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Dki

KziAvb I mybœvni Av‡jv‡K


Aa¨vcK gywReyi ingvb mv‡eK Gg wc
Dki
cÖKvkbvq
Avj Bmjvn& cÖKvkbx
gwnkvjevox, †Mv`vMvox, ivRkvnx
01715016858

cÖ_g cÖKvk-
vk- b‡f¤^i 1994
wØZxq cÖKvk-
vk- RyjvB-
vB- 2009
2009

wba©vwiZ g~j¨ t 15.00


15.00 UvKv gvÎ

gy`Yª
Aa¨vcK gywReyi ingvb mv‡eK Gg wc Avj-
Avj-dvjvn wcÖw›Us †cÖm
423 eo gMevRvi, XvKv-
XvKv-1217
‡dvb t 9345741, 9358432

USAR-
USAR- By Prof. Mujibur Rahman, Ex,MP Al- Al-Islah Prokasoni,
Mohishalbari, Godagari, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. 2nd Publication: July
Mohishalb
2009,
2009, Fixed Price-
Price- 15.00 Taka Only.
m~PxcÎ

1. f~wgKv
2. Dki wK? 23. Bmjvgx wPš—vwe`‡`i gZvgZ-gvIjvbv mvB‡q`
3. Dki m¤ú‡K© wKQz fyj avibv †gvnv¤§` Avjx
4. Avj−vni wb‡`©‡k Ryjyg †bB 24. gymjgvb gvwjKvbvfy³ RwgB Dki‡hvM¨
5. hvKvZ I Dki `ywUB diR 25. m‡›`n †`Lv w`‡jI Dki †`qvB wbivc`
6. LwbR I ˆZj m¤ú‡` Dki 26. ivR¯^-LvRbv w`‡jI hvKvZ Dki Av`vq n‡e bv
7. dj-dm‡ji Dki bv w`‡j mxgvjsNbKvix 27. me©ve¯’vq Dki ev Aa© Dki eva¨Zvg~jK
8. hvKvZ †bB †h cwigv‡Y 28. Dki †hvM¨ dmj wK wK
9. cvuP Iqvmv‡Ki Kg cwigv‡Y Dki †bB 29. wdKûh hvKv‡Zi e³e¨
10. wdKn gynv¤§`xi e³e¨ 30. Avg, Av‡cj RvZxq dm‡ji Dki
11. cwigvY hvB †nvK Dki w`‡Z n‡e 31. cÖwZwU K…wl Drcv`‡b Dki diR
12. wn‡me K‡i Dki Av`vq Ki‡Z n‡e 32. Avn‡j nv`xm g‡Z
13. hvKvZ A¯^xKviKvix‡`i wei“‡× wRnv` 33. Dki I hvKv‡Zi cv_©K¨
14. Dki †ei Kivi `ywU wbqg 34. `vIqv‡Zi mv‡_B DkiI hvKv‡Zi wb‡`©k
15. wK cwigvY n‡j Dki w`‡Z n‡e 35. Dk‡ii A_© LiP Kivi LvZ
16. DU, Mi“, QvMj, gyiMx, gvQ, cvLxi Dki 36. `v‡bi †¶‡Î wnsmvI Kiv hvq
17. ‡kqvi,cÖwf‡W›UdvÛ,eÛ,nvDwRs,÷KGi hvKvZ 37. Dki hvKvZ ivóªxqfv‡e msMÖn Ki‡Z n‡e
18. Dki hvKvZ MÖnbKvix cÖwZôvb ¯’vcb 38. Dki hvKvZ dv‡Û KZ UvKv Avm‡Z cv‡i
19. LvRbv I Dki 39. mvi ms‡¶c
20. LvRbv w`‡jI Dki gvd n‡e bv 40. cÖvgvY¨ MÖš’ I K…ZÁZv ¯^xKvi
21. Dk‡i K…wle¨q KZ©b bv Kiv
22. wewµ-mÂq †hvM¨ dmj-dj †MvLv‡`¨i Dki †`qv
wem&wgj−vwni ivn&gvwbi ivnxg Dki wK
f~wgKv Aviex Avmviv kã †_‡K Dki kãwUi DrcwË| Aviex
bvngv`yû Abymvwj− Avjv ivmywjwnj Kvixg| fvlvq Avkviv k‡ãi A_© `k, Avi Dki“b k‡ãi A_© `k
`xN© w`b a‡i Dki Gi Dci covïbv K‡i I cÖvq GK hyM a‡i fv‡Mi GKfvM| Dki n‡jv Rwg †_‡K Drcbœ dmj
gvq`v‡b Øxb Kv‡q‡gi Rb¨ Dki msMÖ‡ni Awfhv‡b RwoZ †_‡K
g‡b K‡iwQjvg Dki Gi Dci GKwU eB RvwZi mvg‡b
djvw`i hvKvZ|
Dc¯’vcb Kie| Avj−vni A‡kl †g‡nievYx‡Z G cÖ‡Póv mdj
n‡Z hv‡”Q †`‡L Avj−vni ïKwiqv Av`vq KiwQ- Dki m¤ú‡K© wKQz fyj aviYv
Avjnvg`ywjj−vn| Bmjvgx AvBb Kvbyb Pvjy bv _vKvq Rxe‡bi †ek wKQz †¶‡Î
fyj aviYvi Rb¥ nq| fyj aviYv `xN©w`b mgq †c‡q Zvi
Dki cÖ`vb Avj−vni c¶ †_‡K GKwU diR ûKzg| A_P Bmjvgx
ivóª I miKv‡ii Abycw¯’wZi d‡j ûKzgwU †`‡ki †ekxi fvM wkKo gReyZ K‡i †d‡j| mvgvwRK I ivóªxq mn‡hvwMZv
RbM‡Yi Kv‡Q Zv AcÖPwjZ n‡q ‡M‡Q| G diR ûKzgwUi †c‡q Zv dz‡j d‡j †kvwfZ n‡Z _v‡K| Ggb wK Bmjvgx
c~YRx©e‡bi j‡¶¨ eBwU wjLjvg| hZw`b †`‡ki miKvix is Ps †g‡L Bmjvg we‡ivax KvRwU Bmjvgx KvR iƒ‡c
e¨e¯’vcbvq G diR ûKzgwU ev¯—evqb bv n‡e ZZw`b RbM‡Yi Aev‡a Pj‡Z _v‡K| †KviAvb nv`x‡mi Ávb wVK gZ bv
Kcv‡j mydj Avm‡e bv| hZ `ª“Z Bmjvgx ivóª MwVZ n‡e ZZ _vKvi Kvi‡YB G aviYv evmv evua‡Z _v‡K|`ywU avibv †ek
`ª“Z Gi mdj ev¯—evqb n‡e e‡j g‡b Kwi| †m Rb¨B hviv G
eBwU Aa¨qb Ki‡eb Zv‡`i Kv‡Q AvKzj Av‡e`b wb‡Riv G
Pvjy Av‡Q-
Avgj ïi“ K‡i GLb †_‡KB RbMY‡K Gi mdj †cŠ‡Q †`qvi 1. Bmjvgx ivóª n‡jB †Kej Dki w`‡Z n‡e
Rb¨ gq`v‡b †b‡g co‡eb Avkv Kwi| fyj ΓwU ¶gv my›`i 2. LvRbv w`‡j Dki †`qv jvM‡e bv
`„wó‡Z †`‡L Zv ms‡kva‡b mn‡hvMxZv Ki‡eb| `ywU wel‡q B wKQz Av‡jvPbv GLv‡b Kiv nj-
`xN©w`b nj eBwUi ms¯‹iY †kl nevi Kvi‡b wØZxq ms¯‹ib
Qvcv‡bvi `vex AvmwQj| wewfbœ Kvi‡b Qvcv‡Z †`ix n‡q †Mj| cÖ_gZt Dki m¤ú‡K© †KD †KD g‡b K‡ib Bmjvgx ivóª
cvebv †Rjv Avgxi Rbve gvIjvbv Avãyi inxg fv‡qi Aby‡iv‡a n‡jB †Kej Dki w`‡Z n‡e| hZw`b Bmjvgx ivóª bv n‡e
I civg‡k© wKQz Ri“ix ms‡kvabx I ms‡hvRb K‡i wØZxq ms¯‹vi ZZw`b G diR †_‡K Zviv gy³| G aviYvi †Kvb wfwË
‡ei Kiv m¤¢e nj GRb¨ Avj−vni ïKwiqv Av`q KiwQ-
†bB| Bmjvgx ivóª bv n‡qI hw` bvgvR co‡Z nq, hvKvZ
Avjnvg`ywjj−vn| Avj−vn Zvqvjv cvebv ‡Rjv Avgxi gvIjvbv
Avãyi inxg fvB mn Avgv‡`i mKj‡KB DËg hvhvn (cyi¯‹vi) w`‡Z nq, Z‡e †Kb Dki w`‡Z n‡e bv? Avj−vni wb‡`©k .
