npo].

FOPHC HABHOB KHTAHOB
PA3HO3HABAHE H
CTBHPAHE HA BHAKH
3EMH3þAT-COOHR-1987
OCR , qopua1upaue ,kounep1upaue
MesserSchmidt
gripen@abv.bg
YBO±
Orµanna ce uyncrnyname neoôxoµnmocrra or onpeµennren na ônnxnre n F¡nrapnx, xaro
ce nma npeµnnµ ronemnxr ôpoñ µnnopacrxmn pacrennx, xon-ro ce ynorpeôxnar n napoµnara n
c¡npemennara meµnnnna 750 nnµa or oxono 3300 nnµa, pacrxmn n namara crpana. T¡ñ xaro
xnnrara me ce nonsyna or xopa c pasnnuna noµroronxa n oôpasonanne, pacrennxra ne ca
noµpeµenn no cncremarnuen peµ, xaxro ca µaµenn n¡n ,unopa na F¡nrapnx" or H. Croxnon, F.
Cre]anon n F. Knranon (r.I-II, 1966-1967 r.) n n¡n ,unopa na HP F¡nrapnx" (xonexrnn), or
xoxro µocera ca nsnesnn ocem roma (1963-1982 r.).
Hpn pasµenxnero na ônnxnre na rpynn e n¡snpner eµnn npaxrnuen, xcno pasnnunm ôener
ôarpara na nneronere. Hpnern ca ceµem rpynn pacrennx, xaro n¡pnara oôxnama ônnxnre ôes
nnerone (nanparonnµnnre n ronocemennnre), nropara ônnxnre c x¡nrn nnerone, rperara
c xa]xnn nnerone nnn c¡nnernx n r. n. B resn rpynn ce nxnmunar ncnuxn pasrneµann n
nacroxmara xnnra meµnnnncxn pacrennx. Koraro nneronere na eµna ônnxa nmar pasnnunn
ôarpn, nanpnmep xoraro µaµen nnµ n eµnn cnyuan oôpasyna ôenn, n µpyr cnyuañ posonn nnn
uepnenn nnerone, roñ ce nocouna n n rpynara na pacrennxra c ôenn n n rpynara na pacrennxra c
posonn nnn uepnenn nnerone, n ro n c¡ornernnre raônnnn. Onncannero na pacrennxra oôaue ce
µana camo na eµno mxcro. Ho npaxrnuecxn c¡oôpaxennx ca n¡snpnern nxxon nonoxennx,
xonro ne c¡nnaµar c npeoônaµanamnre cera cxnamannx sa cncremarnxara na pacrennxra. Taxa
nanpnmep nanparonnµnnre pacrennx ca nocouenn xaro eµnn orµen, sanaseno e µenennero na
µnycemeµennnre pacrennx na necpacnoneneunn n cpacnoneneunn, xoero nsn¡npeµno mnoro
ynecnxna paôorara c raônnnnre sa onpeµenxne. Tesn raônnnn ca nspaôorenn c¡oôpasno c
onncannre ônnxn,no xoraro ce e nanarano, ca nsern npeµnnµ n ôenesnre na cemeñcrna, poµone n
nn-µone, xonro ne ce pasrnexµar n xnnrara, sa µa ce nsr¡xne pasnnunero nm. 3a ynecxnane n
nponepxa na onpeµenennxra ca µaµenn onncannx na ncnuxn ônnxn xaxro n nnernn nnmcrpannn.
Hanoxnrenno e oôaue, npeµn µa ce nsnonsyna xnnrara, nnrepecynamnxr ce µa ce sanosnae
µoôpe c¡c c¡ornernara repmnnonornx n c uacrnre na pacrennxra, onncann n pasµen
,Mop]onornx na pacrennxra". K¡µero e n¡smoxno, sa poµonere, xonro nmar n µpyrn nnµone
ocnen onncannx n ne ca orôenxsann n raônnnnre sa onpeµenxne, e µaµen xapaxrepen ôener nnn
ôenesn, no xonro pasrnexµannxr nnµ ce pasnnuana or ncnuxn ocranann.
(5)
Cnnc¡x¡r na pacrennxra, ynorpeôxnann n napoµnara meµnnnna, ôeme c¡cranen rnanno or µon.
x. ]. n. Hnan Acenon, sanexµam xareµpa no ]apmaxornosnx n ôorannxa npn uapmanenrnunnx
]axynrer na Meµnnnncxara axaµemnx n Co]nx. Or ronemnx ôpoñ nnµone naµ 750, ôxxa
nsôpann oxono 340, n ro rnanno raxnna, xonro ce ynorpeôxnar xaxro n c¡npemennara
meµnnnna, raxa n n napoµnara nnn n¡x ca ocoôeno nonynxpnn n napoµnara meµnnnna. Hpn
rona sacnyxana µa ce nsr¡xne, ue nourn ncnuxn nnµone pacrennx, ynorpeôxnann n
c¡npemennara meµnnnna, ce nsnonsynar n n napoµnara, n ro mnoro orµanna. Tona noxasna, ue
napoµnara meµnnnna n pesynrar na mnoronexonen onnr e ycranonnna neueônnre cnoñcrna na
ronxm ôpoñ pacrennx, xonro nocrenenno ce n¡snpnemar or c¡npemennara meµnnnna.
Hopaµn peµnna oôcroxrencrna µon. Hn. Acenon ne moxa µa nseme yuacrne n nanncnanero na
rasn xnnra. 3a nonoxennx or nero rpyµ nsxasnam moxra ônaroµapnocr.
Ocranannre pacrennx, xonro ce ynorpeôxnar n napoµnara meµnnnna, ônxa mornn enenryanno
µa ô¡µar pasrneµann n µpyra xnnra c noµoôen xapaxrep.
(6)
PAHHOHAAHO CTBHPAHE H OHA3BAHE HA BHAKHTE
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna nce noneue cn npoônna n¡r renµennnxra sa ncecrpanno nsnonsynane
na neueônnre pacrennx, xaro n peµnna cnyuan re ce npeµnounrar npeµ xnmnunnre, cnnrernunn
nexapcrna. Hapoµnara meµnnnna, xoxro y nac nce ome ne e nan¡nno npoyuena, µana nonn,
nennn µannn sa neuennero na nxxon ôonecrn, xonro ca rpyµnoneunmn c nosnarnre
nexapcrnenn cpeµcrna. ¡ocrar¡uno e µa ce cnomene npeµnoxennxr or napoµnnx neunren Hnan
Paen or c Bnnxa naunn sa nexynane na c¡nnara ôonecr c nnnen excrpaxr or xopennre na
nyµoro ônne, oômonpnero n nsnecrno cera noµ nanmenonannero ,ô¡nrapcxo neuenne" (Cura
bulgara), orxpnnanero na nnnannna, ocnonanam ce c¡mo na napoµnara meµnnnna, n mnoro
µpyrn. Ero samo n¡n nncmnre meµnnnncxn nncrnryrn or 1976 r. e n¡neµen xypc no
]nrorepannx. B Meµnnnncxara axaµemnx n Co]nx ce orxpn xnnnnxa no ]nrorepannx, a n¡n
ncnuxn oxp¡xnn ôonnnnn nma xaônnern no ]nrorepannx. Hpes 1977 r. ce yrn¡pµn nporpama sa
nsn¡nnenne na ocnonnnre nacoxn na ¡¡pxannnx c¡ner na HP F¡nrapnx sa onasnane,
xynrnnnpane n pannonanno nsnonsynane na neueônnre pacrennx y nac µo 1990 roµnna.
B pesynrar na napacnannx nnrepec x¡m ônnxnre npes nocneµnnre roµnnn pxsxo ce ynennun
xaxro ôpoxr na nsnonsynannre nnµone, raxa n xonnuecrnoro, n xoero re ce c¡ônpar sa mecrnn
nyxµn n sa nsnoc. B¡n np¡sxa c ônaronpnxrnnre exonornunn ycnonnx n namara crpana µnec
F¡nrapnx e eµnn or nañ-ronemnre nsnocnrenn na ônnxn na cneronnnx nasap n n¡pna na
enponeñcxnx. Ocnen rona namara xnmnxo-]apmanenrnuna npomnmnenocr ncxxa roµnna
ycnoxna nonn neueônn npenaparn or ônnxn, n ro ne camo sa saµononxnane na namnre nyxµn,
no n sa nsnoc.
Or ncnuxo rona crana xcno xonxo cnnno moxe µa nonnnxe rosn nnµ cronancxa µeñnocr n¡pxy
pasnpocrpanxnanero na orµennn pacrennx. C¡mecrnyna ronxma onacnocr or ynnmoxanane na
peµnna pacrennx, axo ne ce nsemar mepxn µa ce pernamenrnpa rxxnoro c¡ônpane.
Pasônpa ce, ue ycnexnre n cronancxoro nsnonsynane na ônnxnre sa mecrnn nyxµn n sa nsnoc,
cpemy xoñro ce nonyuana nenna nanyra, moxe camo µa nn paµna n rpxôna µa ce noompxna. Ho n
rona ornomenne c¡mecrnynar nxxon cnaôocrn, xonro noµxr µo n¡nno ynnmoxanane na resn
nennn pacrennx. Fnnxnre ce c¡ônpar mnoro ôesorronopno, xnmnnuecxn. Oôpasynannre
ôpnraµn or yuennnn, nencnonepn n µp. oônxnoneno oônpar nsnxno c¡ornernoro pacrenne n
µaµeno naxoµnme, xaro nañ-uecro ro orcxyônar saeµno c xopennre nnn ro nsxonanar, npeµn µa
e pasnp¡cnano cemenara cn (nyµo ônne, µnnxnxa, nrnnxa n µp.), n pesynrar na xoero cneµ
nxxonxo roµnnn pacrennero nsuesna. Ipnxnre na oprannsannnre, nponexµamn
ônnxoc¡ônpanero, ce cnexµar µo nsn¡nnennero na nnana, ôes µa ce nnrepecynar samo ce crnra
µo nsuesnanero na mnoro neueônn pacrennx. Taxana nenocpeµcrnena onacnocr sannamna
x¡nrara rnnrxna, nernncrara rnnrxna, µnnxnxara n µp., xonro n peµnna naxoµnma ca
ynnmoxenn nnn cnnno namanenn nopaµn ôesorneµnoro nsxonanane na noµsemnnre nm uacrn.
¡oôpe pasôpannre nnrepecn na crpanara, xonro nan¡nno c¡nnaµar c
(7)
nsncxnannxra sa samnra na npnpoµara, nanarar µa ce nsemar ô¡psn mepxn sa sanasnane n
ynennuanane na rona name npnpoµno ôorarcrno. Heoôxoµnmo e µa ce n¡neµe pañonnpane na
ônnxoc¡ônpanero, sa µa ce µaµe n¡smoxnocr µa ce n¡scranonxr ecrecrnennre naxoµnma, µa ce
cnasnar crporo nsncxnannxra npn c¡ônpanero na ônnxnre, a onesn or rxx, npn xonro
ecrecrnennre pesepnn ca neµocrar¡unn, µa ce xynrnnnpar n noµxoµxmn mecra. Hanpanennre
onnrn n nxxon cronancrna ca nac¡punrennn n nmar µoô¡p nxonomnuecxn e]exr.
Heoôxoµnmo e µa ce sacnnn n¡snnrarennara µeñnocr. Ha ncnuxn ônnxoc¡ônpaun rpxôna µa ce
pasxcnn snauennero na neueônnre pacrennx, xonro ca name nannonanno ôorarcrno, n
neoôxoµnmocrra or onasnanero nm. 3a rasn nen morar µa ce nsnonsynar necrnnnnre n
cnncannxra, paµnoro n renennsnxra, pasnnunn nsnoxôn, nexropnn n µp. c¡c c¡µeñcrnnero na
oprannre no samnra na npnpoµara, rypncrnuecxnre oprannsannn n µp.
Bcnuxn resn mepxn me µaµar n¡smoxnocr µa ce n¡scranonxr naxoµnmara na orµennnre ônnxn
n µa ce ocnrypn nsnonsynanero nm n ô¡µeme.
3ABPAHEHH 3A CTBHPAHE PACTEHHR
(3anoneµ NQ 761 na Inannoro ynpannenne na ropnre, nyônnxynana n¡n n. ,Hsnecrnx", ôp. 63
or 8.VIII.1961 r. n¡s ocnona na un. 3 or Vxasa sa samnra na poµnara npnpoµa)
¡¡pnera n xpacrn
1. ¡¡pnonnµna xnoñna Juniperus excelsa M. B.
2. Orponna xnoñna Juniperus sabina L.
3. Tnc Taxus baccata L.
4. Hapxsanonncren r¡xnnx Spiraea creniIolia C.A.M.
5. 3n¡nnxonncren r¡xnnx Spiraea hypericiIolia L.
6. B¡pôonncren r¡xnnx Spiraea saliciIolia L.
7. Xpacronnµen ounôonen Potentilla Iruticosa L.
8. ¡nn poxxon Cercis siliquastrum L.
9. Kaparana Caragana Irutescens DC.
10. Koncxn xecren Aesculus hippocastanum L.
11. ¡xen Ilex aquiIolium L.
12. Fnaraxneno n¡nue nnxo Daphne blagayana Freyer
13. uepneno n¡nue nnxo Daphne cneorum L.
14. Komannnono n¡nue nnxo Daphne koSaninii Stoj.
15. Hanpono n¡nue nnxo Daphne laureola L.
16. Macnnnonnµno n¡nue nnxo Daphne oleoides Schreb.
17. Paxnrnnx Hippophae rhamnoides L.
18. Annnñcxa posa Rhododendron kotschyi Simk.
19. Hnpen Erica arborea L.
20. Crpanµxancxa ôoponnnxa Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.
Tpenncrn pacrennx
21. Benepnn xoc¡m Adianthum capilus-veneris L.
22. Rxen smnxpnnx Arum dracunculus L.
23. Hnannncxn xpnn Lilium jankae Kern.
(8)
24. Poµoncxn xpnn Lilium rhodopaeum Delip.
25. ¡pxnoncxa xanµnnxa Fritillaria drenovskyi Deg. et Stoj.
26. Manxa xanµnnxa Fritillaria minor Led.
27. Crpnô¡pnnena xanµnnxa Fritillaria stribrnyi Vel.
28. Rxno nane Tulipa celsiana DC.
29. Poµoncxo nane Tulipa rhodopaea Vel.
30. Iopcxo nane Tulipa silvestris L.
31. Tpaxnñcxo nane Tulipa thracica Dav.
32. Vpymono nane Tulipa urumovii Hayek
33. Hxc¡uen xpem, µnn xpnn Pancratium maritimum L.
34. Onnnnepon mnnsyxap Crocus olivieri Gay.
35. Henepyµonneren canen Orchis papilionacea L.
36. Bnemonocen canen Orchis militaris L.
37. Xencxn uex¡n Cypripedium calceolus L.
38. Pnncxn penen Rheum rhaponticum L.
39. Fxna noµna posa Nymphaea alba L.
40. X¡nra noµna posa Nuphar luteum S.S.
41. Hnannncxn ôoxyp, nnromxo nane TrolHus europaeus L.
42. 3narna neµpnna, snarna xanµnnxa Aquilegia aurea Jka.
43. Pnncxa c¡c¡nxa Anemone vernalis L.
44. Hapnnconnµna c¡c¡nxa Anemone narcissiIlora L.
45. Iopcxa c¡c¡nxa Anemone silvestris L.
46. Poµoncxa c¡c¡nxa Anemone rhodopaea Stoj. et SteI.
47. Hnannncxn noner Clematis alpina L.
48. Kpañmopcxa menexma Matthiola Qdoratissima R. Br.
49. Foµnnno crpaônue Astragalus amacantha M.B.
50. Oônxnonen cnaµnnx Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
51. ¡¡nromnopecra remenyra Viola delphinantha Boiss.
52. ¡xnoncxn opex Trapa natans L.
53. Pnncxa nrnnxa Primula deorum
54. Craponnannncxa nrnnxa Primula Irondosa
55. Eµponnerna rnnrxna, ôescr¡ônena rnnrxna Gentiana kochiana Pers.
56. Fnarna rnnrxna Gentiana pneumonanthe L.
57. Hernncra rnnrxna (uacrnuno saôpanena) Gentiana punctata L.
58. X¡nra rnnrxna (uacrnuno saôpanena) Gentiana lutea L.
59. Cnnnnpxx Haberlea rhodopensis Friv.
60. Pamonµa Ramonda serbica Panô.
61. Mopnna Morina persica L.
62. Eµennañc Leontopodium alpinum Cass.
(9)
Mopqonornn na pac1ennn1a
Hnn1
uacrnre na eµnn n¡nen µnynonon nnxr, nsôpoenn orn¡n nan¡rpe, ca: 1) uamxa; 2) nenue; 3)
rnunnxn; 4) nnoµnnx.
uamxara ce c¡cron or senenn, manxn, cnoôoµnn nnn cpacnann nncruera, napeuenn
uamenncruera. B nxxon cnyuan rx e cnaôo pasnnra (nosa) nnn nsoômo ne ce pasnnna, xax¡nro e
cnyuaxr npn noneuero cnoxnonnernn pacrennx, x¡µero e npen¡pnara n¡n nnacnnxn n cnyxn sa
pasnpocrpanxnane na nnoµonere. Hpn cnesa, ounôonena n µp. nneronere ca c µnoñna uamxa,
xaro n¡nmnara e oôpasynana or nnµonsmenenn npnnnernnnn.
Benuero e nañ-saôenexnmara, nañ-nsn¡xnamara uacr na nnera n n oônxnonennx xnnor, xaro
ronopnm sa nnerx, nmame npeµnnµ nañ-uecro nero. Ho ]opma, oxpacxa, pasmepn n µpyrn ôenesn
n ycrpoñcrnoro cn nenuero e nsn¡npeµno pasnooôpasno n no-µoôpe pasnnro or uamxara.
Hncruerara, xonro ro oôpasynar, ce napnuar nenuenncruera.
uamxara n nenuero oôpasynar saeµno r. nap. µnoen oxononnernnx (ôoxyp). Koraro
oxononnernnx¡r e c¡cranen or eµnaxnn nomexµy cn nncruera, roñ ce napnua npocr (nane). Axo
e xpxo oôarpen n npnnnua na nenue, ce napnua nenuennµen (c¡c¡nxa). Koraro e seneno oôarpen
n npnnnua na uamxa, e uamxonnµen (xyxypxx). Hpn eµnocemeµennnre pacrennx sa npocrnx
nenuennµen oxononnernnx uecro ce ynorpeôxna nanmenonannero nepnron. Honxxora
oxononnernnx¡r nnncna (n¡pôa).
Hneronere ce napnuar cpacnoneneunn, xoraro nenuenncruerara ca cpacnann nsnxno nnn camo n
ocnonara cn. Koraro ca cnoôoµnn, nneronere ce napnuar necpacnoneneunn. Hner¡r e npannnen
(axrnnomop]en), xoraro nenuero e c¡craneno or eµnaxnn nnn pasnnunn no ]opma n pasmepn
nncruera, xonro ce peµynar raxa, ue morar µa ce npexapar nxxonxo pannnnn na cnmerpnx,
pasµenxmn ro na µne eµnaxnn nononnnxn (mnnxa, nane). Hner¡r e nenpannnen (snromop]en),
xoraro eµno nnn µne or nenuenncruerara ce pasnnuanar no ]opma n pasmepn or ocranannre.
Torana moxe µa ce npexapa camo eµna pannnna na cnmerpnx (ôoôonn, ycrnonnernn, remenyrn).
Hpn nxxon pacrennx ncnuxn nenuenncruera ca pasnnunn n ne moxe µa ce npexapa pannnna na
cnmerpnx raxnna nnerone ce napnuar acnmerpnunn (µnnxnxa).
unr.1 uacrn na nnera:
a-uamxa; ô-nenue;
n-rnunnxn; r-nnoµnnnn
(10)
unr.2 Tnnone nnerone:
a-nenpannnen(snromop]en);
ô-npannnen(axrnnomop]en)
Koraro nenuenncruerara nnn uamenncruerara ca cpacnann nomexµy cn camo oruacrn, µonnara
cpacnana uacr ce napnua rp¡ônna, a ropnnre, cnoôoµnn uacrx ce napnuar s¡ônn (µxnone) na
nenuero nnn na uamxara.
Cnopeµ ]opmara nenuero moxe µa ô¡µe: rp¡ôecro, xoraro nsnxno nnn n no-ronxmara cn uacr
no µ¡nxnna e cpacnano n rp¡ônna, nanpnmep cpeµnnre nnerone n cn¡nuorneµonara nnra;
esnuecro, xoraro nma µonna rp¡ôecra uacr n ropna, xoxro npnnnua na µ¡nra rxcna nnacrnnxa,
pasnepena na eµna crpana (rnyxapue); sn¡nuennµno, xoraro nma ]opma na uama nnn sn¡nue
(npacxono-nncrna xamôanxa); µennonnµno, xoraro rp¡ônnara µony e nsµyra, a x¡m n¡pxa
crecnena n cneµ rona nax cnaôo pasmnpena n nanoµoôxna µenna nnn r¡pne (nyµo ônne);
]ynnennµno, xoraro rp¡ônnara nocrenenno ce pasmnpxna orµony narope n nañ-rope moxe µa
ce pasnepn xopnsonranno (ônxn); µncxonnµno, xoraro µonnara my uacr e nnnnnµpnuna, a
ropnara e pasnepena xopnsonranno; n rosn cnyuañ ropnara uacr ce napnua µncx nesanncnmo or
rona, µann e nxna nnn nspxsana, a ornop¡r na rp¡ônnara ce osnauana xaro r¡pno nnn ycrne
(xapro]); µnyycrno, xoraro n µonnara cn uacr e rp¡ôecro, a n ropnara e pasµeneno na µne ycrnn
(ropna n µonna), oôpasynann or nen¡nnoro cpacrnane na rpn nnn µne nncruera (nnuar 3 nnn 2
s¡ôuera). Hspes¡r mexµy µne ycrnn e no-µ¡nôox, orxonxoro mexµy ocranannre µxnone.
Xapaxrepno e sa ycr-nonnernnre pacrennx. uamxara c¡mo moxe µa ô¡µe µnyycrna. Hpn nxxon
pacrennx nma mnopa. Tona e yµ¡nxen xaro rp¡ônna nnn noµyrnna xpañ na uacrn or
oxononnernnxa (pannna). Tepmnn¡r nerypxa npn nenuenncruerara ce ynorpeôxna sa
pasmnpenara nm uacr, a crecnenara nm µonna uacr ce napnua nox¡r (sµpanen).
Tnunnxnre ce c¡croxr or µp¡xxa, oônxnoneno r¡nxa, nnnnnµpnuna, n or npamnnx,
pasnonoxen na n¡pxa ñ. Axo nnncna µp¡xxa, npamnnx¡r e npn-
unr.3 Bnµone nenuera:
a-rp¡ôecro; ô-esnuecro; n-sn¡nuennµno; r-µennonnµno; µ-]ynnennµno; e-µncxonnµno; x-µnyycrno
(11)
unr.4 Tnunnxa:
a-rnunnxona µp¡xxa; ô-npamnnx;
n-mxcro na cn¡psnane na npamnnxa c µp¡xxara
unr.5 Hnoµnnx:
a-xñunnx ô- cr¡nôue n-ônnsanne
ceµnan. B nxxon cnyuan rnunnxnre ca ôes npamnnnn n ca xaro nnmxn. Te ce napnuar
cramnnoµnn. Tnunnxnre morar µa ô¡µar cnoôoµnn nnn cpacnann no mexµy cn. Koraro ca
cpacnann n eµno cnonue (rp¡ônna), ce napnuar eµno ôparcrnenn (pyxa), a xoraro ca cpacnann n
µne cnonuera µnyôparcrnenn xax¡nro e cnyuaxr c nxxon ôoôonn pacrennx, npn xonro 9-re
rnunnxn ca cpacnann c µp¡xxnre cn n rp¡ônna, a µecerara e cnoôoµna.
Tnnnunnxr nnoµnnx ce c¡cron or 3 uacrn: µonna pasmnpena uacr, napeuena xñunnx, n xoñro ce
namnpar eµna nnn nxxonxo npasnnnn (rnesµa). B rxx ca pasnonoxenn cemen¡nxnre, or xonro
me ce oôpasynar nnocneµcrnne cemenara. Haµ xñunnxa ce oueprana crecnena nnnnnµpnuna
uacr cr¡nôue, san¡pmnamo c pasmnpena uacr ônnsanne. Koraro cr¡nôuero nnncna, ônn-
sannero ce napnua npnceµnano (n¡pxy xñunnxa).
Honoxennero na xñunnxa no ornomenne na ocranannre nnernn uacrn moxe µa ô¡µe pasnnuno
n sanncn or ]opmara na nnernoro nerno, xoero e naµeôenennxr n uecro pasmnpen xpañ na
nnernara µp¡xxa. Ha nero ca npnxpenenn nnernnre uacrn. To moxe µa ô¡µe nnocxo,
nsn¡xnano, nµn¡ônaro n r. n. Axo nnernoro nerno e nsn¡xnano, xñunnx¡r ce namnpa naµ
mxcroro na npnxpennanero na oxononnernnxa n rnunnxnre n e cxpnr n¡n nenuero. Tax¡n
xñunnx ce napnua ropen (max, nane). Iopen e xñunnx¡r n rorana, xoraro nnernoro nerno ce
nµn¡ôna n nonyuana nnouecra nnn µennonnµna ]opma, xaro rnunnxnre, nenuenncruerara n
uamenncruerara ca pasnonoxenn no neronnx p¡ô (xroµa, mnnxa, cnnna). Hpn ropnnx xñunnx
nnernoro nerno ne cpacrna c¡c crennre na xñunnxa. Axo cnnno nµn¡ônaroro nnerno nerno
cpacrna c¡c crennre na xñunnxa raxa, ue rnunnxnre, nenuenncruerara n uamenncruerara ce
namnpar na n¡pxa my, roñ ce napnua µonen (xoxnue, xpyma). ×ñunnx¡r ce nnxµa noµ uamxara
n nenuero. Hpn nonyµonnnx xñunnx µonnara my nononnna ce cpacrna c¡c crennre na nnernoro
nerno, a ropnara my uacr ocrana cnoôoµna cpema ce pxµxo (ô¡s, xamenonomxn, nox¡r).
Hneronere ca µnynononn (xepma]poµnrnn), xoraro nmar µoôpe pasnnrn rnunnxn n nnoµnnnn.
Te ca eµnonononn, xoraro c¡µ¡pxar camo rnunnxn (m¡xxn nnerone) nnn camo nnoµnnnn
(xencxn nnerone). Crepnnnn (ôesnnoµnn) ca, xoraro n rxx nnncnar rnunnxn n nnoµnnnn.
Pacrennx c eµnonononn nnerone, xonro ce namnpar na eµnn n c¡mn exsemnnxp, ce napnuar
eµnoµom-
unr.3 Honoxenne na
xñnnxa cnpxmo
µpyrnre nnernn uacrn:
a-ropen xñunnx;
ô,n-nonyµonen
r-µonen xñunnx;
(12)

unr. 7. Tnnone ctnnernx:
a rposµ; ô xnac; n xouan; r cennnx; d rnannuxa; e- xomnnuxa;x mnrue; s cnoxen cennnx; n
mernnna
nn (µ¡ô, napennna). Axo eµnonononnre nnerone ce namnpar na pasnnunn exsemnnxpn, re ce
napnuar µnyµomnn (xonon).
Cpannnrenno pxµxo nneronere ca eµnnnunn (nane). Oônxnoneno re ca c¡ôpann na rpynn n ca
pasnonoxenn n¡pxy pasxnonennxra na cr¡ônoro. Taxnna rpynn nnerone ce napnuar ctnnernx.
Te ca np¡xnn, axo ca pasnonoxenn na n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro nnn no n¡pxonere na xnonxnre, n
nasnenn, axo ce namnpar n nasnnre na nxxoñ cr¡ônen nncr. Hoµ crp¡x ce pasônpa ncxxa
ôesnncrna nnerna µp¡xxa, nsnnsama nanpano or xopennmero nnn nsmexµy npnocnon-nnre
nncra na pacrennero (nrnnxa, rnyxapue).
Pasnnuaname rnanno cneµnnre rnnone c¡nnernx:
Knac nnn xnaconnµno c¡nnerne nneronere ca npnceµnann no µ¡nxnnara na eµna npocra
pasxnonena oc (noneuero nnµone xnnonnex). Knac¡r e cnoxen, xoraro no ocra nmecro nnerone
nma xnacone (mnoro xnrnn).
Peca xnacue c mexa, ynncnana oc, c¡craneno or eµnonononn nnerone n onaµnamo cneµ
npen¡]rxnanero saeµno c ocra (m¡xxnre c¡nnernx npn necxa-ra).
Iposµ nnn rposµonnµno c¡nnerne nneronere ca pasnonoxenn n¡pxy µp¡xxa no µ¡nxnnara
na eµna npocra nepasxnonena oc (momnna c¡nsa).
Mernnna rposµ, na xoñro crpannunnre xnonxn ca pasxnonenn nxxonxo n¡rn (onec).
Bnr nnernnre µp¡xxn nsnnsar or pasnn rouxn na cr¡ônoro, no san¡pmnar na eµna nnocxocr
(rnor, uepema).
Cennnx rnannara oc e cx¡cena n nopaµn rona orµennnre nnernn µp¡xxn nsnnsar or eµna
rouxa n nmar npnônnsnrenno eµnaxna nncounna (nrnnxa, cem. Cennnxonnernn). Cennnx¡r e
npocr, xoraro ncxxa xnonxa (n¡u) nocn no eµnn nnxr, n cnoxen, xoraro ncexn n¡u san¡pmna c
no-µpeôno cennnxo-nnµno c¡nnerne.
Inannuxa ornnuana ce or cennnxa no rona, ue nneronere ca ôes µp¡xxa nnn nourn ôes
µp¡xxa, pasnonoxenn ca n¡pxy cnaôo pasmnpenara np¡xna uacr na ocra na c¡nnernero n ne ca
oônnrn (µerennna).
Komnnuxa nneronere ca npnceµnann n¡pxy pasmnpenara oc na c¡nne-
(13)
rnero (oômo nnerno nerno).Komnnuxara e oôxnanara or ronxm ôpoñ cônnxenn n namanenn
ropnn nncra ,oôpasynamn nnerna oônnnxa(cem. Cnoxnonnernn). Hnnernoro nerno na orµennnx
nnxr ne rpxôna µa ce cmecna c oômoro.
Hnoµ
Cnopeµ naunna na oôpasynanero nm ce pasnnuanar: npocrn nnoµone, oôpasynann or eµnn
nnoµnnx, xoñro e eµnncrnen n nnera; côopnn (cnoxnn) nnoµone, oôpasynar ce, xoraro na
nnernoro nerno nma nxxonxo camocroxrennn nnoµnnxa, ncexn or xonro ce npenp¡ma n nnoµ
(ôoxyp, nmrnue, mannna); n¡xnnnn nnoµone, n oôpasynanero na xonro nsnmar yuacrne ne camo
nnoµnnx¡r, no n µpyrn uacrn, nañ-uecro paspacnanoro ce nnerno nerno (xô¡nxa, xpyma);
c¡nnoµnx, oôpasynann or c¡nnernx, n xonro nneronere ca mnoro r¡cro pasnonoxenn.
Bcneµcrnne na rona n nnoµonere ce cpacrnar n onaµar saeµno (cmoxnnx, uepnnna). Cnopeµ
ycrpoñcrnoro cn npocrnre nnoµone ônnar cyxn n counn. Cyxnre nnoµone ca:
Kyrnñxa nnoµ c¡c cyxn crenn, xonro cneµ yspxnanero my ce pasnyxnar. Tona crana no
pasnnuen naunn: upes pasnyxnane na menonere (nane, remenyra), upes s¡ônn na ropnnx xpañ
(xapam]nnn), upes µynunnn (max, xamôanxa), upes xanaue (ornnnue) n µp.
unr. 8. Hnoµone:
a côopna xocrnnxa; 6 côopna mexynxa; n ôoô; r mymynxa; µ mymynunna; e xyrnñxa, ornapxma ce
no menonere;x µnoñna cemxa; s xyrnñxa c xanaue; n xyrnñxa c ornopn: x nnoµ na noner; n nnoµna
noµôen; m nnoµna rnyxapue; n Hnoµ na ôpxcr; o nnoµ na ôpesa; n nnoµ na raô¡p; p ctnnoµne na
nnna
(14)
Foô nañ-uecro cyx eµnornesµen, oônxnoneno mnorocemenen nnoµ, oôpasynan or eµnn
nnoµonncr. Pasnyxna ce no µnara mena. uopmara my e mnoro pasnooôpasna. Xapaxrepen e sa
noneuero ôoôonn pacrennx (canx¡m, ]acyn.
Bymynxa n mymynunna oôpasynann ca or µna nnoµonncra, mexµy xonro nma nnnecra
n¡xnnna nperpaµa, no xoxro ca npnxpenenn cemenara. Bymynxara e uernpn n¡rn no-µ¡nra,
orxonxoro mnpoxa, a mymynunnara e ne no-µ¡nra nnn nañ-mnoro rpn n¡rn no-µ¡nra,
orxonxoro mnpoxa. Xapaxrepnn ca sa xp¡cronnernnre pacrennx.
Opex (opexue) cyx eµnocemenen nepasnyxnnn nnoµ c rn¡pµa, µeôena uecro nµ¡pnenxna
oônnnxa; ne ce ornapx n c¡µ¡pxa camo eµno ceme (nnna, µ¡ô, necxa). Hpn rpananonncrnnre n
ycrnonnernnre nma cnoxen opex nnoµ¡r ce pasnaµa na 4 opexuera.
3¡pno eµnocemenen nnoµ c nnnecra nnoµna oônnnxa, cpacnana nn¡r-no c¡c cemero, xoero e
eµno. ×ñunnx¡r e ropen. Xapaxrepen e sa xnrnnre pacrennx.
Kpnnarxa opexue c¡c cyx xoxecr nnn nnnecr nnoc¡x npnµar¡x, nanpnmep npn ôpxcra, xcena
n µp. Hpn xnopnre ce naônmµana µnoñna xpnnarxa.
Cemxa oxononnoµnnx¡r e xoxecr, no ne cpacrna c¡c cemero, xoero e eµno. Tosn nnoµ e
xapaxrepen rnanno sa cnoxnonnernnre pacrennx, xaro uecro e cnaôµen c xn¡punnxa. Hpn
cennnxonnernnre nma µnoñna cemxa, xoxro npn yspxnanero oônxnoneno ce pasnaµa na µne
nononnnxn (cemxn).
Counnre nnoµone ca:
×roµa c r¡nxa n¡nmna oônnnxa n mexa couna n¡rpemnocr, n xoxro ce namnpar cemenara
(ôoponnnxn).
