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structured disguised questionnaire
1) Structured non disguised questionnaire • Questions are listed in a pre-arranged order • Respondents are told about the purpose of collecting information 2) Structured- disguised questionnaire • Questions are listed in a pre-arranged order • Respondents are not told about the purpose of conducting survey 3) Non structured non disguised questionnaire • Questions are not structured. • Researcher is free to ask questions in any sequence he/she wants. • Respondents are told about the purpose of collecting information 4) Non structured disguised questionnaire • Questions are not structured • Researcher is free to ask questions in any sequence he/she wants. • Respondents are not told about the purpose of conducting survey. Types of Questions 1) Closed ended questions:--• In the closed ended type of questions, the respondent is asked to select from a fixed list of replies. • Repondent has to choose any one of the options given or multiple options • This facilitates coding and helps in quantifying the answer to the questions
Respondents don’t have to think much and answer within the options given.
2.)Open ended questions: Respondents are free to answer the questions in their own words. It does not restrict them to choose from the given alternatives as in closedended questions The respondent expresses his/her thoughts in a free wheeling manner. Mail Survey Survey done through mail/post office. Merits of mail survey • Economical : The cost includes cost of postage (pre paid envelopes are sent along with the survey) and the printed questionnaire . • Wide geographical coverage : • Interviewer’s bias is eliminated • Convenience to respondents:-- as thee is no pestering by interviewer and there is no pressure to fill up on the spot. The respondent can take their own time and this allows them to think before answering . • Repondents and supervisors not required.—major expenses saved • Family views can be ascertained. Demerits of mail survey • Repondents not replying at all or not replying on time. • Exhausitve and correct list of mailing address of respondents is required. The accuracy is debatable • Additional on the spot linked/thought questions cannot be asked as in personal interview. • Not suitable when quick reply is required. • Non verbal (facial ) expressions cannot be noted.
Telephone survey Telephone is the medium through which the information from respondents is collected. A brief interview of the respondent is taken on telephone. Merits of telephone survey • • • • • Economical Quick response Busy people prefer telephonic interviews As the interviews are short, more people can be contacted in a day. The interviewer’s time and money is saved considerably.
Demerits • • • • Questionnaire has to be short and sweet. Limited information is given by respondents Non – verbal responses cannot be seen and analyzed. Difficulty in checking the authenticity of the respondent. Scaling techniques/ scales of measurement 1) Nominal scale : In this scale, numbers are only used as labels, they have no numerical sanctity. e.g To categorize male and female respondents we could say a nominal scale of 1 for male and 2 for female. Other examples could be to indicate categories of any variable which is not be given a numerical significance --Religion--- Hindu—1, Muslim--- 2, Christian – 3 etc. Education level: H.S.C Pass--- 1, Graduate ---2, P.G--- 3 etc. Languages spoken: --- English--- 1, Marathi--- 2 etc.
2) Ordinal scale: ordinal scale variables are ones, which have a meaningful order to them. e.g. : A typical marketing variable is ranks given to brands by respondents. These ranks are not interchangeable, as nominal scale labels are. This is because rank 1 is higher then rank 2 and so on. The distance between each rank is not known. Ranking simply denotes that rank 1 is higher then rank 2, rank 2 is higher then rank 3 , but by how much is unknown. 3) Interval scale (Rating scale) : Most of the behavioural measurement scales used to measure attitudes of respondents on a scale of 1 to 5 or 1 to 7 are interval scales. The difference between interval and ordinal scale variables is that the distance between 1 and 2 is the same as distance between 2 and 3 and so on. 4) Ratio scale : In a ratio type scale , there is a unique zero or beginning point. Interval scale doesnot have a unique zero. Also the ratio of two values of the scale corresponds to the same ratio among the measured values. e.g distance is a ratio scaled variable. Starting point is zero . 2 metres is to 1 metre as 2km is to 1 km. Some of the common ratio scaled variables are--- age, height, length, weight and income. Other Attitude scales 1) Likert or agreement scale : A statement or series of statements with which the respondent shows the amount of agreement/disagreement. e.g Inorbit Mall is the most attractive Mall in Mumbai Strongly disagree disagree neither agree or disagree agree strongly agree 2) Semantic differential scale: A scale connecting two bipolar words , where the respondent selects the point that represents his/her opinion.
e.g Indian Airlines Modern _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Old- fashioned Air hostesses Courteous _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Rude 3) Importance scale : A scale that rates the importance of some attribute e.g Airline food service to me is Extremely important Not very important very Important Not at all important somewhat important
4)Intention –to –buy scale : A scale that describes the respondents intention to buy. E.g If an inflight telephone service was available on along flight , I would Definitely buy Probably buy Not sure Probably not buy Definitely not buy. 5) Projective techniques a) Word association : Words are presented , one at a time and respondents mention the first word which comes to their mind e.g :-- What is the first word which comes to your mind when you hear the following : Airlines : ____________ Jet Airways:___________ Air Deccan :___________ Travel :_______________ b) Sentence completion : An incomplete sentence is presented and respondents complete the sentence . e.g When I choose my airline the most important consideration in my decision is ______________________________________. c) Story completion : An incomplete story is presented and the respondents are asked to complete it d) Picture completion : A picture of two characters is presented , eith one making a statement . Respondents are asked to identify witht the other and fill in the empty balloon.
How’s the food
e) Thematic Apperception test (TAT) : A picture or a series of pictures is/are presented and the respondents are asked to make up a story about what they think is happening or may happen in the picture.