`vb Ki“b| A-AvwKgym mvjvZ.... e‡j †hgb bvgvR Kv‡qg diR ...
Avj−vn Avgv‡`i mKj‡KB ¶gv Ki“b I Øxb cÖwZôvi Kv‡R A-AvZy¾vKvZ... e‡j †hgb hvKvZ diR †Zgwb ...A-AvZz
cwic~Y© cÖ‡Póv Pvjv‡bvi ZIdxK w`b- Avgxb| nv°vû BqvIgv nvmvw`wn.... e‡j dmj gvov‡qi w`‡b Dki
gywReyi ingvb, mv‡eK Ggwc Av`vq KivI diR|
wØZxqZt Dki m¤ú‡K© †KD e‡jb, †h‡nZz miKvi Rwgi Ò‡n Cgvb`vi †jv‡Kiv, †Zvgv‡`i cweÎ DcvR©b n‡Z LiP
LvRbv †bq ZvB Zvi Dki †`qv jvM‡e bv| GLv‡b wPš—v Ki Ges †Zvgv‡`i Rwg n‡Z †h dmj Drcbœ Kwi Zv †_‡K
Kiv `iKvi Rwgi LvRbv †`qv GUv gvby‡li wb‡`©k, Avi †Zvgiv e¨q Ki|Gi“c nIqv DwPZ bq ‡h Avj−vni c‡_
Rwgi Drcbœ dm‡ji Dki †`qv Avj−vni wb‡`©k| Avgiv LiP Kivi Rb¨ wbK…óZg wRwbl¸‡jv ‡e‡Q wb‡Z †Póv
Kvi wb‡`©k gvbe- gvby‡li bv Avj−vni? gymjgvb n‡j Ki‡e, †Kbbv †mB wRwblB hw` †KD †Zvgv‡`i †`q Z‡e
Aek¨B Avj−vni wb‡`©k‡K †g‡b wb‡Z n‡e| hvKvZ †hgb †Zvgiv Zv MÖnY Ki‡Z wKQz‡ZB ivRx n‡e bv |Ó
AvqKi w`‡jI gvd nq bv, hvKvZ diR †_‡KB hvq,
†Zgwb Rwgi LvRbv w`‡jI dm‡ji Dki gvd nq bv, Dki AvqvZwU‡Z `ywU wel‡q `„wó AvKl©Y Kiv n‡q‡Q-
w`‡ZB n‡e| 1. GKwU hvKvZ I
2. AciwU Dki|
Avj−vni wb‡`©‡k Ryjyg †bB hvKvZ w`‡Z n‡e cweÎ DcvR©b †_‡K Avi Dki w`‡Z n‡e
Avj−vni wb‡`©‡ki g‡a¨ †Kvb Ryjyg †bB, wKš‘ gvby‡li Rwg †_‡K Drcbœ dmj n‡Z| †h‡nZz GLv‡b LiP Kivi
wb‡`©‡ki g‡a¨ Ryjyg Av‡Q| †hgb Rwg‡Z dmj n‡j Dki cÖZ¨¶ wb‡`©k †`qv n‡q‡Q †m‡nZz hvKvZ I Dki `ywUB
`vI, dmj bv n‡j †Kvb Dki †bB, wKš‘ LvRbv? Rwg‡Z diR|
dmj n‡j LvRbv w`‡Z n‡e- bv n‡jI LvRbv w`‡Z n‡e| Dki GKwU Avw_©K Gev`vZ| Avj−vn Zvqvjvi ûKzg gvbvi
A‡bK mgq Mixe †jvK N‡ii NwUevwU wewµ K‡i my`mn bvgB Gev`Z| A_©‰bwZK ûKzg †g‡b Pjv GKwU Avw_©K
LvRbv w`‡Z eva¨ nq| GUv wbtm‡›`‡n GKUv Ryjyg| Dk‡i Gev`Z| ÕAvi Dnvi nK Av`vq K‡i `vI Dnvi KvUvB
†Kvb Ryjyg †bB-dmj n‡j `vI, bv n‡j bv `vI| gvovB-Gi w`‡bBÕ| †h‡nZz Avj−vn Iki †ei Kivi ûKzg
w`‡q‡Qb AZGe GwU GKwU diR Gev`vZ|
hvKvZ I Dki `ywUB
wUB diR
LwbR
LwbR I ˆZj m¤ú‡`
m¤ú‡` Dki
Avj−vn Zvqvjv m~iv evKvivi 267 bs Avqv‡Z e‡jb- GLv‡b Dki cÖms‡M Rwgi †Kej Drcbœ dmjB bq, Rwgi
Mfx‡i jyKvwqZ ab-m¤ú`, Lwb, ˆZj BZ¨vw`i †¶‡ÎI
diR Gi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| Gme wel‡q Avj−vni nK Av`vq
Kivi my¯úó bxwZgvjv ivmyjj
y v− n mvj−vj−vû AvjvBwn Iqv
mvj−vg e‡j ‡M‡Qb| ïay ZvB bq ev¯—evqb K‡iI
‡`wL‡q‡Qb|
Dnvi nK ej‡Z Dki cÖ`v‡bi wb‡`©kB †`qv n‡q‰Q|
dj-
dj-dm‡ji Dki bv w`‡j
w`‡j mxgvjsNbKvix †h‡nZz Avj−vn GLv‡b cÖZ¨¶ wb‡`©k w`‡q‡Qb †m‡nZz
myiv Avj Avbqvg Gi 141 bs Avqv‡Z cwi¯‹vifv‡e ejv dm‡ji Dki †`qv wbtm‡›`‡n diR|
n‡q‡Q- 3. Z…ZxqZt AviI GKwU K_v djg~‡jI Dki †ei Kivi
wb‡`©k cvIqv hv‡”Q| †m Rb¨ Avgv‡`i †`‡ki d‡ji
Dki †ei Kivi Rb¨ D‡`¨vM †bqv †h‡Z cv‡i|
GB Avqv‡Z wK cwigvY nK Av`vq Ki‡Z n‡e Zv ejv nq
bvB| G e¨vcv‡i ÔcwigvYÕ I Av`v‡qi wbqg im~‡j Kixg
mvj−vj−vû AvjvBwn Iqv mvj−vg wb‡R nvw`‡mi gva¨‡g e‡j
w`‡q‡Qb| G Avqv‡Z Avj−vn wb‡`©k w`‡q hv ¯úó K‡i
w`‡q‡Qb Zv n‡”Q dm‡ji Dki KvUvB gvovB Kivi ms‡M
ms‡M †ei K‡i w`‡Z n‡e|
D‡j−wLZ gZvg‡Zi wfwˇZ GUv my-¯úó †h dmj gvovB
ÒwZwbB m„wó K‡i‡Qb bvbv iK‡gi jZv I e„‡¶i evMvb,
K‡i Dki †ei bv K‡i †Mvjv ev KzVx‡Z Rgv Kiv hv‡e bv|
†LRy‡ii evMvb, iKgvwi Lv`¨ dm‡ji †¶Z, hvBZzb I