Kocrnnxon nnoµ oônnnxara my ce c¡cron or rpn cnox: n¡nmen nnnecr, cpeµen mececr
n n¡rpemen nµ¡pnenxn n rn¡pµ (xocrnnxa). Cpema ce npn µxanxonnx nnoµ n µp.
Kocrnnxonnxr nnoµ moxe µa nma eµno nnn noneue cemena.
C¡mecrnynar n mnoro µpyrn nnoµone, xonro nmar no-orpannueno pasnpocrpanenne.
Hpn nanparonnµnnre pacrennx ne ce oôpasynar nnerone, nnoµone n cemena. Hpn rxx
pasmnoxananero crana c eµnoxner¡unn oôpasynannx cnopn, sarnopenn n cnoponocnn
xyrnñxn, napeuenn cnopanrnn. Hpn c¡mnncxnre nanparn cnopanrnnre ca c¡ôpann na rpynn
(copn) or µonnara crpana na nncra n uecro ca noxpnrn c nmcnnnn c pasnnuna ]opma r. nap.
noxpnnano (nnµysnñ). Hpn nxxon pacrennx (xnomone n µp.) cnopanrnnre ca c¡ôpann n
xnacuera, pasnonoxenn na n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro.
AHCT
Hncr¡r ce c¡cron or nerypa (oônxnoneno nnocxa) n nncrna µp¡xxa (c nex ce npnxpenna x¡m
cr¡ônoro), xoxro uecro n ocnonara cn ce pasmnpxna n oôpasyna r. nap. nnarannme, nmamo
nonxxora ]opma na µ¡nra rp¡ônna (xnrnn pacrennx). Koraro ce ronopn sa ]opma n pasmepn na
eµnn nncr, oônxnoneno ce pasônpa camo nerypara my. Hpn mnoro pacrennx orcrpann na
nncrnara µp¡xxa ce oôpasynar npnnncrnnnn. Hañ-uecro re ca µna n nmar pasnnuna ]opma n
xoncncrennnx.
Cnopeµ ôpox na nerypnre, pasnonoxenn na eµna µp¡xxa, nncrara ônnar: npocrn (xoraro
nerypara e camo eµna) n cnoxnn (nerypnre ca noneue).
Cnoxnnre nncra ca: rpoñnn, xoraro nncruerara ca rpn (µerennna); µna-
(15)
unr. 9. Hncr n uacrnre my:
a nerypa; ô µp¡xxa; n npnnncrnnnn
nonnµnn, xoraro ca noneue, no ncnuxn ca npnxpenenn paµnanno x¡m n¡pxa na µp¡xxara
(xoncxn xecren); nepecrn, xoraro orµennnre nncruera ca pasnonoxenn eµno cneµ µpyro or
µnere crpann na oômara µp¡xxa. Hepecrnre nncra ca rexonepecrn, axo nncrnara µp¡xxa
san¡pmna c eµno nncrue (mnnxn) n un]ronepecrn, axo san¡pmna c µne nncruera (]nñ).
Hepecrnre nncra morar µa ô¡µar npocro, µnoñno, rpoñno nepecrn n r. n. Hpocro nepecr e
nncr¡r, xoraro orcrpann na rnannara my µp¡xxa ca pasnonoxenn orµennn nenn nncruera;
µnoñno nepecr e, xoraro orcrpann na rnannara my µp¡xxa ca pasnonoxenn nepecrn nncruera, n
r. n.
Cnopeµ oômnre oueprannx na nerypara npocrnre nncra, xaxro n nncruerara na cnoxnnre nncra
morar µa ô¡µar: nrnonnµnn, xoraro ca ocrpn, recnn n xopann, nanoµoôxnamn nrna (cm¡pu,
xnoñna); nnneñnn, xoraro ca noneue or 5 n¡rn no-µ¡nrn, orxonxoro mnpoxn (xnrnn pacrennx);
nannernn, xoraro ca 3-4 n¡rn no-µ¡nrn, orxonxoro mnpoxn, xaro nañ-mnpoxara nm uacr e n
µonnara nm nononnna (ôxna n¡pôa); npoµ¡nronarn, xoraro ca xaro nannernn-re, no nañ-
mnpoxara nm uacr ce namnpa n cpeµara (nrnue rposµe); oôparno nannernn, xoraro nañ-
mnpoxara nm uacr ce namnpa n ropnara nm nononnna (npones); xp¡rnn, xoraro nmar ]opma,
noµoôna na xp¡r (xpyma); ennnrnunn, xoraro ca eµnaxno mnpoxn x¡m ocnonara n x¡m n¡pxa, a
µ¡nxnnara nm e 2 n¡rn no-ronxma or mnpnnara (s¡pnacren); xñnennµnn, xoraro nerypara n
ocnonara cn e no-mnpoxa or n¡pxa, a µ¡nxnnara ñ e 2 n¡rn no-ronxma or mnpnnara
(ôoponnnxn); oôparno xñnennµnn, xoraro nañ-mnpoxara uacr ce na-
unr. 10. Cnoxnn nncra:
a rexonepecr; 9 un]ronepecr; n µnoñno nepecr; r rpoen; µ µnanennµen
(16)
unr. 11. Hpocrn nncra:
a nrnonnµen; ônnneen; e npoµ¡nronar; r nanneren; µ oôparno nanneren; e onanen nnn ennnrnuen;
x xñnennµen; s oôparno xñnennµen; n nonaronnµen; x pomônuen; n c¡pnennµen; m
ô¡ôpexonnµen; n crpenonnµen; o xonnennµen
mnpa x¡m n¡pxa (cmpaµnnxa); pomônunn, xoraro nanoµoôxnar pomô (uepna ronona);
nonaronnµnn, xoraro npnnnuar na nonara, xaro nañ-mnpoxara nm uacr, xoxro e r¡no
saxp¡rnena, ce namnpa na n¡pxa na nerypara, a cneµ rona nsneµn¡x ce crecnxna n cnnno
yµ¡nxena µonna uacr (napnuxa); c¡pnennµno onannn, xoraro ca saocrpenn na n¡pxa, nmar
c¡pnennµna ocnona n saxp¡rnenn µxnone (nmnxx); ô¡ôpexonnµnn, xoraro na n¡pxa ca
saxp¡rnenn, no-mnpoxn, orxonxoro µ¡nrn n n ocnonara cn ca nnnrxo n mnpoxo nspxsann
(xonnrnnx) n µp.
Hpexoµnnre ]opmn mexµy nocouennre ocnonnn rnnone nncra ce osnauanar, xaro ce
xomônnnpar c¡ornernnre nanmenonannx, nanpnmep nnneñno-nannernnxr nncr e recen n µ¡n¡r,
no ne e c ycnopeµnn p¡ôone, no-mnpox e n µonnara cn uacr n e saocrpen na n¡pxa.
Cnopeµ p¡ôa na nncrara n na nncruerara ce pasnnuanar: nenoxpañnn nncra, xoraro p¡ô¡r e
nxn, ôes s¡ôuera (nmnxx); nannnenn, xoraro s¡ôuerara ca npannnnn n saocrpenn,
nanoµoôxnamn rpnon (ôpxcr); nas¡ôenn, xoraro p¡ô¡r nm e nspxsan na manxn µenuera,
nanoµoôxnamn s¡ôuera (raô¡p); n¡n-nonnµnn, xoraro nspesnre ca mnpoxn, nepannn, c¡c
saxp¡rnenn nsµarnnn n nµn¡ônarn uacrn (noµôen); napxsann (pasceuenn), xoraro ca µ¡nôoxo
nspxsann, no nspesnre µocrnrar µox¡m cpeµara na nononnnara or nerypara. Or cnox crpana
napxsannre nncra ônnar: µnanecro napxsann, xoraro nspesnre ca paµnannn no nocoxa na
rouxara, x¡µero nerypara e sanonena sa nncrnara µp¡xxa (xnen, xnop); nepecro napxsann,
xoraro nspesnre ca no nocoxa na cpeµnara xnnxa (µ¡ô). Hma c¡mo pasµenenn nncra, npn xonro
nspesnre µocrnrar nourn µo cpeµara, no uacrnre na nerypara, napeuenn cermenrn nnn nncrnn
µxnone, ca cn¡psann n ocnonara cn. Te c¡mo ônnar µnanennµno pasµenenn (xnop) n nepecro
pasµenenn (cnaµxa nanpar). Axo np¡xnnxr
(17)
unr. 12. Bnµone nncra cnopeµ p¡ôa na nerypara:
a- nenoxpaen; ô nannnen; n nas¡ôen; r n¡nnonnµen; ñ µnanennµno napxsan; e nepecro napxsan; x
µnanennµno pasµenen; n nepecro pasµenen; n nnponnµen µxn e no-ronxm or crpannunnre, rorana nncr¡r e
nnponnµen (rnyxapue).
Cnopeµ ]opmara n ocnonara cn nncrara ônnar: c¡pnennµnn, ô¡ôpexo-nnµnn (nx. npn ]opma na
nerypara); crpenonnµnn, xoraro µonnnre xpanma na nerypara, napeuenn ymn, ca saocrpenn n
nacouenn naµony (xncenen); xonnennµnn, xoraro ymnre ca pasnepenn ncrpann (nonernna);
xnnnonnµnn, xoraro nncrara nocrenenno ce crecnxnar x¡m µp¡xxara (uynen); r¡nn,
saxp¡rnenn n µp.
Hncrara ca npnceµnann, xoraro nnncna µp¡xxa n nerypara ce npnxpenna nenocpeµcrneno sa
cr¡ônoro. Axo npnceµnanara ocnona na nerypara nma ymn, xonro ce pasnonarar or µnere
crpann na cr¡ônoro, ce xasna, ue nncr¡r oôxnama cr¡ônoro. Hncrara ce napnuar nnsôernamn,
xoraro ocnonara na nerypara nm npoµ¡nxana naµony no cr¡ônoro n¡n nnµ na nsn¡xnann peôpa,
napeuenn xpnna (rnnrep, nonen), a cr¡ônara ce napnuar c¡ornerno xpnnarn.
Cnopeµ pasnonoxennero na xnnxnre (nepnarypara) pasnnuaname cneµnnre nncra: c eµna
xnnxa no cpeµara ôes crpannunn pasxnonennx (cm¡pu, nasapxnnx, entonue); c ycnopeµno
xnnxynane nmar no nxxonxo xnnxn, ycnopeµnn nomexµy cn n c p¡ôa na nncrara (xnrnn
pacrennx); c µ¡ronnµno xnnxynane xnnxnre ca µ¡ronnµno nsnnrn n ce c¡ônpar x¡m n¡pxa
na nncra (uemepnxa). Hocneµnnre µna rnna xnnxynane ca xapaxrepnn sa eµnocemeµen-nnre
pacrennx n ne ce cpemar npn µ¡pnerara n xpacrnre. Hpn mpexecroro (nepecro) xnnxynane n
cpeµara na nncrara nma µoôpe pasnnra xnnxa (rnanna nnn cpeµna), or xoxro nsnnsar
crpannunn (nropnunn), unnro
(18)
unr. 13. Xnnxynane:
a- ycnopeµno; ô µ¡ronnµno; n µnanennµno; r nepecro;
pasxnonennx ce cn¡psnar n mpexa (ôyx, µ¡ô). ¡nanennµno e xnnxynanero, xoraro or ocnonara
na nerypara nsnnsar nxxonxo cnnno nspasenn xnnxn n crnrar µo nncrnnre µxnone (xnop, nosa).
Tesn µna rnna xnnxynane ca xapaxrepnn sa µnycemeµennnre pacrennx.
Mxcroro, x¡µero ca npnxpenenn nncrara sa cr¡ônoro, ce napnua n¡sen, a pascroxnnero mexµy
µna n¡sena mexµyn¡snne. Axo na ncexn n¡sen ce namnpa camo no eµnn nncr,
nncropasnonoxennero e cnnpanno nnn nocneµonarenno (n¡pôa, ôyx). Hpn cpemynonoxnoro
nncropasnonoxenne na ncexn n¡sen nma no µna nncra eµnn cpemy µpyr (ycrnonnernn). Axo na
n¡sen nma no noneue or µna nncra, nncropasnonoxennero e npemnenecro (entonue, nasap-
xnnx). Hncrara ca npnocnonnn, xoraro nsnnsar or ocnonara na cr¡ônoro, n cr¡ônenn, xoraro ca
pasnonoxenn no cr¡ônoro. Axo npnocnonnnre nncra ca pasnonoxenn n eµnn xp¡r n ocnonara
na cr¡ônoro n ca cnnno cônnxenn, ce napnuar poserxonn (napnuxa, nrnnxa).
Hmcnn ca neµopasnnrnre npnceµnann nncra, xonro ce cpemar no xopennmara n cr¡ônara
(nanpnmep no nneronocnnre cr¡ôna na noµôena) n µp. Karo npnnnernnnn ce osnauanar nañ-
ônnsxnre µo nneronere nncra, axo re ce ornnuanar or cr¡ônennre no pasmepn, ]opma, oxpacxa,
pasnonoxenne. Te ca oônxnoneno no-µpeônn n npnceµnann. Koraro npnnnernnnnre ca mnoro
µpeônn n nnnecrn, ce napnuar npnnnernn nmcnn (npn cnoxnonnernnre). Oônnnnn nncra ca
nañ-ropnnre nncra, pasnonoxenn npn ocnonara na nneronocnnre xnonxn. Ho pasmepn, ]opma n
pasnonoxenne re ca npexoµ or cr¡ônenn nncra x¡m c¡mnncxn npnnnernnnn. Koraro nxxonxo
npnnnernn nncra ca c¡ôpann n¡n nnµ na npemnen nnn oôrp¡mar ocnonara na c¡nnernero
(cennnx nnn xomnnuxa), nanpnmep npn cennnxonnernnre, cnoxnonnernnre n µp., re oôpasynar
nnerna oônnnxa. Hpnnnernnre nncra na xnrnnre pacrennx, ocrpnnnre n µp., xonro ca r¡nxn n
xopann, ce napnuar nnenn.
(19)
CTTBAO
Cnopeµ xoncncrennnxra cn cr¡ônara ce µenxr na rpenncrn n µ¡pnennc-rn. Cnopeµ rpañnocrra
cn rpenncrnre pacrennx ca eµnoroµnmnn, µnyroµnmnn n mnororoµnmnn.
Eµnoroµnmnnre pacrennx san¡pmnar n¡nnoro cn pasnnrne (or ceme µo ceme) sa no-manxo or
eµna xanenµapna roµnna. Cneµ yspxnanero na cemero pacrennero ymnpa. Eµnn or
eµnoroµnmnnre sanounar pasnnrnero cn npes ecenra n ro san¡pmnar npes cneµnamnx
nererannonen ceson (onuapcxa ropônuxa), a µpyrn ce pasnnnar camo no npeme na eµnn
nererannonen ceson. -¡nyroµnmnnre pacrennx xnnexr ne noneue or µna nererannonnn cesona
npes n¡pnara roµnna pasnnnar nererarnnnn oprann n narpynnar pesepnnn xpann, a npes
nropara n¡]rxr, µanar ceme n ymnpar (nonen, mopxon). Mnororoµnmnnre rpenncrn pacrennx
ce xapaxrepnsnpar c rona, ue naµsemnara nm uacr ymnpa ncxxa roµnna, no noµsemnnre nm
oprann ce sanasnar (rpocxor).
¡¡pnenncrnre pacrennx ca mnororoµnmnn. Txxnoro cr¡ôno e nµ¡pnenxno. Pasnnuaname
µ¡pnera, xpacrn n nonyxpacrn. ¡¡pnerara nmar rnanno cr¡ôno (crnon), pasxnonxnamo ce na
snaunrenna nncounna (cm¡pu, ôyx). Xpacrnre nxmar rnanno cr¡ôno nnn ro e cnaôo pasnnro,
xaro pasxnonennxra sanounar nourn or semnara non¡pxnocr (necxa, xnoñna). Ha nncounna re
ne naµnnmanar 5-8 m. Koraro ca no-nncxn or 1 m, ce osnauanar xaro xpacruera (ôoponnnxn,
meuo rposµe). Hpn nonyxpacrnre nµ¡pnenxnar camo µonnnre uacrn na cr¡ônoro, xonro ca
mnororoµnmnn. Bp¡xnnre nm uacrn ca rpenncrn n ymnpar ncxxa snma (rp¡morp¡n).
Cnopeµ nonoxennero cn cr¡ônara ônnar: nsnpanenn, xoraro pacrar neprnxanno narope (npn
noneuero pacrennx); npnnonµnrnarn, na xonro ocnonnara uacr nexn na semxra, a np¡xnara nm
uacr ce nsµnra narope (mamepxa); nonynernann, xoraro nexar na semxra no nxnara cn µ¡nxnna
(naua rpena); n¡nsxmn, xoraro ca nonynernann, no na n¡snnre oôpasynar xopenn, c xonro ce
saxpennar sa nounara (xroµa); ynnnnn, xoraro ce nsµnrar upes ynnnane oxono µpyrn pacrennx
(nonernna); ry]ecrn, xoraro or ocnonara nsnnsar mnoroôpoñnn x¡cn n r¡cro pasnonoxenn
cr¡ôna (xapr¡n).
Bnµonsmenenn noµsemnn cr¡ôna ca: xopennme nanoµoôxna xopen (c n¡nxn n nmcnn) n
moxe µa ô¡µe r¡nxo n µ¡nro (nnpeñ) nnn x¡co n µeôeno (nepynnxa); rpyµxa x¡co, µeôeno n
mececro (xapro]); nyxonnna x¡co, saxp¡rneno, c¡craneno or xepemnµooôpasno napeµenn
mececrn nmcnn (nerpon xp¡cr) nnn or nmcnn, xonro orn¡n ca nn¡rno oônnrn c nnnecrn nmcnn
(nyx).
Hsµ¡nxnre ca mnaµn cr¡ôna, oôpasynann oônxnoneno or noµsemnara uacr na pacrennero. Te ca
n¡nsxmn, xoraro pacrar xopnsonranno naµ n noµ semxra (naµsemnn n noµsemnn).
KOPEH
Xapaxrepen ôener sa xopena e nnncara na nncra n n¡nxn. Ho rona roñ ce ornnuana or
noµsemnnre cr¡ôna xopennma, rpyµxn n nyxonnnn. Ho xopena nxma n¡snn n mexµyn¡snnx,
xonro ca xapaxrepnn sa ncnuxn naµsemnn cr¡ôna. Cnopeµ ]opmara my pasnnuaname:
nnmxonnµen xopen r¡n¡x, cnaôo pasxnonen (ouanxa); rpyµxonnµen naµeôenen xaro
rpyµxa (x¡nrypue); nperenonnµen naµeôenen, xaro cnnsa neprnxanno naµony n nocrenenno
ns-
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r¡nxna (mopxon); penonnµen naµeôenen n nsµyr xaro pxna (ôanµapan); ôpaµar
npeµcrannxna cnonue or nourn eµnaxno pasnnrn nnmxonnµnn xopenuera (nmennna).
BTOPHHHH OBPA3YBAHHR B PACTEHHRTA
Hpn onpeµenxnero na pacrennxra snauenne nmar nxxon or nropnunnre mm oôpasynannx, xaro
ôoµnnre, mnnonere, rp¡nnre, mycrauxnre n pasnnunnre nnµone nnacnnxn.
Foµnnre ca neµopasnnrn np¡xnn xnonxn, nanpnmep npn rp¡nxara, rnora, xpymara.
Bnnonere ca ennµepmannn oôpasynannx, nopaµn xoero npn narncxane c p¡xa necno ce
orx¡prnar (mnnxn).
Tp¡nnre, xonro npn peµnna pacrennx (nanamnµa, marapemxn ôoµnn) ce cpemar no xpax na
nncrara, ca xpanma na nncrnnre xnnxn.,
Ha npaxrnxa ôoµnnre, mnnonere n rp¡nnre uecro ce cmecnar n ce ynorpeôxnar xaro cnnonnmn.
Mycrauxnre (pasxnonenn nnn nepasxnonenn) ca nnmxonnµnn oôpasy-nannx, upes xonro
pacrennxra ce ynnnar oxono µpyrn pacrennx n ce nsµnrar. Hponsxoµ¡r nm e pasnnuen
nnµonsmenenn xnonxn (nosa), nnµonsmenenn nncra (rnxna), nnµonsmenenn npnnncrnnnn
(cxpnnxa).
Bnacnnxnre ca ennµepmannn oôpasynannx n ca nañ-pasnooôpasnn no ]opma npocrn nnn
pasxnonenn, nepecrn nnn snesµonnµnn n µp.
Cnopeµ nnµa na nnacnnxnre pacrnrennnre oprann, na xonro ce namnpar, ce oôosnauanar xaro:
pecnnuecrn, xoraro nnacnnxnre ca npann n x¡cn; nnaxnecrn (xocmarn), xoraro nnacnnxnre ca
r¡crn n µ¡nrn; nyxecrn, xoraro ca noxpnrn c x¡cn n r¡nxn, eµna saôenxsnamn ce c npocro oxo
nnacnnxn; n¡nnec-rn, xoraro nnacnnxnre ca µ¡nrn, pasô¡pxann, nanoµoôxnamn n¡nna; nann¡c-
renn, xoraro n¡nnara oôpasyna na non¡pxnocrra r¡cr, nn¡ren nnacr; xnesnc-ro nnaxnecrn,
xoraro nnacnnxnre san¡pmnar c xnesncra rnannuxa; xonpnnecro nnaxnecrn, xoraro nnacnnxnre
ca r¡nxn, µ¡nrn, npnnernann n n¡cxann, nanoµoôxnamn xonpnna; uernnecrn, xoraro
nnacnnxnre ca rn¡pµn n npann; snesµonnµnn, xoraro nxxonxo pasxnonennx ca pasnonoxenn na
n¡pxa na x¡ca nnacnnxa; ôpamnecrn, xoraro nnacnnxnre ca mnoro x¡cn, ôenn, noµoônn na
ôpamno n necno ce nsrpnnar c p¡xa.
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PABOTA C TABAHHHTE HPH OHPE±EARHE HA BHAKHTE
¡a ce onpeµenn eµno pacrenne snaun µa ce ycranonn nayunoro my nanmenonanne. 3a rasn nen
ce nsnonsynar r. nap. µnxoromnunn raônnnn, npn xonro ce c¡nocranxr npornnononoxnn
ôenesn na c¡ornernn pacrennx, osnauenn c eµnaxnn nocneµonarennn nn]pn, nropara or xonro e
c¡c snesµnuxa. Hapnuar ce resa n anrnresa. Paôoremnxr c raônnnnre rpxôna µa npenenn no
ôenesnre x¡µe ce ornacx pacrennero, xoero onpeµenx x¡m resara nnn anrnresara Cneµ ncxxa
resa n anrnresa ca µaµenn nn]pn, noxasnamn no-narar¡mnnx xoµ nnn nanmenonannero na
c¡ornernoro pacrenne.
3a ycnemnoro onpeµenxne na pacrennero e neoôxoµnmo npeµnapnrenno µa ce sanosnaem c
ôorannuecxara repmnnonornx, µaµena n npeµxoµnnx pasµen,a cneµ rona nnnmarenno n rouno µa
naônmµaname. Hpn cnasnane na resn ycnonnx cneµ nexonxoxparnn ynpaxnennx c raônnnnre n
rexnnxara na onpeµenxne nce-xn moxe necno µa namepn nmero na pasrnexµanoro or nero
pacrenne. Onpeµe-nxnero ce ynecnxna n or npnnoxennre nnmcrpannn. Heoôxoµnma e n nyna
Onpeµenxnero na eµna nenosnara ônnxa rpxôna µa sanoune or raônnnara sa onpeµenxne na
orµennnre nncmn pacrennx (crp. 23). Axo pacrennero e nan-paronnµno nnn ronocemenno,
nsnonsyname pasµena ,Fnnxn ôes nnerone" (crp. 24), xoñro oôxnama resn µna orµena. Tyx ca
nocouenn raônnnnre sa onpeµenxne na nanparonnµnnre n ronocemennnre pacrennx, upes xonro
ycra-nonxname nanmenonannero na c¡ornernoro pacrenne, cneµ xoero ca µaµenn onncannxra na
resn nnµone.
Axo pasrnexµanoro pacrenne e or orµen Hoxpnrocemennn pacrennx, nsnonsyname raônnnara sa
onpeµenxne na ronemnre µxnone na noxpnrocemen-nnre pacrennx (crp. 31) n ycranonxname
µann e eµnocemeµenno, µnycemeµen-no, cpacnoneneuno nnn necpacnoneneuno. Tona me nn
ynecnn npn no-nara-r¡mnara paôora.
B sanncnmocr or ôarpara na nnera (nenuero) x¡nra, ôxna, uepnena n µp., ce nsnonsyna
c¡ornernnxr pasµen, xaro nancxx¡µe nañ-nanpeµ ce µana raônnnara sa onpeµenxne na
µnycemeµennnre necpacnoneneunn pacrennx, nocne na µnycemeµennnre cpacnoneneunn n
naxpax na eµnocemeµennnre. Ha-npnmep ncxame µa onpeµennm µpxn, xoñro e c x¡nrn nnerone.
B c¡ornernara raônnna (crp. 32) npounrame resa 1 n anrnresa 1* xoxro nocouna, ue pacre-
nnero e c xopenn n nounara n nn nacouna x¡m resa 2. ¡pxn¡r e µ¡pno n sarona nsnonsyname
resa 2, na xpax na xoxro e nocranena nn]para 3. Tx nn nacouna x¡m resa 3 n anrnresa 3*, xonro
npounrame. ¡pxn¡r nma npocrn nncra, cne-µonarenno ce cnnpame na resa 3, xoxro nn
npenpama x¡m resa 4 n anrnresa 4* ¡pxn¡r nma nnerone c uamxa n nenue, sarona nsnonsyname
anrnresa 4*. Tx nn npenpama x¡m resa 5 n anrnresa 5". ¡pxn¡r nma cpemynonoxnn nncra,
saro-na npounrame resa 5, cneµ xoxro e µaµeno n nanmenonannero my.
B nxxon cnyuan n raônnnara ce crnra µo µaµeno cemeñcrno nnn poµ n rorana onpeµenxnero na
pacrennero npoµ¡nxana npn c¡ornernnx poµ nnn ce-meñcrno. Cneµ ncxxo onpeµenenne rpxôna
mnoro nnnmarenno µa ce nponepn µann pacrennero orronapx rouno na onncannero. Tona ce
nanara, samoro pe-µnna poµone nmar noneue nnµone or pasrneµannre n nacroxmara xnnra.
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Hancxx¡µe n xnnrara ca µaµenn n ô¡nrapcxnre nanmenonannx na nnµonere, poµonere n
cemeñcrnara. Eµna uacr or rxx ca napoµnn, µpyrn ca npnern or pasnnunn anropn. Hourn
nancxx¡µe namnxr napoµ napnua nnµonere pacrennx c eµna µyma, nanpnmep µ¡ô, xnop, no na
mnoro mecra n xnnrara cme n¡snpnenn nanmenonannx or µne µymn c¡mecrnnrenno n
npnnararenno, xoero nañ-uecro ne e napoµno, nanpnmep cenepno nsrpannnue. Cneµ ô¡nrap-
cxoro e µaµeno n narnncxoro nanmenonanne na nnµa, xoero c¡mo e or µne µymn. Cneµ nero e
nocraneno c¡xparenoro nme na ôorannxa, xoñro np¡n e orxpnn n onncan rona pacrenne,
nanpnmep L. osnauana nmero na mneµcxnx ôorannx Hnneñ. Tona ca anropcxn nmena n ne ce
nponsnacxr, xoraro ce xasna nanmenonannero na pacrennero.
TABAHHA 3A OHPE±EARHE HA OT±EAHTE BHCmH PACTEHHR
1. Tpenncrn pacrennx, pasmnoxanamn ce c¡c cnopn.............
.............Orµen Hanparonnµnn pacrennx Pteridophvta.
1*. ¡¡pnera, xpacrn n rpenncrn pacrennx, pasmnoxanamn ce c¡c cemena .
.............................................2.
2. ¡¡pnera n xpacrn c neunosenenn (namn npeµcrannrenn) nrnonnµnn nnn nmcnecrn nncra.
Hneronere ôes oxononnernnx nnn xñunnx, xaro cemen¡nxnre ca pasnonoxenn na orxpnro
n¡pxy nmcnn, eµnnnunn nnn oôpasynamn mnmapxn, xonro npn cemenara nµ¡pnenxnar nnn
cranar mececrn, x¡nôecrn, cnnxann nnn uepnenn ...............................
............... Orµen Ionocemennn pacrennx Pinophvta.
2*. ¡¡pnera, xpacrn n rpenncrn pacrennx. Hneronere c npocr nnn µnoen oxononnernnx (pxµxo
ôes nero), c µoôpe pasnnrn rnunnxn n xñunnx, n xoñro
ca pasnonoxenn cemen¡nxnre.............................
......... Orµen Hoxpnrocemennn pacrennx MagnoUophvta.
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BHAKH BE3 HBETOBE
(Hanpa1onnµnn n Ionoceuennn pac1ennn)
TABAHHA 3A OHPE±EARHE HA BHAKHTE OT OT±EA HAHPATOBH±HH
PACTEHHR - P1ERIDOPHY1A
1. Cr¡ônoro nauneneno, c¡craneno or nn¡rnn n¡snn n xyxn mexµyn¡snnx.Hncrara
neµopasnnrn, c ]opma na s¡ônn n cpacnann n npemnenonnµnn nnarannma.Cnoponocnnre
xnacuera na n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro n pasxnonennxra my...........................................2
1*. Cr¡ônoro nenauneneno na n¡snn n mexµyn¡snnx n c µoôpe pasnnrn nncra. Cnopanrnnre
pasnonoxenn no µonnara non¡pxnocr na nncrara, n nasnnre na nncrara nnn n¡n np¡xnn
xnacuera (rorana cr¡ônara ca nnnyxno pasxnonenn) .......................................3
2. Cnoponocnoro, nponernoro cr¡ôno xa]xno, ôesxnopo]nnno, npocro, na n¡pxa c¡c
cnoponocno xnacue. Hxrnoro cr¡ôno seneno, pasxnoneno, ôesnnoµno ............... Honcxn xnom
Equisetum arvense L.
2*. Cnoponocnoro cr¡ôno seneno, noµoôno na nxrnoro, ôesnnoµno .... ..................... Fnaren
xnom EquisetumpalustreL.
3. Pacrennx ôes naµsemno cr¡ôno. Hncrara nsnnsar or xopennmero. Cnopanrnnre pasnonoxenn
no µonnara non¡pxnocr na nncrara..........4
3*. Pacrennx c µoôpe pasnnrn, r¡nxn, nnnyxno pasxnonenn cr¡ôna c mnoroôpoñnn µpeônn
nncruera. Cnopanrnnre pasnonoxenn n nasnnre na nncrara no cpeµara na cr¡ônoro nnn n¡n
np¡xnn xnacuera...............11
4. Hncrara nenn, nepecro napxsann nnn nnnyxno pasµnoenn. Hncrnnre µxnone n ocnonara
c¡eµnnenn nomexµy cn....................5
4*. Hncrara eµnn nnn noneue n¡rn nepecrn.................7
5. Hncrara nenn, ronn, noµoônn na esnx....................
................ Boncxn esnx Phvllitis scolopendrium (L.) New.
5*. Hncrara nepecro napxsann nnn nenpannnno nnnyxno pasxnonenn . . 6
6. Hncrara orµony r¡cro noxpnrn c p¡xµnnn nnacnnxn...........
................ 3narncrananpar Ceterach officinarum DC.
6*. Hncrara nan¡nno ronn............................
....... Cenepnonsrpannnue Asplenium septentrionale (L.) Hoffm.
7. Hncrara npocro nepecrn ..........................8
7*. Hncrara µna nnn noneue n¡rn nepecrn..................9
8. Hncrnnre µxnone µpeônn, saxp¡rnenn. Cnopanrnnre (copnre) nnneñno yµ¡nxenn . . .
Oônxnoneno nsrpannnue Asplenium trichomanesL.
8*. Hncrnnre µxnone c¡pnonnµno nsnnrn, no-eµpn. Cnopnre xp¡rnn .... Hanannue
Polvstichum lonchitis (L.) Roth.
9. Copnre pasnonoxenn noµ noµônrnx nncren p¡ô..............
.............. Opnona nanpar Pteridiurnaquilinum(L.)Kuhn.
9*. Copnre pasnonoxenn no crpannunnre xnnxn na nncrara......10
10. Copnre ô¡ôpexonnµnn............................
............... M¡xxa nanpar Aspidiumfilix-mas(L.)Schott.
10*. Copnre µn¡rnecrn nnn nnneñnn......................
.............. Xencxa nanpar Aihvriumfllix-femina (L.) Roth.
11. Cnopanrnnre pasnonoxenn n nasnnre na oônxnonennre nncra no cpeµara na cr¡ônoro.
Pacrenne ôes xnacuera......................
................. Hrnonncren nnayn Lvcopodium selago L.
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11*. Cnoponocnnre nncra c¡ôpann n xnacuera no n¡pxonere na xnonxnre . ................
Fyxanuecr nnayn Lvcopodium clavatum L.
CEM. HAAYHOBH LYCOPODIACEAE
Hrnonnc1en nnayn Lvcopodium selago L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c n¡nsxmo, nnnyxno pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, c nsnpanenn
pasxnonennx, nncoxn µo 30 cm, r¡cro oônncrenn. Hncraxa nnneñnn µo nannernn, pasnonoxenn
cnnpanno, saocrpenn, oônxnoneno ne-noxpañnn, pxµxo cnaôo nas¡ôenn, xopann, µ¡nrn 4-8 mm,
npnnoxpnnamn ce. Cnopanrnnre ô¡ôpexonnµnn, pasnonoxenn n nasnnre na cpeµnnre cr¡ônenn
.ncra (raôno 1, ]nr. 1).
Ho cxannn n xamennnnn mecra n mexµy cxannn ônoxone n¡n nncoxonnannncxnx noxc na
Cpeµna n 3anaµna Crapa nnannna, Bnroma, Hnpnn, Pnna n Cnanxnxa, mexµy 1500 n 2800 m n,
n. Cnoponocn mnn cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Byxanuec1 nnayn Lvcopodium clavatum L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c n¡nsxmo no semxra cr¡ôno, µ¡nro µo 1 m, r¡nxo, nnnyxno
pasxnoneno. Or nero nsnnsar neprnxanno nsnpanenn, c¡mo µnxoromnuno pasxnonenn xnonxn.
