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Determining How to

Select a Sample

Edited & Complied


By

Sanjeev S. Malage
Associate Professor
FMS Department , NIFT, Bangalore
Learning Objectives
1. To understand the concept of sampling.

2. To learn the steps in developing a sampling plan.

3. To understand the concepts of sampling error and


nonsampling error.

4. To distinguish between probability samples, and


nonprobability samples.

5. To understand sampling implications of surveying over the


Internet.
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Definition of sampling

Procedure by which some members


of a given population are selected as
representatives of the entire population

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The Concept of Sampling To understand the
concept of sampling.

Ø Sampling Defined:The process of obtaining information


from a subset of a larger group.

Ø A market researcher takes the results from the sample to


make estimates of the larger group.

Ø Sampling a small percentage of a population can result in


very accurate estimates.

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Why do we use samples ?

Get information from large populations


– At minimal cost
– At maximum speed
– At increased accuracy
– Using enhanced tools

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What we need to know

• Concepts
– Representativeness
– Sampling methods
– Choice of the right design

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Sampling and representativeness

Sampling
Population
Sample

Target Population

Target Population è Sampling Population è Sample


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Steps in Developing a Sample Plan

Step 7. Step 2. Choose


Execute Data Collection
Operational Plan Method

Step1.
Define the
Population of
Step 6. Develop Interest Step 3.
Operational Plan Choose Sampling
Frame

Step 5. Determine (4)


Sample Size Select a
Sampling Method

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Steps In Developing A To learn the steps in
Sampling Plan developing a sample plan.

Step One: Defining the Population of Interest


Specifying the characteristics from whom information is
needed.
Define the characteristics of those that should be
excluded.
Step Two: Choose Data Collection Method
Impacts for the sampling process.
Step Three: Choosing Sampling Frame
A list of elements or members from which we select units
to be sampled.
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Basic Concepts in Sampling

• Population: the entire group under study


as defined by research objectives
– Researchers define populations in
specific terms such as “heads of
households located in areas served
by the company who are responsible
for making the decision.”

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Basic Concepts in Sampling
• Sample: a subset of the population
that should represent the entire group
• Sample unit: the basic level of
investigation
• Census: an accounting of the
complete population

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Steps In Developing A To learn the steps in
Sampling Plan developing a sample plan.

Step Four: Select a Sampling Method


The selection will depend on:
• The objectives of the study
• The financial resources available
• Time limitations
• The nature of the problem

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Steps In Developing A Sampling Plan

Step Five: Determine Sample Size


• Available budget
• Rules of thumb
Step Six: Develop of Operational Procedures for
Selecting Sample Elements
Specify whether a probability or nonprobability
sample is being used
Step Seven: Execution the Sampling Plan
The final step of the operational sampling plan
Include adequate checking of specified procedures.
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Classification of Sampling Methods

Sampling
methods

Probability
samples Nonprobability
samples

Simple Convenience Snowball


Systematic
random

Cluster Stratified Judgement Quota

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Two Basic Sampling Methods
• Probability samples: ones in which
members of the population have a
known chance (probability) of being
selected into the sample
• Non-probability samples: instances in
which the chances (probability) of
selecting members from the
population into the sample are
unknown
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Probability Sampling:
Simple Random Sampling
• Simple random sampling:

• the probability of being selected into


the sample is “known” and equal for
all members of the population
– E.g., Blind Draw Method
– Random Numbers Method

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Simple random sampling

• Principle
–Equal chance of drawing each unit

• Procedure
–Number all units
–Randomly draw units

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Probability Sampling:
1.Simple Random Sampling
– Advantage:
• Known and equal chance of selection
– Disadvantages:
• Complete accounting of population
needed
• Cumbersome to provide unique
designations to every population
member

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Simple random sampling
Example: evaluate the prevalence of tooth
decay among the 1200 children attending
a school

• List of children attending the school


• Children numerated from 1 to 1200
• Sample size = 100 children
• Random sampling of 100 numbers
between 1 and 1200
How to randomly select?
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Simple random sampling

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Probability Sampling
Systematic Sampling
• Systematic sampling: way to select a
random sample from a directory or
list that is much more efficient than
simple random sampling
– Skip interval=population list
size/sample size

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Systematic sampling

• N = 1200, and n = 60
Þ sampling fraction = 1200/60 = 20
• List persons from 1 to 1200
• Randomly select a number between 1
and 20 (ex : 8)
Þ 1st person selected = the 8th on
the list
Þ 2nd person = 8 + 20 = the 28th
etc .....
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Systematic sampling

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 ……..

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Systematic sampling

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Probability Sampling
Systematic Sampling
– Advantages:
• Approximate known and equal
chance of selection…it is a probability
sample plan
• Efficiency…do not need to designate
every population member
• Less expensive…faster than SRS
– Disadvantage:
• Small loss in sampling precision
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Probability Sampling
Cluster Sampling
• Cluster sampling: method in
which the population is divided
into groups, any of which can be
considered a representative
sample
– Area sampling

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Cluster sampling

• Principle

– Random sample of groups (“clusters”)


of units
– In selected clusters, all units or
proportion (sample) of units included

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Cluster Sampling
• In cluster sampling the population is
divided into subgroups, called
“clusters.”
• Each cluster should represent the
population.
• Area sampling is a form of cluster
sampling – the geographic area is
divided into clusters.