dmj KvU‡Z n‡e, gvovB Ki‡Z n‡e Ges wnmve K‡i Dki
Wvwj‡gi MvQ-hv †`L‡Z GK iKg I ¯^v‡` wewfbœ
†ei K‡i w`‡Z n‡e| j¶¨Yxq †h GLv‡b Dki †ei bv
iK‡gi|‡Zvgiv Mv‡Qi dj-dmj †_‡K LvI hLb Dnv dj
Kiv‡K mxgv jsNb ejv n‡q‡Q| AZGe hviv Dki †ei
dmj w`‡e| Avi Dnvi nK Av`vq K‡i `vI Dnvi KvUvB
K‡i bv Zviv mxgv jsNbKvix|
gvovB-Gi w`‡bB| G e¨vcv‡i mxgv jsNb Ki bv †Kbbv
Avj−vn mxgv jsNbKvix‡`i fvj ev‡mb bv|Ó
hvKvZ †bB †h cwigv‡Y
1. cvuPwUi Kg D‡U hvKvZ †bB
D‡j−L¨ †h AvqvZwU‡Z wZbwU K_v ejv n‡q‡Q-
2. Pwj−kwUi Kg QvM‡j hvKvZ †bB
1. cÖ_gZt dm‡ji gvwjK‡K Lvevi wb‡`©k †`qv n‡q‡Q|
3. `yBkZ w`invg g~‡j¨i †iv†c¨i (UvKvi)K‡g hvKvZ †bB
whwb dmj djv‡eb Zvui cÖ_g AwaKvi wZwb Zv †_‡K
4. ga¨g gv‡bi gvj hvKvZ eve` MÖnb Ki‡Z n‡e-
Lv‡eb|
(Bmjv‡gi hvKvZ weavb) c„: 188
2. wØZxqZt Dnvi nK Av`vq Kivi wb‡`©k †`qv n‡q‡Q|
GLv‡b ejvi A‡c¶v iv‡L bv †h, dmj gvov‡qi w`‡b cvuP Iqvmv‡Ki Kg cwigv‡Y Dki †bB
eyLvix, gymwjg, Avey `vD`, wZiwgwh I bvmvC MÖ‡š’ (int) Gi g‡Zi AbymvixM‡Yi g‡a¨B D‡j−L‡hvM¨ Ask
D‡j−wLZ GKwU nv`xm Avey mvB` Lz`ix (ivt) eY©bv K‡i‡Qb Dki Av`v‡qi e¨vcv‡i GLbI wcQ‡b i‡q †M‡Qb|
hv‡Z ejv n‡q‡Q- †n`vqv 1gLÛ- 181 c„ôvq ejv n‡q‡Q
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cvuP IqvmvK †LRyi ev exR `vbvi Kg cwigv‡Y Dki †bB| 
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n‡e|
ÓBgvg Avey nvwbdv (int) e‡jb, f~wg‡Z Drcvw`Z dm‡ji
Dk‡ii wbmve cwigvY Kg †ekx hvB †nvK bv †Kb, Zvi Dki Av`vq
AwaKvsk Bgv‡gi g‡Z Dk‡ii wbmve ÒcvP IqvmvKÓ| Ki‡Z n‡e| PvB Zv †m‡Pi gva¨‡g wKsev e„wói cvwb‡Z
Rwgi dm‡ji cwigvb ÒcvP IqvmvKÓ n‡j Zvi Dki Drcvw`Z †nvK| Z‡e evuk, †eZ, jvKox I Nv‡li Dki
Av`vq Ki‡Z n‡e| w`‡Z n‡e bv| Aek¨ Bgvg Avey BDmyd I Bgvg gynv¤§`
ÒcvP IqvmvK n‡j dmj gvov‡qi w`b Dki †ei K‡i w`‡Z (int) e‡j‡Qb AcPbkxj dmj hv msi¶Y Kiv hvq Zvi
n‡e| lvU mv'‡Z GK IqvmvK nq| GK mvÕ cÖvq †cŠ‡Y wZb cwigvY cvuP IqvmvK n‡j †Kej ZLb Zvi Dci Dki
†mi IRb n‡j cvuP Iqvmv‡K cÖvq 20 gb IRb nq| 20 IqvwRe n‡e|Ó
gb dmj n‡j Zv‡Z Dki †ei Ki‡Z n‡e|Ó
(wdKvn gynv¤§`x c„ôv- 110) wn‡me
wn‡me K‡i Dki Av`vq Ki‡Z n‡e
Avgv‡`i mgv‡R wKQz aviYv Ggb Av‡Q †h, dmj KvUvB
cwigvb hvB †nvK Dki w`‡Z n‡e gvovB K‡i †MvjvRvZ K‡i †d‡j Ges dwKi wgmwKb‡K
Bgvg Avey nvwbdv (int)Gi g‡Z Rwgi dmj djvw`‡Z Aí K‡i w`‡Z _v‡K| Gfv‡e GK ch©v‡q g‡b K‡i †h,
b~¨bZg†Kvb cwigvY ‡bB| Rwg †_‡K hvB Drcbœ †nvK Ges Dki †`qv n‡q †Mj| †KD †Zv Gfv‡e e‡j †h, hv †`qv
‡h cwigvbB Drcbœ ‡nvK Zv‡Z Dki †ei K‡i w`‡Z n‡e| n‡q‡Q Zv Dki Gi †P‡q ‡ekx †`qv n‡q †M‡Q| G‡¶‡Î
†hme nv`x‡m cvuP IqvmvK †bmv‡ei D‡j−L Av‡Q, Bgvg †R‡b ivL‡Z n‡e, wnmve K‡i Dki Av`vq Ki‡Z n‡e|
Avey nvwbdv (int) Gi g‡Z Dnv e¨emvq c‡Y¨i hvKv‡Zi †KD hw` wnmve K‡i Dki †ei bv K‡i ev `vb Ki‡Z
‡¶‡Î cÖ‡hvR¨| `ytLRbK n‡jv †h Bgvg Avey nvbxdv Ki‡Z Zv me †kl K‡iI †d‡j Zey Zvi Dki Av`vq n‡e
bv| †h‡nZz †m wnmve K‡i Dki †ei K‡iwb †m‡nZz †m
Avj−vni wb‡`©k jsNb K‡i‡Q Ges ivmyj mvj−vj−vû AvjvBwn nhiZ Avey eKi (ivt) Avj−vni GKwU diR
Iqv mvj−v‡gi wb‡`©k Abyhvqx †g‡c Dki `k fv‡Mi GK A¯^xKviKvix‡`i wei“‡× e‡jwQ‡jb, ivm~jj
y v− n mvj−vj−vû
fvM ev wbm‡d Dki- wek fv‡Mi GK fvM †ei K‡iwb AvjvBwn Iqv mvj−vg Gi mgq hviv hvKvZ w`‡qwQj Zviv