Hncrara manxn, µ¡nra 3-5 mm, nnneñnn, mnnonnµnn, san¡pmnamn c ôxna nnacnnxa, µ¡nra 2-3
mm, r¡cro cnnpanno pasnonoxenn n¡pxy cr¡ônoro n xnonxnre. Cnopo-nocnnre xnacuera ca no
1-3, nnneñno-nnnnnµpnunn, µ¡nrn 3-6 mm, np¡xnn, c r¡nxa n µ¡nra µp¡xxa (1,5-15 cm), no
xoxro ce namnpar peµynnpa-nn n napxµxo pasnonoxenn x¡nrennxann nas¡ôenn n pasnepenn
nncruerara. Hncruerara na xnacuero ca mnpoxo xñnennµnn, nas¡ôenn, saocrpenn 1 n ocnonara
nm ce namnpa no eµnn ô¡ôpexonnµen cnopanrnñ (raôno 1, ]nr.2).
Pacre no xamennnnn n cxannn mecra, mexµy xnoñnonn xpacranann n n cm¡puonn ropn n Cpeµna
n 3anaµna Crapa nnannna, Bnroma, Pnna, 3anaµnn Poµonn n Hnpnn, mexµy 1600 n 2200 m n. n.
Cnoponocn mnn cenremnpn.
B meµnnnnara ce ynorpeôxnar cnopnre (µpora Lycopodium) n naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba
Lycopodii).
CEM. XBOmOBH - EQUISETACEAE
Honcxn xnom Equisetum arvense L.
Mnororoµnmno pacrenne c uepno-xa]xno xopennme, noxpnro c nnacnn-xn. Or nero nanponer
ce pasnnnar xyxn nepasxnonenn npemnenecrn xa]xnn cr¡ôna, nncoxn µo 30 cm, na n¡pxa c¡c
cnoponocno xnacue, µ¡nro 1-4 cm. Cneµ pasceñnanero na cnopnre rona cr¡ôno ymnpa n ce
pasnnnar nernn, senenn, ôesnnoµnn, xyxn, np¡crenonnµno pasxnonenn cr¡ôna, nncoxn 10-80
cm, c no 4 peôpa, n¡n n¡snnre c nnarannme, µ¡nro µo 2 cm, c mnnonnµno saocrpenn s¡ônn (6-12
na ôpoñ) (raôno 1, ]nr. 3).
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Bnpoxo pasnpocrpanen e n nxnara crpana no nnaxnn mecra, opnsnma, nnnn n nnnaµn, no
nacnnn xpañ pexnre, no-pxµxo n ropn µox¡m 1600 m n. n. Cnoponocn ]enpyapn mañ.
B meµnnnnara ce nsnonsynar senennre nernn cr¡ôna, xonro ce c¡ônpar or mnn µo oxromnpn
(µpora Herba Equisetii minoris). Hma mnoro ronxma ynorpeôa n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac ce cpemar 7 nnµa xnom, or xonro camo µna oôpasynar senenn ôesnnoµnn cr¡ôna
noncxnxr xnom n ronemnxr xnom (E. telmateia Ehrh.). Hpn ronemnx xnom oôaue nncrnnre
nnarannma no nernnre cr¡ôna ca c no 20-30 s¡ôena n xnonxnre ca c no 8 peôpa, a cr¡ônoro e
nncoxo or 50 µo 200 cm.
Bna1en xnom Equisetum palustre L.
Mnororoµnmno pacrenne, oôpasynamo camo eµnn nnµ cr¡ôna, seneno, nncoxo µo 60 cm,
oônxnoneno c 6-10 xcno nsn¡xnann peôpa, cnnno pasxnoneno, xaro xnonxnre ca c no 5 peôpa.
Cnoponocnoro xnacue ce namnpa na n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro, uepno, r¡no, µ¡nro 1-3 cm. Hncrnnre
nnarannma ]ynnennµnn, µ¡nrn µo 12 mm, n ropnara cn uacr manxo pasmnpenn, c 6-10 s¡ôena n
c ôxn nnnecr p¡ô (raôno 1, ]nr. 4).
Cpema ce uecro no nnaxnn n mouypnnnn nnnaµn, xpañ pexn n ônara n nxnara crpana µox¡m
1500 m n. n. Cnoponocn mañ cenremnpn. Hsnonsyna ce mnpoxo n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. OPAOBOHAHPATOBH - HYPOLEP1DIACEAE
Opnona nanpa1 Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn.
Mnororoµnmno pacrenne c eµpn nncra, µ¡nrn 40-400 cm, 2-3 n¡rn nepecrn, xoxecrn, na µ¡nra
µp¡xxa, panna na nerypara nnn no-µ¡nra, ronn nnn n ocnonara cn nnaxnecrn. Kopennmero
µ¡nro, n¡nsxmo. Hncrnnre µxnone r¡nn nnn saocrpenn, cpemynonoxnn, nannernn, µonnnre na
x¡ca µp¡xxa, ropnnre npnceµnann, cn¡psann n ocnonara cn, nenoxpañnn. Copnre xa]xnn,
ôpaµannuecrn (raôno 2, ]nr. 1).
Bnpoxo pasnpocrpanena e n nxnara crpana or mopcxoro pannnme µo nncoxonnannncxnx noxc,
ocoôeno no ceunma, noxapnma, nonxnn n ropn. Cnoponocn mnn cenremnpn.
B napoµnara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar xopennmero n nncrara, xonro ce c¡ônpar npes nxroro.
CEM. H3TPABHHHEBH - ASPLENIACEAE
Oõnxnoneno ns1pannnue Asplenium trichomanes L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co n¡nsxmo ry]ecro xopennme, noxpnro c xa]xnn
nmcnn n nnacnnxn, or xoero nanpano nsnnsar µpeônnre npesnmynamn nncra, µ¡nrn 4-20 cm. Te
ca npocro nepecrn, c no 15-40 nncrnn µenuera or ncxxa crpana, µ¡nrn 0,25-1,2 cm, c x¡ca
µp¡xunna nnn npnceµnann, pasnonoxenn nocneµonarenno nnn cpemynonoxno, xñnennµnn,
npoµ¡n-
(26)
ronarn µo nonyxp¡rnn, orrope ronn, orµony x¡connaxnecrn. Hncrnara µp¡x-xa n nncrnara oc
xa]xnn µo uepnennxanouepnn. Copnre npoµ¡nronarn, pasnonoxenn or cpeµnara xnnxa µo
nncrnnx p¡ô (raôno 2, ]nr. 2).
Pasnpocrpaneno e mnpoxo n nxna F¡nrapnx µox¡m 1700 m n. n. no nnaxnn, cenuecrn,
xamennnnn repenn n cxannn nyxnarnnn. Cnoponocn mnn oxromnpn.
B meµnnnnara ce nsnonsyna naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Trichomanis), xoxro ce c¡ônpa npes
nxroro.
Cenepno ns1pannnue Asplenium septentrionale (L.) Hoffm.
¡peôno mnororoµnmno pacrenne c x¡co, nnnyxno pasxnoneno xopenn-me, noxpnro c xa]xnn
nnneñnn nmcnn. Hncrara µ¡nrn 515 cm, npesnmynamn, ronn, c µp¡xxa 2-3 n¡rn no-µ¡nra or
nerypara, µnxoromnuno pasµenena na 2-4 nnneñnn µxna (1 mm mnpoxn), xonro x¡m ocnonara cn
ca xnnnonnµno crecnenn, x¡m ropnara cn uacr saocrpenn, nenoxpañnn nnn x¡co nnnyxno ns-
pxsann. Copnre nnneñnn, npn yspxnanero noxpnnar nxnara µonna crpana c nenoxpañno
noxpnnano (raôno 2, ]nr. 3).
Hs nyxnarnnn na cxann n nxna F¡nrapnx µo nncoxonnannncxnx noxc. Cnoponocn mnn
oxromnpn. Haµsemnara uacr ce nsnonsyna n napoµnara meµnnnna.
3na1nc1a nanpa1 Ceterach officinarum DC.
Mnororoµnmno pacrenne c x¡co xopennme, or xoero nsnnsa cnonue npe-snmynamn xoxecrn
nncra, µ¡nrn 5-25 cm, µ¡nôoxo nepecro napxsann na 9-20 nocneµonarenno pasnonoxenn,
npoµ¡nronarn µo nonyxp¡rnn, nenoxpañnn nnn cnaôo n¡nnncrn µxnone, orrope ronn, senenn,
orµony noxpnrn r¡cro c p¡xµnnn nnaxna, noµ xonro ca cxpnrn copnre. Hncrnara µp¡xxa no-
x¡ca or nerypara, oônxnoneno x¡m ocnonara uepno-xa]xna (raôno 2, ]nr. 4).
Pasnpocrpanena e n nxna F¡nrapnx µox¡m 1500 m n. n. rnanno n nyxnarnnn na naponnrn cxann,
xaro npeoônaµana n no-mxnnre uacrn na crpanara. Cnoponocn mañ oxromnpn.
B napoµnara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna naµsemnara uacr, xoxro ce c¡ônpa npes nxroro.
Boncxn esnx Phvllitis scolopendriurn (L.) New.
Mnororoµnmna nanpar c x¡co xopennme, or xoero nsnnsar cpannnrenno eµpn, 10-60 cm µ¡nrn
xoxecrn nncra, ronn, npesnmynamn, c mnpoxo nnneñna µo nnneñno-nannerna nerypa, mnpoxa
5-7 cm, nenoxpañna nnn cnaôo n¡nno-nnµna, c¡c c¡pnennµna ocnona. ¡p¡xxara x¡ca. Copnre
nnneñnn, µ¡nrn, napeµenn or µnere crpann na cpeµnara xnnxa, xoco cnpxmo nex n ycnopeµnn
nomexµy cn, µ¡nrn 8-18 mm (raôno 3, ]nr. 1).
Ho nnaxnn cenuecrn cxanncrn mecra rnanno n mnpoxonncrnn ropn, nañ-uecro n µ¡ôonnx noxc
µox¡m 1400 m n. n. Cnoponocn mnn anrycr.
Ho-pano pacrennero ce e npnnarano n o]nnnannara meµnnnna, a cera camo n napoµnara.
Hsnonsyna ce nxnara naµsemna uacr, xoxro ce c¡ônpa npes nxroro.
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CEM. ÆEHCKOHAHPATOBH ATHYRIACEAE
Æencxa nanpa1 Athvrium filix-femina (L.) Roth.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co, µeôeno, xoco pasnonoxeno xopennme, noxpnro c
xa]xnn nmcnn. Hncrara cpannnrenno nexnn, eµpn, µ¡nrn µo 150 cm, cnernosenenn, µnoñno µo
rpoñno nepecrn, n oômoro cn ouepranne npoµ¡nronarn, x¡m ocnonara n n¡pxa nocrenenno
crecnenn. Hncrnnre µxnone µ¡nrn 3-25 cm, nnneñno-nannernn, a µenuerara npoµ¡nronarn,
•µpo nann-nenn, µ¡nrn 3-20 mm. Copnre xñnennµnn µo ô¡ôpexonnµnn, c neonaµnamo
noxpnnano (raôno 3, ]nr. 2).
Cpemace cpannnrenno uecro no nnaxnn, cenuecrn n ropncrn mecra, Inanno n no -nncoxnre
nnannnn, x¡µero µocrnra µox¡m 2 000 m n.n. Cnoponocn mnn cenremnpn. Kopennmero ce
nsnonsyna n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. MTÆKOHAHPATOBH - ASP1DIACEAE
Msaxa nanpa1 Aspidium filix,-mas (L.) Schott.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µeôeno, x¡co xa]xno xopennme, r¡cro noxpnro c ocranxn
or nncrnn µp¡xxn, or n¡pxa na xoero nsnnsa cnonue eµpn nncra, µ¡nrn µo 150 cm n mnpoxn µo
25 cm. Hncrnara µp¡xxa e 2-4 n¡rn no-x¡ca or nerypara, µeôena µo 5 mm, noxpnra, xaxro n
ocra na nerypara, c mnoroôpoñnn xa]xnn nmcnn. Herypara e npoµ¡nronaro nannerna µo
ennnrnuno-nannerna, x¡m n¡pxa nocrenenno crecnena, n no-ronxmara cn uacr nan¡nno
nepecra, c nepecro pasµenenn µxnone, xonro or cnox crpana ca nepecro pasceuenn, xaro
µenuerara nm ca cn¡psann n ocnonara cn n ca r¡no nas¡ôenn. Ha n¡pxa cn nncr¡r e nepecro
pasceuen. Copnre ô¡ôpexonnµnn, pasnonoxenn or µnere crpann na cpeµnara xnnxa.
Hoxpnnanara ca ronn, ô¡ôpexonnµnn, neonaµnnnn (raôno 3, ]nr. 3).
Cpema ce uecro no cenuecrn nnaxnn mecra ns ropn n xpacranann n nxnara crpana, xaro n
nnannnnre crnra µox¡m 1800 m n. n. Cnoponocn mnn cenremnpn.
B meµnnnnara ce nsnonsyna xopennmero (µpora Rhizoma Filicis-maris), xoero ce nsnaxµa npes
mapr nnn npes cenremnpn oxromnpn. Hsnonsyna ce mnpoxo n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hanannue Polvstichum lonchitis (L.) Roth.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co µeôeno xopennme, or xoero nsnnsa cnonue xoxecrn
npesnmynamn nncra, µ¡nrn 10-60 cm, npocro nepecrn, c µ¡nra µp¡xxa (6-7 cm), noxpnra, xaxro
n µonnara uacr na nncrnara oc, c p¡xµnnn nmcnn. B oômoro cn ouepranne nncrnara nerypa e
nannerna, x¡m µnara cn xpax crecnena. Hncrnnre µxnone 15-50 na ôpoñ, µonnnre x¡co
rpn¡r¡nnn, ocranannre mnpoxo nannernn, c¡pnonnµno nsnnrn nanpeµ, n ocnonara cn or
ropnara crpana c no-manxo nnn no-ronxmo ocrpo ymenne, mnnonnµno nannneno, c no 2-3
nnnyxnn xnnxn. Copnre pasnonoxenn n µna peµa or µnere crpann na cpeµnara xnnxa, no camo
n ropnnre nncrnn µxnone. Hoxpnnanoro nnnecro, nas¡ôeno, mnronnµno (raôno 3, ]nr. 4).
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Ho cenuecrn cxanncrn mecra n ropn n¡n ncnuxn namn nnannnn mexµy 900 n 2400 m n. n.,
npeµnmno na cnnnxaren repen. Cnoponocn mnn cenremnpn. Ornapara or nncra ce
ynorpeôxna n napoµnara meµnnnna.
TABAHHA 3A OHPE±EARHE HA BHAKHTE OT OT±EA IOAOCEMEHHH
PACTEHHR - PIAOPHY1A
1. Xpacruera c naunenenn cr¡ôna n xnonxn, xonro ca cpemynonoxnn nnn c¡ôpann no 3-4 n
npemnen. Hncrara no 2-4, neµopasnnrn n cpacnann n ocno-nara cn n n¡n nnµ na nnarannmnn
nmcnnnn. 3pennre cemena c mececra uepne-na oônnnxa................... E]eµpa Ephedra
distachva L.
1*. ¡¡pnera n xpacrn c nenaunenenn xnonn n c µoôpe pasnnrn nrnonnµnn nncra. Hnoµonere
µ¡pnenncrn (mnmapxn) nnn mececrn, cnnn nnn uepnenn . . .................................................2
2. ¡¡pno. Hncrara nrnonnµnn, pasnonoxenn no xnonxnre n cnonuera no 2. µ¡nrn 3-4 cm.
Hnoµ¡r mnmapxa...... Fxn ôop Pinus svlvestris L.
2*. Xpacrn. Hncrara nrnonnµnn, x¡cn, µ¡nrn 1,0-2,0 cm, pasnonoxenn n npemnenn no 3.
Hnoµ¡r mececr...........................3
3. Hnoµ¡r uepnen .... uepnena xnoñna Juniperus oxvcedrus L.
3*. Hnoµ¡r cnn..................................4
4. Xpacr c neprnxanno nnn nourn neprnxanno nsµnramn ce rnannn xnonn
n cr¡ôna. Hrnnre saocrpenn, ôoµnnnn, npann, µ¡nrn µo 2,0 cm .........
............... Oônxnonena xnoñna Juniperus communis L.
4*. Honernann nnn pasnpocrpenn xpacrn c orµennn nsµnramn ce xnonn.
Hrnnre mexn, µ¡ronnµno nsnnrn, µ¡nrn µo 1,5 cm..................
................ Cnônpcxa xnoñna Juniperus sibirica Burgs.
CEM. BOPOBH PINACEAE
Bnn õop Pinus svlvestris L.
¡¡pno c uepnennxanoxa]xna xopa, nncoxo µo 40 m. Hncrara nrnonnµnn, onaµar cneµ 2-3
roµnnn, oônxnoneno µ¡ronnµno nsnnrn, no 2 n cnonuera. Bnmapxnre nañ-uecro n rpynn no 1-
3,c¡c cnaôo nsnnra naµony µp¡xxa, ro nn, µn¡rnecro xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 3-6 cm, mnpoxn 2,0-3,5
cm. Bnmapxonnre nmcnn pomônunn, nsn¡xnann, ôes uepno np¡crenue oxono n¡nuero (raôno 4,
]nr. 1).
Oôpasyna ronemn uncrn nacaxµennx nnn n npnmec c µpyrn nrnonncrnn nourn n¡n ncnuxn
namn nnannnn µo 2200 m n. n.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar ôoponnre n¡nxn (Turiones Pini), namnpamn ce no
n¡pxonere na xnonxnre, xonro ce c¡ônpar pano nanponer npeµn pasnyxnanero nm. Hsnonsyna
ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
(29)
CEM. KHHAPHCOBH CUPRESSACEAE
Oõnxnonena xnonna Juniperus communis L.
Xpacr, mnoro pxµxo nncxo µp¡nue, c uepnennxanoxa]xnn neropacnn n cn-no-xa]xna xopa.
Hncrara nrnonnµnn, n npepes rpn¡r¡nnn, c xneôonnµna ropna crpana n ôenesnnxana cpeµna
nnnnx, µ¡nrn µo 2,0 cm, mnpoxn µo 1,0-1,5 mm, pasnonoxenn no 3 n nocneµonarennn
npemnenn, na n¡pxa saocrpenn. Mececrnre ,nnoµuera" nourn npnceµnann, cnnxanouepnn, n
µnamer¡p 6-9 mm (raôno 4, ]nr. 4).
Eµnnnuno nnn rpynono no cyxnre n xamennnnn cxnonone, cxann, xpacranann n xaro noµnec n
mnpoxonncrnn n nrnonncrnn nacaxµennx µox¡m 1500-1700 m n.n. He ce cpema n pannnnnre.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar mececrnre ,nnoµuera" (Fructus Juniperi), xonro ce
ôepar npes ecenra (cenremnpn noemnpn). Hma mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
Cnõnpcxa xnonna Juniperus sibirica Burgs.
Xpacrue, nncoxo µo 1 m. Hrnnre r¡cro pasnonoxenn, x¡cn, oônxnoneno n¡sr¡nn, cpannnrenno
mexn, neôoµnnnn. Hnoµuerara n µnamer¡p 7-8 mm, uepno-cnnn (raôno 4, ]nr. 3).
Bnpoxo pasnpocrpanena e no nncoxnre nnannnn Crapa nnannna, Bnroma, Pnna, Hnpnn naµ
1700 m n. n., x¡µero uecro noxpnna ronemn nnomn. Vnorpeôxna ce n meµnnnnara xaxro
oônxnonenara xnoñna.
Hepnena xnonna Juniperus oxvcedrus L.
Xpacr, pxµxo manxo µp¡nue, nncoxo µo 14 m, c pasnepena xopona. Hrnnre µ¡nrn µo 2,5 cm,
mnpoxn µo 2 mm, cnnno ôoµnnnn, orrope xneôonnµnn, c µne ôenesnnxann recnn nnnnn or
µnere crpann na cpeµnara xnnxa, orµony n¡cxano senenn, c nsn¡xnan cpeµen p¡ô.
,Hnoµuerara" nourn npnceµnann, x¡nôecrn nnn cnaôo cnnecxann, n µnamer¡p 6-10 mm,
uepneno-xa]xnn, n¡cxann, oônxnoneno ôes nanen (raôno 4, ]nr. 2).
¡ocra pasnpocrpanen nnµ n mxnnre, no-ronnn uacrn na crpanara. Cpema ce noeµnnnuno nnn
oôpasyna xpacranann rnanno no cyxnre n npnneunn npeµnnannncxn cxnonone na Hsrounn n
Cpeµnn Poµonn, no mxnnre cxnonone na Crapa nnannna, n Crpymcxara µonnna, no
uepnomopcxoro xpañôpexne n µp. µox¡m 1000 m n. n. ,Hnoµuerara" na uepnenara xnoñna ce
nsnonsynar n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. EmE±POBH EPHEDRACEAE
Eqeµpa Ephedra distachva L.
Cnnno pasxnoneno, npemnenecro nauneneno xpacrue, nncoxo µo 50 cm, c¡c senenn
]orocnnresnpamn, nsnpanenn nnn nonernann xnonxn. Hncrara neµopasnnrn, µpeônn,
ôesnnernn nmcnnnn, µ¡nrn µo 2 mm. Pasmnoxnrennnre oprann eµnonononn. M¡xxnre ce
c¡croxr or rnunnxn, oônnrn c µne nnnecrn,
(30)
cpacnann n ocnonara cn nncruera, a xencxnre ca no 1-3 no n¡pxonere na xnonxnre, c no 2-4
µnoñxn noxpnnnn nncruera, xonro npn yspxnanero cranar mececrn, counn, uepnennxann (raôno
4, ]nr. 5).
Cpema ce cpannnrenno pxµxo ns cxanncrn n nec¡unnnn mecra no uepnomopcxoro xpañôpexne,
xpañ ¡ennx n Añroc, n Crpanµxa, 3anaµna Crapa nnannna (Fenorpaµunmxo,
Mnxañnonrpaµcxo), Co]nñcxo (c. ¡onnn Haca-pen), Poµonnre (Acenonrpaµcxo).
B meµnnnnara ce nsnonsynar crp¡xonere (µpora Herba Ephedrae), xonro ce ôepar no npeme na
n¡]rexa.
TABAHHA 3A OHPE±EARHE HA IOAEMHTE ±RAOBE
HA OT±EA HOKPHTOCEMEHHH (HBETHH) PACTEHHR -
MAGNOLIOPHYTA
1.Oxononnernnx¡r npocr, uamxonnµen nnn nenuennµen, c¡cranen or 6 eµnaxno oôarpenn
nncruera, nnn oxononnernnx¡r nnncna, nnn n¡n nnµ na nmcnnnn....... Eµnocemeµennn
pacrennx Monocotvledonae
1*. Oxononnernnx¡r µnoen, c¡cranen or uamxa n nenue, nnn npocr c µpyr ôpoñ nncruera........
¡nycemeµennn pacrennx Dicotvledonae
2. uamxara n nenuero, pecn. npocrnxr oxononnernnx, c¡cranenn or cno-oµnn, necpacnann
nomexµy cn nncruera, mnoro pxµxo cpacnann µo nsnecrna crenen....... Hecpacnoneneunn
pacrennx Archichlamvdeae.
2*. uamxara n nenuero, pecn. npocrnxr oxononnernnx, c¡cranenn or cpac-
nann nomexµy cn nncruera..............................
.............. Cpacnoneneunn pacrennx Metachlamvdeae
(31)
BHAKH C ÆTATH HBETOBE
±BYCEME±EAHH PACTEHHR
HECPACAOBEHEHHH PACTEHHR
1. Hapasnrno xpacrue, npnxpeneno n¡pxy xnonxnre na µpyrn µ¡pnera . . ....
...................... Fxn nmen - Jiscum allbum L.
1*. Pacrennx c xopenn n nounara........................2
2. ¡¡pnera nnn xpacrn.............................3
2*. Tpenncrn pacrennx, pxµxo nonyxpacrn..................8
3. Hncrara npocrn nenoxpañnn, nas¡ôenn nnn nspxsann no nañ-pasnnuen
naunn......................................4
3*. Hncrara cnoxnn, c¡cranenn or no nxxonxo nnn mnoro nncruera c eµna oôma µp¡xxa.
Tnunnxnre 10, cpacnann c µp¡xxnre cn n rp¡ônna,
nnn 9, cpacnann n eµna cnoôoµna..........................
............................ Cem. Foôonn Fabaceae
4. Oxononnernnx¡r neµopasnnr n e samecren or 2 xnesn..........
........................... Cem. B¡pôonn Salicaceae
4*. Oxononnernnx¡r µnoen, c¡cranen or uamxa n nenue..........5
5. Hncrara pasnonoxenn no µne cpemynonoxno...............
............................... ¡pxn Cornus mas L.
5*. Hncrara pasnonoxenn nocneµonarenno.................6
6. Tnunnxnre mnoro na ôpoñ noneue or 10.................
.......... .................. Cem.Hnnonn Tiliaceae
6*. Tnunnxnre no-manxo or 10.........................7
7. Foµnnn xpacr c rpnpasµennn mnnone, pasnonoxenn no µ¡nxnnara na xnonxnre. Hncrara
nas¡ôenn, onannn µo ennnrnunn, µ¡nrn 2,5-5,5 cm. Hnoµ¡r couna uepnena xroµa.........
Kncenrp¡n Berberis vulgaris L.
7*. Heôoµnnn xpacr c mnpoxo ennnrnunn nenoxpañnn nncra, µ¡nrn 3-
10 cm, naecen nouepnenxnamn. Hnoµ¡r xocrnnxon, cyx..............
..................... Cmpaµnnxa Cotinus coggvgris Scop.
8. Oxononnernnx¡r npocr, c¡cranen or eµnn peµ nncruera, nnn nnncna . 9
8*. Oxononnernnx¡r c¡cranen or µna nnn noneue xp¡ra nncruera, or xonro n¡rpemnnxr nnn
n¡rpemnnre xp¡rone, oôarpenn x¡nro, c¡crannxnar nenuero ..........................................13
9. Pacrenne ôes oxononnernnx. Hncrara recnonnneñnn. Pacrenne c ôxn mneuen cox.......
Oônxnonenamneuxa Euphorbia cvparissias L.
9*. Pacrennx c npocr oxononnernnx. Hncrara c µpyra ]opma. Pacrennx ôes mneuen cox nnn c¡c
cox, no ne ôxno oôarpen................10
10. ×ñunnx¡r ropen nnn xñunnnnre mnoro na ôpoñ.............
...................... Cem.Hmrnxonn Ranunculaceae.
10*. ×ñunnx¡r µonen.............................11
11.Tnunnxnre4-5........ Cem. Cennnxonnernn Apiaceae
11*. Tnunnxnre 8-12..............................12
12. Hneronere eµnnnunn. Oxononnernnx¡r rp¡ôecr, n µonnara, uacr mexypecro noµyr, a na
n¡pxa npoµ¡nxen- n¡n nnµ na esnue. Hncrara nenoxpañnn.
Tnunnxnre 12.......... B¡nua xô¡nxa Aristolochia clematitis L
12*. Hneronere c¡ôpann n nnocxo mnronnµno c¡nnerne. Oxononnernnx¡r
(32)
nnoc¡x, uernpnµenen. Hncrara nas¡ôenn. Tnunnxnre 8..............
................... Anr¡nue Chrvsosplenium altemifolium L.
13. Hneronere nenpannnnn..........................14
13*. Hneronere npannnnn...........................15
14. Tnunnxn 10, cpacnann c µp¡xxnre cn n¡n nnµ na rp¡ônna, nnn 9, cpacnann, a µecerara
cnoôoµna ........... Cem.Foôonn Fabaceae.
14*. Tnunnxonnre µp¡xxn µo ocnonara cnoôoµnn...............
......................... Cem. Peseµonn Resedaceae.
15. Benuenncruera cpacnann noµoôno na sn¡nue, c 5 µxna na n¡pxa cn . . .........................
Cem.Tnxnonn Cucurbitaceae.
15*. Benuenncruerara cnoôoµnn, necpacnann...............16
16. Tnunnxnre mnoro na ôpoñ noneue or 15..............17
16". Tnunnxnre manxo na ôpoñ µo 10, pxµxo µo 15...........21
17. Tnunnxnre cpacnann n eµno nnn rpn cnonuera..............
................ X¡nr xanrapnon Hvpericum perforatum (L.)
17*. Tnunnxonnre µp¡xxn cnoôoµnn....................18
18. ×ñunnx¡r camo eµnn....... Cem. Maxonn Papaveraceae.
18*. ×ñunnnnre µna nnn mnoro, no nsxnmuenne eµnn nnoµnnx, no rorana
uamxara µnoñna.................................. 19
19. Hncrara nnocxn, µeôenn, mececrn, nenoxpañnn, c¡ôpann n ocnonara ma cr¡ônoro ..
Fenonnerenµeôenen Sempervivum leucanthum Panc.
19*. Hncrara ne ca mececrn..........................20
20. Tnunnxnre n nenuenncruerara npnxpenenn n¡pxy nnoµnoro nerno . . .........................
Cem. Posonnernn Rosaceae.
20*. Tnunnxnre n nenuenncruerara npnxpenenn noµ noxero........
...................... Cem.Hmrnxonn Ranunculaceae.
21. Hnoµ¡r ôoµnnn, noxpnr c mnnone. Hncrara cnoxnn, neun]ronepecrn .........................
Tpaôysan Tribulus terrestris L.
21*. Hnoµ¡r ne e ôoµnnn. Hncrara c µpyra ]opma ............22
22. Hnoµnnnnre nxxonxo nnn mnoro na ôpoñ...............23
22*. Hnoµnnx¡r camo eµnn..........................24
23. Hncrara mececrn, npnceµnann........................
....................... Cem. ¡eôenenonn Crassulaceae.
23*. Hncrara ne ca mececrn n nnnarn nmar µp¡xxa..............
......................... Cem. Posonnernn Rosaceae.
24. Hncrara npocrn, nenoxpañnn nnn nas¡ôenn .............25
24*. Hncrara cnoxnn, c¡cranenn or µne, rpn nnn noneue nncruera, nnn
µ¡nôoxo nspxsann, nnn naceuenn na µxnone ..................27
25. Cr¡nôuerara 3 . . . Vmno nnmcxannue Silene otites (L.) Wib.
25*. Cr¡nôuero camo eµno..........................26
26. ×ñunnx¡r µonen............ Hynanxa Onagra biennis L.
26*. ×ñunnx¡r ropen..... Cem, Kp¡cronnernn Brassicaceae
27. Cr¡nôuerara 2........ Cem. Cennnxonnernn Apiaceae.
27*. Cr¡nôuero eµno nnn neµopasnnro...................28
28. Hnoµ¡r xyrnñxa. Tnunnxnre 8-10.....................
.......................... Ceµe]ue Ruta graveolens L.
28*. Hnoµ¡r mymynxa nnn mymynunna....................
..................... Cem. Kp¡cronnernn Brassicaceae.
(33)
CEM. BTPBOBH SALICACEAE
Bspõa Salix L.
1. Hncrara none orµony cpeôpncro nnaxnecrn................
............................,. Fxna n¡pô a S. alba L.
1*. Hncrara c¡n¡pmeno ronn...... Kpexxa n¡pôa S.fragilisL.
Bnna nspõa Salix alba L.
¡¡pno c r¡mnocnna, µ¡nôoxo nanyxana xopa, nncoxo µo 25-30 m. Mnaµnre xnonxn na n¡pxa c¡c
cpeôpncrn nnacnnxn, no-x¡cno ronn. Hncrara nannernn, nocneµonarennn, µ¡nro saocrpenn,
µ¡nrn 5-12 cm, mnpoxn 1-3 cm, no p¡ôa cnrno nas¡ôenn, noxpnrn or µnere crpann nnn camo
orµony c¡c cpeôpncrn nnacnnxn, c manxn npnnncrnnnn (1,5- 2,0 cm), xonro ca rxcno nannernn,
xnesncrn, pano onaµamn. Hncrnnre µp¡xxn x¡cn, na n¡pxa c 1-2 xnesn. Hneronere c¡ôpann n
nnnnnµpnunn pecn, pasnnnamn ce eµnonpemenno c nncrara n ôes oxononnernnx. Pecnre c
m¡xxn nnerone ca µ¡nrn µo 7 cm n µeôenn µo 1 cm, c x¡nrennxann nnn senennxann
npoµ¡nronarn npn-nnernnnn. Tnunnxnre 2, cnoôoµnn, µna n¡rn no-µ¡nrn or npnnnernnnnre.
Xencxnre pecn ca µ¡nrn µo 5 cm n µeôenn- µo 0,5 cm. Hnoµ¡r xyrnñxa, µ¡nra µo 5 mm (raôno 5,
]nr. 1).
Cpema ce xpañ pexn n ônara n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1700 m n. n. H¡]rn mapr mañ.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna n¡pôonara xopa (µpora Cortex Salicis), xoxro ce
c¡ônpa pano nanponer. Hsnonsyna ce mnpoxo n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Kpexxa nspõa Salix fragilis L.
¡¡pno, nncoxo µo 25 m, c x¡nrennxann uynnnnn mnaµn xnonxn, c¡n¡pmeno ronn. Hncrara
µ¡nrn 6-15 cm, mnpoxn 1,5-4,0 cm, nannernn µo xñnennµno-nannernn, µ¡nro saocrpenn,
nannneno nas¡ôenn, orrope r¡mnosenenn, orµony cnno-senenn, crapnre ronn. ¡p¡xxnre µ¡nrn
1,0-1,4 cm, na n¡pxa c 1-2 ôenesnnxann xnesn (ôpaµannuxn). Hpnnncrnnnnre nonyc¡pnennµnn.
Knonxnre, nocemn pecnre, ca c nenoxpañnn nncra, a npnnnernnnnre ca oôparno xñnennµnn,
orrope µ¡nronnaxnecrn. M¡xxnre pecn µ¡nrn µo 5 cm, a xencxnre µo 7 cm. Hnoµnara xyrnñxa
c µp¡xxa, 2-3 n¡rn no-µ¡nra or saµnara xnesa (raôno 5, ]nr. 2).
Kpañ pexn n ônara n nxnara crpana saeµno c ôxnara n¡pôa. H¡]rn mapr mañ.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna namnpa npnnoxenne xaro samecrnren na xopara or ôxna n¡pôa, a n
napoµnara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna xaxro ôxnara n¡pôa.
(34)
CEM. HMEAOBH LORANTHACEAE
Bnn nuen Jiscum album L.
Iono nonynapasnrno xpacrue c¡c cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 100 cm, nnnyxno pasxnoneno. Hncrara
cpemynonoxnn, x¡nro-senenn, mececrn, npesnmynamn, npoµ¡nronarn µo nannernn, µ¡nrn 2-8
cm, mnpoxn µo 3 cm, nenoxpañnn, c 3-7 ycnopeµnn xnnxn ôes pasxnonennx. Hneronere µpeônn,
eµnonononn, c¡ôpann n cônrn rpynnuxn no 5-7 n nasnnre na nncrara. ¡nyµomno pacrenne.
