.97 1.60 0.1174 4.24 0.0447 1.4060

0.6507 4 1.7997 5.42 1.83 0.1341 4.13 0.0784 1.3132

0.7320 4.5 2.2898 5.45 2.06 0.1509 4.03 0.1286 1.3521

0.8133 5 2.9395 5.67 2.28 0.1677 3.95 0.2002 1.4359

0.8947 5.5 3.6264 5.78 2.51 0.1844 3.87 0.2987 1.4919

90

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

Ctm/Cfm

Bare hull

0.8

Poly. (Bare hull)

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35

Fn4/Cfm

91

M o d e l T o ta l R e s is ta n c e A g a in s t M o d e l S p e e d

80

70

60

50

Model Total Resistance, Rtm

40 M odel

(N)

30

20

10

0

0 0 .5 1 1 .5 2 2 .5

M o d e l S p e e d , V m (m / s)

92

Graph 8.2: Total resistance of model against model speed for bare hull

S h ip R e s is t a n c e A g a in s t S p e e d

70

60

50

40

S h ip R e sista n c e

Ship Total Resistance (kN)

30

20

10

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

S h i p S p e e d (k n o t s )

93

Graph 8.3: Ship resistance of model against ship speed for bare hull

P o w e r ( H P ) A g a in t s S p e e d ( k n o t s )

700

600

500

400

S h ip p o w e r

Power (Hp)

300

200

100

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

S h ip S p e e d (k n o ts)

94

Graph 8.4: Ship power against ship speed for bare hull

Table 8.5: Model resistance result for hull form with bulb

95

Model

Ship Reynolds Cvm =

Model Model Ctm Froude Cfm Cwm

Speed, Number, Rn Cfm

Speed, Resistance, Number,

Vs -3

Vm (m/s) Rtm (N) (x10 ) Fn (x10-3) (x10-4)

(knots) (x106) (x10-3)

0.6507 4 2.02504 6.1016 1.8274 0.1341 4.1292 5.7091 3.9258

0.9760 6 4.69976 6.2937 2.7411 0.2012 3.8080 5.2650 10.287

1.3013 8 9.96607 7.5072 3.6548 0.2683 3.6024 4.9806 25.266

1.4640 9 15.4475 9.1940 4.1116 0.3018 3.5229 4.8708 43.232

1.6267 10 22.5416 10.867 4.5685 0.3353 3.4541 4.7756 60.916

1.7893 11 31.3811 12.503 5.0253 0.3689 3.3935 4.6919 78.112

1.9520 12 46.0709 15.424 5.4822 0.4024 3.3396 4.6173 108.07

2.0333 12.5 57.0176 17.592 5.7106 0.4192 3.3148 4.5830 130.09

2.1147 13 68.947 19.668 5.9390 0.4359 3.2912 4.5503 151.18

96

Table 8.6: Ship resistance result for hull form with bulb

97

Ship

Reynolds Ship

Ship Cws =

Number, Cfos = Cvs Cts Cts final Resistance,

Speed, Cwm

Rns Rts (N) Pe (kW) Pe(hp)

Vs -3 -3 -3

(x10 ) (x10 ) (x10 )

(knots) (x10-4)

(x108) (x103)

4 3.9258 0.54639 2.2783 2.6709 3.3956 1.1566 2.3798 3.1913

6 10.287 0.81958 2.1447 3.1734 3.8980 2.9874 9.2202 12.3643

8 25.266 1.0928 2.0568 4.5834 5.3081 7.2320 29.761 39.9094

9 43.232 1.2294 2.0224 6.3457 7.0703 12.192 56.443 75.6896

10 60.916 1.3660 1.9924 8.0840 8.8086 18.752 96.460 129.3533

11 78.112 1.5026 1.9658 9.7769 10.502 27.051 153.06 205.2589

12 108.07 1.6392 1.9419 12.749 13.473 41.302 254.95 341.8888

12.5 130.09 1.7075 1.9309 14.940 15.665 52.106 335.04 449.2879

13 151.18 1.7758 1.9204 17.038 17.763 63.905 427.35 573.0724

98

Model Ship

Model Ctm Rn Cfm

Speed, Speed,

Resistance, Fn Fn^4/Cfm Ctm/Cfm

Vm Vs -3 6 -3

Rtm (N) (x10 ) (x10 ) (x10 )

(m/s) (knots)

0.4880 3 1.1549 6.1866 1.3705 0.1006 4.3824 0.023372 1.411685

0.5693 3.5 1.5855 6.2395 1.5990 0.1174 4.2439 0.044711 1.470215

0.6507 4 2.0250 6.1016 1.8274 0.1341 4.1292 0.078394 1.477673

Table 8.7:

0.7320 4.5 2.6795 6.3791 2.0558 0.1509 4.0319 0.128605 1.582171

0.8133 5 3.2618 6.2899 2.2842 0.1677 3.9477 0.200196 1.593328 Form factor

0.8947 5.5 4.0044 6.3818 2.5127 0.1844 3.8737 0.2987 1.647457

result for

hull form with bulb

99

y = -2 .7 6 5 32 +x 1 .6 9 8 x + 1 .3 8 2 6

1 .8

1 .5

1 .2

Ctm/Cfm

B u lb

0 .9

P o ly. (B u lb )

0 .6

0 .3

0

0 0 .0 5 0 .1 0 .1 5 0 .2 0 .2 5 0 .3 0 .3 5

F n 4/C fm

100

M o d e l T o ta l R e s is ta n ce A g a in s t M o d e l S p e ed

80

70

Model Total Resistance, Rtm (N)

60

50

40 M o d e l (B u lb )

30

20

10

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

M o d e l S p e e d (m /s )

101

Graph 8.6: Total resistance of model against model speed for hull form with bulb

S h ip re s is ta n c e a g a in s t S h ip s p e e d

70

60

50

Ship resistance (kN)

40

S h ip re sista n c e

30

20

10

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

S p e e d (k n o ts)

102

Graph 8.7: Ship resistance against ship speed for hull form with bulb

S h ip p o w e r a g a in s t S h ip s p e e d

650

600

550

500

450

400

Ship power (Hp)

350

S h ip p o w e r

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

S p e e d (k n o ts )

103

Graph 8.8: Ship power against ship speed for hull form with bulb

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