‡m‡nZz †m ivm~j mvj−vj−vû AvjvBwn Iqv mvj−v‡gi wb‡`©k hw` AvR GKUv D‡Ui iwki hvKvZ w`‡Z A¯^xKvi K‡i
jsNb K‡i‡Q| KziAvb mybœvni weavb jsNbKvix Avj−vni Z‡e Zv‡`i wei“‡× Avwg hy× Kie|
mš‘wó †c‡Z cv‡i bv| D`vniY ¯^iƒc †Kvb GK e¨w³
Avj−vn I Zvui im~j mvj−vj−vû AvjvBwn Iqv mvj−v‡gi weavb Dïi †ei Kivi `yÕwU wbqg
Abyhvqx mgqgZ I cwigvY gZ bvgvR Av`vq bv K‡i hw` ivmyjyj−vn mvj−vj−vû AvjvBwn Iqv mvj−vg e‡j‡Qb-
GK mv‡_ w`‡b ev iv‡Zi †Kvb GK mg‡q w`‡bi mKj ................
bvgvR Av`vq K‡i Z‡e Zvi bvgvR Av`vq n‡e bv| wZwb
hLb ‡h cwigvY Ges †hfv‡e †`wL‡q w`‡q‡Qb ZLb, †m e„wói cvwb‡Z wm³ Rwgi dm‡j Dki `k fv‡Mi GK fvM,
cwigvY I †mfv‡e Zv Av`vq Ki‡Z n‡e| GUvB Bmjv‡gi Avi †mP e¨e¯’vi mvnv‡h¨ wm³ Rwgi Aa© Dki- wek fv‡Mi
weavb| GK fvM|
D‡j−L¨ †h ivm~j mvj−vj−vû AvjvBwn Iqv mvj−vg KL‡bv GLv‡b ¯úófv‡e D‡j−L Kiv n‡q‡Q †h, †h mg¯—
KL‡bv cÖ‡qvR‡b nhiZ Avãyj−vn Be‡b ivIqvnv iv.†K Drcv`bkxj Rwg e„wói cvwb‡Z wm³ nq †Kvb iKg †mP
Avs¸i I †LRy‡ii evMv‡b Abygvb K‡i hvKvZ wba©vib Kv‡h©i cÖ‡qvRb nh bv Ggb Rwg †_‡K †h dmj cvIqv
Ki‡Z cvVv‡Zb| nhiZ Avãyj−vn Be‡b ivIqvnv iv. Abygvb hv‡e Zvi `k fv‡Mi GKfvM Dki wnmv‡e Av`vq Ki‡Z
Kivi wel‡q AwfÁ wQ‡jb| †Kvb †Kvb †¶‡Î cwigvc m¤¢e n‡e| †Kvb iKg Kvc©Y¨ Kiv Pj‡e bv| g‡b ivL‡Z n‡e
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Bgvg Avey nvbxdvi g‡Z B”QvK…Zfv‡e Drcv`b Kiv nq †LRy‡ii evMvb, iKgvwi Lv`¨ dm‡ji †¶Z, hvBZzb I
Ges G‡Kev‡iB g~j¨nxb I †ePv‡Kbvi A‡hvM¨ bq Ggb †h Wvwj‡gi MvQ-hv †`L‡Z GK iKg I ¯^v‡` wewfbœ iK‡gi|
†Kvb K…wlRvZ `ª‡e¨i Iki w`‡Z nq| Ab¨ KwZcq dKxn Gme dmj hLb Drcbœ nq ZLb Zv LvI Ges N‡i †Zvjvi
I gynvwÏm K‡qKwU wbw`©ó K…wlRvZ `ª‡e¨i Ici we‡kl kZ© mgq Zvi cÖvc¨ w`‡q `vI|Ó (Avj Avbqvg- 141)
I ¸Yv¸Y mv‡c‡¶ Dki †`qv eva¨Zvg~jK e‡j ivq
w`‡q‡Qb| †hgb, Zv Lv`¨ wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ nIqv PvB Ges Gme Avqv‡Z †h fvlvq wb‡`©k †`qv n‡q‡Q, Zv me©e¨vcx|
ïwK‡q ¸`vgRvZ Kiv hvq Ggb nIqv PvB| †KD †KD G Dciš‘ GLv‡b my®úófv‡e K…wlRvZ `ªe¨, evMvb, dmj,
msL¨v Pvi ev Z‡ZvwaK wbw`©ó K‡i Zvi bv‡gi ZvwjKvI Av½yi, hvBZzb, I Wvwj‡gi D‡j−L Kiv n‡q‡Q| GK_v
wjwce× K‡i‡Qb| Zv‡Z Bgvg Avey nvwbdvi gZvgZB wbtm‡›`‡n mZ¨ ‡h, Ggb †Kvb mnxn nv`xm hw` _vK‡Zv,
AMÖMY¨| Gi c‡¶ KziAvb I mybœvni ewjô `jxj cÖgvY hv GB me©e¨vcx wb‡`©k‡K we‡kl K‡qKwU wRwb‡li †fZi
we`¨gvb| AvaywbK I cÖvPxb A‡bK nvbvdx Av‡jgI G mxgve× I wbw`©ó K‡i w`Z, Zvn‡j †mB nv`xm Abymv‡iB
AwfgZ mg_©b K‡i‡Qb| `jxj cÖgvY¸‡jv ms‡¶‡c D‡j−L Gi cÖ‡qvM n‡Zv| wKš‘ †Zgb †Kvb nv`xm we`¨gvb †bB|
KiwQ|
1. cweÎ KziAvb K…wl Drcv`b †_‡K Avj−vni bv‡g e¨q wdKûh hvKv‡Zi e³e¨
Kivi †h wb‡`©k ‡`qv n‡q‡Q, Zvi fvlv me©e¨vcx I Avj−vgv BDm~
BDm~d KviRvfx ¯^xq MÖš’ ÔwdKûh hvKv‡ZÕi
me©vZ¥K| †hgbt Bmjv‡gi hvKvZ weavbÓ cÖ_g L‡Ûi 355 c„ôvq Bgvg
............. ivhxi Zvdmxi †_‡K Dc‡iv³ Ask DׄZ Kivi ci Gi
Ò‡n Cgvb`viMY! †h m¤ú` †Zvgiv DcvR©b K‡iQ Ges †h me© †kl e³‡e¨i ch©v‡jvPbv Ki‡Z wM‡q e‡jbt
m¤ú` Avwg †Zvgv‡`i Rb¨ gvwU †_‡K D`MZ K‡iwQ, Zvi
ga¨ †_‡K DËg Ask Avj−vni c‡_ e¨q Ki|Ó ÒwKš‘ kvK meRx I ZwiZiKvix msµvš— GB nv`xmwU
weï×Zvi gv‡bi w`K w`‡q Ggb bq †h, Avqv‡Z †hLv‡b
me©e¨vcx dm‡j hvKvZ Av‡ivc Kiv n‡q‡Q †mLv‡b Gi
wfwˇZ KwZcq †kªYx‡K ev` †`qv †h‡Z cv‡i| ZvB Bgvg