M¡xxnre nnerone c 4-µenno nenue, ôes uamxa n c 4 rnunnxn, cpacnann c µxnonere na nenuero,
a xencxnre c¡c cnaôo saôenexnma 4-s¡ôuecra uamxa n 4 nenuenncruera n¡n nnµ na mececrn
nmcnn. ×ñunnx¡r µonen. Hnoµ¡r ôxna x¡nôecra nenxana eµnocemenna xroµa, xoxro nonenna no
xpaxara na nrnnnre n no rosn naunn ce npenacx no µpyrn µ¡pnera (raôno 5, ]nr. 3).
Hapasnrnpa n¡pxy pasnnunn onomnn n µpyrn (mnpoxonncrnn n nrnonncrnn) µ¡pnera. uecro ce
cpema n Hsrouna F¡nrapnx, no-pxµxo n ocranannre uacrn na crpanara. H¡]rn mapr mañ.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nncrara saeµno c xnonxnre (µpora Herba Visci) nnn
camo nncrara (Folia Visci), xonro ce ôepar npes mapr n anpnn. Bnpoxo ce nsnonsyna n n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. KOHHTHHKOBH ARISTOLOCHIACEAE
Bsnua nõsnxa Aristolochia clematitis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co n¡nsxmo xopennme n nsnpaneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo
1 m, oônxnoneno nepasxnoneno, rono. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, mnpoxo
xñnennµno-c¡pnennµnn nnn ô¡ôpexonnµnn, µ¡nrn 3-15 cm, nenoxpañnn. Hneronere c¡ôpann no
nxxonxo (2-8) n nasnnre na nncrara. Oxononnernnx¡r npocr, nenuennµen, nenpannnen, rp¡-
ôecr, n µonnara cn uacr cnaôo pasmnpen, a n ropnara yµ¡nxen n¡n nnµ na esnue, µ¡n¡r 2-3 cm,
cnernox¡nr. Tnunnxnre 6, cpacnann c¡c cr¡nôuero. ×ñunnx¡r µonen. Hnoµ¡r xpymonnµna
xyrnñxa, µ¡nra 2-5 cm. O1ponno!(raôno 5, ]nr. 4).
Hs rpenncrn mecra, n oxonnn xynrypn n µp. H¡]rn mnn anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna rnanno xopen¡r (µpora Radix Aristolochiae), no-pxµxo
naµsemnara uacr Herba Aristolochiae). Hma mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. KAPAMmHAOBH CARYOPHYLLACEAE
Ymno nnmcxannue Silene otites (L.) Wibel
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno nepasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 30-80 cm, n
µonnara uacr uernnecro oxocmeno, n ropnara rono c nxxonxo nennnnn xnesncrn np¡crena.
Hpnocnonnnre nncra c¡ôpann n poserxa, nonaronnµnn, nocrenenno crecnenn n µp¡xxa, µ¡nrn
µo 10 cm, mnpoxn µo 1,5 cm, nenoxpañnn, orrope ronn, orµony uernnecro oxocmenn;
cr¡ônennre nncra cpemynonoxnn, nnneñnn, saocrpenn. C¡nnernero r¡cro, rposµonnµno
(35)
µo nourn xnaconnµno, µ¡nro µo 35 cm. Hneronere nsnpanenn, eµnonononn, c µ¡nra µp¡xxa n
nnnecrn npnnnernnnn, µ¡nrn µo 1 mm. uamxara nnnnnµpnuna, µ¡nra 4-6 mm, c 10 ycnopeµnn
xnnxn, rona, c 5 r¡nn s¡ôena. Benuero x¡nro, µ¡nro 4-6 mm, c¡craneno or 5 nonaronnµno
nnneñnn nenuenncruera. Tnunnxnre 10, pasnonoxenn n µna xp¡ra. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, ron.
Cr¡nôuerara 3. Hnoµ¡r xyrnñxa, µ¡nra 3,5-5 mm, yµ¡nxeno xñnennµna, npnceµnana, npn
ocnonara cn rpnrnesµna, na n¡pxa c 6 s¡ôuera (raôno 6, ]nr. 1).
Pxµxo no cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1600 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn
mnn. Hsnonsyna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. AKTHKOBH RANUNCULACEAE
1. Oxononnernnx¡r npocr nenuennµen nnn uamxonnµen........2
1*. Oxononnernnx¡r c¡cranen or uamxa n nenue, xonro ce pasnnuanar
µoôpe nomexµy cn..................................4
2. Oxononnernnx¡r uamxonnµen, no-x¡c or rnunnxnre. Hneronere c¡ôpann no mnoro n¡n
np¡xnn mernonnµnn c¡nnernx..................
................... ¡peôno oônunnue ThalictrumminusL.
2*. Oxononnernnx¡r nenuennµen, no-µ¡n¡r or rnunnxnre. Hneronere eµnnnunn nnn no
nxxonxo................................3
3. Hncrara nenn, c¡pnennµnn µo ô¡ôpexonnµnn, noneue or 3 na ôpoñ . . . ...........................
Fnarnxx CalthapalustrisL.
3*. Hncrara µnanennµno 3-µennn, rpn na ôpoñ.................
................. X¡nra c¡c¡nxa AnemoneranunculoidesL.
4. uamenncruerara 3........X¡nrypue Ranunculus flcariaL.
4*. uamenncruerara 5-8 ............................5
5. Benuenncruerara npoµ¡nronaro ennnrnunn, n µnara cn xpax crecnenn, na ôpoñ 12-
20..................Ioponner Adonis vernalis L.
5*. Benuenncruerara xñnennµnn, na ropnnx xpañ pasmnpenn, na µonnnx crecnenn, oônxnoneno
5 na ôpoñ, pxµxo 8-10...................6
6. Cpeµnnxr nncren µxn na npnocnonnnre nncra c µp¡xxa.........
.................. H¡nsxmo nmrnue RanunculusrepensL.
6*. Cpeµnnxr nncren µxn npnceµnan, ôes µp¡xxa...............
................. Oônxnoneno nmrnue Ranunculus acris L.
Bna1nnx Caltha palustris L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c xopennme n xyxo, rnaµxo, nonernano nnn nsnpaneno,
cnaôo pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 40-80 cm. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, n¡cxann, ronn,
c¡pnennµnn µo ô¡ôpexonnµnn, no p¡ôa nas¡ôenn nnn. nannnenn µo nourn nenoxpañnn,
npnocnonnnre no-ronemn c µ¡nra µp¡xxa, cr¡ônennre no-manxn c x¡ca µp¡xxa nnn µopn
npnceµnann. Hneronere eµnnnunn nnn no nxxonxo na n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro, 1,5-5 cm n µnamer¡p,
pasnonoxenn na µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 10-15 cm. Oxononnernnx¡r npocr, c¡cranen or 5, pxµxo or
noneue x¡nro oôarpenn nncruera. Tnunnxnre n nnoµnnnnre mnoro. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r
côopen, c¡cranen or 5-15 mexynxn, cneµ pasnyxnanero na xonro cemenara nsnnsar. O1ponno!
(raôno 6, ]nr. 2).
Ho saônarenn n mouypnnnn nnnaµn n xpañ noronn n nxnara crpana, npeµnmno n nnannnnre or
400 µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn mapr mnn.
3a µporara ce nsnonsyna nxnara naµsemna uacr na pacrennero (Herba Calthae palustris), xoxro
ce c¡ônpa no npeme na n¡]rexa. Hsnonsyna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
(36)
Æsn1a cscsnxa Anemone ranunculoides L.
Pacrenne c r¡nxo, nnnnnµpnuno, xopnsonranno xopennme. Cr¡ônoro eµnnnuno, nncoxo 7-30
cm, rono nnn pascexno nnaxnecro c eµnn npnocnonen nncr nnn ôes nero. Cr¡ônennre nncra 3 na
ôpoñ, c¡ôpann n npemnen noµ nnera, na µp¡xxa, µo ocnonara cn µnanennµno rpnpasµennn,
xaro µxnonere ca xñnennµnn µo rxcno ennnrnuno nannernn, x¡m ocnonara cn nenoxpañnn,
narope eµpo nas¡ôenn µo nspasxnn, orrope pascexno nnaxnecrn, orµony ronn. Hneronere
oônnoneno eµnnnunn, 1,5-2 cm n µnamer¡p, c npocr nenuennµen oxononnernnx or 5-8 nncruera,
orµony c npnnernann nnacnnxn, orrope ronn, µ¡nrn 10-15 mm, mnpoxn 8-10 mm. Tnunnxnre
mnoroôpoñnn, snaunrenno no-x¡cn or oxononnernnxa. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµuerara
mnoroôpoñnn, r¡cro nnaxnecrn, a côopnnxr nnoµ ynncnan (raôno 7, ]nr. 1).
Hs cenuecrn mnpoxonncrnn ropn n xpacranann n npeµnnannncxnx n µonnnx nnannncxn noxc
µo x¡m 1500 m n. n. H¡]rn mapr mañ. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Ioponne1 Adonis vernalis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co, µeôeno, uepno-xa]xno xopennme, or xoero
nanponer ce pasnnnar 5-6 nneronocnn cr¡ôna, nncoxn no npeme na n¡]rexa 5-20 cm, no cneµ
npen¡]rxnanero µocrnrar na nncounna µo 40 cm. Cr¡ônara nsnpanenn, cnaôo pasxnonenn, n
ocnonara cn noxpnrn c xa]xnn nmcnonnµnn nncra. Cr¡ônennre nncra npnceµnann, n oômoro
cn ouepranne onannn, µonnnre µnanennµno, a ropnnre µnoñno nepecro pasµenenn, xaro
µxnonere nm ca nnneñnn, nenoxpañnn. Hneronere eµnnnunn, x¡nrn, pasn¡]rxnamn
eµnonpemenno c pasnncrnanero n n µnamer¡p 4-5 cm. uamxara c 5 nncruera, a nenuenncruerara
(10-25 na ôpoñ) npoµ¡nronaro ennnrnunn, µ¡nrn 15-34 mm n mnpoxn 5-12 mm. Hnoµnnnnre n
rnunnxnre mnoro. Hnernoro nerno xonyconnµno. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r côopen, c¡cranen or
onannn nnoµuera c x¡co, xyxecro, sannro naµony nocue. Cnnno o1ponno! (raôno 6, ]nr. 3).
Cpema ce no rpenncrn n xamennnnn naponnrn repenn n Rronsrouna n Ceneponsrouna
F¡nrapnx, ryx-ram n Cenepna F¡nrapnx, Co]nñcxo none, ¡paromancxo n n nnannnara Iono
ô¡pµo.
B meµnnnnara noµ nmero Herba Adonidis vernalis ce nsnonsynar nneronocnnre n oônncrenn
cr¡ôna, c¡ôpann no npeme na n¡]rexa. Hsnonsyna ce mnpoxo n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hsnsnmo nm1nue Ranunculus repens L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co xopennme. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno, nncoxo µo 70 cm
nnn npnnonµnramo ce, c naµsemnn, crenemn ce n nxopenxnamn ce n¡n n¡snnre nsµ¡nxn.
Hncrara µna n¡rn rpoñnn, na µ¡nrn µp¡xxn, xaro ncexn µxn e nspxsan. Cpeµnnxr µxn na no-
µ¡nra µp¡xxa. Hañ-ropnnre nncra npnceµnann. Hneronere na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, 2-3 cm n
µnamer¡p. uamxara or 5 nncruera, ronn, pasnepenn. Benuero snarncrox¡nro, µna n¡rn no-
µ¡nro or uamxara, c¡craneno or 5 nncruera. Tnunnxnre n nnoµnnnnre mnoro. Hnoµnnnnre
pasnonoxenn n¡pxy nsn¡xnanoro nnerno nerno, xoero e noxpnro c uernnxn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen.
Hnoµ¡r côopen, c¡cranen or mnoro saxp¡rneno xñnennµnn opexuera c µ¡nro, nourn npano
nocue (raôno 7, ]nr. 2).
Ho nnaxnn n saônarenn mecra, xpañ noxnn n noronn n nxnara crpana
(37)
nourn µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Oõnxnoneno nm1nue Ranunculus acris L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c npano, pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 30-100 cm, noxpnro c
npnnernann nnacnnxn. Hpnocnonnnre n µonnnre cr¡ônenn nncra na µ¡nrn µp¡xxn, n oômoro
cn ouepranne nero¡r¡nnn, c 3-5 µ¡nôoxn nourn pomônunn µxna, xonro ca napxsann n ocrpo
nas¡ôenn. Iopnnre nncra npnceµnann, nourn µo ocnonara cn nspxsann na nnneñnn µenuera,
nourn nenoxpañnn. Hneronere manoôpoñnn, c¡ôpann n pexano ctnnerne, 15-25 mm n µnamer¡p,
na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, c npnnernann nnacnnxn, c 5-nncrna uamxa n nenue. uamenncruerara nourn
nnnecrn, µ¡nrn 4-7 mm, nsnpanenn nnn nourn npnnernann x¡m nenuero, nnaxnecrn.
Benuenncruerara no-µ¡nrn or uamxara, snarncrox¡nrn, oôparno xñnennµnn. Tnunnxnre
mnoro. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµnoro nerno rono. Hnoµuerara µ¡nrn 2,0-3,5 mm, rnaµxn, c mnoro
x¡co nocue (raôno 6, ]nr. 4).
Ho nnaxnn nnnaµn n rpenncrn mecra n xpañ n¡rnma. Cpema ce n nxnara crpana nourn µo 2000
m n. n. H¡]rn mañ cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Æsn1ypue Ranunculusficaria L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c¡c cnonue npoµ¡nronaro xñnennµno saµeôenenn xopenn n
ocnonara cn. Cr¡ônoro nncoxo µo 30 cm, rono, npnnon-µnramo ce. Hncrara ronn, ônecrxmn,
saxp¡rneno c¡pnennµnn, saxp¡rneno nas¡ôenn µo nenoxpañnn, c µ¡nra µp¡xxa, uecro c
rpyµunnn n nasnnre na nncrara. Hneronere eµnnnunn, 1,5-5,0 cm n µnamer¡p, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa.
Benuenncruerara 8-12, x¡nrn, n¡cxann, µ¡nrn 10-18 mm, mnpoxn 4-7 mm, npoµ¡nronaro
ennnrnunn, n ocnonara cn c nexrapnnnn, 5 na ôpoñ. Tnunnxnre n nnoµnnnnre mnoro.
×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµnoro nerno noxpnro c uernnxn. Opexuerara µ¡nrn 2,5 mm, saxp¡rnenn,
oôparno xñnennµnn, x¡com¡xecro nnaxnecrn, c¡c cnaôo saocrpeno nocue (raôno 7, ]nr. 3).
Ho nnaxnn cenuecrn mecra, mnpoxonncrnn ropn, nnnaµn n µp. n nxnara crpana nourn µo 2000
m n. n. H¡]rn mapr mañ. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
±peõno oõnunnue Thalictrum minus L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c p¡ôecro, µ¡nôoxo naôpasµeno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 1,5 m,
rono nnn pxµxo c xnesncrn nnacnnxn. Hncrara na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, 3-4 n¡rn nepecrn, n oômoro
cn ouepranne mnpoxo rpn¡r¡nnn, µ¡nrn 7-30 cm n nourn ronxona mnpoxn. Hncruerara nourn
xp¡rnn nnn oôparno xñnennµnn µo xnnnonnµnn, µ¡nrn µo 30 mm n ronxona mnpoxn, ornpeµ
oônxnoneno c rpn s¡ôuera. Hneronere mnoro, c¡ôpann no n¡pxonere na cr¡ônoro n mnpoxa,
pasnepena mernnna. Oxononnernnx¡r npocr. Benuenncruerara nnncnar. uamenncruerara 4-5
na ôpoñ, senennxanox¡nrn, µ¡nrn 3-4 mm, xñnennµnn. Tnunnxnre mnoro (10-15), ynncnann,
µ¡nrn 7-8 mm, no-µ¡nrn or oxononnernnxa. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµuerara ronn nnn xnesncro
nnaxnecrn, µ¡nrn 2,5-4,0 mm, npnceµnann, crpannuno cnnecxann, c x¡co nocue (raôno 7. ]nr.
4).
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Ho cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra, nnnaµn, xpacranann n ropcxn nonxnn nourn µo
annnñcxnx noxc. H¡]rn mañ anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. KHCEATPTHOBH BERBERIDACEAE
Kncen 1psn Berberis vulgaris L.
Cnnno pasxnonen ôoµnnn xpacr, nncox µo 3 m, c p¡ôecrn xnonxn, noxpnrn c x¡nrennxana xopa,
xoxro npes nropara roµnna crana cnna. Foµnnre µna-nennµno rpnpasµennn, µ¡nrn µo 2 cm.
Hncrara pasnonoxenn n cnonue no 2-12 n nasnnre na ôoµnnre, na mnaµnre xnonxn eµnnnunn,
nocneµonarennn. Hncrara npocrn, onannn nnn mnpoxo ennnrnunn µo oôparno xñnennµnn, c
mpexecro xnnxynane, nas¡ôenn, µ¡nrn, 2,5-5,5 cm, crecnenn n x¡ca µp¡xxa, na nxyc xncenn.
Hneronere x¡nrn, c¡ôpann no 15-30 n ynncnann rposµone, µ¡nrn 3-5 cm. uamxara c 6 senenn
nncruera. Benuero c¡mo c 6 npoµ¡nronarn, nenn nnn na n¡pxa cnaôo npxsann nncruera.
Tnunnxnre 6. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r couna nnnnnµpnuna xncena uepnena xroµa, µ¡nra µo 10
mm, mnpoxa 5 mm, c no 2-3 cemena (raôno 8, ]nr. 1). Cpema ce pxµxo n nxnara crpana ns
xpacranann n na cyxn xamennnnn mecra µox¡m 1200 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn.
C neueôna nen n c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar xopara na xopena n cr¡ônoro (Cortex
Berberidis), camnxr xopen (Radix Berberidis) n nnoµonere (Baccae nnn Fructus Berberidis). B
mnnanoro ca ce ynorpeôxnann n nncrara. B napoµnara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar xopennre,
nnoµonere n nncrara.
Kopen¡r ce nsxonana npes nponerra, npeµn µa sanoune nererannxra (mapr anpnn) nnn npes
ecenra (oxromnpn noemnpn) cneµ yspxnanero na nnoµonere, n ro camo or eµnara crpana na
xpacra, raxa ue µa ce oronn ne noneue or 1€4 or rxx.
CEM. MAKOBH PAPAJERACEAE
1. Hneronere eµnnnunn. Pacrenne ôes mneuen cox ..............
..................... X¡nr poraren Glauciumflavum L.
1*. Hneronere n npocrn cennnnn. Pacrenne c r¡cr opanxen mneuen cox . . ...................
3mnñcxo mnxxo Chelidonium mafus L.
Æsn1 pora1en Glaucium flavum L.
¡nyroµnmno nnn mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno rono cr¡ôno, nncoxo 30-90
cm. Hpnocnonnnre nncra c¡ôpann n poserxa, µ¡nrn 15-35 cm, nnponnµno nepecro naµenenn, c
µnoñno no-ronxm np¡xen µxn, nas¡ôenn ; cr¡ônennre nncra no-µpeônn, npnceµnann n
oôxnamamn cr¡ônoro, eµpo nas¡ôenn µo nepecro napxsann. Hneronere eµnnnunn,
pasnonoxenn no n¡pxonere na xnonxnre, na µp¡xxa, µ¡nra µo 5 cm. uamxara µnynncrna,
noxpnra c uernnxn n onaµa npn pasrnapxnero na nnera. Benuenncruerara 4, x¡nrn, µ¡nrn 3-4
cm. Tnunnxnre mnoro. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r mymynxonnµen, ron, µ¡n¡r 15-30 m,
pasnyxnam ce na µne uacrn. O1ponno!(raôno 8, ]nr. 2).
Cpema ce no nxc¡nnre n xamennnnnre mecra na uepnomopcxoro xpañ-
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ôpexne, n Bymencxo, Hponaµnñcxo, Hnenencxo. H¡]rn mnn anrycr. B meµnnnnara ce
nsnonsyna naµsemnara my uacr (Herba Glaucii Ilavi).
3unncxo unnxo Chelidonium mafus L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne, c¡µ¡pxamo r¡cr opanxen mneuen cox. Cr¡ônoro cnnxano,
pasxnoneno, nncoxo 30-90 cm, rono nnn c pascexnn mexn nnacnnxn. Hncrara nocneµonarennn,
µonnnre c µp¡xxn, ropnnre npnceµnann, ronn, neun]ronepecrn, c 5-7 onannn nnn
npoµ¡nronarn, nourn npnceµnann nncruera, np¡xnoro rpnpasµenno. Hneronere c¡ôpann no 2-6
n npocrn cennnnn, pasnonoxenn n nasnnre na ropnnre nncra. Te nmar uamxa or 2 x¡nro-
senenn nncruera, onaµamn npn pasrnapxnero na nnera. Benuero xpxox¡nro, uernpnnncrno.
Tnunnxnre mnoroôpoñnn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r mymynxonnµen, µ¡n¡r µo 5 cm, pasnyxnam
ce na µne uacrn, ron. O1ponno! (raôno 8, ]nr. 3).
Pacre no xamennnnn, nnaxnn, cenuecrn mecra, noxpnrn c xpacranann, ns paspeµenn ropn n
nxnara crpana µox¡m 1500 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ mnn.
Haµsemnara uacr na pacrennero e µporara Herba Chelidonii, xoxro ce c¡ônpa npes mañ mnn.
¡o cenremnpn moxe µa ce c¡ôepe n nropa pexonra. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. KPTCTOHBETHH - BRASSICACEAE (CRUCIFERAE)
1. Hnoµ¡r mymynxa, nañ-manxo 4 n¡rn no-µ¡n¡r, orxonxoro mnpox . . 2
1*. Hnoµ¡r mymynunna, ne no-µ¡n¡r, orxonxoro mnpox nnn no-manxo or
4 n¡rn no-µ¡n¡r, orxonxoro mnpox.........................
........................ Iopyxa Lepidium perfoliatum L.
2. Pacrennx, noxpnrn none oruacrn c pasxnonenn nnn µnypasµennn nnacnnxn
..........................................3
2*. Pacrennx, noxpnrn c npocrn nnacnnxn nnn c¡ncem ronn........6
3. Hncrara µnoñno nnn rpoñno nepecrn....................
.................. Boñnnunna Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb.
3*. Hncrara nenn.................................4
4. Eµnoroµnmno pacrenne. Bymynxara nnnnnµpnuna, c µp¡xxa, ne no-r¡nxa or camara
mymynxa ..............................
................ Pasnepena ôoxnxa Ervsimum repandum L.
4*. ¡nyroµnmnn nnn mnororoµnmnn pacrennx. Bymynxnre cnnecxann nnn nourn 4-p¡ôecrn, c
µp¡xxa, no-r¡nxa or camara mymynxa........5
5. Bnacnnxnre no nncrara nourn nsnxno µnypasµennn............
.............. Pasxnonenaôoxnxa Ervsimum diffumm Ehrh.
5*. Bnacnnxnre no nncrara snesµonnµnn nnn cmecenn (snesµonnµnn n µnypasµennn)
........................................
..... B¡nnncro-nas¡ôena ôoxnxa Ervsimum crepidifolium Rchb.
6. Hncrara nepecro napxsann µo nepecrn, c¡c crpenonnµen nnn xonnenn-
µen nañ-ropen µxn...................................
............ Heueôna m¡µpnna Sisvmbrium officinale (L.) Scop.
6*. Hncrara nepecro napxsann; ropnnxr nm cermenr ne e nnro crpenonnµen, nnro
xonnennµen................................7
7. Kanauerara na mymynxara ôes xnnxn....................
............. Hnpeneñcxn nopeu Rorippapvrenaica(L.)Rchb.
7*. Kanauerara na mymynxnre c 1-5 xnnxn.................8
8. Bymynxara uern¡prnra n xanauerara ñ camo c no eµna naµn¡xna
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xnnxa; nourn ronn pacrennx.............................
................ Oônxnonena snnna Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.
8*. Bymynxara nnnnnµpnuna nnn uernpnp¡ôecra. Kanauerara ñ c no 3 naµn¡xnn xnnxn, xaro
crpannunnre µne nonxxora ca cnaôo saôenexnmn . . 9
9. Bymynxara nnnnnµpnuna nnn uernpnp¡ôecra, c 3 eµnaxno pasnnrn xnnxn n nocue, µ¡nro 1-
2 cm .... Honcxn cnnan Sinapis arvensis L.
9*. Bymynxara uernpnp¡ôecra c eµna xcna xnnxa n no-cnaôo saôenexnmn crpannunn xnnxn.
Hocuero µ¡nro 1,5-4,5 mm ...............10
10. Bymynxara µ¡nra 1,0-2,5 cm n npnnennana x¡m ocra na c¡nnernero.
Hneronere c µp¡xxa, no-x¡ca nnn panna na uamxara...............
.................... uepen cnnan Brassica nigra (L.)Koch
10*. Bymynxara µ¡nra 3-6 cm n nenpnnernana x¡m ocra na c¡nnernero.
Hneronere c µp¡xxa, no-µ¡nra or uamxara.....................
.............. Capenrcxa ropunna Brassicafuncea (L.) C:ern.
Aeueõna usµpnna Sisvmbrium officinale (L.) Scop.
Eµnoroµnmno pacrenne, nxnoro noxpnro c x¡cn pasnepenn nnacnnxn. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno,
nncoxo 50-70 cm, n ropnara cn uacr pasnepeno, pasxnoneno, c nepecro napxsann µo nepecrn
nncra, c 4-6 npoµ¡nronaro xñnennµnn, nepannomepno nas¡ôenn crpannunn µxnone, uecro
nacouenn nasaµ n c no-eµ¡p, nourn xonnennµen np¡xen µxn. Hañ-ropnnre nncra xonnennµnn
nnn nourn crpenonnµnn, µpeônn, npnceµnann. Hncrara µ¡nrn 4-8 cm. Hneronere c¡ôpann n
recnn, nourn xnaconnµnn c¡nnernx, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 1-2 mm, ôes npnnnernnnn.
uamenncruerara n nenuenncruerara no 4, pasnonoxenn na xp¡cr. uamenncruerara µ¡nrn 1,5-
2,5 mm, nannernn, nañ-uecro nnaxnecrn. Benuenncruerara x¡nrn, µ¡nrn 3-4 mm, oôparno
xñnennµno-nonaronnµnn. Tnunnxnre 6, or xonro µnere n¡nmnn no-x¡cn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen.
Hnoµ¡r my-mynxa, nnnnnµpnuna, mnnonnµno saocrpena, nn¡rno npnnennana x¡m cr¡ônoro,
µ¡nra 10-20 mm, c µp¡xxa, no-x¡ca or 3 mm (raôno 8, ]nr. 4).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn, pyµepannsnpann mecra, µnopone, ynnnn, xpañ x n nnnnn n µp. µox¡m 1100
m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn. Hsnonsyna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac ce cpemar ome ceµem nnµa or rosn poµ, no eµnn or rxx (S. strictis-simum L.) e c nenn,
nourn nenoxpañnn nncra, µpyr S. polvceratium L., nma npnnnernnnn n c¡nnernero, a
ocranannre ner nnµa ca c mymynxn, orxnonenn or ocra na c¡nnernero, n µp¡xxa, no-µ¡nra or 4
mm.
Bonnnunna Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb.
Eµnoroµnmno nnn µnyroµnmno pacrenne c nsnpaneno pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 1 m.
Hncrara nocneµonarennn, 2-3 n¡rn nepecrn, oônxnoneno c µp¡xxa, camo nañ-ropnnre
npnceµnann, c recnonnneñnn µo npoµ¡nronarn µenuera, nañ-uecro noxpnrn c pasxnonenn
nnacnnxn. Hneronere µpeônn, c¡ôpann n r¡cro rposµonnµno c¡nnerne, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 4-6 mm.
uamenncruerara 4, µ¡nrn oxono 2,5 mm. Benuenncruerara ôneµox¡nrn, µ¡nrn 2-2,5 mm,
npoµ¡nronarn, nonxxora nnncnar. Tnunnxnre 6, or xonro µnere ca n¡nmnn n no-x¡cn.
×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r mymynxa, µ¡nra 8-15 mm, nnnnnµpnuna, nacouena narope (raôno 9,
]nr. 1).
Oônxnoneno pacrenne, xoero e pasnpocrpaneno no ôypenxcann mecra, cmernma, xpañ n¡rnma n
µp. n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn anpnn ronn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
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Pasxnonena õonnxa Ervsimum diffusum Ehrh.
¡nyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne, xoero npes n¡pnara roµnna oôpasyna camo poserxa or nncra, a
npes nropara oônxnoneno nxxonxo cnnno pasxnonenn cr¡ôna, nncoxn µo 80 cm, ôenesnnxann
nopaµn nannunero na mnoro µnypasµennn npnnernann nnacnnxn. Hpnocnonnnre, poserxonnre
nncra npoµ¡nronarn µo nnmxonnµnn, crecnenn n µ¡nra µp¡xxa, oônxnoneno c peµxn s¡ônn
nnn nenoxpañnn. Cr¡ônennre nncra nocneµonarennn, c x¡ca µp¡xxa, npoµ¡nronarn,
nenoxpañnn nnn nas¡ôenn, ropnnre nncra nnneñno-nannernn, npnceµnann, nenoxpañnn.
Hneronere c¡ôpann no mnoro n r¡cro rposµonnµno c¡nnerne, c nnernn µp¡xxn, µ¡nrn 3-6 mm.
uamxara c 4 nncruera, µ¡nrn 5-8 mm, n ocnonara cn c¡c cnaôn noµyrnnn nnn ôes rxx.
Benuenncruerara 4, nn-monenox¡nrn, oôparno xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 8-14 mm, c r¡n¡x n µ¡n¡r
nox¡r. Tnunnxnre 6, or xonro 4-re n¡rpemnn ca no-µ¡nrn, c npamnnnn, µ¡nrn 2-3 mm.
Bymynxara r¡nxa, 4-crenna, µ¡nra 48-70 mm (raôno 9, ]nr. 2).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n nycreemn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1200 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn.
B meµnnnnara ce nsnonsyna naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Erysimi), xoxro ce c¡ônpa no npeme
na n¡]rexa.
Bsnnnc1o-nassõena õonnxa Ervsimum crepidifolium Rchb.
¡nyroµnmno µo mnororoµnmno pacrenne c µeôen, nperenonnµen cnernox¡nr xopen. Cr¡ônoro
nsnpaneno nnn n ocnonara cn npnnonµnramo ce, npocro nnn nañ-uecro pasxnoneno, p¡ôecro, n
µonnara cn uacr uecro uepnennxano, nncoxo µo 80 cm, noxpnro c µnyµennn, pxµxo rpnµennn
nnacnnxn, xonro noxpnnar nxnoro pacrenne. Hpnocnonnnre nncra c¡ôpann n poserxa,
nnneñno-nannernn, saocrpenn, x¡m ocnonara cn crecnenn n µp¡xxa, n¡nnonnµno nas¡ôenn,
cnnn. Cr¡ônennre nncra npnceµnann, no-cnaôo nas¡ôenn, nañ-ropnnre nenoxpañnn. Hneronere
c¡ôpann n r¡cro mnoronnerno, rposµonnµno c¡nnerne, na µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 1,5-3,0 mm,
nnaxnecrn. uamenncruerara 4, nannernn, µ¡nrn 6-9 mm. Benuenncruerara c¡mo 4, x¡nrn,
µ¡nrn 10-16 mm, na n¡pxa saxp¡rnenn, x¡m ocnonara crecnenn n mnoro µ¡n¡r nox¡r, ronn nnn
cnaôo nnaxnecrn. Tnunnxnre 6, µ¡nrnre µocrnrar 8-13 mm µ¡nxnna, c npamnnnn, µ¡nrn 2-3
mm. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Bymynxnre nnneñno-nnnnnµpnunn µo nourn uernpnp¡ôecrn, µ¡nrn 2,5-
6,0 cm, mnpoxn 1-2 mm (raôno 9, ]nr. 3). Ha ôypenxcann mecra n xpañ n¡rnma, pxµxo no
uepnomopcxoro xpañôpexne, ¡ynancxara pannnna, Ceneponsrouna F¡nrapnx, Tpaxnñcxara
nnsnna. H¡]rn anpnn mnn. uecro n¡]rn nonropno npes ecenra. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
Pasnepena õonnxa Ervsimum repandum L.
Eµnoroµnmno pacrenne c x¡c nperenonnµen xopen. Cr¡ônoro nncoxo µo 60 cm, npocro nnn
pasxnoneno, nsnpaneno nnn n ocnonara cn npnnonµnramo ce, noxpnro c µnyµennn nnacnnxn.
Hpnocnonnnre nncra poserxonnµno cônnxenn, nnneñno-nannernn, nocrenenno crecnenn n
x¡ca µp¡xxa, saocrpenn, n¡nnonnµno nas¡ôenn, cnnn, r¡cro noxpnrn c µnyµennn n rpnµennn
nnacnnxn. Iopnnre cr¡ônenn nncra nnneñnn µo nnneñno-nannernn, npnceµnann. Hneronere
c¡ôpann n r¡cro rposµonnµno c¡nnerne, pasnepeno nsnpanenn, na µ¡nra (1-3 mm) nnaxnecra
µp¡xxa. uamenncruerara 4, npoµ¡nronarn, x¡nrosenenn, µ¡nrn 3-5 mm. Benuenncruera 4,
x¡nrn, µ¡nrn 7-10 mm, x¡m ocnonara nocrenenno crecnenn n µ¡n¡r nox¡r. ¡¡nrnre rnunnxn 7-
8 mm. ×ñunnx¡r ro-
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pen. Hpamnnnnre µ¡nrn 0,81,2 mm. Bymynxnre pasnepenn, nnneñnn, µ¡nrn 5-10 cm (raôno
10, ]nr. 1). Ha cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra, xpañ n¡rn-ma n orpaµn n xaro nnenen n
nnnnre. Pasnpocrpaneno e n nxnara crpana µo x¡m 800 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Oõnxnonena snnna Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.
¡nyroµnmno nnn mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c rono cr¡ôno, pas-I xnoneno n ropnara
cn uacr n nncoxo µo 1 m. ¡onnnre nncra nnponnµnn, c 2-5 µnoñxn npoµ¡nronarn crpannunn
µxnone n ronxm saxp¡rnen nnn onanen np¡xen µxn, n ocnonara c¡pnennµen, nas¡ôen µo napxsan
nnn nourn nenoxpaen. Iopnnre cr¡ônenn nncra npnceµnann, c mnpoxo oôxnamamn cr¡ônoro
ymnuxn, oôparno xñnennµnn, eµpo nas¡ôenn nnn n¡nnonnµno nspxsann. Hneronere c¡ôpann n
rposµonnµnn c¡nnernx no n¡pxonere na pasxnonennxra na cr¡ônoro, ôes npnnnernnnn.
uamenncruerara n nenuenncruerara no 4. Benuenncruerara x¡nrn, µ¡nrn 5-7 mm. Tnunnxnre
6. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r mymynxa, µ¡nra 15-30 mm, mnpoxa 1-2 mm, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 4-6
mm, pasnepen, nonxxora µ¡ronnµno nsnnr (raôno 10, ]nr. 2).
