Unit 8

Precast Concrete

Part ⅠIllustrated Words and Concepts Figure 8-1 Precast Slabs on a Frame of Precast Columns Figure 8-2 Hollow-core Slabs Supported on Precast Concrete Wall Panels Part Ⅱ Passages Passage A Precast Concrete Structural Elements and Assembly Concepts Passage B Precast Concrete and Its Uniqueness

Unit 8

Precast Concrete

Part Ⅰ Illustrated Words and Concepts

Figure 8-1 Precast Slabs on a Frame of Precast Columns Double-tee slab elements supported on a frame of precast columns and Lshaped girders.

Unit 8 Precast Concrete Part Ⅰ Illustrated Words and Concepts Figure 8-2 Hollow-core Slabs Supported on Precast Concrete Wall Panels .

sitecast concrete.Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Precast Concrete Passage A Passages Precast Concrete Structural Elements and Assembly Concepts Precast Concrete Slabs The most fully standardized precast concrete elements are those used for making floor and roof slabs. or precast concrete. . These may be supported by bearing walls of precast concrete or masonry or by frames of steel.

For the longest spans. . precast elements suitable for intermediate spans. For longer spans. like their sitecast counterparts. solid slabs are appropriate. become inefficient because they contain too much deadweight of nonworking concrete.Unit 8 Precast Concrete Part Ⅱ Passages Passage A Four kinds of precast slab elements are commonly produced: for short spans and minimum slab depths. deeper elements must be used. In hollow-core slabs. still deeper elements are required,and double tees and single tees eliminate still more nonworking concrete. and precast solid slabs. internal longitudinal voids replace much of the nonworking concrete.

bonds during curing to the rough top of the precast elements and becomes a working part of their structural action. usually 2 inches (50 mm) in thickness. The topping.Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Precast Concrete Passage A Passages For most applications. After the elements have been erected. . precast slab elements of any of the four types are manufactured with a rough top surface. a concrete topping is poured over them and finished to a smooth surface.

and conceals the slight differences in camber that often occur in prestressed components. Structural continuity across a number of spans can be achieved by casting reinforcing bars into the topping over the supporting beams or walls. Underfloor electrical conduits may also be embedded in the topping.Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Precast Concrete Passage A Passages The topping also helps the precast elements to act together as a structural unit rather than as individual planks in resisting concentrated loads and diaphragm loads. .

Solid slabs and hollow-core slabs save on overall building height in multistory structures. For longer spans. double tees are generally preferred to the older single-tee design because they do not need to be supported against tipping during erection.Unit 8 Precast Concrete Passage A Part Ⅱ Passages There is considerable overlapping of the economical span ranges of the different kinds of precast slab elements. . allowing the designer some latitude in choosing which to use in a particular situation. and their smooth undersides can be painted and used as finish ceilings in many applications.

The projecting ledgers on L-shaped beams and inverted tees provide direct support for precast slab elements. They conserve headroom in a building by supporting slabs near the bottoms of the beams.Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Precast Concrete Passage A Passages Precast Concrete Beams. . as com-pared to rectangular beams without ledgers. and Columns Precast concrete beams and girders are made in several standard shapes. Girders. where slab elements must rest on top.

Precast columns are usually square or rectangular in section and may be prestressed or simply reinforced. but they are used sometimes in buildings as well.Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Precast Concrete Passage A Passages AASHTO girders were designed originally as efficient shapes for bridge structures. .

Rigid foam insulation can be cast into wall panels for thermal insulation. with suitable wire shear ties between the inner and outer wythes of concrete. . The prestressing strands are located in the vertical mid-plane of the wall panels to strengthen the panels against buckling and to eliminate camber.Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Precast Concrete Passage A Passages Precast Concrete Wall Panels Precast solid slabs are commonly used as load bearing wall panels in many types of low-rise and high-rise buildings.

on precast load bearing wall panels. the slabs of the building are supported on a combination of wall panels and girders. The slab elements are supported on precast load bearing wall panels.Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Precast Concrete Passage A Passages Assembly Concepts for Precast Concrete Buildings Figure 8 1 shows a building whose precast slab elements (double tees in this example) are supported on a skeleton frame of L-shaped precast girders and precast columns. Sometimes. and on a combination of the two—occur in endless variations in buildings. . These three fundamental ways of supporting precast slabs—on a precast concrete skeleton.

the load bearing walls are often constructed of reinforced masonry. .Unit 8 Precast Concrete Passage A Part Ⅱ Passages The skeleton may be one bay deep or many bays. hollow-core. or double tee. topped or untopped. usually at minimal additional cost. the slab elements may be solid. or of any of a variety of configurations of precast concrete. One of the principal virtues of precast concrete as a structural material is that it is locally manufactured to order and is easily customized to an individual building design.