ivhxi b¨vq Avgvi g‡ZI Bgvgv Avey nvwbdvi hyw³ AZ¨š—
¯^”Q I mvejxj|Ó

ÒwZwbB m„wó K‡i‡Qb bvbv iK‡gi jZv I e„‡¶i evMvb, Avg, Av‡cj RvZxq dm‡ji Dki
wdKûh hvKv‡Zi GB hvqMvq Avj−vgv °viRvfx wewfbœ ÒA_©vr el©Ywm³ f~wgi dm‡j Dki I Rjvkq wmwÂZ f~wgi
gvhnv‡ei ZzjbvgyjK ch©v‡jvPbv K‡i e‡jbt dm‡j Aa© Dgi w`‡Z n‡e|Ó
Dki m¤ú‡K© Bgvg Avey nvwedvi bxwZB me‡P‡q DËg I
AMÖMb¨| nhiZ Igi Be‡b Avãyj Avhxq (int), gyRvwn` Avj−vgv BDm~d Kvihvfxi AwfgZ n‡jv G¸‡jv K…wlRvZ I
(int), nv¤§` (int), `vD` nv‡Rix (int) Ges Beivnxg LvgviRvZ `ªe¨ weavq G‡Z Dki wKsev Aa© Dki avh©
bvLqxi AwfgZI GB †h, gvwU †_‡K D`MZ †h †Kvb nIqvB m½Z| GB Awfg‡Zi mc‡¶ wZwb cÖvPxb Bgvg‡`i
dm‡jiB Dki w`‡Z n‡e| KziAvb I mybœvni ب_©nxb fvlvq wKQz wKQz Dw³I DׄZ K‡i‡Qb| AvwgI GB †k‡lv³
D”PvwiZ بv_©nxb fvlvq D”PvwiZ me©e¨vcx Dw³ G AwfgZwUB mg_©b Kwi| Z‡e Avgvi g‡Z G AwfgZ‡K
e³‡e¨iB mg_©b K‡i Ges hvKv‡Zi mvgwMÖK weav‡bi Av‡iv GKUz we¯—vwiZ iƒc w`‡Z †M‡j †mUv G iKg `vuov‡e
mv‡_I Zv mgÄm¨c~Y| © Mg I he Drcv`bKvixi Ici Dki †h, †h e¨w³ Lvgvi ev evMv‡bi gvwjK A_ev eM©v Pvl
Av‡ivwcZ n‡e, Avi Avg I Av‡c‡ji evMv‡b Dki cÖf„wZ wbq‡g K…wl Drcv`‡b Askx`vi, †m hw` dmj ev dj
Av‡ivwcZ n‡ebv-GUv Avgvi g‡Z Bmjvgx weavb cÖYq‡bi weµx K‡i Z‡e wb‡Ri Drcbœ dm‡j Dki 1/10 A_ev Aa©
wcQ‡b †h Mfxi cÖÁv I gnr D‡Ïk¨ mwµq, Zvi cwicš’x| Dki 1/20 cÖ`vb Ki‡e| †h e¨w³ Lvgvi ev evMvb eÜK
†hme nv`x‡m PviwU Lv`¨ dm‡ji g‡a¨ Dki‡K mxwgZ Kiv wb‡q‡Q, †m e܇Ki UvKv †K‡U †i‡L ev`evKx dm‡j Dki
n‡q‡Q Zvi †Kvb GKwU nv`xmI wbLuyZ bq| †KvbwUi mb` wKsev Aa© Dki †`‡e| wKš‘ Rwgi dmj ev evM‡ib djg~j
`ye©j wKsev wew”Qbœ| Avevi †KvbwUi mb` ivm~j mvj−vj−vû GKevi weµx nIqvi ci Zv hLb evRv‡i cb¨ wn‡m‡e
AvjvBwn Iqvmvj−vg ch©š— bv †cŠ‡Q mvnvex ch©š— wM‡q †_‡g cybivq wewµ n‡e, ZLb Zv‡Z kZKiv AvovB fvM hvKvZ
i‡q‡Q| Av‡ivwcZ n‡e|

cÖwZwU K…wl Drcv`‡b Dki diR Avn‡j nv`xm g‡Z


Bgvg Avey nvbxdv G AvqvZwU `c©‡Yi gZ mvg‡b †i‡L‡Qb gvIjvbv Ievq`yj−vn gyeviKcyix AvL, KjvB, eyU
Ges mZ¨`wk©Zvi †PZbv wb‡q cÖwZwU K…wl Drcv`‡b Dki BZ¨vw`‡ZI Dki eva¨ZvgyjK e‡j gZ w`‡q‡Qb|
eva¨Zvg~jK e‡j ivq w`‡q‡Qb-PvB Zv Lv`¨ RvZxq †nvK ev Avgv‡`i †`‡ki Avn‡j nv`xm ‡Mvôxf~³ Av‡jgMb Mg,
bv †nvK Ges ¸`vgRvZ Kivi †hvM¨ †nvK ev bv †nvK| he, Av½yi, I †LRyi GB PviwU cÖavb wRwbm ev‡` Ab¨vb¨
ivm~j mvj−vj−vû AvjvBwn Iqvmvj−vg wb‡RI ¯^xq me©e¨vcx K…wlRvZ `ªe¨ †hgb AvL, †Qvjv BZ¨vw`‡ZI Dki
Dw³‡Z G K_vB e‡j‡Qb †h............................... eva¨Zvg~jK e‡j ivq w`‡q‡Qb| †KD †KD djg~j I mâx
ZiKvix‡KD Dki‡hvM¨ e‡j‡Qb| d‡Zvqv‡q mvbvBqv cÖ_g
L‡Ûi hvKvZ Ava¨v‡q G ai‡bi GKvwaK d‡Zvqv ewY©Z ZigyR, wLivB BZ¨v †_‡K cÖPi
z A_© DcvwR©Z n‡q _v‡K|Ó
n‡q‡Q| (d‡Zvqv‡q mvbvBqv, cÖ_g LÛ, c„t 54- 74|
gvIjvbv Aveyj Kvjvg †ebvimxi d‡Zvqv GB †h, Av‡L
Dki wKsev Aa© Dki w`‡Z n‡e | gvIjvbv mvbvDj−vn ÒAvj gynvj−vÓ 5g L‡Ûi 258 c„ôvq Be‡b nvRg e‡jb,
mv‡neI GB gZ mg_©b K‡i‡Qb| †Kbbv Avey `vD` kix‡d dmj Drcv`b, KvUv I gvovB, gvwU Lbb, mvi cÖ‡qvM I
Bqvg‡bi f~wg msµvš— Aa¨v‡q Zzjv‡ZI Dki Av`vq Kivi RvZxq Ab¨vb¨ e¨q Dki †`hAi Av‡M ev` †`qv Rv‡qh
K_v D‡j−L Kiv n‡q‡Q| Abyiƒcfv‡e avb, fyÆv, AvL bq| Zvui g‡Z, Bgvg gv‡jK, kv‡dqx, Avey nvbxdv Ges