Ho nnaxnn mecra, xpañ norouera, ns nnaxnn ropn n xpacranann, xaro nnenen n nxnara crpana.
H¡]rn anpnn mnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac ce cpemar ome 4 nnµa or rosn poµ, no re ca nnn c nenn µonnn nncra, nnn nnaxnecrn, nnn
nneronere, nm ca c npnnnernnnn. Camo nsnpane -nonnoµnara snnna (B. striata Andrz.) e ôes
npnnnernnnn, no nnoµonere ñ ca npnnernann x¡m cr¡ônoro.
Hnpenencxn nopeu Rorippapvrenaica (L.) Rchb.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nperenonnµen xopen n x¡co xopennme, oônxnoneno c
nxxonxo cr¡ôna, nncoxn µo 60 cm, nsnpanenn, npocrn nnn n ropnara cn uacr pasxnonenn, n
µonnara cn uacr x¡connaxnecrn, narope ronn. ¡onnnre nncra c¡ôpann n npnocnonna poserxa,
na µ¡nrn µp¡xxn, c x¡cn ymnuxn npn ocnonara na nncrnara µp¡xxa, nenn, xñnennµnn nnn
nnponnµno nepecro nspxsann, c¡c crpannunn µxnone (3-5 µnoñxn), c no-ronxm saxp¡rneno
c¡pnennµen np¡xen µxn. Cr¡ônennre nncra npnceµnann nnn na x¡ca µp¡xxa, npn ocnonara cn c
µne recnn, naµony nacouenn n oôxnamamn cr¡ônoro ymnuxn, nepecro naµenenn c 1 -7 µnoñxn
nnneñnn, nenoxpañnn µenuera, xaro np¡xnnxr µxn e eµnax¡n c ocranannre. Hneronere c¡ôpann
n x¡cn rposµonnµnn c¡nnernx, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 4-6 mm. uamenncruerara 4, nannernn, µ¡nrn
2,5-3,0 mm. Benuenncruerara c¡mo 4, x¡nrn, xnnnonnµno crecnenn n ocnonara cn, c 1€3 no-
µ¡nrn or uamenncruerara. Tnunnxnre 6. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµnara xyrnñxa x¡ca, xñnennµno-
ennnrnuna,- µ¡nra 2,5-4,0 mm, c µ¡nra µp¡xxa (5-10 mm) (raôno 10, ]nr. 3).
Hs cyxn rpenncrn mecra, nnnaµn, xpacranann n xpañ ropn µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ
mnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Iopyxa Lepidium perfoliatum L.
Eµnoroµnmno nnn µnyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, oônxnoneno eµnnnuno
cr¡ôno, nncoxo 20-40 cm, noxpxro c peµxn nsnpanenn nnacnnxn, pxµxo rono, r¡cro oônncreno n
pasxnoneno. Hpnocnonnnre nncra na µ¡n-
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ra µp¡xxa (6-10 cm), noxpnrn c uernnecrn nnacnnxn, n oômoro cn ouepranne ennnrnunn nnn
oôparno xñnennµno-nannernn, µnoñno nepecro pasceuenn na recnn nnneñnn µenuera, xaro
µonnnre cr¡ônenn nncra npnnnuar na npnocnonnnre, no ca no-cnaôo pasµenenn n nourn
npnceµnann. Iopnnre cr¡ônenn nncra mnpoxo xñnennµnn nnn nourn xp¡rnn, nenn,
nenoxpañnn, c µ¡nôoxa c¡pnennµna ocnona, xoxro oôxnama cr¡ônoro, c¡n¡pmeno ronn.
Hneronere mnoroôpoñnn (µo 60-70), c¡ôpann n r¡crn rposµonnµnn c¡nnernx, xonro npn
nnoµonere ce yµ¡nxanar. Hneronere µpeônn, na r¡nxa µp¡xxa, µ¡nrn 3-4 mm. uamxara ce
c¡cron or 4 mnpoxo ennnrnunn nncruera, µ¡nrn oxono 1 mm, orn¡n nnaxnecrn.
Benuenncruerara c¡mo 4, ôneµox¡nrn, µ¡nrn oxono 1,5 mm, npoµ¡nronarn, c¡n¡pmeno ronn.
Tnunnxnre 2 • 4. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Bymynunnnre nourn xp¡rnn nnn mnpoxo onannn, µ¡nrn 3-
4 mm, na nsnpanenn ronn µp¡xunnn, µ¡nrn 4-6 mm, na n¡pxa nµn¡ônarn. Cr¡nôuero x¡co,
panno na nµn¡ônarnnara nnn manxo no-µ¡nro (raôno 10, ]nr. 4).
Kpañ n¡rnma, orpaµn, nô nycreemn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1500 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn
mnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hepen cnnan Brassica nigra (L.) Koch (Sinapis nigra L.)
Eµnoroµnmno pacrenne c nsnpaneno cr¡ôno, rono nnn n µonnara cn uacr noxpnro c uernnxn.
Hncrara c µp¡xxn, µonnnre nnponnµno naµenenn, c xñnennµnn nnn npoµ¡nronarn,
nepannomepno napxsann crpannunn µxnone (1-3 µnoñxn), xaro np¡xnnxr µxn e no-cnnno
pasnnr. Cpeµnnre n ropnnre nncra nannernn, x¡m n¡pxa nsµpeônxnar; nañ-ropnnre
nenoxpañnn, c µp¡xunnn. Hneronere c¡ôpann n¡n np¡xnn rposµonnµnn c¡nnernx, na r¡nxa
µp¡xxa, xoxro e no-x¡ca nnn panna na uamxara. uamenncruerara 4, pasnepenn.
Benuenncruerara snarnox¡nrn, c¡mo 4. Tnunnxnre 6, neeµnaxnn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r
mymynxa, µ¡nra 1-2,5 cm, c r¡nxo nnmxonnµno nocue, µ¡nro 1,5-4,6 mm, npnnernan x¡m
cr¡ônoro (raôno 11, ]nr. 1).
Bnpoxo pasnpocrpanen n nxnara crpana no rpenncrn mecra, opnnnn, yrapn, xpañ orpaµn n µp.
H¡]rn mañ cenremnpn.
Cnnanenoro ceme e µporara Semen Sinapis, namnpama ronxmo npnnoxenne n c¡npemennara n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
Capen1cxa ropunna Brassica funcea C:ern.
Eµnoroµnmno pacrenne c nsnpaneno pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 1 m, npn ocnonara noxpnro
c uernnxn, narope rono. ¡onnnre nncra µ¡nrn µo 20 cm, mnpoxn µo 8 cm, c µp¡xxa, nañ-uecro
nnponnµno nepecro napxsann, c ronxm xñnennµen nnn xñnennµno-nanneren np¡xen µxn, c no
nxxonxo manxn npoµ¡nronarn crpannunn µenuera. Harope nncrara ca c no-manxn pasmepn, xaro
nañ-ropnnre oônxnoneno ca nenn (camo nas¡ôenn µo nenoxpañnn), oôparno xñnennµnn µo
nannernn nnn nourn nnneñnn, x¡m ocnonara cnnno crecnenn. C¡nnernero nourn mnronnµno.
Hnernnre µp¡xxn r¡nxn, no-µ¡nrn or uamxara. Benuenncruerara 4, nourn µnoñno no-µ¡nrn or
uamenncruerara, cnernox¡nrn, saxp¡rneno oôparno xñnennµnn, mnpoxn µo 3 mm, nsneµn¡x
crecnenn n ocnonara cn. Tnunnxnre ca 2 • 4. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Bymynxnre µ¡nrn 3-6 cm,
pasnepenn, c nocue na n¡pxa, µ¡nro 7-12 mm (raôno 11, ]nr. 2).
Cpema ce no ôypenxcann mecra, xpañ orpaµn n n¡rnma n n oôpaôornaemn semn n nsrounara
uacr na crpanara. H¡]rn mañ anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
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Honcxn cnnan Sinapis arvensis L.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c pasxnoneno, oônncreno cr¡ôno, nncoxo oxono 30-60 cm,
oônxnoneno noxpnro c npocrn, rn¡pµn, pasnepenn nna-cnnxn. Hncrara c µp¡xxa, xñnennµnn
nnn npoµ¡nronarn, nañ-µonnnre nourn nnponnµno napxsann µo nenpannnno nas¡ôenn, µ¡nrn
µo 20 cm, crecnenn n µp¡xxa, noxpnrn c nnacnnxn, pxµxo ronn. Iopnnre nncra npnceµnann,
yµ¡nxeno nannernn, c¡c saocrpen np¡x, nepannomepno nas¡ôenn, no-manxn, nnaxnecrn µo
ronn. C¡nnernxra rposµonnµnn, cônrn, µ¡nrn 2-5 cm, c nnernn µp¡xxn, µ¡nrn 3-8 mm.
uamenncruerara µ¡nrn 4-6 mm, pecnnuecrn. Benue-nncruerara 4, x¡nrn, oôparno xñnennµnn,
nourn µnoñno no-µ¡nrn or uamxara. Bymynxara nnnnnµpnuna, µ¡nra µo 5 cm, na n¡pxa c
xonnuno nocue, nourn necnnecxano. Cemenara nourn uepnn, rnaµxn, 8-17 na ôpoñ (raôno 11,
]nr. 3).
Cpema ce ns opnnnn, yrapn, xaro nnenen n nnnn, senenuyxonn rpaµnnn n µnopone n nxnara
crpana µox¡m 1200 m n. n. H¡]rn or mañ µo oxromnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac xaro nnenen n xaro xynrypno pacrenne ce cpema ome eµnn nnµ cnnan ôxn cnnan
(Sinapis alba L.). Iopnnre my cr¡ônenn nncra ca c µp¡xxa, nocuero na mymynxara e cnnno
crpannuno cnnecxano, a cemenara ca 4-8 na ôpoñ, x¡nrn µo x¡nro-xa]xnn, c xmnuxn no
non¡pxnocrra.
CEM. PE3E±OBH RESEDACEAE
Peseµa Reseda L.
1. uamxara n nenuero c no 4 nncruera. Hncrara nenn............
.................... X¡nrennxana peseµa R.luteolaL.
1*. uamxara n nenuero c no 6 nncruera. Hncrara, ocnen nañ-µonnnre, rpnµennn nnn nepecro
nspxsann ....... X¡nrapeseµa R. lutea L.
Æsn1ennxana peseµa Reseda luteola L.
¡nyroµnmno pacrenne c nsnpaneno, eµnnnuno, npocro nnn x¡m n¡pxa cnaôo pasxnoneno, rono,
r¡cro oônncreno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 50-150 cm. Hncrara nenn, npnceµnann, nnneñnn nnn rxcno
nannerno-nnneñnn µo nonaronnµnn, n ocnonara cn uecro crecnenn n c µne mnnonnµnn
ymnuxn, nenoxpañnn. Hneronere c¡ôpann n r¡cro rposµonnµno c¡nnerne, µ¡nro µo 40 cm, n
µonnara cn uacr uecro pasxnoneno, c x¡ca µp¡xxa (oxono 1 mm), n ocnonara cn c rpn¡r¡nno
mnnonnµnn npnnnernnnn, µ¡nrn 2-3 mm. uamenncruerara 4, rpañnn, onanno npoµ¡nronarn,
oxono 2 mm µ¡nrn. Benuenncruerara c¡mo 4, cnernox¡nrn, 3,5-4 mm µ¡nrn, neeµnaxnn,
oôparno onanno xnnnonnµnn, ropnnre µo cpeµara nspxsann na 5-7 µxna, ocranannre cnaôo
naµenenn nnn nenn. Tnunnxnre 20-30, c ronn µp¡xxn, sanasnamn ce n npn nnoµonere.
×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r xyrnñxa, µ¡nra oxono 4 mm, nourn x¡nôecra, na x¡ca µp¡xxa, c 6
r¡nn p¡ôa n 3 eµpn, rpn¡r¡nno saocrpenn s¡ôa (raôno 12, ]nr. 1).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn mecra, xpañ n¡rnma, no nsocranenn n ôypenxcann mecra n nxnara crpana
µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
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Æsn1a peseµa Reseda lutea L.
¡nyroµnmno nnn mnororoµnmno pacrenne c nsnpaneno nnn npnnonµnra-mo ce rono cr¡ôno,
nncoxo 30-80 cm. Hpnocnonnnre nncra c mnpoxa µp¡xxa, rpnµennn, pxµxo nenn, nonaronnµnn,
ô¡pso nsc¡xnamn. Cr¡ônennre nncra nepecrn nnn nepecro nspxsann, c 2-3 nannernn µo
nnneñnn nncrnn µxna., nourn nenoxpañnn nnn x¡co xnesncro nas¡ôenn. C¡nnernxra
rposµonnµnn, ornauano x¡cn n cônrn, no-x¡cno ce yµ¡nxanar n paspexµar, µocrnrañxn µo 30-
35 cm µ¡nxnna, c rona oc, c nnernn µp¡xxn, µ¡nrn 4-6 mm. Hpnnnernnnnre µ¡nrn 1 -3 mm,
npoµ¡nronaro nannernn, oônxnoneno cxopo onaµamn. uamenncruerara 6, mnoro pxµxo 8,
nnneñno-nannernn, µ¡nrn 2,5-3,5 mm, sanasnamn ce npn nnoµa. Benuenncruerara 6,
senennxanox¡nrn, µ¡nrn 4-5 mm, np¡xnnre rpnµennn, xaro cpeµnnxr µxn e 2 n¡rn no-x¡c or
crpannunnre, xonro ca nonynynnn, ocranannre nenuenncruera nenn, nnneñnn. Tnunnxnre 10-
24, c¡c cnaôo rpanann µp¡xxn, pano onaµamn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµnara xyrnñxa µ¡nra 10-
12 mm, mnpoxa 4,5-5,0 mm, xñnennµno npoµ¡nronara, rpnp¡ôecra, c rpn x¡cn saoônenn s¡ôa
(raôno 12, ]nr. 2).
Kpañ n¡rnma, no ôypenxcann mecra n nnnn n nxnara crpana. Cpema ce mnoro no-uecro or
ocranannre nnµone. H¡]rn mañ cenremnpn. Hsnonsyna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. ±EBEAEHOBH CRASSULACEAE
1. Benuenncruerara 10-14. Tnunnxnre µnoñno noneue............
.......... Fenonneren µeôenen SemprevivumleucanthumPane.
1*. Benuenncruera 4-6. Tnunnxnre 4-10 ...................2
2. Hneronere eµnonononn. uamenncruerara n nenuenncruerara oônxnoneno no 4. Tnunnxnre
oônxnoneno no 6 . . . . 3naronp¡x Rhodiola rosea L.
2*. Hneronere µnynononn. uamenncruerara n nenuenncruerara no 5, pxµxo 6-8; rnunnxnre 10,
pxµxo 12...........................3
3. Hncrara eµpn n nnocxn, no-mnpoxn or 1 cm n no xpanmara pxµxo nas¡ôenn .......... Ionxma
rn¡crnra Sedum maximum (L.)Suler
3*. Hncrara µpeônn, no-recnn or 1 cm, oônxnoneno nnnnnµpnunn, no-pxµ-xo
nemonnµnn............. Hmrnna rn¡crnra Sedum acre L.
Benonne1en µeõenen Semprevivum leucanthum Pane
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c r¡cro oônncreno, xnesncro nnaxnecro cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo
20 cm, npn ocnonara c ôesnnoµnn nsµ¡nxn, nncrara na xonro ca c¡ôpann n poserxa µo 5 cm n
µnamer¡p. Poserxonnre nncra ca npoµ¡nronaro nonaronnµnn, nocrenenno saocrpenn, µ¡nrn
oxono 20 mm, mnpoxn 8 mm, x¡m n¡pxa uepnennxann, no p¡ôa c pasnepenn nnacnnxn.
Cr¡ônennre nncra nocneµonarennn, npoµ¡nronaro nannernn, nnaxnecrn, npnceµnann.
Hneronere pasnonoxenn na n¡pxa na pasxnonennxra, oôpasynamn oômo mnronnµno c¡nnerne.
uamenncruerara 10-14, senenn. Benuenncruerara x¡nrn, pasnepenn, orn¡n nyxecrn, na ôpoñ
xonxoro uamenncruerara. Tnunnxnre µnoñno noneue or nenuenncruerara, c nourn ronn x¡nrn
µp¡xxn. Hnoµnnnnre pasnepenn, c ropen xñunnx. Hnoµ¡r mnorocemenna mexynxa.
Ho cyxn xamennnnn n cxannn mecra. Cpema ce µocra uecro n Pnna, Bnroma, Hnpnn, Hosencxa
nnannna, Cnanxnxa, Cpeµnn Poµonn, Kpecnencxoro µe]nne, Caxap nnannna µox¡m 2000 m n. n.
H¡]rn mnn anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
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Am1nna 1nsc1nra Sedum acre L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro rono pacrenne c x¡cn n¡nsxmn oônncrenn ns-µ¡nxn. Cr¡ônoro
nncoxo 5-12 cm. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, yµ¡nxeno xñnennµnn, mececrn, µ¡nrn 3-6 mm, n
ocnonara cn pasmnpenn, r¡nn, npnceµnann, c nmrnn nxyc. Hneronere nourn npnceµnann n
nasnnre na no-ropnnre nncra, c¡ôpann n manxn pexann cennnxonnµnn c¡nnernx.
uamenncruerara 5, xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 2-3 mm. Benuenncruerara nannernn, snarncrox¡nrn,
µ¡nrn 6-8 mm, saocrpenn. Tnunnxnre 10, manxo no-x¡cn or nenuenncruerara. ×ñunnx¡r ropen.
Hnoµ¡r côopen, c¡c snesµonnµno pasnepenn mexynxn (raôno 12, ]nr. 3).
Ho cyxn xamennnnn mecra n nnannnnre µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ-anrycr.B c¡npemennara
meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxna nxnara naµsemna uacr (µpora Herba Sedi acris). Hsnonsyna ce mnpoxo
n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Ionnua 1nsc1nra Sedum maximum (L.) Suter
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c¡c saµeôenen xopen n nsnpaneno rono cr¡ôno, nncoxo 15-
80 cm. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, nnocxn, npoµ¡nronaro xñnennµnn, r¡nn, µ¡nrn 5-13 cm,
mnpoxn 2-5 cm, no p¡ôa nas¡ôenn nnn nexcno nµn¡ônarn. C¡nnernero mnpoxo 6-10 cm, r¡cro,
mnronnµno-mernnuecro. Hneronere pasnonoxenn na x¡ca µp¡xxa. uamenncruerara n
nenuenncruerara no 5, pxµxo no 6. uamenncruerara rpn¡r¡nnn, saocrpenn, µ¡nrn 1,2 mm.
Benuenncruerara xñnennµnn, saocrpenn, µ¡nrn 3-4 mm, mnpoxn oxono 1 mm,
x¡nrennxanosenenn nnn ôenesnnxann µo cnnxann, mnoro pxµxo ôenn. Tnunnxnre 10, eµna
noµanamn ce naµ nenuero, c¡c saxp¡rnenn npamnnnn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµuerara
nsnpanenn, µ¡nrn 3-4 mm, na n¡pxa c nnneñno nocue (raôno 12, ]nr. 4).
Hs xpacranann n no xamennnnn mecra µox¡m 1900 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn oxromnpn. Vnorpeôxna
ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
3na1onpsx Rhodiola rosea L. (Sedum roseum (L.) Scop.)
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µeôeno, mececro xopennme c apomar na posa, noxpnro c
rpn¡r¡nnn nnnecrn nmcnn n npemnnanamo n µeôen npan xopen. Hneronocnnre cr¡ôna nncoxn
10-35 cm, ronn, nepasxnonenn. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, nnocxn, mececrn, npnceµnann, or
ennnrnunn µo nannernn, saocrpenn, µ¡nrn 0,7-3,5 cm, mnpoxn 0,5-1,5 cm, x¡m ropnnx cn xpañ
xcno nas¡ôenn. C¡nnernero r¡cro, mnronnµno, mnoronnerno, mnpoxo 3-9 cm, c r¡nxn
pasxnonenn xnonxn. Hneronere µnyµomnn, 4-, pxµxo 3- nnn 5-µennn. uamenncruerara
nnneñno-nannernn, µ¡nrn oxono 1 mm, r¡nn, x¡nrn nnn senennxann. Benuenncruerara
nnneñnn nnn npoµ¡nronarn, r¡nn, x¡nrn nnn x¡nrennxann, µ¡nrn 2-4 mm. Tnunnxnre 8, no-
µ¡nrn or nenuenncruerara. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµonere mexynxn, µ¡nrn 6-12 mm, c mnoro
cemena (raôno 13, ]nr. 1).
Ho xamennnnn n cxannn repenn n¡n nncoxonnannncxnx noxc na Cpeµna Crapa nnannna, Pnna,
Hnpnn n 3anaµnn Poµonn. H¡]rn npes mnn n anrycr.
Hscymennre xopenn n xopennme ca µporara Radix et Rhizoma Rhodiolae. Vnorpeôxna ce n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
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CEM. KAMEHOAOMKOBH SAXIFKAGACEAE
An1snue Chrvsosphnium altemifolium L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µ¡nro n¡nsxmo xopennme n rpnp¡-ôecro cr¡ôno, nncoxo
µo 20 cm. Hpnocnonnnre nncra na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, saxp¡rneno ô¡ôpexonnµnn, nas¡ôenn, µ¡nrn
7-25 mm n mnpoxn 10-35 mm; cr¡ônennre 1-3, no-µpeônn, nocneµonarennn, c x¡ca µp¡xxa.
Hneronere c¡ôpann n¡n np¡xno, nnocxo mnronnµno c¡nnerne, oôxnanaro or eµpn
x¡nrosenenn-xann ropnn nncra. Benue nnncna. uamxara orn¡rpe x¡nra, c¡cranena or 4
nncruera, µ¡nrn µo 2 mm. Tnunnxnre 8, no-x¡cn or uamxara. ×ñunnx¡r nourn µonen. Hnoµ¡r
eµnornesµna xyrnñxa, panna na uamxara (raôno 13, ]nr. 2).
Ho nnaxnn cenuecrn cxanncrn mecra, xpañ noronn, rnanno n cpeµnnx nnannncxn noxc µox¡m
1800 m. n. n. H¡]rn npes anpnn n mañ. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. PO3OHBETHH ROSACEAE
1. uamxara or eµnn xp¡r nncruera . . Kammnx Agrimonia eupatoria L.
1*. uamxara or µna xp¡ra nncruera (µnoñna uamxa)............2
2. Hncrara µnanennµnn, c 3-9 nncruera...................3
2*. Hncrara nepecrn...............................4
3. Hnernnre xp¡rone c no 4 nncruera......................
............. Iopcxn ounôonen Potentilla erecta (L.)Rduschel.
3*. Hnernnre xp¡rone c no 5 nncruera .....................
.................. H¡nsxm ounôonen Potentilla reptansL.
4. Hncrara c noneue or 9 µnoñxn nncruera n nourn eµnaxnn ........
................... I¡mn ounôonen PotentillaanserinaL
4*. Hncrara c no-man¡x ôpoñ crpannunn nncruera, np¡xnoro e mnoro no-ronxmo or
crpannunnre...............................5
5. Cr¡ônoro pasxnoneno, c mnoro nnerone. Cr¡nôuero c¡craneno or µne
unenuera..............Ipaµcxo omañnnue Geum urbanum L.
5*. Cr¡ônoro nncxo, nepasxnoneno, c eµnn, pxµxo c µna nnxra. Cr¡nôuero ôes c¡unenenne......
Hnannncxo omañnnue GeummontanumL.
Kaumnx Agrimonia eupatoria L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co n µeôeno xopennme. Cr¡ônoro r¡nxo, nsnpaneno,
nncoxo µo 1 m, npocro nnn x¡m n¡pxa cnaôo pasxnoneno. Hourn ncnuxn nncra cr¡ônenn,
nepecrn, µ¡nrn 9-30 cm, xaro ncexn nncr ce c¡cron or 5-9 (13) eµpn n mexµy rxx 6-10 manxn
nncruera, xonro ca npnceµnann, nas¡ôenn, c xñnennµna µo onanna ]opma. Hpnnncrnnnnre
eµpn. Hneronere µnynononn, c¡ôpann n peµxn xnaconnµnn rposµone, c oxononnernnx, c no 5
uamenncruera n 5 nenuenncruera. Benuenncruerara x¡nrn, µ¡nrn 4-6 mm. uamxara orn¡n
noxpnra c xyxecrn mnnuera; npn nnoµonere rx e oôparno xonyconnµna n no nxnara cn
µ¡nxnna naôpasµena.
Bnpoxo pasnpocrpanen e ns xpacranann n rpenncrn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1500 m n. n.
H¡]rn or mnn µo cenremnpn (raôno 13, ]nr. 3).
¡porara (Herba Agrimoniae) e naµsemnara uacr na pacrennero, orpxsana na oxono 25 cm or
ocnonara, c¡ôpana no npeme na n¡]rexa. ¡eôennre cr¡ôna ne ce c¡ônpar. Hsnonsyna ce n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
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Poµ¡r Agrimonia e sacr¡nen y nac c ome eµnn nnµ Agrimonia odomta Mill., xoñro ce cpema
rnanno n Rxna n Rrosanaµna F¡nrapnx. Hncrara my orµony ca senenn, µoxaro npn
oônxnonennx xammnx re ca cnnonnaxnecrn. uamxara npn nnoµonere e nonyx¡nôecra, camo n
ropnara cn uacr e naôpasµena.
Hnannncxo ouannnue Geum montanum L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µeôeno xopennme, noxpnro c ocrar¡nn or nsc¡xnann
nncra, ôes n¡nsxmn nsµ¡nxn. Hneronocnnre cr¡ôna oônxnoneno eµnnnunn, nncoxn 5-30 cm,
nañ-uecro eµnonnernn, cnaôo oônncrenn, noxpnrn c npocrn n xnesncrn nnacnnxn.
Hpnocnonnnre nncra nnponnµno nepecro nspxsann, c µ¡nra, pasmnpena µp¡xxa, c¡mo noxpnra
c npocrn n xnesncrn nnacnnxn. Bp¡xnoro nncrue µ¡nro µo 6 cm, oxono 4 n¡rn no-mnpoxo or
crpannunnre, nourn saxp¡rneno, µ¡nôoxo n r¡no nas¡ôeno. Crpannunnre nncruera nocrenenno
namanxnamn no pasmepn x¡m ocnonara na nncrnara µp¡xxa. Hneronere 20-45 mm n µnamer¡p, c
µnoñna uamxa n¡rpemnnre ua-menncruera 8-12 mm µ¡nrn, xñnennµnn µo xñnennµno-
nannernn, or n¡rpemnara crpana r¡cro nnaxnecrn, a n¡nmnnre uamenncruera or µnere crpann
nnaxnecrn, µnoñno no-x¡cn or n¡rpemnnre, nnneñno-nannernn. Benuenncr-uerara 5-7, pxµxo
noneue, µ¡nrn 10-18 mm, snarncrox¡nrn, saxp¡rneno xñnennµnn. Tnunnxnre n nnoµnnnnre
mnoro, c µonen xñunnx. Cr¡nôuerara nsnxno nnaxnecrn, sanasnamn ce npn nnoµonere.
Hnoµuerara mnoroôpoñnn, µ¡nrn 3-4 mm, nnaxnecrn (raôno 13, ]nr. 5).
Ho nnannncxn nonxnn n cxannn mecra n Cpeµna n 3anaµna Crapa nnannna, Cpeµna ropa,
3anaµnn Poµonn, Pnna, Hnpnn, Bnroma n Ocorono. H¡]rn or mañ µo mnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
Ipaµcxo ouannnue Geum urbanum L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co xopennme, c nsnpaneno cnaôo pasxnoneno nnaxnecro
cr¡ôno, nncoxo 20-60 cm. Hpnocnonnnre nncra c¡ôpann n poserxa c x¡ca µp¡xxa, rexonepecrn,
c¡c crpannunn nncruera (1-5 µnoñxn), nas¡ôenn; n¡pnara µnoñxa noµ np¡xnoro nncrue e no-
ronxma or ocranannre. Cr¡ônennre nncra rpoñnn, a nañ-ropnnre rpnµennn, nourn npnceµnann.
Hpnnncrnnnnre eµpn, µ¡nrn 1-3 cm, ô¡ôpexonnµno saxp¡rnenn, nenpannnno nas¡ôenn.
Hneronere 10-15 mm n µnamer¡p, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, pasnonoxenn noeµnnnuno no n¡pxonere na
pasxnonennxra. uamxara µnoñna, c 5 nncruera, n¡rpemnnre µ¡nrn 3-8 mm, nnaxnecrn,
saocrpenn, rpn¡r¡nno xñnennµnn, 2 n¡rn no-µ¡nrn or n¡nmnnre, xonro ca nnneñno-nannernn.
Benue-nncruerara 5, no-x¡cn nnn pannn na uamenncruerara, xñnennµnn, cnernox¡nrn.
Tnunnxn mnoro. Hnoµnnnnre mnoro (côopen nnoµnnx), c µonen xñunnx
(raôno 13, ]nr. 4).
Hs xpacranann n no cenuecrn mecra, xpañ ropcxn n¡rexn, no ceunma, xpañ orpaµn n µpyraµe ns
nxnara crpana. H¡]rn mañ anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nsxonannre npes nponerra xopennme n xopenn
(µpora Rhizoma et Radix Gei urbani) nnn n¡]rxmara naµsemna uacr (Herba Gei urbani).
Hpnnara ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
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Ismn ounõonen Potentilla anserina L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nperenonnµno saµeôeneno mececro xopennme n r¡nxn,
nxopenxnamn ce no n¡snnre n¡nsxmn, uecro uepnennxann cr¡ôna, µ¡nrn µo 80 cm, noxpnrn c
nnacnnxn. Hncrara npnocnonnn, µ¡nrn µo 20 cm, neun]ronepecrn, c x¡ca, pasmnpena µp¡xxa,
orµony ôenonnaxnecra, orrope senena. Hncruerara npnceµnann, µ¡nrn 10-40 mm, mnpoxn 5-15
mm, cpemynonoxnn, npoµ¡nronarn µo xñnennµnn, saocrpenn, ocrpo nannnenn. Hpnnncrnnnnre
ronemn. Hneronere eµnnnunn na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, 18-20mm n µnamer¡p. uamxara or 2 xp¡ra c no
5 nncruera, µo 1€3 or µ¡nxnnara cn cpacnann nomexµy cn, xonpnnecro nnaxnecrn, eµnaxno
µ¡nrn, saocrpenn, uecro naµenenn. Benuenncruerara c¡mo 5, snarncrox¡nrn, xñnennµnn,
µ¡nrn 7-10 mm, oxono 2 n¡rn no-µ¡nrn or uamxara. Tnunnxnre 20. Hnoµnnnnre mnoro (côopen
nnoµnnx), c µonen xñunnx. Hnoµuerara (opexuera) eµpn, xñnennµnn, nourn xp¡rnn, c xmnuxn
no non¡pxnocrra cn (raôno 14, ]nr. 1).
Ho nnaxnn rpenncrn mecra xpañ ¡ynan Homcxo, Cnnmoncxo, Opxxoncxo. H¡]rn mnn
cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna nxnoro pacrenne saeµno c xopennmero (µpora Herba
Anserinae), xoero ce nsnaxµa no npeme na n¡]rexa. Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Iopcxn ounõonen Potentilla erecta (h) Rauschel.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co, µeôeno, nourn rpyµxonnµno xopennme, µ¡nro µo 10
cm n µeôeno µo 2 cm, orn¡n r¡mnoxa]xno, a orn¡rpe npn pasuynnane uepneno-xa]xno nnn
cnernouepneno. Cr¡ônoro nncoxo µo 20-25 cm, nxnoro (saeµno c nncrara) cnaôo x¡connaxnecro.
Hpnocnonnnre nncra na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, rpoñnn nnn neropnn, cr¡ônennre nañ-uecro
npnceµnann, ncxxora rpoñnn, c eµpn, nncronnµnn, µ¡nôoxo napxsann npnnncrnnnn.
Hncruerara npoµ¡nronaro oôparno c¡pnennµnn nnn nannernn, or cpeµara narope nas¡ôenn.
Hneronere eµnnnunn, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, c µnamer¡p oxono 1 cm. uamxara ce c¡cron or µna
xp¡ra c nourn eµnaxnn nncruera. Benuero snarncrox¡nro, µ¡nro 4-6 mm, c no 4 nncruera.
Hnoµ¡r cyx, côopen, c mnoro xñnennµnn xa]xno-x¡nrn opexuera (raôno 14, ]nr. 2).
Cpema ce no nnaxnn mecra n¡n ncnuxn namn nnannnn. H¡]rn npes mnn n anrycr.
B meµnnnnara ce nsnonsyna xopennmero (Rhizoma Tormentillae), xoero ce nsxonana npes
ecenra cneµ ormnpanero na naµsemnnre uacrn (cenremnpn oxromnpn) nnn pano nanponer,
xoraro sanounar µa ce pasnnnar nncrara (anpnn).
Hsnsnm ounõonen Potentilla reptans L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno µeôeno xopennme. Cr¡ônara n¡nsxmn, µ¡nrn
µo 1 m, nnaxnecrn µo ronn, nxopenxnamn ce. Hncrara c µ¡nra µp¡xxa, µnanennµnn, c 5-7
nncruera, xaro camo nañ-ropnnre ca rpoñnn nnn 4-µennn. Hncruerara oôparno xñnennµnn,
µ¡nrn 5-70 mm n mnpoxn 3-25 mm, npoµ¡nronaro ennnrnunn µo npoµ¡nronaro nannernn, c
xnnnonnµna ocnona, nas¡ôenn, orµony nnaxnecrn, orrope nourn ronn. Hpnnncrnnnnre µoôpe
pasnnrn, cpacnann c nncrnara µp¡xxa. Hneronere eµnnnunn, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, nsnnsama or
nasnnre na nncrara, 18-25 mm n µnamer¡p. uamxara c µna xp¡ra c no 5 nncruera, xonro ca
nourn eµnaxnn no ]opma n pasmepn. Ben-
(50)
uenncruerara µ¡nrn 8-12 mm, snarncrox¡nrn, nourn µnoñno no-µ¡nrn or ua-menncruerara.
