This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
SOUTH ASIA: THREATS, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES
INSTRUCTOR: AMBASSADOR TOUQIR HUSSAIN
DECEMBER 15, 2009
does India have? Terrorism in India – brief overview Since early in its post-colonial history. what role if any. More than 2. On May 22nd 2005. and ethno-linguistic nationalists in India’s northeastern states. If demands are not met. according to analysis by the South Asia Terrorism Portal. which covers a broad region of eastern. India has a large number of ethnic and religious minorities that face economic subordination and often seek territorial concessions. Different ethnic and religious groups as well as social classes often act like individual nationalities that mobilize support for a cause.750 people across India died in terrorism-related violence in 2006. Hundreds of non-combatants were killed. Some terrorist groups operating in India sought to raise their profile. a series of explosions in crowded marketplaces and on a public bus in New Delhi killed approximately 60 and injured more than 150 on the eve of Diwali. The most prominent terrorist groups are violent extremist separatists operating in Jammu and Kashmir. killing two persons. freeing more than 300 inmates. and the government will not entertain territorial concessions.War on terrorism. India has experienced violence related to separatist and insurgent movements. a project of the Institute for Conflict Management. and southern India. capturing weapons. The attacks left one person dead and more than 60 injured. and attacked security forces. with Prime Minister Indira Gandhi assassinated in 1984 by Sikh body guards. there were nearly simultaneous bombings of two movie theaters in New Delhi by a Sikh terrorist organization. Maoists in the “Naxalite belt” in eastern India. most of whom were Kashmiri Muslims. Naxalite (Maoist agrarian peasant movement) terrorism. India ’s most important Hindu holiday. Babbar Khalsa International which many thought was defunct. terrorists staged hundreds of attacks on people and property in India. . destroying buildings. As in previous years. but the country faces possible violence perpetrated by dozens of extremist groups. movements turn to extremism. The federal and state governments have tried various strategies to address some of these grievances within the context of Indian democracy. They also attacked the Jehanabad Prison in Bihar. The Naxalites launched two mass attacks in the second half of 2005. Indian experts asserted that the April 2005 attack on the bus depot for Srinagar-Muzaffarabad bus was designed to inhibit growing Kashmiri enthusiasm for normalization of ties between Indian and Pakistani controlled Kashmir. an independent. Some of these groups are believed to maintain ties to alQaida. Interethnic conflict has hit India at the highest levels. The Indian Government blamed the Pakistani jihadist organization Lashkar eTayyiba for the attack. On October 29 of the same year. central. from the territorial dispute over Kashmir to a Sikh separatist movement in Punjab to a secessionist movement in the northeastern state of Assam. New Delhibased think tank. particularly the segmented democracy of India. and abducting about 30 inmates who were members of an anti-Naxalite group. targeted civilians in public areas. and killing several local policemen in an attack on an Uttar Pradesh village. but the government is firm: groups must cease violence before negotiations can begin. The precise number of groups orchestrating attacks in India is hard to ascertain because of splintering movements. Kashmiri terrorist groups made numerous attacks on elected Indian and Kashmiri politicians. Democracy unleashes assertive groups. Lashkar e-Tayyiba and Jaish-e-Mohammad claimed responsibility for many of these attacks. is growing in sophistication and lethality and may pose a significant long-term challenge.
S. 2 Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism (2009. Retrieved December 9 from http://www.-India Counterterrorism Joint Working Group. India’s counterterrorism efforts are hampered by its outdated and overburdened law enforcement and legal systems.S. Retrieved December 8 from http://www. 1 State Department (2005. the Indian Parliament passed the Weapons of Mass Destruction and Their Delivery Systems (Prohibition of Unlawful Activities) Bill. Foreign Terrorist Organizations. Despite these challenges.state. and equipped to combat terrorism effectively.pdf. trained. the Indian Government has an excellent record of protecting its nuclear assets from terrorists. Myanmar. The Indian Government supports ongoing U.3 The most recent meeting of the Joint Working Group was held on June 17. Prime Minister and President Clinton decided to expand the mandate of the Joint Working Group to include discussion on such issues as narcoterrorism and Afghanistan. June). However. During the visit of Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee to the United States. and prone to corruption. at least four are active in India: Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami/Bangladesh (HUJI-B). and associated technologies to state and non-state actors. and is taking steps to improve further the security of its strategic systems.: Counterterrorism Joint Efforts Among the 45 Foreign Terrorist Organizations listed by the U. laborious. exchange information and coordinate approaches and action. and Nepal). Retrieve December 7 from http://www. 2000 in Washington DC. Inter-agency teams from the two countries agreed to share experience. U. South Asia Overview 2005.state. delivery systems. The Indian court system is slow. India also participates in CTJWGs with 15 other countries.S.gov/s/ct/rls/other/des/123085. most of the convictions were for illegal border crossing or possession of weapons or explosives. India scored major successes. Many of India’s local police forces are poorly staffed. In May 2005.htm . Sri Lanka. State Department’s Antiterrorism Assistance Program has trained hundreds of Indian police and security officers. Its first meeting was held on February 7-8. the U. investigations in cases involving victims of terrorism related to the United States. terrorism trials can take years to complete. recognizing it as a major threat to democracy. including numerous arrests and the seizure of hundreds of kilos of explosives and firearms during operations against the briefly resurgent Sikh terrorist group Babbar Khalsa International. An independent Indian think tank. July). and in multilateral CTJWGs with the EU and BIMSTEC (an organization promoting economic cooperation among Bangladesh.S.