BZ¨vw`‡ZI Zvi g‡Z Dki w`‡Z n‡e| Rv‡nwiqv gvhnv‡ei Bgvg‡`i AwfgZI ZvB|
AvaywbK K…wl hš¿cvwZ Z_v Uªv±i, _ªvmvi, wUDeI‡qj
gvIjvbv kvgQzj nK Avhxgvev`x Ges gvIjvbv Avãyi
BZ¨vw`i weavbI Z`ª“c| G¸‡jvi g~j¨ ev fvovi UvKvi
iDdI GB d‡Zvqvq GKgZ n‡q‡Qb| gvIjvbv
†gvU Drcbœ dmj †_‡K ev` †`qv hv‡ebv| Ab¨_vq,
kvidzÏx‡bi GK c„_K d‡Zvqv Abymv‡i hveZxq dmj I
mvaviY K…l‡Ki nv‡ji ej` I K’qv Lb‡bi LiPI ev` bv
hveZxq djg~j h_v- Avg, Wvwjg, Av‡cj BZ¨vw`‡ZI
†`qvi †Kvb KviY _vK‡Z cv‡ibv| wUDeI‡qj ev Kzqvi
Dki A_ev Aa© Dki w`‡Z n‡e| we¯—vwiZ Av‡jvPbvi ci
wKsev Lvj-bvjv wmwÂZ Rwgi †mP Ki Dki †`qvi Av‡M
Dcmsnv‡i wZwb e‡jb-
KZ©b Kiv A‰ea G Kvi‡Y †h, G ai‡Yi K…wÎg I
kªgmv‡c¶ †m‡Pi Rb¨ cÖ_‡gB Dk‡i †iqvZ w`‡q Aa© Dki
ÒmyZivs cÖgvwYZ n‡q‡Q †h, cÖgvY¨ `jxj Abymv‡i cÖ‡Z¨K
K‡i †`qv n‡q‡Q| A‡b‡K e‡jb, Avgiv wUDe I‡qj I
K…wl `ª‡e¨B Dki A_ev Aa© Dki w`‡Z n‡e| kvK meRx I
U±‡i cÂvk nvRvi ev jvL UvKv e¨q K‡iwQ| Gme e¨q bv
ZwiZiKvix Dki‡hvM¨ bq GB g‡g© †h e³e¨ †`qv n‡q‡Q
cywl‡q Dki †`qv wKfv‡e m¤¢e? G K_vi †hŠw³KZv †g‡b
Zvi †KvbUvB mwVK bq| GUv KziAvb I weï× nv`x‡mi
wb‡j †Zv G K_vI DV‡e †h, Avwg GK jvL ev `yÕjvL
wecixZ N‡i| Kv‡RB H me gZ Abymv‡i KvR Kiv
UvKvq Rwg wK‡bwQ| Rwgi G `vg bv IVv ch©š— Dki †bqv
Pj‡ebv| hw` a‡iI †bqv nq †h, I¸‡jv mwVK n‡e H kvK
‡Kb? G ai‡bi Uvjevnvbv GKRb e¨emvqŠI Ki‡Z cv‡i
meRx I ZwiZiKvixi A_© n‡jv wb‡R‡`i LvIqvi R‡b¨ †h
†h, Avwg †`vKvb ev KviLvbv ¯’vc‡b GZ UvKv e¨q K‡iwQ|
me kvK, cvZv jvD BZ¨vw` ¯^í cwim‡i djv‡bv nq|
Kv‡RB Avgvi evwYwR¨K c‡Y¨ AvcvZZ hvKvZ avh© bv
Lvgv‡ii ci Lvgvi I GK‡ii ci GKi Ry‡o nvRvi nvRvi
nIqv evÃbxq| Gfv‡e abxiv wbivc` Avi Mixeiv ewÂZ
UvKvi †h dmj djv‡bv nq, Zv KL‡bv Dki †_‡K ev`
n‡Z _vK‡e|
co‡Z cv‡ibv| GUv KziAvb I nv`xm I mvaviY weweK
eyw× Df‡qiB cwicš’x| g~jv, MvRi, kvjMg, Avj~, AvL,
GKRb e„nr Rwg`vi †hgb hvwš¿K DcKiY I ivmvqwbK hvKvZ Bmjv‡gi Z…Z¡xq ¯—¤| ¢ hvKvZ Agvb¨Kvix Kv‡di| nvivg
mvi e¨envi K‡i GKw`‡K mgq I kª‡gi mvkªq Ges m¤ú‡`i hvKvZ nq bv| hvKvZ diR nIqvi Rb¨ Avn‡j †bQve
Aciw`‡K wecyj evowZ dmj Drcv`b K‡i, †Zgwb GKRb I 1 eQi mgq AwZµg Kiv kZ©|
¶z`ª K…lK wb‡Ri nvZ, cv I Mev`x cï e¨envi K‡i †hme wRwb‡m Iki I hvKvZ Av`vq Ki‡Z nq- gay, ‡ikg,
Df‡qi g‡a¨ ˆelg¨ Kivi †Kvb †hŠw³KZv ev kixqZ `ya, ‡LvYx, c~uwR, gvwUi bx‡Pi m¤ú`, d¬vU evox, kxíKviLvbv,
m¤§Z wfwË †bB| Z‡e miKvix LvRbv Z_v f~wgKi (†m‡Pi grm m¤ú`, fvovevox, mk¨ dj, †kqvi I eÛ, DU, Mi“ QvMj,
bq) Dk‡ii Av‡M cwi‡kva Kiv bZzb I cÖvPxb eû `y¤^v|
‡dKvnex`B Aby‡gv`b K‡i‡Qb| Gi mc‡¶ Zv‡`i cÖgvY
n‡jv, LvRbv mivmwi f~wg Dbœqb, AwaK dmj djv‡bv ev
ÔDki Rwgi hvKvZ e‡U, wKš‘ Ab¨vb¨ m¤ú‡`i hvKvZ
K…wl e¨‡qi mv‡_ RwoZ bq| ZvB Dk‡ii wnmve Kivi
†_‡K ¯^Zš¿| ZvB Bmjv‡g Dki‡K hvKvZ †_‡K wfbœfv‡e
Av‡M GwU‡K Drcv`b †_‡K ev` ‡`qv‡Z †Kvb AvcwË
Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| wb‡gœv³ wel‡q Dki I hvKv‡Zi
†bB| (ZiRgvby
ZiRgvbyj KziAvb, †m‡Þ¤^i, 1978)
1978
g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ i‡q‡Qt
(GK) Dki †`qvi Rb¨ dm‡ji Dci GK eQi AwZevwnZ
Dki I hvKv‡Zi cv_©K¨
nIqv kZ© bqt Rwgi dmj evox‡Z G‡b cwigvY Kivi
Ò# 0 A_© †h wRwbm µgk e„w× cvq Ges cwigv‡Y †ekx