Tnunnxnre 20, c ronn µp¡xxn. Hnoµnnnnre mnoro, c .µonen xñunnx (raôno 14, ]nr. 3).
Ho nnnaµn n xamennnnn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1800 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn anrycr.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. BOBOBH - FABACEAE (PAPILIONACEAE)
1. Xpacrn nnn nonyxpacrn...........................2
1*. Tpenncrn pacrennx .............................4
2. Hncrara npocrn................................3
2*. Hncrara rpoñnn nnn neun]ronepecrn...................
........................ Hnmcxau Colutea arborescens L.
3. Honyxpacr c¡c cnnno cnnecxann n xpnnarn cr¡ôna, c¡cranenn or orµennn unenuera. Hncrara
npnxpenenn camo n¡n n¡snnre na cr¡ônara.....
.......................... Hpemnn Genista sagittalis L.
3*. Xpacrn c nnnnnµpnunn nnn cnaôo p¡ôecrn cr¡ôna, nepasµenenn na
unenuera. Hncrara pasnonoxenn no nxnara µ¡nxnna na xnonxnre.......
..............: . Foxµxnñcxa x¡nryra Genista tinctoria L,
4. B¡px¡r na oômara nncrna µp¡xxa san¡pmna c r¡nxo n µ¡nro mycraue.
Hncrara neun]ronepecrn nnn camo c eµna µnoñxa nncruera...........
.................. Hnnaµno cexnpue LathvruspratensisL.
4*. B¡px¡r na oômara nncrna µp¡xxa nnnarn san¡pmna c nncrue. Hncrara rexonepecrn
..................................... 5
5. Hncrara c¡cranenn or 3-5 nncruera . ..................6
5*. Hncruerara 7 n noneue na ôpoñ (rneµañ nncrara n ropnara uacr na
cr¡ônoro).......................................7
6. Hncrara c¡cranenn or 5 nncruera......................
................. Oônxnonen snesµan Lotus corninilatus L,
6*. Hncrara npocrn (µonnnre) n rpoñnn nnn ncnuxnre rpoñnn.......
............. Heueôna xomynnra Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall.
7. Pacrenne noxpnro c nnacnnxn. Bp¡xnoro nncrue no-ronxmo or ocranannre. uamxara
mexypecro noµyra.........................
.................. Heneôna pamenxa Anthvllis vulneraria L.
7*. Ionn pacrennx. Bp¡xnoro nncrue ronxmo xonxoro crpannunnre. uamxara ne e mexypecro
noµyra............................11
...........Cnaµxonncrno crpaônue Astragalus glvcvphvilos L.
Bonµanncxa asn1yra Genista tinctoria L.
Xpacr, nncox µo 1 m, c npnnonµnramn ce nnn nsnpanenn cr¡ôna, ronn nnn n ropnara cn uacr
r¡cro npnnernano nnaxnecrn. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, npocrn, µ¡nrn 10-25 mm, mnpoxn 3-10
mm, ennnrnunn nnn ennnrnuno-nannernn, nenoxpañnn, saocrpenn, orrope ronn, orµony
nnaxnecrn, c µpeônn, mnnonnµno saocrpenn npnnncrnnnn. Hneronere c¡ôpann n pexann
rposµo-nnµnn c¡nnernx no n¡pxonere na cr¡ônoro n pasxnonennxra my. uamxara rp¡ôecra, n
ropnara cn uacr µnyycrna c 5 s¡ôena, µ¡nra 5-6 mm, rona nnn no xnnxnre nnaxnecra. Benuero
µ¡nro 10-15 mm, x¡nro, ]naruero mnpoxo 8-10 mm, nourn panno na xpnnnara n naµnñxara.
Tnunnxnre 10, cpacnann n rp¡ônna. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r e ôoô, µ¡n¡r µo 2,5 cm, ron nnn
x¡connaxnecr, npan nnn c¡pnonnµno nsnnr (raôno 14, ]nr. 4).
Cpema ce cpannnrenno pxµxo n nxnara crpana no xpacranann, npocner-
(51)
nenn ropn n rpenncrn mecra, npeµnmno n nnsnnnre n npeµnnannnnre µox¡m 1000 m n. n.
H¡]rn mnn anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar naµsemnnre uacrn (µpora Herba Genistae tinctoriae),
xonro ce c¡ônpar no npeme na n¡]rexa. Hpnnara ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hpemnn Genista sagittalis L.
Honyxpacrue, nncoxo µo 50 cm, c¡c crenemn ce no semxra mnoroôpoñnn pasxnonennx, cnnno
cnnecxann n mnpoxo xpnnarn, c¡cranenn or orµennn unenuera. Hncrara manoôpoñnn,
npnxpenenn eµnnnuno camo no n¡snnre, npocrn, npnceµnann, nannerno-xñnennµnn,
nenoxpañnn, nnaxnecrn. Hpnnncrnnnn nnncnar. Hneronere c¡ôpann no n¡pxonere na
pasxnonennxra n no-cônrn nnn no-pexann rnannuxn, µ¡nrn 3-5 cm, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra µo 2 mm.
uamxara rp¡ôecra, c 5 cpacnann µo 2€3 or µ¡nxnnara nm nncruera, narope µnyycrna, c¡c
s¡ônn, no-µ¡nrn or rp¡ônnara, µonnnre nncruera mnnonnµnn, nnaxnecrn. Benuero µ¡nro 10-12
mm, c rono ]narue n xocmara naµnñxa, xpnnnara crecnenn n ocnonar cn, ronn. Tnunnxnre 10,
cpacnann n eµna rp¡ônna. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Foô¡r µ¡n¡r 1,5-2,5 cm, cnnecxan, nnneen,
pasnepeno nnaxnecr (raôno 14, ]nr. 5).
Ho xamennnnn n cxannn nonxnn, ns xpacranann n rpenncrn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 2000
m n. n. H¡]rn mañ mnn. Hsnonsyna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hnmcxau Colutea arborescens L.
Pasxnonen xpacr, nncox µo 5 m, c nnaxnecrn mnaµn xnonxn, no-x¡cno ronn. Hncrara
neun]ronepecrn, nocneµonarennn, c 4-5 µnoñxn mnpoxo ennnrnunn, no-pxµxo xñnennµnn, n
ocnonara xnnnonnµnn, na n¡pxa oônxnoneno npxsann, nenoxpañnn nncruera, c x¡cn
npnnernann nnacnnxn, orrope ronn. Hpnnncrnnnnre µ¡nrn µo 3,0 mm, x¡connaxnecrn.
C¡nnernxra rposµonnµnn, nsnnsamn or nasnnre na nncrara, c manxo na ôpoñ nnerone (3-5).
Hnernnre µp¡xxn µ¡nrn 10-14 mm, c µpeônn npnnnernnnn. uamxara sn¡nuennµna, mnpoxa 5
mm, c 5 x¡co rpn¡r¡nnn s¡ôena, nnaxnecra. Benuero µ¡nro 16-20 mm, x¡nro, rono. unaruero
xp¡rno, na n¡pxa npxsano, n ocnonara c µna nspacr¡xa, manxo no-µ¡nro or xpnnnara na
naµnñxara, xpnnnara ca nsnnrn n¡n nnµ na c¡pn, a naµnñxara r¡na. Tnunnxnre 10, or xonro 9
cpacnann n rp¡ônna, a µecerara cnoôoµna (9•1). ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r ôoô, µ¡n¡r 5-7 cm,
cnnno mexypecro noµyr, mnorocemenen (raôno 16, ]nr.1).
Ho cyxn, xamennnnn mecra n xpacranann, uecro n¡pxy naponnx. Cpema ce nancxx¡µe n no-
ronnnre uacrn na crpanara. H¡]rn anpnn anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Cnaµxonnc1no crpaõnue Astragalus glvcvphvllos L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nourn rono, cnnno pasxnoneno n nonernano no semxra
cr¡ôno, µ¡nro µo 2 m. Hncrara neun]ronepecrn, µ¡nrn 10-20 cm, nocneµonarennn, c 4-6 µnoñxn
ennnrnunn µo yµ¡nxeno xñnennµnn nenoxpañnn nncruera, r¡nn, orrope ronn, µ¡nrn 2-4 cm,
Hpnnncrnnnnre nannernn, cnoôoµnn. C¡nnernxra r¡crn, µn¡rnecrn, µ¡nrn 3-5 cm, no-x¡cn or
nncrara. Hneronere µ¡nrn µo 16 mm. uamxara sn¡nuennµna, µ¡nra 5-6 mm, c
(52)
mnnonnµnn s¡ônn, rona nnn noxpnra camo c ôenn nnacnnxn. Benuero senennxanox¡nro, µ¡nro
µo 15 mm. unaruero n ocnonara crecneno, na n¡pxa npxsano, xpnnnara saxp¡rnenn, naµnñxara
cnnno nsnnra. Tnunnxnre 9 •1. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Foô¡r µ¡n¡r 3-4 cm, c¡pnennµno nsnnr, ron
(raôno 16,]nr. 2).
Hs ropn, ropcxn nonxnn n xpacranann, no cxanncrn mecra n nxna F¡nrapnx µox¡m 1800 m n. n.
H¡]rn mnn anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Annaµno cexnpue Lathvrus pratensis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c¡c cnaôo pasxnoneno, nnaxnecro nncoxo cr¡ôno (30-100
cm). Hncrara nocneµonarennn, c eµna µnoñxa nnneñno-nannernn µo ennnrnunn nncruera c 3
naµn¡xnn xnnxn, µ¡nrn 10-40 mm, mnpoxn 2-9 mm, ronn, nenoxpañnn; nncrnara oc san¡pmna c
mycraue. Hpenncr-nnnnre µna, eµpn, µ¡nrn 1-3 cm, mnpoxn 3-6 mm, oônxnoneno pannn na
nncrnara µp¡xxa, nnneñnn µo nannernn, n ocnonara crpenonnµnn, c µne nepannn nannernn
ymn. Hneronere c¡ôpann no 5-12 n rposµonnµnn c¡nnernx, na oôma µp¡xxa, nxxonxo n¡rn no-
µ¡nra or nncrara. uamxara c nannerno-mnnonnµnn s¡ônn, µonnnre no-µ¡nrn, ropnnre no-x¡cn
or rp¡ônnara. Benuero x¡nro, ycrpoeno xaxro npn µpyrnre ôoôonn pacrennx. Tnunnxnre 9 •1.
×ñunnx¡r ropen. Foô¡r nnneen, µ¡n¡r 4-5 cm, cnnecxan n npn yspxnanero nouepnxna
(raôno 15, ]nr. 1).
Hs xpacranann, ropcxn nonxnn, nnnaµn n xpañ nnnn n nxna F¡nrapnx µox¡m 1500 m n. n.
H¡]rn npes mnn n mnn.
Haµsemnara uacr ce nsnonsyna n napoµnara meµnnnna. Hpanxr ce onnrn n sa n¡nexµanero my n
c¡npemennara meµnnnna.
Aeueõna xouynnra Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall.
¡nyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, no-pxµxo n¡sxoµxmo pasxnoneno cr¡ôno,
nncoxo µo 1 m, rono nnn n ropnara cn uacr cnaôo xocmaro. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, na µ¡nra
µp¡xxa, rpoñnn. Hncruerara nas¡ôenn, cpeµnoro na no-µ¡nra µp¡xunna, µonnnre nncra
oôparno xñnennµnn, ocranannre npoµ¡nronarn, µ¡nrn 15-20 mm, mnpoxn 4-12 mm.
Hpnnncrnnnnre mnnonnµnn, ncnuxn nenoxpañnn. Hneronere µpeônn, µ¡nrn 4-7 mm, c¡ôpann n
pexann rposµonnµnn c¡nnernx no n¡pxonere na pasxnonennxra, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa. Benuero
x¡nro, c ]narue, panno na xpnnnara n no-µ¡nro or naµnñxara. Tnunnxnre 9 •1. ×ñunnx¡r
ropen. Foô¡r µpeôen, µ¡n¡r 3-5 mm, ron, nourn x¡nôecr, eµnocemenen (raôno 15, ]nr. 2).
Ho nnaxnn rpenncrn mecra, n nocennre xaro nnenen n xpañ n¡rnma xaro ôypen. Cpema ce n
nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n.
3a neôeunn nenn n c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna nxnara naµsemna uacr (Herba Meliloti
oIIicinalis) nnn nncrara n nneronere (Folia et Flores Meliloti oIIicinalis), xonro ce ôepar n
nauanoro na n¡]rexa. Hma mnpoxo npnnoxenne n napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac xaro µnnopacrxmn ce cpemar ome 3 nnµa xomynnra c x¡nrn nnerone, npnnncrnnnnre na
cpeµnnre nnn na nañ-µonnnre nm nncra ca nas¡ôenn.
(53)
Oõnxnonen snesµan Lotus corniculatus L.
Mnororoµnmno pacrenne c nonernano nnn nsnpaneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 30-35 cm, nn¡rno nnn
c rn¡pµe rxcna xyxnna, rono nnn nnaxnecro. Hncrara cnoxnn, nocneµonarennn, rexonepecrn, c
5 nncruera, µ¡nrn 4-18 mm, mnpoxn 1-10 cm, nenoxpañnn, nannernn, oôparno nannernn µo
xñnennµnn, n ocnonara crecnenn, ronn nnn nnaxnecrn. Hpnnncrnnnnre µpeônn. Hneronere
c¡ôpann no 3-7 n x¡nôecrn c¡nnernx na µ¡nra µp¡xxa (5-10 cm) nnn eµnnnunn. Hnernnre
µp¡xxn µ¡nrn 1,0-2,5 mm. uamxara µ¡nra 5-6 mm, c rpn¡r¡nnn, mnnonnµno saocrpenn s¡ônn,
pannn nnn no-µ¡nrn or rp¡ônnara. Benuero µ¡nro 10-12 mm, x¡nro, pxµxo n¡suepnennxano;
naµnñxara crecnena nsneµn¡x n nocue. Tnunnxnre 9•1. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Foô¡r nnnnnµpnuen,
µ¡n¡r 1,5-3,0 cm, ron (raôno 15, ]nr. 3).
Ho nnaxn nnnaµn, nacnma, ns xpacranann n ropn n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn mañ cenremnpn.
Hsnonsyna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Heneõna pauenxa Anthvllis vulneraria L.
Eµnoroµnmno µo mnororoµnmno pacrenne, noxpnro c npnnernann n pasnepenn nnacnnxn.
Cr¡ônoro or ocnonara cn pasxnoneno, c nsnpanenn n npn-nonµnramn ce nneronocnn xnonxn,
nncoxo 10-60 cm. Hncrara neun]ronepecrn, pxµxo rpoñnn nnn npocrn, nenoxpañnn,
npnocnonnnre c 3-5 µnoñxn nncruera np¡xnoro eµpo, µ¡nro 15-35 mm, mnpoxo 10-20 mm,
mnpoxo ennnrnuno, crpannunnre µpeônn, µ¡nrn 10-20 mm, mnpoxn 3-8 mm, nnneñno
npoµ¡nronarn. Cr¡ônennre nncra c eµnaxnn, nnneñno npoµ¡nronarn nncruera (5-11 na ôpoñ),
µ¡nrn 10-20 mm, mnpoxn 3-6 mm, nnaxnecrn. Hneronere c¡ôpann n nnernn rnannuxn no
n¡pxonere na pasxnonennxra, n ocnonara c µna µnanennµno naµenenn npnnnernn nncra, µ¡nrn
7-12 mm. uamxara mexypecro noµyra, nnaxnecra, c 5 neeµnaxno µ¡nrn mnnonnµnn s¡ôuera.
Benuero µ¡nro 13-18 mm, x¡nro, uepneno-opanxeno nnn ôenesnnxano, rono. Benuenncruerara
n ocnonara cn crecnenn n nox¡r, ncnuxn, c nsxnmuenne na ]naruero, cpacnann n ocnonara cn c
rnunnxonara rp¡ônna. Tnunnxnre 10, cpacnann n rp¡ônna. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Foô¡r µ¡n¡r 5 mm,
xñnennµno x¡nôecr, nsnxno nxnmuen n uamxara (raôno 15, ]nr. 4).
Cpema ce no cyxn xamennnnn cxnonone, nnnaµn, nacnma, paspeµenn ropn n xpacranann n
nxnara crpana µo nncoxonnannncxnx noxc. Pacre npeµnmno no naponnr repen. Cnnno
nonnmop]en nnµ. H¡]rn or mañ µo cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna pxµxo ce ynorpeôxna naµsemnara uacr (Herba Vulnerariae), xoxro ce
c¡ônpa no npeme na n¡]rexa.
CEM. TPABY3AHOBH ZYOOPHYLLACEAE
Tpaõysan, õaõnnn ssõn Tribulus terrestris L.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c n¡nsxmn cr¡ôna, µ¡nrn µo 60 cm, noxpn rn c r¡crn
nnacnnxn. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, c manxn nannernn npn-nncrnnnn, un]ronepecrn, µ¡nrn 3-5
cm, mnpoxn 1,5-2,0 cm, c 5-8 µnoñxn npoµ¡nronarn nenoxpañnn nncruera, µ¡nrn 4-10 mm,
orrope ronn, orµony noxpnrn c nnacnnxn. Hneronere eµnnnunn, pasnonoxenn nañ-uecro n
nasnnre na nncrara, na x¡ca µp¡xxa. uamxara ce c¡cron or 5 xñnennµno-nannernn nncruera,
µ¡nra oxono 4 mm. Benuero c¡mo or 5 oôparno xñnennµnn nncruera,
(54)
µ¡nrn 5-7 mm, mnpoxn oxono 3 mm, x¡nro. Tnunnxnre 10. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, nerrnesµen.
Hnoµ¡r ce pasnaµa cneµ yspxnanero cn na 5 opexuera, noxpnrn c ocrpn mnnone (raôno 16, ]nr.
3).
Ho nec¡xnnnn n xamennnnn mecra, ns nosx n µpyrn oxonnn xynrypn n xpañ n¡rnma. Cpema ce
nancxx¡µe, npeµnmno n no-ronnnre uacra na crpanara. H¡]rn or mnn µo oxromnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna naµsemnara uacr (Herba Tribulus terrestris), orpxsana
no npeme na n¡]rexa. Hamnpa npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. MAEHKOBH - EJPHORBIACEAE
Oõnxnonena uneuxa Euphorbia cvparissias L.
Mnororoµnmno pacrenne, c¡µ¡pxamo mneuen cox, c nsnpaneno rono cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 50 cm,
na n¡pxa c mnoroôpoñnn ôesnnoµnn, r¡cro oônncrenn pasxnonennx. Hncrara nocneµonarennn,
ronn recnonnneñnn, µ¡nrn 5-40 mm, mnpoxn 0,5-3 mm, nenoxpañnn. Hneronere eµnonononn,
c¡ôpann n ocoôenn, npocro ycrpoenn c¡nnernx nnarym, xonro no n¡nmen nsrneµ
npnnnuar na orµenen nnxr. C¡nnernxra na µp¡xxn, nsnnsamn or nasnnre na nncrara.
Hnarymnre c¡ôpann n pasnnunn c¡nnernx, nañ-uecro cennnxonnµnn, xaro npn ocnonara cn ca
oônnrn c nxxonxo npnc¡nnernn nncra. Hneronere ôes oxononnernnx, oônnrn or eµno
uamxonnµno noxpnnano, nanomnxmo mnoro oxononnernnx, nonyueno or cpacrnanero na
npnnnernnnnre na m¡xxnre nnerone. P¡ô¡r na noxpnnanoro napxsan na 5 r¡nxn µxna, mexµy
xonro nma 4 mececrn, nsnnrn nan¡n µxna, napeuenn xnesn, onnerenn x¡nro µo r¡mnoxa]xno.
Hpnnner-nnre nncra µ¡nrn 3-5 mm, mnpoxn 5-10 mm, no npeme na n¡]rexa sna-rncrox¡nrn µo
opanxeno-x¡nrn, npn nnoµonere uecro xpxouepneno onnerenn. Hnoµ¡r cyxa, rona, pasnyxnnna
xyrnñxa, µ¡nra 3,0-3,5 mm (raôno 16, ]nr. 4).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra, ns xpacranann, ceunma n noxapnma, xpañ n¡rnma n
cennma n nxnara crpana µox¡m 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn.
B nxxon crpann (Honma n µp.) nxnara naµsemna uacr (µpora Herba Euphorbiae cyparissias) ce
ynorpeôxna n c¡npemennara meµnnnna, a y nac ce nsnonsyna camo n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. CE±EmHEBH RUTACEAE
Ceµeque Ruta graveolens L.
Eµnoroµnmno nan¡nno rono rpenncro pacrenne c nµ¡pnenxno n ocnonara cn cr¡ôno, nncoxo
20-45 cm. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, µnoñno nnn rpoñno nepecro pasceuenn, c npoµ¡nronaro
oôparno xñnennµnn nenoxpañnn r¡nn µxnone, xaro np¡xnnxr µxn e mnpox µo 9 mm; µonnnre n
cpeµnnre nncra c µ¡nra µp¡xxa, ropnnre npnceµnann. Hneronere npannnnn, c¡ôpann n¡n
np¡xnn pexann mnronnµnn mernnnn; uamxara n nenuero c no 4, no-pxµxo c no 5 nncruera.
Benuenncruerara x¡nrn, oôparno xñnennµnn, nenoxpañnn nnn cnaôo nas¡ôenn, µ¡nrn µo 6-9
mm. Tnunnxnre µnoñno noneue or nenuenncruerara
(55)
(8-10). ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r e nourn c]epnuna pasnyxnnna 4-rnesµna xyrnñxa. O1ponno!
(raôno 16, ]nr. 5).
Ho cyxn xamennnnn mecra n xpacranann n nsrounara uacr na crpanara n no cxnononere na
Poµonnre µox¡m 500 m n. n. Orrnexµa ce n xaro µexoparnnno pacrenne n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn
mnn anrycr.
Bp¡xnnre xnonxn saeµno c nncrara n nneronere ca µporara Herba Rutae, xoxro ce c¡ônpa no
npeme na n¡]rexa. Hamnpa mnpoxo npnnoxenne n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. CMPA±AHKOBH ANACARDIACEAE
Cupaµnnxa Cotinus coggvgria Scop. (Rhus cotinus L.)
Xpacr, nncox µo 5 m, c npocrn, xñnennµnn nnn mnpoxo ennnrnunn nncra, µ¡nrn 3-10 cm,
mnpoxn 2-7 cm, nocneµonarennn, nenoxpañnn, ronn nnn nnaxnecrn, c x¡ca µp¡xxa, orrope
r¡mnosenenn, orµony cnnxanosenenn, naecen nouepnenxnamn. Hneronere ôneµox¡nrn µo
senennxann, µnynononn, c¡ôpann n¡n np¡xnn pexann, pasnepenn mernnnn, µ¡nrn 15-20 cm.
uamxara n nenuero c no 5 nncruera, xaro nenuenncruerara ca 2 n¡rn no µ¡nrn or uamxara.
Tnunnxnre 5, pasnonoxenn mexµy nenuenncruerara. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, eµnornesµen. Cneµ
npen¡]rxnanero nnernnre µp¡xxn ce yµ¡nxanar n ce noxpnnar c µ¡nrn, posonn, uepnennxann
nnn x¡nrennxann nnacnnxn. Hnoµ¡r oôparno xñnennµen, xocrnnxon, cyx, cneµ yspxnanero
r¡mnoxa]xn, µ¡n¡r 3-5 mm. O1ponno!(raôno 17, ]nr. 1).
Ho cyxn xamennnnn mecra, ns xpacranann n cnernn µ¡ôonn ropn, no-uecro n¡pxy naponnx.
Cpema ce nancxx¡µe n no-ronnnre uacrn na crpanara µox¡m 1000 m. n. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nncrara (µpora Folia Cotini), xonro ce ôepar no npeme
na n¡]rexa. Vnorpeôxna ce mnpoxo n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. AHHOBH TILIACEAE
Anna Tilia L.
1. Ho npeme na n¡]rexa nncrara orµony r¡cro noxpnrn c µpeônn ôenn snesµonnµnn nnacnnxn;
n ¡rnnre mexµy crpannunnre xnnxn ôes ôpaµnuxa or eµpn nnacnnxn. Hneronere c 5 ôesnnoµnn
nenuennµnn rnunnxn (cramnnoµnn) ........................ Fxna nnna T. tomentosa Moench
1*. Hncrara orµony ronn c peµxn, npocrn nnacnnxn; n ¡rnnre na xnnxnre c ôpaµnuxa.
Hneronere ôes cramnnoµnn......................2
2. Hncrara orµony cnernosenenn, n¡cxann. Mnaµnre xnonxn n n¡nxnre
noxpnrn c nnacnnxn. Opexuero c rn¡pµa, nµ¡pnenxna oônnnxa .........
................... Eµponncrna nnna - T.platvphvllosScop.
2*. Hncrara orµony cnnxanosenenn, maronn. Mnaµnre xnonxn n n¡nxnre
ronn. Opexuero c mexa, rpomnnna oônnnxa.....................
................... ¡peônonncrna nnna T. cordata Mill.
(56)
Bnna nnna Tilia tomentosa Moench (T. argentea Desf.)
¡¡pno, nncoxo µo 20 m, c nnaxnecrn mnaµn xnonxn. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, µ¡nrn 5-12 cm n
nourn ronxona mnpoxn, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 2-6 cm, saxp¡rnenn, saxp¡rneno xñnennµnn, na n¡pxa
nsneµn¡x crecnenn, ocrpo nann-nenn, orµony ôenon¡nnecrn. Hneronere c¡ôpann no 6-10 n
c¡nnerne nonycennnx, µp¡xxara na xoñro µox¡m cpeµara e cpacnana c rnannara xnnxa na
ronxm, esnuecr, noxpnr c ôenesnnxann nnacnnxn xoxecr npnnneren nncr, µ¡n¡r µo 10 cm n
mnpox 0,5-1,5 cm. uamxara 5-nncrna, cxopo onaµama, µ¡nra 3,5-5,0 mm. Benuenncruerara
c¡mo 5, ronn, x¡nrennxann, µ¡nrn 4-7 mm, enñnrnunn. Tnunnxnre mnoro. ×ñunnx¡r ropen.
Hnoµ¡r rn¡pµo opexue, µ¡nro µo 1 cm, xocmaro (raôno 17, ]nr. 2).
Pacre n mnpoxonncrnnre ropn n npeµnnannncxnx n µonnnx nnannncxn noxc µox¡m 1500 m n. n.
H¡]rn npes mnn n mnn.
Eµponnc1na nnna Tilia platvphvllos Scop. (T. grandifolia Ehrh.)
¡¡pno, nncoxo µo 40 m. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, saxp¡rnenn, saxp¡rneno xñnennµnn µo
mnpoxo c¡pnennµnn, c¡c cnaôo acnmerpnuna ocnona, x¡m n¡pxa nocrenenno crecnenn, µ¡nrn
7-14 cm, mnpoxn 4-12 cm, or µnere crpann eµnaxno senenn, nas¡ôenn, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 2-6 cm.
Hneronere 2-5, oônxnoneno 3. Hpnc¡nnernnxr nncr µ¡n¡r 3,5-12,0 cm, mnpox 0,8-2,2 cm,
noxpnr c¡c snesµonnµnn nnacnnxn. uamenncruerara 5, µ¡nrn 4,5-7,5 mm, mnpoxn 2,0-3,5 mm,
noxpnrn c xonpnnenn nnacnnxn. Benuenncruerara 5, cnernox¡nrn, µ¡nrn 6,0-8,5 mm, mnpoxn
1,8-2,5 mm. Tnunnxnre mnoro. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r rn¡pµo opexue, µ¡nro µo 1 cm.
Pacre ns xpacranann n ropn, no xamennnnn cxnonone n nxnara crpana, c nsxnmuenne na
pannnnnre, mexµy 500 n 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn npes mnn n mnn.
±peõnonnc1na nnna Tilia cordata Mill. (T. parvifolia Ehrh.)
¡¡pno, nncoxo µo 30 m. Hncrara µ¡nrn 3-9 cm n nourn ronxona mnpoxn, saxp¡rnenn µo mnpoxo
xñnennµnn, x¡m n¡pxa nsneµn¡x saocrpenn, c¡c c¡pnennµna n cnaôo acnmerpnuna ocnona,
nenpannnno nas¡ôenn µo nannnenn, orrope r¡mnosenenn, orµony cnnxanosenenn, c µp¡xxa,
µ¡nra µo 6 cm. Hneronere 4-16, xaro npnc¡nnernnxr nncr e ron, µ¡n¡r 1,5-10,0 cm, mnpox 0,7-
1,5 cm, nanneren. uamenncruerara 5, µ¡nrn 2,5-4,5 mm n mnpoxn 1,8-2,0 mm. Benuero 5-
nncrno, cnernox¡nro, nncruerara µ¡nrn 6,0-8,5 mm, mnpoxn 1,8-2,5 mm. Tnunnxnre mnoro.
×ñunnx¡r ropen. Opexuero mexo, rpomnnno, µ¡nro 4,5-5,5 mm.
Cpema ce n ropnre or mopcxoro pannnme µox¡m 1500 m n. n. H¡]rn npes mnn n mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar c¡nnernxra c npnnnernnx nncr (µpora Flores Tiliae
cum bracteis) nnn ôes npnc¡nnernnxa (Flores Tiliae sine bracteis), xonro ce c¡ônpar no npeme na
n¡]rexa. Hma ronxmo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
(57)
CEM. 3BTHHKOBH HYPERICACEAE
Æsn1 xan1apnon, neueõna snsnnxa Hvpericum perforatum L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nan¡nno rono cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 1 m, n ropnara cn uacr
cnnno pasxnoneno. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, npnceµnann, npoµ¡nronaro nnneñnn µo
ennnrnunn, µ¡nrn µo 3 cm, mnpoxn µo 1,5 cm, nenoxpañnn, c mnoroôpoñnn npocnernxnamn
xnesn, noµoônn na rounnn. B nasnnre na nncrara nnnarn nma cx¡cenn xnonxn. Hneronere
npannnnn, c¡ôpann n mernnuecrn, nourn cennnxonnµnn c¡nnernx no n¡pxonere na xnonxnre n
cr¡ônara. uamxara c 5 neonaµnamn, nenoxpañnn, npoµ¡nronarn, saocrpenn nncruera.
Benuenncruerara c¡mo 5, snarncrox¡nrn, nourn 2 n¡rn no-µ¡nrn or uamxara, µ¡nrn 1,2-1,5
cm, mnpoxn 0,5-0,6 cm, no p¡ôa n n ropnara cn uacr c mnorouncnenn x¡nrn xnesn n¡n nnµ na
cnernn rouxn. Tnunnxnre mnoroôpoñnn, cpacnann n ocnonara cn n rpn cnonuera. Cr¡nôuerara
3, cnoôoµnn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r rpnrnesµna, rpnp¡ôecra, pasnyxnnna mnorocemen-na
xyrnñxa c mnoroôpoñnn x¡nrn xnesncrn mexypuera (raôno 17, ]nr. 3).
Cpema ce no cyxn rpenncrn mecra, ns xpacranann, ceunma, xpañ n¡rnma n n ropnre na nxnara
crpana nourn µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn or mañ µo anrycr.
¡porara Herba Hyperici e np¡xnara oônncrena n nneronocna uacr na cr¡ônoro, orpxsana na 25-
30 cm or n¡pxa no npeme na n¡]rexa. Vnorpeôxna ce mnpoxo n napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac ce cpemar oxono 21 µnnopacrxmn nnµa sn¡nnxa, no neueônara ce ornnuana or ncnuxn
nañ-neue no rona, ue uamenncruerara ñ ca nenoxpañnn (ôes xnesncrn s¡ônn), nncrara n
cr¡ônoro ca ronn, a cr¡nôuerara ca rpn na ôpoñ.
3aoe.erra. Ce+. Te+euveoeu Jiolaceae, Tpuµeemua me+euvea Jiola tricolor L. (er. npu
ou.ru cìc cuuu u cuuio-euo.emoeu µeemoee).
CEM. THKBOBH CUCURBITACEAE
1. Vnnnno pacrenne c mycrauxn. Hnoµ¡r ronuecr, uepen, rnaµ¡x......
.......................... ¡nna rnxna Brvonia alba L.
1 *. Heynnnno pacrenne ôes mycrauxn. Hnoµ¡r npoµ¡nronaro ennnrnuen, senen, noxpnr c
mnnuera . . . H¡pxano Ecbalium elaterium (L.) A. Rich.
Hspxano, nyµa xpac1annna Ecbalium elaterium (L.) A. Rich.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c¡c crenemo ce no semxra nnn npn-nonµnramo ce cr¡ôno,
µ¡nro µo 1 m n noneue, noxpnro c rpyôn uernnxn. Hncrara c¡pnennµnn nnn nenpannnno
rpn¡r¡nnn, ne mnoro naµenenn n nas¡ôenn, µ¡nrn 3,5-12 cm, mnpoxn 3-12 cm, c nncrna
µp¡xxa, µ¡nra µo 15 cm, orrope r¡mnosenenn c peµxn uernnxn, orµony cnernosenenn, r¡cro
x¡connaxnec-rn, no xnnxnre c uernnxn. Hneronere eµnonononn, pasnonoxenn n nasnnre na
nncrara. M¡xxnre c¡ôpann no nxxonxo n rposnonnµnn c¡nnernx na µp¡xxa, xoxro e panna nnn
no-µ¡nra or µp¡xxara na c¡ornernnx nncr. Xencxnre nnerone eµnnnunn, pasnonoxenn µo
m¡xxnre c¡nnernx na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, xoxro nsnnsa or nasnara na nncrara. uamxara
sn¡nuennµna, 5-µenna, µ¡nra 3,5-5,0 mm, nnaxnecra. Benuenncruerara c¡mo 5, ôneµox¡nrn,
cpacnann sn¡nue-nnµno, c 5 µxna na n¡pxa, orn¡n r¡cronnaxnecrn. Tnunnxnre 5, or rxx 4
cpacnann no µnoñxn, a nerara cnoôoµna. ×ñunnx¡r µonen. Hnoµ¡r npoµ¡nronar,
(58)
µ¡n¡r 4-5 cm, noxpnr c ôoµnnnn uernnxn, x¡nro-senen. Cemenara uepnn, nsnnsar excnnosnnno
npn orx¡cnanero na nnoµa npes oôpasynanara ce µynxa. O1ponno!(raôno 17, ]nr. 4).