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2009/06a/125098. They reiterated that there can be no justification for any act of terrorism on any grounds. international peace.In order to improve Indian forces capacity to answer to these threats.1 India – U.state. State Department.2 India and the United States have institutionalized their co-operation to combat international terrorism through the Joint Working Group on counter-terrorism. 2009.000 civilians killed by terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir from 1988 to 2002 generated only 13 convictions through December 2002. Jaish-eMohammed (JEM) (Army of Mohammed) and Lashkar-e Tayyiba (LT) (Army of the Righteous). Office of the Spokesman (2009. India.S.htm 3 Bureau of Public Affairs. April). The U. Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM). Bhutan. – India Counterterrorism Joint Working Group (CTJWG) has met eleven times since its creation in 2000. Both countries also called upon all states to abide by their commitments under the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy adopted by the UN General Assembly in September 2006. The United States and India strongly condemned terrorism in all of its forms and manifestations. designed to prevent the transfer of WMD. for example.S. At the same time.gov/documents/organization/65475. and security. assesses that the estimated 12. including terrorists. Thailand.
4 Bureau of Public Affairs.htm 6 Remarks with Indian Minister of External Affairs S. Analysts say the group continues to operate freely inside Pakistan under a different name and has now become a global terrorist organization. April). fostering Hindu-Muslim violence within India. Krishna commented on Indian-Pakistan ties: “We would like to have (inaudible) relationship with Pakistan. New Delhi. fighting terrorism through technological advancements. Retrieved December 8 from http://www. We would like to be good neighbors. including 22 foreigners. Hillary Rodham Clinton. Other issues discussed included terrorist finance and money laundering. capacity building. Krishna. Country Reports on Terrorism 2008. in New Delhi. Over 300 more were injured.5 The country was the focus of numerous attacks from both externally-based terrorist organizations and internally-based separatist or terrorist entities. The perpetrators entered the city from the sea and attacked people in two hotels.S. The terror attacks shifted India’s fight against terrorism from regional to international level.M. Local and state police proved to be poorly trained and equipped. and harming India’s commercial centers to impede the ongoing economic resurgence. Retrieved December 8 from http://www. India ranked among the world’s most terrorism-afflicted countries according to U.Sessions during this year’s meeting focused on assessing the global terrorist threat.htm 5 Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism (2009.state. For many years India has fought terrorist-style violence in the disputed territory of Kashmir. U. At least 183 people got killed. its role in the war on terror. its decision to win Afghanistan’s support and furthermore. To India’s government Mumbai attacks were aimed at creating a break-down in India-Pakistan relations. Lashkar-e-Tayyiba. July 20. 2009.state. But unfortunately. Secretary of State. and lacked central control to coordinate an effective response. but Mumbai globalized this fight and drawn the country into the center of the war on terror. the main train station.gov/secretary/rm/2009a/july/126259. They also planted bombs in two taxis that later exploded in different locations in the city. on July 20.htm . and additional locations. is among several banned Pakistani militant groups that experts say received backing from Pakistan’s intelligence agency to fight in Indianadministered Kashmir. The terrorists appeared to have been well-trained and took advantage of technology. the attacks unleashed on Mumbai caused a great setback to the composite dialogue which was going on between India and Pakistan. And India is willing to do everything possible to make that happen. State Department’s Country Reports on Terrorism. Indian Minister of External Affairs S.”6 The statement reflects India’s position towards Pakistan. Hyderabad House.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2009/06a/125098. six of whom were Americans and 14 members of the police and security forces. such as Global Positioning System trackers. and counter-terrorism cooperation between India and the United States. 2009 from http://www.4 Mumbai attacks: the turning point In 2008. Retrieved December 8.state. During his remarks with Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. 2009.S. Office of the Spokesman (2009. June).-India Counterterrorism Joint Working Group. a Jewish center. India. and expanded information sharing.M. including the most devastating attack of the year on November 26 in Mumbai. Several attacks inflicted large numbers of casualties.gov/s/ct/rls/crt/2008/122434. The assaults in Mumbai targeted places frequented by foreigners and wealthy Indians. one of the groups the Indian government believes was behind the Mumbai attacks.
