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Select a Sample

By

Sanjeev S. Malage

Associate Professor

FMS Department , NIFT, Bangalore

Learning Objectives

1. To understand the concept of sampling.

nonsampling error.

nonprobability samples.

Internet.

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage NIFT, Bangalore

Definition of sampling

of a given population are selected as

representatives of the entire population

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage NIFT, Bangalore

The Concept of Sampling To understand the

concept of sampling.

from a subset of a larger group.

make estimates of the larger group.

very accurate estimates.

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage NIFT, Bangalore

Why do we use samples ?

– At minimal cost

– At maximum speed

– At increased accuracy

– Using enhanced tools

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage NIFT, Bangalore

What we need to know

• Concepts

– Representativeness

– Sampling methods

– Choice of the right design

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage NIFT, Bangalore

Sampling and representativeness

Sampling

Population

Sample

Target Population

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage NIFT, Bangalore

Steps in Developing a Sample Plan

Execute Data Collection

Operational Plan Method

Step1.

Define the

Population of

Step 6. Develop Interest Step 3.

Operational Plan Choose Sampling

Frame

Sample Size Select a

Sampling Method

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage NIFT, Bangalore

Steps In Developing A To learn the steps in

Sampling Plan developing a sample plan.

Specifying the characteristics from whom information is

needed.

Define the characteristics of those that should be

excluded.

Step Two: Choose Data Collection Method

Impacts for the sampling process.

Step Three: Choosing Sampling Frame

A list of elements or members from which we select units

to be sampled.

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage NIFT, Bangalore

Basic Concepts in Sampling

as defined by research objectives

– Researchers define populations in

specific terms such as “heads of

households located in areas served

by the company who are responsible

for making the decision.”

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Basic Concepts in Sampling

• Sample: a subset of the population

that should represent the entire group

• Sample unit: the basic level of

investigation

• Census: an accounting of the

complete population

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Steps In Developing A To learn the steps in

Sampling Plan developing a sample plan.

The selection will depend on:

• The objectives of the study

• The financial resources available

• Time limitations

• The nature of the problem

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Steps In Developing A Sampling Plan

• Available budget

• Rules of thumb

Step Six: Develop of Operational Procedures for

Selecting Sample Elements

Specify whether a probability or nonprobability

sample is being used

Step Seven: Execution the Sampling Plan

The final step of the operational sampling plan

Include adequate checking of specified procedures.

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Classification of Sampling Methods

Sampling

methods

Probability

samples Nonprobability

samples

Systematic

random

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Two Basic Sampling Methods

• Probability samples: ones in which

members of the population have a

known chance (probability) of being

selected into the sample

• Non-probability samples: instances in

which the chances (probability) of

selecting members from the

population into the sample are

unknown

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Probability Sampling:

Simple Random Sampling

• Simple random sampling:

the sample is “known” and equal for

all members of the population

– E.g., Blind Draw Method

– Random Numbers Method

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Simple random sampling

• Principle

–Equal chance of drawing each unit

• Procedure

–Number all units

–Randomly draw units

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Probability Sampling:

1.Simple Random Sampling

– Advantage:

• Known and equal chance of selection

– Disadvantages:

• Complete accounting of population

needed

• Cumbersome to provide unique

designations to every population

member

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Simple random sampling

Example: evaluate the prevalence of tooth

decay among the 1200 children attending

a school

• Children numerated from 1 to 1200

• Sample size = 100 children

• Random sampling of 100 numbers

between 1 and 1200

How to randomly select?

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Simple random sampling

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Probability Sampling

Systematic Sampling

• Systematic sampling: way to select a

random sample from a directory or

list that is much more efficient than

simple random sampling

– Skip interval=population list

size/sample size

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Systematic sampling

• N = 1200, and n = 60

Þ sampling fraction = 1200/60 = 20

• List persons from 1 to 1200

• Randomly select a number between 1

and 20 (ex : 8)

Þ 1st person selected = the 8th on

the list

Þ 2nd person = 8 + 20 = the 28th

etc .....

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Systematic sampling

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 ……..

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Systematic sampling

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Probability Sampling

Systematic Sampling

– Advantages:

• Approximate known and equal

chance of selection…it is a probability

sample plan

• Efficiency…do not need to designate

every population member

• Less expensive…faster than SRS

– Disadvantage:

• Small loss in sampling precision

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Probability Sampling

Cluster Sampling

• Cluster sampling: method in

which the population is divided

into groups, any of which can be

considered a representative

sample

– Area sampling

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Cluster sampling

• Principle

of units

– In selected clusters, all units or

proportion (sample) of units included

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Cluster Sampling

• In cluster sampling the population is

divided into subgroups, called

“clusters.”

• Each cluster should represent the

population.

• Area sampling is a form of cluster

sampling – the geographic area is

divided into clusters.

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Cluster Sampling

• One cluster may be selected to

represent the entire area with the

one-step area sample.