Ho nec¡xnnnn mecra, xpañ n¡rnma n nsxonn. Cpema ce no nxnoro uepnomopcxo xpañôpexne n
ryx-ram n Tpaxnñcxara nnsnna µox¡m 400 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar neyspennre nnoµone (µpora Fructus Ecbalii). Hamnpa
npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
±nna 1nxna Brvonia alba L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µeôen, penonnµen, mececr xopen, orn¡n x¡nrennxan,
n¡rpe ôxn n c xarepnnno cr¡ôno, µ¡nro µo 4 m, cnaôµeno c mycrauxn, upes xonro ce npnxpenna
x¡m µpyrn pacrennx. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, n oômoro cn ouepranne mnpoxo rpn¡r¡nnn,
µnanennµno 5-µennn, xaro µxnonere ca mnpoxo µo rxcno rpn¡r¡nnn, nepannomepno nas¡ôenn,
or µnere crpann ôpaµannuecro uernnecrn. Ocnonara nm e c¡pnennµna. Herypnre µ¡nrn 2,5-8,5
cm, mnpoxn 1,5-6,5 cm, a nncrnara µp¡xxa µ¡nra 1,5-6 cm. Eµnoµomno pacrenne. M¡xxnre
nnerone c¡ôpann no 8-16 n rposµoanµnn c¡nne-rnx na µ¡nra µp¡xxa (3-15 cm) n nasnnre na
ropnnre nncra, a camnre nnernn µp¡xxn µ¡nrn 0,3-2,5 cm. Xencxnre nnerone c¡ôpann no 4-10
n mnronnµnn c¡nnernx na µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 1,5-5,5 cm, n nasnnre na µonnnre nncra. uamxara n
nenuero 5-µennn; uamxonara rp¡ônna µ¡nra µo 4 mm, c rxcno rpn¡r¡nnn s¡ônn, µ¡nrn 1,5-3,0
mm, npn xencxnre nnerone pannn na nenuero. Benuenncruerara µ¡nrn 3,5-5,0 mm, mnpoxn 2,5-
3,5 mm, cnnxanox¡nrn µo x¡nrennxano-ôenn, r¡cronnµxnecrn, c 4-6 senenn nsn¡xnann xnnxn.
Tnunnxnre 5 eµna cnoôoµna, a µpyrnre cpacnann 2 no 2. ×ñunnx¡r µonen, c eµno cr¡nôue n
c ronn ônnsanna. Hnoµ¡r ronuecr, 6-8 mm n µnamer¡p, xp¡r¡n, uepen, couen. O1ponno!(raôno
18, ]nr. 1).
Hs xpacranann, npeµnmno no nnaxnn mecra, xpañ pexn n no nnernma xaro ôypen. Cpema ce n
nxna F¡nrapnx µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ mnn.
Hsnonsyna ce xopen¡r (µpora Radix Bryoniae albae), xoñro ce nsnaxµa npeµn n¡]rexa. Hamnpa
mnpoxo npnnoxenne n napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac ce cpema ome eµnn nnµ µnna rnxna Brvonia dioica Jacq. (x¡nra µnna rnxna). Tx e c
x¡nr nnn uepnen nnoµ, uamxara npn xencxnre nnerone e nanononnna no-x¡ca or nenuero,
ônnsannero e nnaxnecro.
CEM. BTPBOBKOBH ONAGRACEAE (OENOTHERACEAE)
Hynanxa Oenothera biennis L, (Onagra biennis (L.) Scop.)
¡nyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne, mexon¡nnecro, c nsnpaneno, oônxnoneno nepasxnoneno
cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 150 cm. B ocnonara my ce namnpa poserxa or nncra c µp¡xxn, npoµ¡nronaro
oôparno xñnennµnn nnn npoµ¡nronarn, r¡nn, nas¡ôenn nnn nourn nenoxpañnn, c ocr¡p np¡x,
µ¡nrn 5-10 cm, mnpoxn µo 4 cm. Cr¡ônennre nncra nocneµonarennn, na x¡ca µp¡xxa,
saocrpenn, npoµ¡nronaro nannernn, n ocnonara xnnnonnµnn, cnrno nas¡ôenn. Hneronere eµpn,
µ¡nrn 2-3 cm, npannnnn. uamxara c 4 saocrpenn µxna, oô¡pnarn nasaµ, nnaxnecrn.
Benuenncruerara oôparno xñnennµnn, na n¡pxa nnnrxo nµn¡ônarn, µ¡nrn 2-5 cm,
cnernox¡nrn. Tnunnxnre 8, or xonro 4 no-µ¡nrn. ×ñunnx¡r µonen n c eµno cr¡nôue. Hnoµ¡r
xyrnñxa, µ¡nra 1-4 cm, nnaxnecra, (raôno 18, ]nr. 2).
(59)
Ho xamennnnn mecra n xpañ n¡rnma ryx-ram n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxna naµsemnara my uacr c nneronere (µpora Herba
Oenotherae).
CEM. ±PRHOBH CORNACEAE
±pnn Cornus mas L.
Xpacr nnn µp¡nue, nncoxo µo 8 m, c nnaxnecrn senennxann mnaµn xnonxn, no-x¡cno ronn.
Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, µ¡nrn 4-10 cm, xñnennµnn nnn ennnrnunn, saocrpenn,
x¡connaxnecrn, nenoxpañnn. Hneronere x¡nrn, c¡ôpann n cennnxonnµnn c¡nnernx c 4
oônnnnn nncruera, µnynononn, no noneuero nmar camo rnunnxn; noxnxnar ce pano nanponer
npeµn pasnncrnanero. uamxara eµna saôenexnma, c¡cranena or 4 s¡ôuera. Benuenncruerara 4,
nannernn. Tnunnxnre c¡mo 4, rpn n¡rn no-x¡cn or nenuero. ×ñunnx¡r µonen. Hnoµ¡r
(µpxnxa) xocrnnxon, npoµ¡nronar, c uepnena mececra uacr, µ¡n¡r 12-15 mm. Vspxna anrycr
oxromnpn (raôno 18, ]nr. 3).
Cpema ce ns ropn n xpacranann n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1300 m n. n. H¡]rn npes ]enpyapn n
mapr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nnoµonere (µpora Fructus Corni). Vnorpeôxna ce n n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. CEHHHKOHBETHH - APIACEAE (UMBELLIFERAE)
1. Hncrara mnpoxo ennnrnunn, ncnuxn nnn camo nañ-ropnnre oôxnamar cr¡ônoro......
Kp¡rnonncrna ypoxa Bupleurum rotundifoliumL.
l*. Hncrara napxsann, pasµenenn nnn nepecrn...............2
2. ¡xnonere na nncrara nnneñnn nnn nnmxonnµnn, no- recnn or 0,5 cm . 3
2*. ¡xnonere na nncrara no-mnpoxn or 0,5 cm, ennnrnunn, xñnennµnn
nnn xnnnonnµnn, nenoxpañnn, nas¡ôenn nnn napxsann.............6
3. ¡xnonere na nncrara nourn nnmxonnµnn nnn rxcno nannernn, µ¡nrn µo 2 cm n noneue
...................................4
3*. ¡xnonere na nncrara nannernn, recnonnneñnn nnn nnmxonnµnn, no ne no-µ¡nrn or 1 cm
........ Hpanroc Prangos fenilacea (L.) Lindl.
4.Hnernnre µp¡xxn npn ocnonara cn c oônnnxa or nncruera........
..................... Camoµnncxa rpena PeucedanumL.
4*. Hnernnre µp¡xxn npn ocnonara cn ôes oônnnxa na nncruerara .... 5
5. Hnoµuerara orx¡m r¡pôa nourn cnnecxann nnn cnaôo noµyrn. Eµnoroµnmno pacrenne.
C¡nnernero c¡µ¡pxa 30-50 n¡ua................
.......................... Kon¡p Anethum graveolens L.
5*. Hnoµuerara orx¡m r¡pôa cnnno nsµyrn. Mnororoµnmno pacrenne. C¡nnernero c¡µ¡pxa
10-25 n¡ua .... Mopau Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
6. Inannnre n¡un na ncxxo c¡nnerne npn ocnonara cn ôes oônnnxa or
nncruera, pxµxo c oônnnxa or eµno nncrue.....................
......................... Ham¡pnax Pastinaca sativa L.
6*. Inannnre n¡un na ncxxo c¡nnerne npn ocnonara cn c oônnnxa or nncruera .............
Cnônpcxn µenncnn Herucleum sibiricum L.
(60)
Pesene Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
Mnororoµnmno nnn µnyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c xp¡rno, r¡nxo peôpncro n cnnno
pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 2,5 m. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, n oômoro cn ouepranne
xñnennµno rpn¡r¡nnn, 3-4 n¡rn nepecro pasceuenn, µonnnre na µp¡xxn, ropnnre npnceµnann
na pasmnpenn nnarannma, xaro µxnonere nm ca nnneñno nnmxonnµnn nnn nnneñno
mnnonnµnn, na n¡pxa saocrpenn, ronn. Hncrnnre nnarannma µ¡nrn 3-6 cm, rxcno
npoµ¡nronarn, no xpax nnnecrn, x¡m n¡pxa pasmnpenn. Hneronere c¡ôpann n cnoxnn cennn-
nn µo 15 cm n µnamer¡p, c¡cranenn or 4 µo 30 neeµnaxnn no µ¡nxnna ronn n¡ua, ôes oônnnnn
nncruera, xaxro npn ocnonara na rnannnre n¡un, raxa n n ocnonara na cennnuerara. uamxa
nnncna. Benuero x¡nro, c 5 mnpoxo xñnennµnn nncruera, µ¡nrn oxono 1 mm n nourn ronxona
mnpoxn. Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r µonen. Hnoµonere ronn, µ¡nrn 4-10 mm, xñnennµno
npoµ¡nronarn (raôno 19, ]nr. 1).
Kynrnnnpa ce. Tyx-ram ce cpema n xaro noµnnxno pacrenne n Cpeµna cenepna n
Ceneponsrouna F¡nrapnx, Tpaxnñcxara nnsnna n Poµonnre µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn
cenremnpn. B meµnnnnara ce ynorpeôxnar yspennre nnoµone (µpora Fructus Foeniculi).
Konsp Anethum graveolens L.
Eµnoroµnmno rono pacrenne c¡c cnnna mnpnsma. Cr¡ônoro eµnnnuno, nsnpaneno, npocro nnn
pasxnoneno, nnnnnµpnuno, rnaµxo, nncoxo µo 120-130 cm, r¡mnoseneno, c peµynamn ce
ôenesnnxann n senennxann naµn¡xnn nnnnn. Hncrara rpoñno µo uernopno nepecrn, n oômoro
cn ouepranne xñnennµnn, c nnneñno nnmxonnµnn nnn c nourn uernnonnµnn nocneµnn µenue-
ra; µonnnre nncra na µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 1,5-3,5 cm, xoxro n ocnonara cn ce pasmnpxna n
npoµ¡nronaro µ¡nro nnarannme (1,5-2,0 cm), no p¡ôa cn mnpoxo nnnecro; ropnnre nncra
npnceµnann na nnarannmara no-µpeônn n no-manxo pasceuenn. Hneronere c¡ôpann n c¡nnernx
cennnnn c µnamer¡p µo 15 cm, c¡cranenn or 30-50 n¡ua. uamxa nnncna. Benuero x¡nro, c 5
nourn saxp¡rnenn n na n¡pxa cn npxsann nncruera, µ¡nrn 1,2-1,5 mm. Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r
µonen. Hnoµuerara µ¡nrn 5-6 mm, xñnennµnn nnn mnpoxo ennnrnunn, orx¡m r¡pôa cnnecxann,
a no xpanmara nsn¡xnann, c 5 nsn¡xnann peôpa, or xonro rp¡ônnre ca no-ocrpn (raôno 18,
]nr. 4).
B µnno c¡croxnne ce cpema camo no cxannre xpañ uepno mope (na mr or Heceô¡p) n xpañ
¡ynan. Kynrnnnpa ce oôaue n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn npes mnn n anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar nnoµonere (µpora Fructus Anethi). Hsnonsyna ce
mnpoxo n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hpanroc Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno p¡ôecro rono cr¡ôno, nncoxo 60-150 cm, c¡c
cpemynonoxno nnn nourn npemnenecro pasnonoxenn pasxnonennx. Hncrara nocneµonarennn,
ronn, mnoroxparno nepecro napxsann na nnneñno-nannernn µo nourn nnmxonnµnn µenuera, n
oômoro cn ouepranne mnpoxo xñnennµnn µo npoµ¡nronaro ennnrnunn. Hpnocnonnnre nncra c
µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 30-40 cm n c nerypa, µ¡nra 50-80 cm, n ocnonara cn pasµenena na rpn µxna,
ncexn or xonro e 4-5 n¡rn nepecro pasceuen. Harope nncrara namanxnar no pasmep, xaro nañ-
ropnnre ca npnceµnann n c nnarannme, oô-
(61)
xnamamo cr¡ônoro. Cennnnnre c¡cranenn or 6-18 n¡ua, c oônnnxa or nncruera n ocnonara na
rnannnre n¡un n na nnernnre µp¡xxn. uamxara na n¡pxa nourn nenoxpañna, ôes s¡ônn.
Benuero x¡nro, µ¡nro oxono 1 mm, c nenn nenuenncruera, unnro np¡xuera ca sannrn nan¡rpe.
Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r µonen. Hnoµ¡r eµ¡p, cnaôµen no p¡ôa n na r¡pôa c µoôpe pasnnrn
nnnecrn xpnnna, µ¡n¡r 10-25 cm (raôno 19, ]nr. 2).
Ho cyxn xamennnnn n rpenncrn mecra n Rronsrouna F¡nrapnx mxnara uacr na
uepnomopcxoro xpañôpexne n Tynµxancxara x¡nmncra pannnna. H¡]rn mañ mnn.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Kpsrnonnc1na ypoxa Bupleurum rotundifoHum L.
Eµnoroµnmno cnno-seneno, uecro uacrnuno uepneneemo pacrenne c nsnpaneno nnnnnµpnuno
cr¡ôno, oônxnoneno n ropnara cn uacr pasxnoneno, nncoxo 15-75 cm. Hncrara npocrn,
nocneµonarennn, npnocnonnnre n µonnnre cr¡ônenn c µp¡xxn nnn nourn npnceµnann,
oôxnamamn cr¡ônoro, oôparno xñnennµnn µo npoµ¡nronaro ennnrnunn, µ¡nrn 5-7 cm, mnpoxn
2-3 cm; cpeµnnre cr¡ônenn nncra no-µpeônn, ennnrnunn nnn xñnennµnn, r¡nn nnn x¡co
saocrpenn, nnocxn nnn cnaôo ]ynnennµnn c¡c saxp¡rnena ocnona, n µonnara cn uacr
nponnsann or cr¡ônoro; x¡m n¡pxa cranar nce no-µpeônn, xñnennµnn nnn nourn xp¡rnn,
nponnsann or cr¡ônoro. Hneronere c¡ôpann n cennnnn or no 5-10 rnannn n¡ua, c µp¡xxn,
µ¡nrn 2-4 cm, ôes nncruera npn ocnonara cn. Bcexn cennnx c 8-12 nnxra, c 5-6 xñnennµnn,
saocrpenn nncruera npn ocnonara nm. uamxa nnncna. Benuenncruerara x¡nrn, µ¡nrn 0,5-0,7
mm, c¡c sannr nan¡rpe np¡x. Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r µonen. Hnoµ¡r onanen, µ¡n¡r 2,5-3,5 mm,
orcrpann cnnecxan, c xcnn naµn¡xnn peôpa (raôno 19, ]nr. 3).
Ho cyxn xamennnnn n rpenncrn mecra, xpañ n¡rnma n cnnypn xaro ôypen. Cpema ce pxµxo n
nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hncsuna cauoµnncxa 1pena Peucedanum arenarium W. K.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c macnnen neprnxanen xopen. Cr¡ônoro rono, nsnpaneno, n
ropnara cn uacr pasxnoneno, r¡nxo naôpasµeno, nncoxo 90-150 cm. Hncrara 3-4 n¡rn nepecrn,
µ¡nrn µo 45 cm, mnpoxn µo 30 cm, npoµ¡nronaro xñnennµnn µo nourn xp¡rnn, na µp¡xxn,
µ¡nrn 3-8 cm; xpañnnre µxnone µ¡nrn µo 15 mm, mnpoxn µo 6 mm, npoµ¡nronarn µo nnneñnn.
Cpeµnnre cr¡ônenn nncra npocro nepecrn, na µp¡xxn, µ¡nrn 1,5-2,5 cm, mnpoxo oôxnamamn
cr¡ônoro, a nañ-ropnnre nncra peµynnpann µo mnpoxn nnarannma nnn manxn npocrn
nncruera. Cnoxnnre cennnnn (2-14 na ôpoñ), µ¡nrn µo 15 cm, ronn, ôes oônnnxa nnn c 1 -2
nnneñnn µo npoµ¡nronarn saocrpenn nncruera, µ¡nrn 5-9 mm. Cennnnnre mnoronnernn, xaro n
ocnonara na nnernnre µp¡xxn ce namnpar mnoroôpoñnn nnneñno-nannernn µo nnmxo-nnµnn
npnnnernnnn, µ¡nrn µo 15 mm. uamxa nnncna. Benuero x¡nro, µ¡nro 1,8-2,3 mm, c 5
xñnennµnn µo nourn xp¡rnn nncruera. Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r µonen. Hnoµonere
ennnconnµnn, µ¡nrn 5-11 mm, cnnecxann, ronn, c 3 nsn¡xnann peôpa n mnpoxn xpnna (raôno
19, ]nr. 4).
Ho xpañmopcxnre nxc¡nn, no cyxn rpenncrn mecra n xamennnnn repenn n no-ronxmara uacr or
crpanara µox¡m 1600 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn anrycr.
V nac ca nponeµenn ycnemnn excnepnmenrn sa neuenne na nxxon ôonecrn c xopena n spennre
nnoµone.
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Hamspnax Pastinaca sativa L.
¡nyroµnmno pacrenne c nperenonnµen, nonxxora penonnµen,. saµeôenen xopen. Hpes n¡pnara
roµnna pasnnna cnonue nepecrn nncra na µ¡nrn µp¡xxn, a npes nropara cr¡ôno, xoero e
nsnpaneno, xyxo, rono, naôpasµeno, pasxnoneno, nncoxo 30-100 cm. Hncrara npocro nepecrn, c
2-7 µnoñxn nncruera, xonro ca npnceµnann, ennnconnµnn µo nannerno-ennnconnµnn, µ¡nrn µo
11 cm, mnpoxn 8 cm, nas¡ôenn, orµony rpanano nnaxnecrn, npnocnonnnre nncra na µp¡xxn,
µ¡nrn µo 15 cm. Hncrara n oômoro cn ouepranne ennnconnµnn, µ¡nrn µo 20 cm, namanxnamn
x¡m n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro, xaro ropnnre npemnnanar n xnnnonnµno nnarannme. Hnernnre
cennnnn nmar or 5 µo 20 rnannn n¡ua, ôes nncruera n ocnonara nm. Cennnuerara ca c no 6-15
nneruera, c eµnnnunn npnnnernnnn nnn ôes npnnnernnnn, c µp¡xxn, µ¡nrn µo 6 mm. uamxa
nnncna. Benuero x¡nro, µ¡nro µo 2,5 mm, c 5 sannrn nan¡rpe nncruera. Tnunnxnre 5.
×ñunnx¡r µonen. Hnoµ¡r µ¡n¡r 5-7 mm, mnpoxo ennnconnµen, cnnecxan, ron, c nnnecr p¡ô n 5
naµn¡xnn peôpa n¡pxy n¡nmnara my crpana (raôno 20, ]nr.3).
Hs nnnaµn, nnaxnn mecra n xpacranann n nxnara crpana µo x¡m 1500 m n. n. H¡]rn npes mnn n
anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar xopen¡r n cemenara na nam¡pnaxa (µpora Radix
Pastinacae et Semen Pastinacae). B nnreparypara nma µannn, ue n nncrara ce ynorpeôxnar sa
neuenne. Hamnpa mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Cnõnpcxn µenncnn Heracleum sibiricum L.
¡nyroµnmno, no-pxµxo mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µeôen x¡n-rennxanoôxn xopen,
noµoôen na mopxon. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno, p¡ôecro, naôpasµeno, xyxo, noxpnro c ocrpn
uernnxn, n ropnara cn uacr c nocneµonarennn nnn oruacrn cpemynonoxnn xnonxn, nourn µo 2
m nncoxo. Hpnocnonnnre nncra eµpn, µ¡nrn 15-30 cm, neun]ronepecrn, c xneôonnµna µp¡xxa,
xoxro nocrenenno npemnnana n nncrno nnarannme. Cr¡ônennre nncra c 2-3 µnoñxn nncruera
nnn µ¡nôoxo nspxsann, c yµ¡nxeno xñnennµnn µo mnpoxo nannernn, nepannomepno nas¡ôenn
nnn napxsann na µxnone nncruera, µ¡nrn µo 25 cm, mnpoxn 15 cm, ronn nnn pasnp¡cnaro
nnaxnecrn; np¡xnoro nncrue (µxn) nañ-ronxmo, rpnµenno. Hpn nxxon ]opmn ncnuxn nncra ca
rpoñnn, c eµna µnoñxa crpannunn nncruera. C¡nnernero c 15-25 n¡ua, µ¡nrn µo 17 cm, ôes
nncruera npn ocnonara cn. Orµennnre nnerone na µp¡xxn, µ¡nrn 7-11 mm, xonro npn
nnoµonomennero nourn ce yµnoxnar, npn ocnonara cn c 1-10 µpeônn nannernn µo nnmxonnµnn
npnnnernnnn, µ¡nrn µo 1 cm, Benuero senennxanox¡nro, 5-nncrno, µ¡nro µo 2.5 mm.
Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r µonen, c µnypasµenno ônnsanne. Hnoµ¡r ennnrnuen, orx¡m r¡pôa
cnnecxan, no xpax nnnecro xpnnar, µ¡n¡r 7-9 mm, ron. Bapnpa (raôno 20, ]nr. 2).
Ho nnaxnn cenuecrn mecra xpañ pexn n noronn n nxna F¡nrapnx µox¡m 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn
npes mnn n anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Heraclei) n xopen¡r
(Radix Heraclei). Hamnpa npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
B namnre nnannnn ce cpema ome eµnn nnµ µenncnn Heracleum verticillatum Panc., xoñro e c
ôenn nnerone, a pasxnonennxra n ropnara uacr na cr¡ônoro my ca pasnonoxenn
npemnenonnµno.
(63)
CPACAOBEHEHHH PACTEHHR
1. Xpacrn nnn nncxn µp¡nuera ........................2
1*. Tpenncrn pacrennx .............................3
2. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, rpnµennn. Tnunnxnre 2 ............
................... Xpnmen,cmnn Jasminum fructicans L.
2*. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, neun]ronepecrn, c 3-7 nncruera. Tnunnxnre 3-5...................
uepnen ô¡s Sambucus racemosa L.
3. ×ñunnx¡r µonen nnn nonyµonen......................4
3*. ×ñunnx¡r ropen...............................6
4. Hneronere c¡ôpann n rnannuxn n oôxp¡xenn c oôma oônnnxa or nañ-ropnnre nncra, xonro
oônxnoneno ca nnµonsmenenn..............5
4*. Hneronere ne ca c¡ôpann n rnannuxn, pxµxo oôpasynar rnannuxn n n rax¡n cnyuañ ca ôes
oôma oônnnxa nnn nncrara ca c¡ôpann n npemnenn, no 4 nnn noneue...................
Cem.Fpomonn Rubiaceae
5. Tnunnxnre 4, cnoôoµnn ............................
........... X¡nrennxana camorpnsxa Scabiosa ochroleuca L.
5*. Tnunnxnre 5, cpacnann c npamnnnnre cn .................
...................... Cem.Cnoxnonnernn Asteraceae
6. ×ñunnx¡r n¡nmno pasµenen na 4 uacrn, mexµy xonro nsnnsa cr¡nôuero. Hnoµ¡r ce pasnaµa
na 4 (pxµxo na 2) opexuera, nexamn n µ¡noro na uamxara ...........................................7
6*. ×ñunnx¡r nxn................................8
7. Tnunnxnre 5, nenuero npannnno, nncrara nocneµonarennn........
........................... Meµennx Cerinthe minor L.
7*. Tnunnxnre 4, nenuero nenpannnno, µnyycrno, nncrara cpemynonoxnn ....................... Cem.
Vcrnonnernn Lamiaceae
8. Hneronere nenpannnnn, uecro µnyycrnn ..................
.................... Cem.Xnnennuenn Scrophulariaceae
8*. Hneronere npannnnn............................9
9. Tnunnxnre pasnonoxenn cpemy neneunnre µxnone ............
......................... Cem.Hrnnxonn Primulaceae
9*. Tnunnxnre pasnonoxenn cpemy mexµnnnre na neneunnre µxnone . 10
10. Hncrara nocneµonarennn ..........................
................... Fnxn, nonaµnñxa HvoscvamusnigerL.
10*. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn.........................11
11. Benuero µncxonnµno, nnocxo, nourn npannnno. Tnunnxnre 5, µne ronn, ocranannre
nnaxnecrn ............... Honen Jerbascum L.
11*. Benuero c µoôpe pasnnra rp¡ônna. Tnunnxnre 5, ncnuxn ronn.....
.............................. Tnnrxna Gentiana L.
CEM. HIAHKOBH PRIMULACEAE
Hrnnxa Primula L.
1. Fes c¡nnerne nnernnre µp¡xxn nsnnsar nanpano or xopennmero . . ..................
Fescr¡ônena nrnnxa P. vulgaris Huds.
1*. Hneronere c¡ôpann n c¡nnerne c µoôpe pasnnra oôma µp¡xxa .... 2
2. Hncrara xñnennµno-nonaronnµnn, crecnenn nsneµn¡x n mnpoxa xpnnara µp¡xxa.
Tp¡ônnara na nenuero snaunrenno no-µ¡nra or µnamer¡pa na xoponxara my.................
Heueôna nrnnxa P.verisL.
2*. Hncrara npoµ¡nronaro ennnrnunn, nocrenenno crecnenn n mnpoxa
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xpnnara µp¡xxa. Tp¡ônnara na nenuero panna na µnamer¡pa na xoponxara nnn µopn no-x¡ca or
nex....... Bncoxa nrnnxa P.elatior (L.) Hill.
Besc1sõnena nrnnxa Primula vulgaris Huds. (P. acaulis Jacq)
Fescr¡ônenara nrnnxa e mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co xopennme, ôes cr¡ôno.
Bcnuxn nncra pasnonoxenn n poserxa, oôparno nannernn µo nonaronnµnn, npemnnanamn
nocrenenno n nexcno nspasena µp¡xxa, saeµno c nex µ¡nrn 5-30 cm, n mnpoxn 2-10 cm, na
n¡pxa saxp¡rnenn, no p¡ôa nepannomepno-nas¡ôenn µo n¡nnonnµnn, orrope ronn, orµony no
xnnxnre nnaxnecrn. Hneronere eµnnnunn, na µ¡nra nnaxnecra µp¡xxa (µo 15 cm), nsnnsama
nanpano or cpeµara na nncrnara poserxa, oônxnoneno no nxxonxo na ôpoñ. uamxara or 5
cpacnann n rp¡ônna nncruera, san¡pmnama c 5 s¡ôena, µ¡nra 1 -2 cm, nnaxnecra. Benuero
x¡nro, pxµxo ôxno nnn posono, c 5 cpacnann n rp¡ônna (µ¡nra µo 18 mm) nncruera,
san¡pmnama c pasnepena xoponxa, 2-4 cm n µnamer¡p. Tn-unnxnre 5, pasnonoxenn cpemy
neneunnre µxnone. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r nnnnnµpnuna xyrnñxa, µ¡nra µo 10 mm (raôno 21,
]nr. 1).
Hs xpacranann n ropn n Herpnuxo, Cranxe ¡nmnrponcxo, Cnanxnxa nnannna, Rrosanaµna
F¡nrapnx (Iono ô¡pµo, Konxncxa nnannna n µp.), n Hsrouna Crapa nnannna, Crpanµxa,
Hsrounn Poµonn n µp. H¡]rn mapr mañ. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Bncoxa nrnnxa Primula elatior(L.) Hill.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co µeôeno xopennme. Bcnuxn nncra c¡ôpann n poserxa,
xñnennµnn µo ennnrnunn, nocrenenno npemnnanamn n xpnnara µp¡xxa, µ¡nrn 5-20 cm,
mnpoxn 3-8 cm, nenoxpañnn µo cnrno nas¡ôenn, orrope nourn ronn, orµony nnaxnecrn.
Hneronere c¡ôpann no 5-15 na n¡pxa na oôma µp¡xxa, nncoxa µo 40 cm. ¡p¡xxnre na
orµennnre nnerone µ¡nrn 1,5-3,0 cm, nnaxnecrn. uamxara c 5 cpacnann n rp¡ônna nncruera,
nncoxa µo 15 mm, nnaxnecra n san¡pmnama c ocrpn nannernn s¡ôuera. Benuero c¡mo or 5
nncruera, cpacnann n rp¡ônna, µ¡nra 10-15 mm; c pasnepena xoponxa, c npxsann na n¡pxa
nncruera, mnpoxa µo 2 cm, cnernox¡nra. Tnunnxnre 5. Hnoµ¡r nnnnnµpnuna xyrnñxa, µ¡nra
µo 2 cm (raôno 21, ]nr. 2).
Ho nnaxnn xamennnnn n cxannn nonxnn n¡n nncoxonnannncxnx noxc na Cpeµna n 3anaµna
Crapa nnannna, Cpeµnn n 3anaµnn Poµonn, Pnna, Hnpnn, Bnroma. H¡]rn or anpnn µo anrycr.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Aeueõna nrnnxa Primula veris L. (P. officinalis Hill.)
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co, µeôeno neprnxanno xopennme, or xoero nsnnsar
mnoroôpoñnn µeôenn, cnaôo pasxnonenn xopenn. Cr¡ônoro nnncna. Bcnuxn nncra c¡ôpann n
npnocnonna poserxa, xñnennµ-no-nonaronnµnn, µ¡nrn 5-20 cm, mnpoxn 2-6 cm, crecnenn
nsneµn¡x n mn-poxoxpnna µp¡xxa, no p¡ôa cn n¡nnonnµno nas¡ôenn, orµony nnaxnecrn.
Hneronere snarncrox¡nrn, c¡ôpann n cennnx, pasnonoxen na n¡pxa na nneronocnnx crp¡x,
xoñro µocrnra µo 30 cm nncounna, oô¡pnar na eµna crpana, c µp¡xxn µ¡nrn 1-2 cm, nnaxnecrn.
uamxara rp¡ôecra, µ¡nra 8-15 mm, µo 1€3 or µ¡nxnnara cn pasceuena na rpn¡r¡nnn s¡ônn,
peacnnuecro nnaxnecra. Benuero c 5 cpacnann n µ¡nra rp¡ônna nncruera n 5-µenna pasnepena
xoponxa, n µnamer¡p 8-28 mm. Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r xyrnñxa (raôno 21, ]nr.
3).
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Cpema ce ns ropn, xpacranann n ropcxn nonxnn n¡n ncnuxn nnannncxn n npeµnnannncxn
oônacrn na F¡nrapnx µox¡m 2600-2700 m n. n. H¡]rn or mapr µo mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar xopennre, xopennmero (Radix et Rhizoma Primulae),
nncrara (Folia Primulae) n nneronere (Flores Primulae). Hamnpar npnnoxenne n n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
Kopennre n xopennmero ce nsxonanar npes ecenra (cenremnpn oxromnpn), xoraro nncrara
sanounar µa ynxxnar. Hncrara n nneronere ce ôepar n nauanoro na n¡]rexa saeµno c uamxara
nnn camo nenuero.
V nac nma ome nxxonxo nnµa µnnopacrxmn nrnnxn, no ncnuxn ca c ronn nnernn µp¡xxn n
uamxa.
Bncoxara nrnnxa c¡mo ce nsnonsyna n meµnnnnara.
CEM. MACAHHOBH OLEACEAE
Xpnmen, cunn Jasminum fruticans L.
Hsnpanen xpacr, nncox 1-3 m, c nocneµonarennn nonyxoxecrn rpoñnn nncra, pxµxo c no eµno
nnn µne nncruera, xonro ca oôparno xñnennµnn, npoµ¡nronaro onannn nnn rxcno
ennnconnµnn, µ¡nrn 0,6-2,0 cm, mnpoxn 0,5-1,0 cm, x¡m ocnonara crecnenn, na n¡pxa
saxp¡rnenn, ronn, camo no p¡ôa pecnnuecrn, na x¡ca µp¡xxa. Cpeµnoro nncrue oônxnoneno
no-eµpo or crpannunnre. Hneronere c¡ôpann no 2-5 n nonycennnuera no n¡pxonere na
crpannunnre xnonxn. uamxara x¡co sn¡nuennµna, c 5 mnnonnµnn µxna, pannn nnn no-µ¡nrn or
rp¡ônnara ñ. Benuero xpxox¡nro, c rxcna nnnnnµpnuna rp¡ônna, 2 n¡rn no-µ¡nra or uamxara,
c 5-µenna xoponxa, µo 2 cm n µnamer¡p. Tnunnxnre 2. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r uepna
c]epnuna xroµa, 3-6 mm n µnamer¡p (raôno 21, ]nr. 4).
Hs xpacranann n xamennnnn, cxannn repenn no uepnomopcxoro xpañôpexne, n Hsrouna Crapa
nnannna, Crpymcxara µonnna, Tpaxnñcxara nnsnna, Hsrounn Poµonn n Tynµxancxara
x¡nmncra pannnna µox¡m 700 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
CEM.THHTRBOBH - GENTIANACEAE
Tnn1nna Gentiana L.
1. Benuero c¡ncem x¡nro, nourn µo ocnonara pasµeneno na nnneñnn µxnone ......................
X¡nra rnnrxna G. lutea L.
1*. Benuero x¡nro n r¡cro noxpnro c r¡mnouepnenn rouxn, nourn 3€4 or µ¡nxnnara cn
cpacnano n rp¡ônna . . Hernncra rnnrxna G. punctata L.
Æsn1a 1nn1nna Gentiana lutea L.