9 7 The Indian Express (2009. India’s path in the war of terror has basically two tracks. Mullen stressed that India is part of the regional approach in resolving the Afghan problem. it became clear that West and India were now facing the same enemy: terror organizations operating in Pakistan’s tribal areas and the mountains of Afghanistan. Admiral Mike Mullen. what also has an impact in Pakistan stability.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/south_asia/7492982. and its backers in Pakistan.co.8 Former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf openly accused Afghan President Hamid Karzai of being subservient to India. gain the maximum political advantage and. said he chairman of the US joint chiefs of staff. “India’s reconstruction strategy was designed to win over every sector of Afghan society. The possibility of a future disruptive regime change or collapse occurring in a weak state with nuclear weapons also continues to raise questions regarding the ability of such a state to control and secure its nuclear arsenals from terrorists’ reach. Pakistan. It opened two new consulates in Herat and Mazhar-e-Sharif and reopened two others in Kandahar and Jalalabad which had been shut since 1979. undercut Pakistani influence” says analyst Ahmed Rashid. I have been very specific in telling the Indians that they cannot use Afghan soil for acts of aggression against another country”. health. backed and recognized the Taliban regime and gained further strategic depth in the region. Retrieved December 9 from http://news. President Karzai made a statement assuring Pakistan shouldn’t be worried about the role of India: “Let me assure [you].expressindia. “Afghanistan has been a prize that Pakistan and India have fought over directly and indirectly for decades” wrote analyst Robert D Kaplan. to give India a high profile with Afghans. India’s second track on fighting the war on terror consists in promoting development in Afghanistan. after the fall of the Taliban in 2001 India moved quickly to regain its strategic depth in Afghanistan. It ended up backing the Northern Alliance.has for some period of time”. When the Taliban swept to power in Afghanistan. Retrieved December 8 from http://www.India’s role in the war of terror The westernized classes targeted by Mumbai’s attackers and the part played by Lashkar -e-Tayyiba. US appreciates India's role in Afghanistan. Islamabad has also said the Indian consulates in Kandahar and Jalalabad were funneling arms and money to insurgents in Pakistan’s troub led Balochistan region. Questioned on the role of regional countries in Afghanistan. January). India was left without any influence in the country. gave rise to voices calling for India to reconsider its non-aligned mentality and join in the global fight against the jihadist movement. “India has taken significantly positive steps to in vest in Afghanistan . there are concerns over the increasing Indian influence in Afghanistan. which controlled territory north of the Shomali plains near Kabul.2billion on helping rebuild the country’s shattered infrastructure. On Pakistan’s side. First. In response. of course. In fact. and both of them are connected to Pakistan. India’s investments in Afghanistan are calculated steps. on the other hand.bbc. power and telecommunications.stm 9 Idem . India’s higher level of governance and stability gives it the credentials needed to avoid ongoing low-intensity clashes with Pakistan to raise and escalate to a broader conflict between the two nuclear powers. it has pledged to spend $1. India: Afghanistan's influential ally. October). along Pakistan and Iran.7 India became the sixth largest bilateral donor to Afghanistan. Moreover.com/latest-news/US-appreciates-Indias-role-in-Afghanistan/416054/# 8 BBC News (2009. during a press conference in January this year. There has also been money in the form of food aid and help to strengthen governance. Funds have been committed for education.
Incidents by Region – 81.779 Global Terrorism Database Incidents over time – India Global Terrorism Database .
Attack type – India Global Terrorism Database Weapon type – India Global Terrorism Database .
Fatalities – India Global Terrorism Database .
expressindia. Why India must join the Western war on terror.htm Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism (2009.M. April). Country Reports on Terrorism 2008. January). 2009 from http://www.stm Bureau of Public Affairs.html Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism (2009.S. US appreciates India's role in Afghanistan.state. Terror Groups in India.bbc.U. Hyderabad House. Retrieved December 8 from http://www. September). Retrieved December 8 from http://www.gov/s/ct/rls/crt/2008/122434. Secretary of State.com/latest-news/US-appreciates-Indias-role-in-Afghanistan/416054/# .gov/documents/organization/65475.html Council on Foreign Relations (2008. Retrieved December 8. 2009 from http://www. June). Retrieved December 8 from http://www. April). Retrieved December 8.ca/world/story/2009/02/12/f-singh-viewpoint.indianembassy. 2009.htm Remarks with Indian Minister of External Affairs S.S. U. South Asia Overview 2005. The Indian Express (2009. Retrieved December 9 from http://www.co. Retrieved December 9 from http://news.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2009/06a/125098. India. Retrieved December 9 from http://www. February).uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/south_asia/7492982.-India Counterterrorism Joint Working Group. Foreign Terrorist Organizations.pdf.cbc.state. November). India: Afghanistan's influential ally. Krishna.state.cfr. Retrieve December 7 from http://www.Sources: BBC News (2009. Retrieved December 8 from http://www.htm CBC News (2009.state. Hillary Rodham Clinton.state. July 20.org/publication/12773/ Indian Embassy (2000.htm State Department (2005.gov/s/ct/rls/other/des/123085. India .gov/secretary/rm/2009a/july/126259. New Delhi. Office of the Spokesman (2009.org/indusrel/jwg_terrorism_september_26_2000. July). October). Statement on Joint Working Group on Counter Terrorism.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.