where engineers and drafters prepare shop drawings that show all the dimensions and details of the individual elements and how they are to be connected.Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Precast Concrete Passage A Passages The Construction Process he construction process for precast concrete framing is directly parallel to that for steel framing. These drawings are reviewed by the engineer and architect for conformance with their design intentions and corrected as necessary. . The structural drawings for the building are sent to the precasting plant.

marked to designate their positions in the building. and stockpiling as previously described. curing.Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Precast Concrete Passage A Passages Then the production of the precast components proceeds. are transported to the construction site as needed and placed by crane in accordance with erection drawings prepared by the precasting plant. The finished elements. then continuing through cycles of casting. . beginning with construction of any special molds that are required and fabrication of reinforcing cages.

beams. . Precasting offers many potential advantages over sitecasting of concrete: The production of precast elements is carried out conveniently at ground level. columns.Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Precast Concrete Passage B Passages Precast Concrete and Its Uniqueness Structural precast concrete elements—slabs. and wall panels—are cast and cured in factories. transported to the construction job site. and erected as rigid components. girders.

and frequently.Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Precast Concrete Passage B Passages The mixing and pouring operations are often highly mechanized. they are carried out under shelter. The concrete is cast in permanent forms made of steel. especially in difficult climates. . Control of the quality of materials and workmanship is generally better than on the construction job site.

. or wood panels with smooth overlays. whose excellent surface properties are mirrored in the high-quality surfaces of the finished precast elements that they produce. so that formwork costs per unit of finished concrete are low.Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Precast Concrete Passage B Passages concrete. The forms may be reused hundreds or thousands of times before they have to be renewed. glass-fiber-reinforced plastic.

. and lower weights than for comparable reinforced concrete elements. which translates into longer spans. typically 5 000 psi (35 MPa) concrete and 270 000psi (1 860 MPa) prestressing steel.Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Precast Concrete Passage B Passages The forms are equipped to pretension the steel in the precast elements for greater structural efficiency. Concrete and steel of superior strength are used in precast elements. lesser depths.

a precasting plant is able to produce fully cured structural elements. high early strength. And the elements are usually steam cured.Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Precast Concrete Passage B Passages For the fastest possible curing. Steam furnishes heat to accelerate the hardening of the concrete and moisture for full hydration. Thus. the concrete for precast concrete elements is made with Type Ⅲ Portland cement. from the laying of the prestressing strands to the removal of the finished elements from the casting bed. on a 24 hour cycle. .

.Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Precast Concrete Passage B Passages When the elements produced by this expeditious technique are delivered to the construction job site. further advantages are realized: The erection process is similar to that of structural steel. without the need for placing additional joist or decking components. but it is often faster because most precast concrete systems include a deck as an integral part of the major spanning elements.

such as extremely high or low temperatures. .Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Precast Concrete Passage B Passages Erection is much faster than that of sitecast concrete because there is no formwork to be erected and stripped. And erection of precast structures can take place under some types of adverse weather conditions. that would not permit the sitecasting of concrete. and little or no waiting for concrete to cure.

. are nevertheless heavy and bulky to transport over the roads and hoist into place. The precast structural elements.Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Precast Concrete Passage B Passages When choosing between precast and sitecast concrete. although light in weight as compared to similar elements of sitecast concrete. the designer must weigh these potential advantages of precasting against some potential disadvantages.

And the fully threedimensional sculptural possibilities of sitecast concrete are largely absent in precast concrete. but only as wide as the maximum legal vehicle width of 12 to 14 feet (3.27m). This restricted width usually precludes utilization of the efficiencies of two-way structural action in precast slabs. .Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Precast Concrete Passage B Passages This restricts somewhat the size and proportions of most precast elements: They can be rather long.66 4.

and highly finished. repetitive. . precise.Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Precast Concrete Passage B Passages Uniqueness of Precast Concrete Precast. They combine the rapid all-weather erection of structural steel framing with the self-fireproofing of sitecast concrete framing to offer economical framing for many kinds of buildings. prestressed concrete structural elements are crisp. slender in relation to span.

its architectural aesthetic isjust coming to maturity. . hotels.Unit 8 Part Ⅱ Precast Concrete Passage B Passages Because precast concrete is the newest and least developed of the major framing materials for buildings. having been brought to market only a few decades ago. where they are ideal both functionally and economically. apartment buildings. and hospitals. Solid and hollow-core slabs have become an accepted part of our structural vocabulary in schools.

where its awesome structural potential and efficient serial production of identical elements can be fully utilized and openly expressed. warehouses. Now we are becoming increasingly successful in creating public buildings of the highest architectural quality that are built of precast concrete both inside and out. It is reasonable to expect that the most innovative of buildings in the coming years will be built of this sleek. sinewy. especially parking structures. and industrial plants. .Unit 8 Precast Concrete Part Ⅱ Passages Passage B Engineers and architects have long been comfortable with precast concrete in longer-span building types. rapidly developing new material of construction.

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