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Cluster Sampling
• One cluster may be selected to
represent the entire area with the
one-step area sample.
• Several clusters may be selected
using the two-step area sample.

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A Two-Step Cluster Sample
• A two-step cluster sample (sampling
several clusters) is preferable to a
one-step (selecting only one cluster)
sample unless the clusters are
homogeneous.

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Example: Cluster sampling
Section 1 Section 2

Section 3

Section 5

Section 4
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cluster sampling
To evaluate vaccination coverage:
• Without list of persons
• Total population of villages
• Randomly choose 30 clusters
• 30 cluster of 7 children each= 210 children

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Probability Sampling
Cluster Sampling
– Advantage:
• Economic efficiency…faster and
less expensive than SRS
– Disadvantage:
• Cluster specification error…the
more homogeneous the clusters,
the more precise the sample
results
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Stratified Sampling
• When the researcher knows the
answers to the research question are
likely to vary by subgroups…

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Probability Sampling
Stratified Sampling
• Stratified sampling: method in which
the population is separated into
different strata and a sample is taken
from each stratum
– Proportionate stratified sample
– Disproportionate stratified sample

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Stratified sampling

• Principle :

– Classify population into internally


homogeneous subgroups (strata)
– Draw sample in each strata
– Combine results of all strata

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Stratified Sampling
– Research Question: “To what extent
do you value your college degree?”
Answers are on a five point scale: 1=
“Not valued at all” and 5= “Very
highly valued”
• We would expect the answers to vary
depending on classification. Freshers
are likely to value less than Alumni. We
would expect the mean scores to be
higher as classification goes up.
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Stratified Sampling
– Research Question: “To what extent
do you value your college degree?”
• We would also expect there to be more
agreement (less variance) as
classification goes up. That is, seniors
should pretty much agree that there is
value. Freshers will have less
agreement.

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Stratified Sampling
• Why is stratified sampling more
accurate when there are skewed
populations?
– The less variance in a group, the less
sample size it takes to produce a
precise answer.
– Why? If 99% of the population (low
variance) agreed on the choice of Brand
A, it would be easy to make a precise
estimate that the population preferred
Brand A even with a small sample size.
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Stratified Sampling
– But, if 33% chose Brand A, and 23%
chose B, and so on (high variance) it
would be difficult to make a precise
estimate of the population’s preferred
brand…it would take a larger sample
size…

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Stratified Sampling
– Stratified sampling allows the
researcher to allocate more sample size
to strata with less variance and less
sample size to strata with less variance.
Thus, for the same sample size, more
precision is achieved.
– This is normally accomplished by
disproportionate sampling. Seniors
would be sampled LESS than their
proportionate share of the population
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Probability Sampling
Stratified Sampling
– Advantage:
• More accurate overall sample of
skewed population…see next slide
for WHY
– Disadvantage:
• More complex sampling plan
requiring different sample size for
each stratum

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Nonprobability Sampling
• With nonprobability sampling
methods selection is not based on
fairness, equity, or equal chance.
– Convenience sampling
– Judgment sampling
– Referral sampling
– Quota sampling

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Nonprobability Sampling
• May not be representative but they
are still used very often. Why?
– Decision makers want fast,
relatively inexpensive answers…
nonprobability samples are faster
and less costly than probability
samples.

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Nonprobability Sampling
• May not be representative but they
are still used very often. Why?
– Decision makers can make a
decision based upon what 100 or
200 or 300 people say…they don’t
feel they need a probability sample.

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Nonprobability Sampling
• Convenience samples: samples
drawn at the convenience of the
interviewer
– Error occurs in the form of
members of the population who are
infrequent or nonusers of that
location

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Nonprobability Sampling
• Judgment samples: samples that
require a judgment or an “educated
guess” as to who should represent
the population
– Subjectivity enters in here, and
certain members will have a
smaller chance of selection than
others

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Nonprobability Sampling
• Referral samples (snowball samples):
samples which require respondents
to provide the names of additional
respondents
– Members of the population who are
less known, disliked, or whose
opinions conflict with the
respondent have a low probability
of being selected
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Nonprobability Sampling
• Quota samples: samples that use a
specific quota of certain types of
individuals to be interviewed
– Often used to ensure that
convenience samples will have
desired proportion of different
respondent classes

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Online Sampling Techniques
• Random online intercept sampling:
relies on a random selection of Web
site visitors
• Invitation online sampling: is when
potential respondents are alerted that
they may fill out a questionnaire that
is hosted at a specific Web site

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Online Sampling Techniques
• Online panel sampling: refers to
consumer or other respondent panels
that are set up by marketing research
companies for the explicit purpose of
conducting surveys with
representative samples

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Basic Concepts in Sampling
• Sampling error: any error in a survey
that occurs because a sample is used
• A sample frame: a master list of the
entire population
• Sample frame error: the degree to
which the sample frame fails to
account for all of the population…a
telephone book listing does not
contain unlisted numbers
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