nq| AZGe hvKvZ n‡”Q eiKZ| hv cwigv‡b e„w× ‡c‡Z ms‡M ms‡MB †mB md‡ji Dci Dki †`qv diR n‡q hvq|
_v‡K, cweÎ I cwi”Qbœ nq|Ó wKš‘ hvKvZ diR nIqvi Rb¨ GK eQi AwZevwnZ nIqv
Avj gyqv¾vgyj IwmqvZ c„t- 398 kZ©| GB cv_©‡K¨i Kvi‡Y eQ‡ii wewfbœ †gŠmy‡g †h KqwU
ÒhvKvZ k‡ãi AvwfavwbK A_© cweÎZv, µge„w×, AvwaK¨ I cmj cvIqv hvq Zvi cÖ‡Z¨KwUi Dci wfbœ wfbœfv‡e Dki
cÖksmv|Ó (†jmvbyb Avie)mvv`Kv kãwUi KziAv‡bi gv`vbx myiv diR nq|
¸‡jv‡Z 12 evi e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q| (`yB) Dki diR nIqvi Rb¨ FY gy³ nIqv kZ© bq|
mv`Kv I hvKvZ KziAvb I mybœvq GKB A‡_© e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q| hvKv‡Zi e¨vcv‡i FY cwi‡kva Kivi ci wbmve cwigvY
m~iv AvËvIevi 103 bs Avqv‡Z ejv n‡q‡Q- ÒZv‡`i ab-gvj m¤ú` evKx _vK‡j Zvi Dci hvKZv diR nq| wKš‘ Dki
†_‡K mv`Kv MÖnb Ki| Zzwg Zvi Øviv Zv‡`i cweÎ Ki‡e I Av‡M †ei Kivi ci FY cwi‡kva Ki‡Z n‡e|
cwi”Qbœ Ki‡e| Ó
(wZb) Dgi diR nIqvi Rb¨ my¯’ I cÖvß eq¯‹ (Av‡Kj I
wgmwKb‡K Lvevi †`qv Cgv‡bi A½| Zv‡`i‡K Zv‡`i AwaKvi ev‡jK) nIqv kZ© bq| bvev‡jM I cvMj e¨w³i dm‡jI
Av`v‡qi e¨vcv‡i Drmvn w`‡Z n‡e| KziAv‡b wfLvix, wgmwKb, Dki diR nq| wKš‘ Zv‡`i m¤ú‡` hvKvZ diR nq bv|
ewÂZ I wbt¯^ cw_K‡`i AwaKvi Av`v‡qi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q|
(Pvi) Dki diR nIqvi Rb¨ Rwgi gvwjK nIqvI kZ© `iKvi †h e¨w³i Kv‡Q `vIqvZ †ck KiwQ Zvi A_©¸‡jv
bq, ïay dm‡ji gvwjK nIqv kZ©| hw` †Kvb gymwjg Ab¨ kqZv‡bi c‡_ n‡q hv‡”Q| hZ kxNÖ Zvi A_© Avj−vni c‡_
†Kvb KviI Rwg eM©v A_ev BRviv wb‡q dmj nvwmj K‡i, LiP n‡Z cvi‡e ZZ kxNÖ †m e¨w³ †`vh‡Li Av¸b †_‡K
A_ev IqvKd K…Z Rwg Pvl K‡i dmj cvq Z‡e Zv‡Z evuP‡Z cvi‡e| Avi Zvi A_© KzievYxi mIqve Gi
Dki diR nq| wKš‘ hvKvZ diR nIqvi Rb¨ m¤ú‡`i mgcwigvY mIqve Avj−vn `vIqvZ `vbKvix‡KI w`‡eb|
gvwjK nIqv kZ©|Õ (giûg gvIjvbv mvB‡q` †gvnv¤§` AZGe `vIqvZ †`qvi mgq gvj KzievYxi `vIhvZI w`‡Z
Avjx iwPZ ÔDkiÕ cyw¯—Kv `ªóe¨) n‡e|
`vIqv‡Zi mv‡_B Dki-
Dki-hvKvZ Gi wb‡`©k Dk‡ii A_© LiP Kivi LvZ
Avj−vn Zvqvjv KziAvb kix‡d gvbyl‡K Zvi †Mvjvgx ¯^xKvi m~iv ZIevi 60 bs Avqv‡Z ejv n‡q‡Q Zv‡Z AvU †kªYxi
K‡i †bqvi AvnŸvb Rvwb‡q‡Qb| Cgvb`vi e¨w³‡K bvgv‡hi †jv‡Ki D‡j−L Av‡Qt
`vIqv‡Zi mv‡_ mv‡_ hvKv‡Zi `vIqvZ †ck Kiv n‡q‡Q| 1. dKxit LyeB UvbvUvwbi wfZi w`‡q hv‡`i Rxeb
................................ AwZevwnZ nq †m Rb¨ PvB‡Z j¾v K‡i bv|
2. wgmKxbt hv‡`i Ae¯’v AviI Lvivc wKš‘ c‡ii wbKU
bvgvR Kv‡qg Ki, hvKvZ `vI GKB mv‡_ e‡j w`‡q‡Qb|
nvZ cvZ‡Z j¾v K‡i|
GLv‡b Avj−vn Zvqvjvi wb‡`©k kvixwiKfv‡eB ïay bq,
3. hvKvZ wefv‡Mi Kg©Pvixt hvKvZ Av`v‡qi Rb¨ wbhy³
Avw_©K wb‡`©kmn mKj wb‡`©k †g‡b †bqvi Avnevb Rvbv‡bv
Kg©Pviw‡`i †eZb hvKv‡Zi A_© †_‡K †`qv hv‡e|
n‡q‡Q| Avevi Zvui Øxb Kv‡q‡gi Rb¨ †h msMÖvg Kivi
4. gb Rq Kivt Bmjv‡gi cÖwZ AvKl©Y m„wó A_ev
wb‡`©k †`qv n‡q‡Q †mLv‡b cÖ_‡g gv‡ji KzievYxi Rb¨B
Bmjv‡gi we‡ivaxZv eÜ Kivi Rb¨ gb i¶v Kivi
Avnevb Rvbv‡bv n‡q‡Q| Avey gymv (ivt) I gyqvR Be‡b
Lv‡Z hvKv‡Zi UvKv †h`qv hv‡e|
Rvevj (ivt) ‡K B‡q‡g‡b Øxb wk¶v †`Iqvi Rb¨ wb‡qvM
5. ‡Mvjvg I K‡q`x‡`i gyw³`vb-Gi Kv‡R UcvKv †`qv
Kivi mgq Zv‡`i Kv‡Q Dki hvKvZ Av`v‡qi K_vI
hv‡e|
ivmyjyj−vn (mt) e‡j w`‡q‡Qb|
6. FYx e¨w³i FY †kva Kivi Lv‡Z G UvKv †`qv hv‡e|