• Several clusters may be selected

using the two-step area sample.

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

A Two-Step Cluster Sample

• A two-step cluster sample (sampling

several clusters) is preferable to a

one-step (selecting only one cluster)

sample unless the clusters are

homogeneous.

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Example: Cluster sampling

Section 1 Section 2

Section 3

Section 5

Section 4

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

cluster sampling

To evaluate vaccination coverage:

• Without list of persons

• Total population of villages

• Randomly choose 30 clusters

• 30 cluster of 7 children each= 210 children

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Probability Sampling

Cluster Sampling

– Advantage:

• Economic efficiency…faster and

less expensive than SRS

– Disadvantage:

• Cluster specification error…the

more homogeneous the clusters,

the more precise the sample

results

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Stratified Sampling

• When the researcher knows the

answers to the research question are

likely to vary by subgroups…

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Probability Sampling

Stratified Sampling

• Stratified sampling: method in which

the population is separated into

different strata and a sample is taken

from each stratum

– Proportionate stratified sample

– Disproportionate stratified sample

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Stratified sampling

• Principle :

homogeneous subgroups (strata)

– Draw sample in each strata

– Combine results of all strata

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Stratified Sampling

– Research Question: “To what extent

do you value your college degree?”

Answers are on a five point scale: 1=

“Not valued at all” and 5= “Very

highly valued”

• We would expect the answers to vary

depending on classification. Freshers

are likely to value less than Alumni. We

would expect the mean scores to be

higher as classification goes up.

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Stratified Sampling

– Research Question: “To what extent

do you value your college degree?”

• We would also expect there to be more

agreement (less variance) as

classification goes up. That is, seniors

should pretty much agree that there is

value. Freshers will have less

agreement.

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Stratified Sampling

• Why is stratified sampling more

accurate when there are skewed

populations?

– The less variance in a group, the less

sample size it takes to produce a

precise answer.

– Why? If 99% of the population (low

variance) agreed on the choice of Brand

A, it would be easy to make a precise

estimate that the population preferred

Brand A even with a small sample size.

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Stratified Sampling

– But, if 33% chose Brand A, and 23%

chose B, and so on (high variance) it

would be difficult to make a precise

estimate of the population’s preferred

brand…it would take a larger sample

size…

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Stratified Sampling

– Stratified sampling allows the

researcher to allocate more sample size

to strata with less variance and less

sample size to strata with less variance.

Thus, for the same sample size, more

precision is achieved.

– This is normally accomplished by

disproportionate sampling. Seniors

would be sampled LESS than their

proportionate share of the population

and freshmen would be sampled more. 42

Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Probability Sampling

Stratified Sampling

– Advantage:

• More accurate overall sample of

skewed population…see next slide

for WHY

– Disadvantage:

• More complex sampling plan

requiring different sample size for

each stratum

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Nonprobability Sampling

• With nonprobability sampling

methods selection is not based on

fairness, equity, or equal chance.

– Convenience sampling

– Judgment sampling

– Referral sampling

– Quota sampling

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Nonprobability Sampling

• May not be representative but they

are still used very often. Why?

– Decision makers want fast,

relatively inexpensive answers…

nonprobability samples are faster

and less costly than probability

samples.

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Nonprobability Sampling

• May not be representative but they

are still used very often. Why?

– Decision makers can make a

decision based upon what 100 or

200 or 300 people say…they don’t

feel they need a probability sample.

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Nonprobability Sampling

• Convenience samples: samples

drawn at the convenience of the

interviewer

– Error occurs in the form of

members of the population who are

infrequent or nonusers of that

location

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Nonprobability Sampling

• Judgment samples: samples that

require a judgment or an “educated

guess” as to who should represent

the population

– Subjectivity enters in here, and

certain members will have a

smaller chance of selection than

others

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Nonprobability Sampling

• Referral samples (snowball samples):

samples which require respondents

to provide the names of additional

respondents

– Members of the population who are

less known, disliked, or whose

opinions conflict with the

respondent have a low probability

of being selected

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Nonprobability Sampling

• Quota samples: samples that use a

specific quota of certain types of

individuals to be interviewed

– Often used to ensure that

convenience samples will have

desired proportion of different

respondent classes

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Online Sampling Techniques

• Random online intercept sampling:

relies on a random selection of Web

site visitors

• Invitation online sampling: is when

potential respondents are alerted that

they may fill out a questionnaire that

is hosted at a specific Web site

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Online Sampling Techniques

• Online panel sampling: refers to

consumer or other respondent panels

that are set up by marketing research

companies for the explicit purpose of

conducting surveys with

representative samples

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

Basic Concepts in Sampling

• Sampling error: any error in a survey

that occurs because a sample is used

• A sample frame: a master list of the

entire population

• Sample frame error: the degree to

which the sample frame fails to

account for all of the population…a

telephone book listing does not

contain unlisted numbers

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Sanjeev Sadashiv Malage, NIFT, Bangalore

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