KziAvb, nv`xm I mvnvev‡`i Avgj †_‡K ¯úófv‡e eySv 7. Avj−vni c‡_-AZ¨š— e¨vcK kã hv cÖwZwU †bK Kv‡RB
hvq †h GKRb †jvK‡K Øx‡bi `vIqvZ †`qvi mgq Avw_©K hvKv‡Zi UvKv e¨q Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| we‡klfv‡e Gi
Gev`v‡Zi Rb¨I Avnevb †ck Ki‡Z n‡e| A_© n‡”Q wRnv` wd mvwewjj−vni Kv‡R mvnvh¨ Kiv|
Avj−vni weavb Pvjy Kivi msMÖv‡g A_© mvnvh¨ KivB
ZvB hviv `vqx Bjvj−vni Kv‡R wb‡qvwRZ Zv‡`i G welqwU Gi Avmj A_©|
¸i“Z¡ w`‡q †cg Ki‡Z n‡e| GKUv welq †Lqvj Kiv
8. cw_K cÖevmx t AfveMÖ¯’ cw_K cÖevmx‡K hvKv‡Zi GLv‡b A‡b¨i myL mg„× aŸsm n‡q hvK Giƒc Kvgbv Kiv
UvKv w`‡Z n‡e| ivóª cÖavb mK‡ji wbKU †_‡K Av`vq A‡_© wnsmv e¨eüZ nq bvB| eis A‡b¨i myL mg„× aŸsm
K‡i mgwóMZfv‡e LiP Ki‡eb| wKš‘ Bmjvgx ivóª bv Kvgbv bv K‡i Zvi gZ AvgviI fvM¨ mycm
Ö bœ †nvK- GLv‡b
_vKvi Kvi‡Y mwVKfv‡e hvKvZ- Dki Av`vq I e›Ub G A‡_©B nv`x‡m ejv n‡q‡Q|
n‡Z cvi‡Q bv| ZvB Avj−vni AvBb Pvjy Kivi
msMÖv‡gi Lv‡Zi (wRnv` wd mvwewjj−vni Lv‡Zi) Dki hvKvZ ivóªxqfv‡e msMÖn Ki‡Z n‡e
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Be‡b gvmD` (ivt) †_‡K ewY©Z, bex mvj−vj−vû AvjvBwnIqv
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G c×wZ Kvh©Ki wQj| (hvKv‡Zi nvKxKZ c„t 217)| UvKv Avq n‡e|
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Dki hvKv‡Zi dv‡Û KZ UvKv Avm‡Z
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Economic Review-
Review-2008 cÖKvwkZ Z_¨ †_‡K ‡`Lv dwKi, wgmKxb ewÂZ n‡”Q| abx‡K Av‡iv abx Mixe‡K
hvq †h ïay ¯’vqx mb&”Tq Gi cwigvY 61221 †KvwU UvKv Av‡iv Mixe evbv‡bvi my`x A_©bxwZi wei“‡× mKj‡K
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Review-2008 c„ôv-263)|
Economic Review- cÖwZôvi Av‡›`vj‡b GwM‡q Avm‡Z n‡e|
evsjv‡`‡ki (1991 mv‡j) Z`vbxš—b A¯’vqx †cÖwm‡W›U
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(cvuP) `yRb wg‡j Pvl Ki‡j Dki Df‡qi Dci IqvwRe (gvIjvbv mvgvDb Avjx Abyw`Z)
n‡e Zv hw` exR GKR‡bi nq ZeyI| 4| Avmvb wdKvn - gvIjvbv BDmyd Bmjvnx
(Qq) dmj Kg †nvK †ekx †nvK Dki w`‡Z n‡e| 5| Dki - gvIjvbv mvB‡q` †gvnv¤§` Avjx
(mvZ) Dk‡i eQi c~Y© nevi kZ© †bB| eis †h Rwg‡Z
6| hvKv‡Zi nvKxKZ - gvIjvbv gI`y`x (it)
eQ‡i `yevi dmj nq, Zvi cÖ‡Z¨K dm‡j Dki
w`‡Z n‡e| 7| Bmjv‡gi hvKvZ weavb - Avj−vgv BDm~d AvjKvihvfx

(AvU) bvev‡jM wkï I cvM‡ji dm‡jI Dki IqvwRe| 8| Avj−vni c‡_ LiP - ¯^wjwLZ
(bq) IqvKd Kiv Rwg Pvl Ki‡j Pvlxi Dci Dki hvu‡`i KvQ †_‡K Ges hvu‡`i wjLbx †_‡K mn‡hvMxZv
IqvwRe n‡e| †c‡qwQ Avj−vn Zv‡`i mKj‡KB Dfq RM‡Z DËg cyi¯‹vi
(`k) e„wói cvwb‡Z Avev`K…Z Rwg‡Z K…wÎg Dcv‡q †mP `vb Ki“b Avgxb|--
Kvh© Ki‡j Zvi Dki wba©vi‡Y G wel‡qi Dci
†Lqvj ivL‡Z n‡e †h ¯^vfvweK el©‡Yi †m Rwg
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Av‡Li `vIqvbv Avwbj nvg`ywjj−vwn ivweŸj Avjvgxb |
(GMvi) Iki dm‡ji AvKv‡iI †`qv hvq A_ev Zvi g~j¨I
†`qv hvq|
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Ges Zvi Dki w`‡Z n‡e|
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(†PŠÏ) hvKvZ †hme Lv‡Z e¨q nq, DkiI †mme Lv‡Z
e¨q Ki‡Z n‡e|

cÖvgvb¨ MÖš’ I K…ZÁZv ¯^xKvi


1| Zvdnxgyj KziAvb - gvIjvbv gI`y`x (it)
2| ivmv‡qj I gvmv‡qj - gvIjvbv gI`y`x (it)
3| wdKn gynv¤§`x - Avj−vgv gnxDÏxb