Mnororoµnmno rono rpenncro pacrenne c pasxnoneno µeôeno (µo 2-3 cm n µnamer¡p), x¡co (5-
7 cm µ¡nro) xopennme, c eµpn crpannunn xopenn. Kopennmero, no xoero ce nnxµar
np¡crenonnµnn cneµn or nsmpenn nncra, npemnnana nocrenenno n rnanecr ocon xopen,
nnnnnµpnuen, mececr, µ¡n¡r 60-90 cm, mnpox 5-10 cm n µnamer¡p. Hpes n¡pnnre 3-4 roµnnn
pacrennero oô-
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pasyna npnocnonna poserxa c eµpn ennnrnunn r¡mnosenenn nncra, a na 4-5 roµnna nspacrnar
eµno nnn nxxonxo, nncoxn µo 1,5 m, ronn, xyxn, nsnpanenn, nepasxnonenn cr¡ôna. Hncrara
cpemynonoxnn, ronn, nenoxpañnn, c µ¡ronnµno xnnxynane, peµynamn ce na xp¡cr, µonnnre
onanno ennnrnunn, x¡m n¡pxa saocrpenn, eµpn (23-25 cm µ¡nrn n 12-13 cm mnpoxn), crecnenn
n µp¡xxa, µ¡nra µo 10 cm. Harope cr¡ônennre nncra namanxnar no pasmepn, cpeµnnre c x¡ca
µp¡xxa, a ropnnre npnceµnann, cpacnann npn ocnonara cn n x¡co nnarannme. Hneronere
c¡ôpann no 3-10 n cnonuera, pasnonoxenn n nasnnre na ropnnre 3-7 µnoñxn nncra n na n¡pxa
na cr¡ônoro, na x¡ca µp¡xxa (µo 15 mm µ¡nra). uamxara rp¡ôecra, or 5 cpacnann nnnecrn
nncruera, µ¡nra 10-12 mm. Benuero x¡nro, µ¡nro 18-25 mm, nourn 2 n¡rn no-µ¡nro or
uamxara, rp¡ôecro. Tnunnxnre 5, ronn, c¡c cpacnann npamnnnn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r
npoµ¡nronara uernpnµenna xyrnñxa, µ¡nra µo 6 cm, pasnyxnama ce na µne uacrn (raôno 22,
]nr. 1).
Cpema ce no xamennnnn mecra n c¡ceµcrno c ropnara rpannna na ropara n Cpeµna Crapa
nnannna, Bnroma, Cpeµnn Poµonn (¡ennncxo, Cmonxncxo), Pnna n Hnpnn. H¡]rn npes mnn n
anrycr.
Meµnnnncxo snauenne nmar xopennre n xopennmero (Radix Gentianae), xonro ce nsxonanar
npes anrycr noemnpn cneµ ormnpanero na naµsemnara uacr na 3-4 roµnmnn exsemnnxpn.
Hsnonsyna ce mnpoxo n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Koraro ce c¡ônpa x¡nra rnnrxna, rpxôna µa ce nnnmana µa ne ce nsxonae xopennmero na
ôxnara uemepnxa (Jeratnim album L). xoero e orponno. To nocnnxna, axo ce nanpann ñoµna
npoôa, r¡ñ xaro c¡µ¡pxa cxopôxna, xoxro npn x¡nrara rnnrxna nnncna.
He1nnc1a 1nn1nna Gentiana punctata L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co, µeôeno neprnxanno xopennme. Cr¡ônoro eµnnnuno,
nepasxnoneno, nncoxo 20-60 cm, rono, n ocnonara cn c x¡cn nncruera, µ¡nrn µo 2 cm. Hncrara,
pasnonoxenn no cr¡ônoro, ca xñnennµnn, ennnrnunn µo oôparno xñnennµnn, saocrpenn,
µonnnre µ¡nrn 5-15 cm, mnpoxn 5-8 cm, cpemynonoxnn, nañ-uecro c 5 xnnxn, nañ-µonnnre
crecnenn n x¡ca µp¡xxa, narope namanxnamn no pasmepn, npnceµnann, nenoxpañnn. Hneronere
c¡ôpann na rpynn no nxxonxo n nasnnre na nañ-ropnnre µne µnoñxn nncra, npnceµnann.
uamxara sn¡nuennµna, µ¡nra 5-8 mm, mnoro no-x¡ca or nenuero, nourn ôes s¡ônn. Benuero
µ¡nro 1,7-3,5 cm, a n µnamer¡p 6-16 mm, nnnecro, x¡nro, r¡cro noxpnro c r¡mnouepnenn
rouxn, 5-8-µenno, xaro s¡ônnre ca no-x¡cn or neneunara rp¡ônna. Tnunnxnre ca ronxona,
xonxoro n µxnonere na nenuero, ornauano cpacnann, no-x¡cno c¡c cnoôoµnn npamnnnn, ronn.
×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r eµnornesµna xyrnñxa (raôno 22, ]nr. 2).
Ho nnaxnn n xamennnnn cxannn nonxnn n Cpeµna n 3anaµna Crapa nnannna, Bnroma, Pnna n
Hnpnn naµ 1500 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. IPAHABOAHCTHH BORAGINACEAE
Meµennx Cerinthe minor L.
¡nyroµnmno, no-pxµxo eµnoroµnmno nnn mnororoµnmno pacrenne. Cr¡ônoro nncoxo 15-60
cm, npano nnn pxµxo n ocnonara cn nonernano, rono,
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n ropnara cn uacr pasxnoneno. Hpnocnonnnre nncra (nsc¡xnar pano) npoµ¡nronaro
nonaronnµnn, µ¡nrn µo 15 cm, nocrenenno crecnenn n xpnnara µp¡xxa; r¡nn; µonnnre
cr¡ônenn nncra npoµ¡nronaro nannernn, xnnnonnµno crecnenn; ropnnre xñnennµnn,
oôxnamamn cr¡ônoro c¡c c¡pnennµnara cn ocnona, r¡nn, uecro c ôenn nerna, ronn,
nenoxpañnn, nocneµonarennn. Hneronere pasnonoxenn n nasnnre na nncrara na µ¡nra µp¡xxa,
npn ocnonara cn c npoµ¡nronarn nannernn c¡pnennµnn npnnnernnnn. uamxara nourn µo
ocnonara cn pasceuena na 5 neeµnaxnn r¡nn µxna, no xpax pecnnuecra. Benuero rp¡ôecro,
npannnno, µ¡nro 9-14 mm, nourn µna n¡rn no-µ¡nro or uamxara, pasceueno µo nononnnara or
µ¡nxnnara cn, c 5 nsnpanenn nannernn s¡ôena, npn ocnonara nm uecro c xpxouepnenn nerna.
Tnunnxnre 5, ronn, xaro npamnnnnre nm n ocnonara cn ca crpenonnµnn, a na n¡pxa saocrpenn.
×ñunnx¡r n¡nmno pasµenen na 4 uacrn, mexµy xonro nsnnsa cr¡nôuero. Hnoµ¡r ce pasnaµa na
4 xñnennµnn, saxp¡rnenn opexuera, µ¡nrn µo 3 mm (raôno 22, ]nr. 3).
Ho rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1500 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ cenremnpn.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. YCTHOHBETHH - LAMIACEAE (LABIATAE)
1. Benuero c mnoro x¡ca ropna ycrna, nourn eµnoycrno...........
............................... Cpemnnue Afuga L.
1*. Benuero xcno µnyycrno...........................2
2. Tnunnxnre x¡cn, nan¡nno cxpnrn n rp¡ônnara na nenuero........
.................. Hnpnncxn uañ, maxc¡nue Sideritis L.
2*. Tnunnxnre cr¡puar naµ rp¡ônnara na nenuero..............
...............................Pannnncr Stachvs L.
Oõnxnoneno cpemnnue Afuga chamaepitvs (L.) Schreb.
Eµnoroµnmno, no-pxµxo µnyroµnmno nnn mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c mnoroôpoñnn
nexamn nnn npnnonµnramn ce uernpnp¡ôecrn cr¡ôna, nncoxn 5-20 cm, noxpnrn, xaxro n
nncrara, c µ¡nrn ôenn mexn nnacnnxn. Hncrara µ¡nôoxo 3-µennn, c recnonnneñnn nenoxpañnn
µenuera, cpemynonoxnn, µ¡nrn 1-3 cm, mnpoxn 1-1,5 mm. Hneronere no eµnn na x¡ca µp¡xxa
(1-1,5 mm µ¡nra), pasnonoxenn n nasnnre na ropnnre npnnnernn nncra, xonro ca no-µ¡nrn or
nneronere. uamxara sn¡nuennµna, µ¡nra 5-6 mm, nxnara noxpnra c ôenn nnacnnxn. Benuero,
µ¡nro 10-16 mm, 2-3 n¡rn no-µ¡nro or uamxara, nnaxnecro, c mnoro x¡ca npxsana ropna ycrna,
µonnara rpnµenna. B ocnonara na neneunara rp¡ônna orn¡rpe ce namnpa np¡cren or nnacnnxn.
Tnunnxnre 4, µne or xonro no-x¡cn. Hnoµonere opexuera (raôno 22, ]nr. 4).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra, ns nnnn, xpañ xn nnnnn n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn anpnn
oxromnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac ca pasnpocrpanenn ome 4 nnµa cpemnnuera, no rpn or rxx ca c¡c cnnn nnerone. Camo
n¡pôonncrnoro cpemnnue (A. saticifolia Schreb.) nma x¡nrn nnerone n npnnnua na
naxcmanonoro cpemnnue (A. laxmannii (L.) Benth.), no ce pasnnuana or nero no nnernara
rp¡ônna, xoxro e nxna, nnernnre npemnenn oônxnoneno ca c no 4 nnxra, cr¡ônennre nncra ca c
x¡ca µp¡xxa. To ce cpema n Tpaxnñcxara nnsnna n nsrounara uacr na crpanara.
(68)
Hnpnncxn uan, uancsnue Sideritis L.
1. Eµnoroµnmno pacrenne c¡c cpannnrenno peµxn n µ¡nrn nnacnnxn, ôes xopennme. Hncrara
µ¡nrn 0,5-3,0 cm, mnpoxn 0,2-0,8 cm. Hnernnre npemnenn pasµaneuenn, ncexn c no oxono 6
nnxra . . Maxc¡nue S.montanaL.
1*. Mnororoµnmno ôenon¡nnecro pacrenne c n¡nsxmo xopennme. Hncrara µ¡nrn 6-8 cm,
mnpoxn 0,6-20 mm. Hneronere c¡ôpann n xnaconnµno c¡nnerne.................... Hnpnncxn uañ
S. scardica Grsb.
Hnpnncxn uan Sideritis scardica Grsb.
Tpenncro pacrenne c nsnpanenn nnn npnnonµnramn ce uernpnp¡ôecrn cr¡ôna, nncoxn 15-50
cm, npocrn nnn pasxnonenn. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, nenoxpañnn nnn cnaôo nannnenn,
µonnnre npoµ¡nronaro nannernn, c x¡ca µp¡xxa, ropnnre c¡pnennµnn, npnceµnann. Hneronere
pasnonoxenn n nasnnre na ropnnre nncra, n npemnenn, xonro ca cônnxenn n oôpasynar r¡cro
xnaconnµno c¡nnerne c nnmonenox¡nrn mnpoxoc¡pnennµnn nnnecrn, saocrpenn
npnnnernnnn, µ¡nrn 12-20 mm. uamxara µ¡nra 9-12 mm, rp¡ôecro-sn¡nuennµna, c 10 xnnxn n 5
eµnaxnn s¡ôena, noxpnrn c µ¡nrn nnacnnxn. Benuero x¡nro, c rp¡ônna, cxpnra n uamxara,
µnyycrno, c 3-µenna µonna ycrna. Tnunnxnre 4, cxpnrn n rp¡ônnara na nenuero. Hnoµ¡r cyx,
pasnaµa ce na 4 opexuera (raôno 22, ]nr. 5).
Ho cyxn xamennnnn naponnrn repenn n Hnpnn, Cnanxnxa n Cpeµnn Poµonn mexµy 1500 n 2200
m n. n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
B napoµnara n c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar n¡]rxmnre np¡xnn uacrn na cr¡ônoro
saeµno c nncrara (µpora Herba Sideritis scardicae), xonro ce c¡ônpar no npeme na n¡]rexa.
Mancsnue Sideritis montana L.
Pacrenne c nsnpaneno nnn npnnonµnramo ce, npocro nnn cnaôo pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 20-
40 cm. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, npoµ¡nronaro nannernn, µonnnre c x¡ca µp¡xxa, ropnnre
npnceµnann, nenoxpañnn nnn c no nxxonxo s¡ôena na n¡pxa. Hneronere µpeônn, na x¡ca
µp¡xxa, c¡ôpann n pasµaneuenn npemnenn, c npnnnernnnn, xonro ne ce pasnnuanar nnn cnaôo
ce pasnnuanar or cr¡ônennre nncra. uamxara µ¡nra 6-8 mm, rp¡ôecro-sn¡nuennµna, npannnna,
c 10 xnnxn n 5 s¡ôena, san¡pmnamn c x¡co ôoµnnue. Benuero µnyycrno, no-x¡co or uamxara,
cnernox¡nro, xaro cneµ npe-n¡]rxnane crana xa]xno. Tnunnxnre 4, cxpnrn n¡n neneunara
rp¡ônna (raôno 23, ]nr. 1).
Ho cyxn xamennnnn mecra n opnnnn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1300 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ
cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Pannnnc1 Stachvs L.
1. Hnernnre npemnenn c no 6-10 nnxra. 3¡ônnre na uamxara nourn µna n¡rn no-x¡cn or
rp¡ônnara, c ron ocnn n µocrnrar µo ropnnx xpañ na rp¡ônnara na nenuero................ Hpan
pannnncr S. recta L.
1*‚. Hnernnre npemnenn c no 2-6 nnxra. 3¡ônnre na uamxara nourn pannn na rp¡ônnara, c
nsnxno nnaxnecr ocnn n no-x¡cn or rp¡ônnara na nenuero . . ................... Eµnoroµnmen
pannnncr S. annua L.
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Hpan pannnnc1 Stachvs recta L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno nnn npnnonµnramo ce cr¡ôno, npocro nnn
pasxnoneno, nncoxo 15-100 cm, x¡µpano nnaxnecro. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, µn¡rnecro
nannernn µo nnneñno-nannernn, µonnnre na x¡ca µp¡xxa, ropnnre npnceµnann, nas¡ôenn,
nañ-ropnnre nourn nenoxpañ-nn, npnnennano nnaxnecrn, µ¡nrn 2-8 cm, mnpoxn 0,5-2 cm.
Hneronere pasnonoxenn no 6-10 n npemnenn, µonnnre pasµaneuenn, xaro oôpasynar µ¡nro
xnaconnµno c¡nnerne c neµopasnnrn uernnxonnµnn npnnnernnnn. uamxara rp¡ôecro-
sn¡nuennµna, µ¡nra 5-10 mm, c 5 s¡ôena. Benuero noproxanono x¡nro µo x¡nrennxanoôxno,
µnyycrno, c uepnennxann nerna na µonnara ycrna, rono nnn x¡connaxnecro, µ¡nro 15-20 mm.
Tnunnxnre 4. Hnoµuerara oôparno onannn opexuera (raôno 23, ]nr. 2).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1400 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ
cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Eµnoroµnmen pannnnc1 Stachvs annua L.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, npocro nnn pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 10-40
cm, n ropnara cn uacr r¡cro nnaxnecro. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, µ¡nrn 2-6 cm, mnpoxn 0,5-3
cm, npoµ¡nronaro ennnrnunn, µonnnre xnnnonnµno crecnenn n x¡ca µp¡xxa, ronn, nas¡ôenn,
ropnnre nannernn, npnceµnann, nenoxpañnn. Hneronere pasnonoxenn no 2-6 n npemnen,
µonnnre pasµaneuenn, xaro oôpasynar xnaconnµno c¡nnerne, c neµopasnnrn nnn nnncnamn
npnnnernnnn. uamxara sn¡nuennµna, µ¡nra 5-8 mm, xnesncro nnaxnecra. Benuero
x¡nrennxanoôxno, µnyycrno, xnesncro nnaxnecro, µ¡nro 10-16 mm (raôno 23, ]nr. 3).
Ho rpenncrn mecra, nnnn n opnnnn n nxna F¡nrapnx nourn µo 1600 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ
cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac ce cpemar ronxm ôpoñ nnµone pannnncr, no nourn ncnuxn ocnen eµnoroµnmnnx nmar
uepnennxann, ôenn nnn ôneµoposonn nnerone. Camo ôneµox¡nrnxr pannnncr (S. obliqua WK.) e
c ôneµox¡nrn nnerone, no ce ornnuana or onncannre µna nnµa no rona, ue n npemnen nma no
mnoro nnerone µo 20. Cpema ce n Tpaxnñcxara nnsnna, Rronsrouna F¡nrapnx, Bymencxo n
Hponaµnñcxo.
CEM. KAPTOmOBH SOLANACEAE
Bnnn, nonaµnnxa Hvoscvamus niger L.
Hañ-uecro µnyroµnmno pacrenne c nsnpaneno npocro nnn pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 80-100
cm, xnesncro nnaxnecro n nenxano. Hpnocnonnnre nncra c¡ôpann n poserxa, c µp¡xxa,
npoµ¡nronaro xñnennµnn; cr¡ônennre npnceµnann, nonyoôxnamamn cr¡ônoro, µ¡nrn 15-20
cm, nocneµonarennn, eµpo nas¡ôenn µo napxsann. Hneronere eµpn, nourn npnceµnann n
nasnnre na ropnnre nncra, c¡ôpann n eµnocrpanno rposµonnµno c¡nnerne. uamxara
µennonnµna, xnesncro nnaxnecra, µ¡nra 1,0-1,5 cm, c 5 s¡ôena. Benuero 2-4 cm n µnamer¡p, ne
c¡ncem x¡nro, uecro c mpexa or nnoneronn xnnxn, c mnpoxa rp¡ônna n 5-µenna pasnepena
xoponxa. Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r mnorocemenna xyrnñxa. O1ponno!(raôno 23,
]nr. 4).
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Ho ôypenxcann mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar nncrara (µpora Folia Hyoscyami), xonro ce ôepar no
npeme na n¡]rexa. Hamnpa npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. ÆHBEHHHEBH SCROPHULARIACEAE
1. Benuero npn ocnonara cn yµ¡nxeno n¡n nnµ na mnopa.........2
1*. Benuero µncxonnµno, µnyycrno nnn npannnno, ôes mnopa ......3
2. Cr¡ônara nsnpanenn, ronn. Hneronere c¡ôpann n¡n np¡xno rposµonnµ-
no c¡nnerne. Hncrara npnceµnann, nnneñno-nannernn µo nnneñnn......
............... Oônxnonena nynnuxa Linaria vulgaris Mill.
2*. Cr¡ônara nonernann, ronn. Hneronere no eµnn n nasnnre na nncrara.
Hncrara c µp¡xxa, ô¡ôpexonnµnn nnn c¡pnennµnn................
Hom nxr¡p, rpecxannue Kickxia spuria (L.)Dum.
3. Benuero µncxonnµno, µ¡nôoxo 5-µenno, nourn npannnno. Tnunnxnre 5 ...............................
Honen Jerbascum L.
3*. Benuero c no-µ¡nra nnn no-x¡ca rp¡ônna nnn sn¡nuennµno, na n¡pxa cn oônxnoneno
µnyycrno. Tnunnxnre 4 ......................4
4. Bcnuxn nncra nocneµonarennn..... Hanp¡crnnx Digitalis L.
4*. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, pxµxo pasnonoxenn n npemnenn.......
................... Manxa xnonauxa RhinanthusminerL.
Honen Jerbascum L.
1. Cpeµnnre n ropnnre cr¡ônenn nncra nnsôernamn no cr¡ônoro, no nxnara µ¡nxnna na
mexµyn¡snnxra, r. e. µonnara uacr na nncrara e npoµ¡nxena n cpacnana c¡c cr¡ônoro, xoero
nsrnexµa xpnnaro ..............
................ I¡cronneren nonen J. densiflorum Bertol
1*. Cr¡ônennre nncra npnceµnann, ôes xpnnaro nnsôernamo npoµ¡nxenne no cr¡ônoro
............ Heueôen nonen J.phlomoides L.
Aeueõen nonen Jerbascum phlomoides L.
¡nyroµnmno r¡cronnaxnecro pacrenne c npocro, nsnpaneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 30-150 cm, xoero
ce pasnnna npes nropara roµnna. Hpes n¡pnara roµnna oôpasyna camo nncrna poserxa.
Hpnocnonnnre nncra npoµ¡nronaro ennnrnu-nn, r¡no n nenpannnno nas¡ôenn µo nenoxpañnn,
µ¡nrn 5-30 cm, mnpoxn 3-12 cm; cr¡ônennre onannn nnn onanno nannernn, saocrpenn,
npnceµnann, c¡c saxp¡rnena ocnona n nonyoôxnamamn cr¡ônoro, nocneµonarennn. C¡nne-
rnero cônro, xnaconnµno-rposµonnµno, c npnnnernnnn, µ¡nrn 1-1,5 cm. Hneronere n cnonuera
no 3-4 (8), a nnernnre µp¡xxn pannn na uamxara, xoxro e µ¡nra 5-12 mm, nerµenna, xaro
µxnonere san¡pmnar c ocnn. Benuero x¡nro, µncxonnµno, µ¡nôoxo 5-µenno, 2-5 cm n µnamer¡p.
Tnunnxnre 5, npnxpenenn x¡m ocnonara na nenuero, or xonro 2 no-µ¡nrn, ronn, a ocranannre
3-nnax-necrn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c npocro cr¡nôue. Hnoµ¡r mnorocemenna xyrnñxa. O1ponno!
(raôno 23, ]nr. 5).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra, cyxn nnnaµn n neoôpaôorenn mecra, xpañ n¡rnma n
orpaµn. H¡]rn mnn anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar nncrara (µpora Folia Verbas-
(71)
ci), a raxa c¡mo n nneronere c uamxara nnn ôes nex (µpora Flores Verbasci). Hsnonsyna ce n n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
Isc1 onne1en nonen Jerbascum densiflorum Bertol. (J. thapsiforme Schrad.)
¡nyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne, nxnoro r¡cro x¡nrennxanocnno, n¡n-necro nannacreno. Hpes
n¡pnara roµnna oôpasyna nncrna poserxa, a npes nropara nsnpaneno, r¡cro oônncreno
cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 2 m, nepasxnoneno nnn na n¡pxa cnaôo pasxnoneno. Hncrara npoµ¡nronaro
ennnrnunn, nnsôer-namn no cr¡ônoro, npnocnonnnre µ¡nrn 10-40 cm, mnpoxn 4-10 cm,
nocneµonarennn, nas¡ôenn. Hneronere c¡ôpann no 2-5 n cnonuera na npocro nnn n ocnonara
cnaôo pasxnoneno rposµonnµno c¡nnerne, c npnnnernnnn, µ¡nrn 1,5-4 cm. Hnernnre µp¡xxn
no-x¡cn or uamxara. uamxara µ¡nra 6-12 mm, nourn µo ocnonara cn 5-µenna, c xñnennµnn, na
n¡pxa cn saocrpenn µxnone, no ôes ocnn. Benuero x¡nro, 3,5-5 cm n µnamer¡p, orn¡n noxpnro
c¡c snesµonnµnn nnacnnxn. Tnunnxnre 5, or xonro µnere no-µ¡nrn ca ronn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen.
Hnoµ¡r mnorocemenna xyrnñxa. O1ponno! (raôno 23, ]nr. 6).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn, nec¡xnnnn n xamennnnn cxnonone, ns cyxn nnnaµn n neoôpaôorenn mecra,
xpañ n¡rnma n orpaµn n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn mnn anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna nenuero c rnunnxnre (µpora Flores Verbasci).
Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac ce cpemar oxono 33 nnµa nonen c x¡nrn nnerone, noneuero c orpannueno
pasnpocrpanenne. 3a µa ne ce µonycxar rpemxn npn pasnosnananero na onncannre nnµone,
neoôxoµnmo e naôpanoro pacrenne µa ce cpannxna mnoro nnnmarenno c µaµennre no-rope
onncannx. Ocnonen ôener, no xoñro ce pasnnuanar ocranannre nnµone nonen, e, ue npn
noneuero or rxx npamnnnnre na rnunnxnre nm ca eµnaxnn, ô¡ôpexonnµnn n ne ca nnsôernamn
no rnunnxo-nnre µp¡xxn, µoxaro npn meµnnnncxnre nnµone npamnnnnre na µnere no-µ¡nrn
rnunnxn nnsôernar no rnunnxonnre µp¡xxn, r. e. ne ca cpacnann c rxx. Tnunnxn c nnsôernamn
npamnnnn nmar ome µecernna nnµa nonen, no npn nxxon or rxx n¡nnecrnre nnacnnxn, xonro
noxpnnar rnunnxnre, ca nnoneronn, a ne x¡nrn, npn µpyrn nnµone nneronere ca no eµnn, a ne
no nxxonxo, c¡nnerne-ro e noxpnro n c xnesncrn nnacnnxn, a ne camo c npocrn.
Oõnxnonena nynnuxa Linaria vulgaris Mill.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, r¡cro oôesnncreno rono cr¡ôno, nncoxo 40-60
cm, c ôesnnoµnn nsµ¡nxn npn ocnonara cn. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, nenoxpañnn, nañ-uecro c
no eµna xnnxa, nnneñno-nannernn µo nnneñnn, ronn, npnceµnann, µ¡nrn 2-6 cm, mnpoxn 1-5
mm, saocrpenn. C¡nnernero r¡cro, rposµonnµno, c 5-30 nnxra, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 2-8 mm, c nan-
nernn npnnnernnnn, no-µ¡nrn or nnernara µp¡xxa nnn pannn na nex; ocra na c¡nnernero,
nnernnre µp¡xxn n no-pxµxo uamxara ca c xnesncrn nnacnnxn. uamxara 5-µenna, µ¡nra 3-6
mm, c onannn µxnone. Benuero µ¡nro 20-35 mm, x¡nro, µnyycrno, c¡c sarnopeno ycrne n
saocrpena mnopa, µ¡nra 10-13 mm. Tnunnxnre 4, or xonro 2 no-µ¡nrn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen.
Hnoµ¡r ronuecra µnyrnesµna xyrñxa (raôno 24, ]nr. 1).
Bnpoxo pasnpocrpanena e no rpenncrn mecra, xpañ n¡rnma n xaro nnenen n nxnara crpana.
Cnnno nonnmop]no pacrenne. H¡]rn or mañ µo oxromnpn.
(72)
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar n¡]rxmnre oônncrenn uacrn (µpora Herba Linariae),
orpxsann na oxono 30 cm or n¡pxa. Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Aom nn1sp, 1pecxannue Kickxia spuria (L.) Dum.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nonernano, pasxnoneno n r¡croxne-sncro nnaxnecro
cr¡ôno. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, mnpoxo xñnennµnn µo saxp¡rnenn, µ¡nrn µo 7,5 cm, mnpoxn
1-2 cm, nnaxnecrn, n ocnonara saxp¡rnenn crecnenn nsneµn¡x n x¡ca µp¡xxa, oônxnoneno
nenoxpannn. Hneronere eµnnnunn nsnnsar or nasnnre na nncrara c nnaxnecra µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 1-
2 cm. uamxara 5-µenna, c xñnennµnn, saocrpenn s¡ônn, npn nnoµa paspacrnamn ce. Benuero
cnernox¡nro, µ¡nro 10-15 mm, µnyycrno, c¡c sarnopeno ycrne n x¡ca mnopa, c nourn pannn
ycrnn, ropnara orn¡rpe r¡mnonnonerona. 1 nunnxnre 4 ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Kyrnñxara x¡nôecra
(raôno 24, ]nr. 2).
Hs nnnn n opnnnn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn oxromnpn. Vnorpeôxna
ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hanpsc1nnx Digitalis L.
1. C¡nnernero eµnocrpanno nneronere ca oô¡pnarn na eµna crpana. Cr¡ônoro xocmaro no
nxnara cn µ¡nxnna, xaxro n µonnara non¡pxnocr na nncrara ......... Eµponneren nanp¡crnnx-
D. grandiflom Mill.
1* Hneronere pasnonoxenn or ncnuxn crpann na n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro. B µonnara cn uacr
cr¡ônoro n nncrara c¡ncem ronn nnn camo no p¡ôa cnaôo pecnnuecrn ........... B¡nnecr
nanp¡crnnx D.lanata Ehrh.
Eµponne1en nanpsc1nnx- Digitalis grandiflora Mill. (D. ambigua Murr.)
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c npano, nepasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 60-120 cm n ropnara
cn uacr xnesncro nnaxnecro. Hncrara npoµ¡nronaro nannernn µ¡nrn 7-25 cm, mnpoxn 2-7 cm,
nocneµonarennn, saocrpenn, cnrno nas¡ôenn nnn nenoxpañnn, noneue nnn no-manxo
nnaxnecrn, ocoôeno orµony no xnnxnre; poserxonnre n µonnnre cr¡ônenn nncra c x¡ca
xpnnara µp¡xxa; ropnnre npnceµnann, oôxnamar cr¡ônoro n ca no-manxn. Hneronere ynncnann
c x¡ca µp¡xxa, c¡ôpann n¡n np¡xno rposµonnµno c¡nnerne, pasnonoxeno na eµna crpana;
nnernnre µp¡xxn, uamxara n nenuero orn¡n xnesncro nnaxnecrn uamxara sn¡nuennµna, nourn
µo ocnonara cn 5-µenna, c nannernn, saocrpenn µxnone. Benuero sn¡nuennµno, nenpannnno,
µnyycrno, eµpo, µ¡nro 4-5 cm mnpoxo 1-2 cm, cxpnox¡nro, orn¡rpe c xa]xnn xnnunnn;
ropnara ycrna e no-x¡ca or µonnara, µnyµenna, a µonnara rpnµenna. Tnunnxnre 4, cpacnann n
ocnonara cn c nenuero. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r xnesncro nnaxnecra mnorocemenna xyrnñxa,
nourn 2 n¡rn no-µ¡nra or uamxara. O1ponno!(raôno 24, ]nr. 3).
Cpema ce ns ropn n xpacranann nourn n nxnara crpana µo 1 700 m n. n.
H¡]rn mañ anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nscymennre nncra (µpora Folia Digitalis ambiguae),
xonro ce ôepar or eµnoroµnmnn pacrennx npes anrycr n cenremnpn, a npes cneµnamara roµnna
- npeµn n¡]rexa. Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
(73)
Bsnnec1 nanpsc1nnx Digitalis lanata Ehrh.
Mnororoµnmno nnn µnyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c xopnsonranno nµ¡pnenxnamo ce
xopennme, c eµnnnunn, nsnpanenn, nnnnnµpnunn, uepnenn-xanonnoneronn, cnaôo pasxnonenn
cr¡ôna, nncoxn 30-100 cm, n µonnara cn uacr ronn, n ropnara c r¡crn, µ¡nrn, xnesncrn
nnacnnxn. Hncrara pasnonoxenn n poserxa n no cr¡ônoro, npoµ¡nronaro nannernn µo
nannernn, µ¡nrn 6-20 cm, mnpoxn 1,5-3,5 cm, nocneµonarennn, nenoxpañnn nnn cnaôo n¡nno-
nnµnn, npnceµnann, ronn nnn cnaôo xnesncro nnaxnecrn, saocrpenn, nocrenenno
npemnnanamn n npnnnernnnn. Hneronere c¡ôpann na n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro, n r¡cro
mnorocrpanno rposµonnµno c¡nnerne. Hnernnre µp¡xxn µ¡nrn µo 3 cm, xnesncro nnaxnecrn, a
npnnnernnnnre n uamxara c npocrn nnacnnxn. uamxara x¡nôecro nsµyra, µ¡nooxo 5-µenna.
Benuero µnyycrno, x¡nôecro nsµyro, µ¡nro 2-3 cm, x¡nro c nnoneronn xnnxn. Tnunnxnre 4.
×ñunnx¡r ropen. O1ponno!(raôno 24, ]nr. 4).
Ho rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra n ns xpacranann n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1300 m n. n. H¡]rn
mnn anrycr.
Hsnonsynar ce c¡mo camo nncrara (µpora Folia Digitalis lanatae), xonro ce ôepar xaxro npn
eµponnernnx nanp¡crnnx.
V nac ce cpemar ome 3 nnµa nanp¡crnnx, no npn µna or rxx (D. ferruginea L. n D. laevigata
W.K) nnernnre µp¡xxn n uamxara ca ronn n ne ca xnesncrn, a rpernxr nnµ (D. viridiflora
Lindl.) nma senennxano nenue.
Manxa xnonauxa Rhinanthus minor L.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, npocro nnn cnaôo pasxnoneno n cnaôo
pecnnuecro cr¡ôno, nncoxo 5-50 cm. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, onannn µo nnneñno-nannernn,
µ¡nrn 2-4 cm, mnpoxn 5-10 mm, no-x¡cn or mexµyn¡snnero, rpanann, cnrno pecnnuecrn,
nas¡ôenn, npnceµnann. Hneronere npnceµnann, c¡ôpann n¡n np¡xnn xnaconnµnn c¡nnernx, c
npnnnernnnn. uamxara sn¡nuennµna c 4 s¡ôena, rona, orcrpann cnnecxana n npn nnoµonere
mexypecro noµyra. Benuero x¡nro, µ¡nro 12-15 mm, c npana neneuna rp¡ônna, xoxro
oônxnoneno e no-x¡ca or uamxara, µnyycrno, xaro ropnara ycrna e no-µ¡nra or µonnara n e c¡c
cnnxann x¡cn s¡ônn (µo 1 mm). Tnunnxnre 4, or xonro µnere no-µ¡nrn cr¡puar naµ nenuero.
×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r cnnecxana µnyrnesµna xyrnñxa (raôno 24, ]nr. 5).
Hs nnannncxnre nnnaµn na Cpeµna n 3anaµna Crapa nnannna, 3anaµnn n Cpeµnn Poµonn,
Bnroma, Hmnnn, a c¡mo raxa n n Co]nñcxoro none. H¡]rn mañ mnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. BPOmOBH RUBIACEAE
1. Tnunnxnre 5. Benuero oônxnoneno 5-µenno. Hnoµ¡r mececr.......
............................ Fpom Rubia tinctorum L.
1*. Tnunnxnre 3-4. Benuero oônxnoneno 4 (3)-µenno. Hnoµ¡r cyx.....
2. Hncrara c¡ôpann n npemnen no 4, c no 3 xnnxn..............
............... Oônxnonenxp¡cren Cruciata laevipes Opi:.
2*. Hncrara c¡ôpann n npemnen no noneue or 4, c no eµna xnnxa......
................... C¡mnncxoentonue Galium venim L.
(74)
Csmnncxo entonue Galium verum L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpanenn nnn npnnoµnnramn ce x¡com¡xnarn cr¡ôna,
nncoxn 30120 cm. Hncrara nnneñnn, µ¡nrn 15-25 mm, mnpoxn 0,5-2 mm, no 8-12 n npemnen, c
ocnnue na n¡pxa n c noµnnr p¡ô, nourn ronn. Hneronere c¡ôpann n µ¡nra r¡cra mernnna, c
nnaxnecrn xnonxn. Benuero x¡nro, mnpoxo 2,5-3,0 mm, c rp¡ônna n xoponxa or 4 saocrpenn
µxna, c¡c nnn ôes ocnnue. uamxa nnncna. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r cyxo opexue, µ¡nro 1,5 mm,
rono n rnaµxo (raôno 25, ]nr. 1).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ anrycr. Vnorpeôxna
ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Oõnxnonen xpsc1en Cniciata laevipes Opi:. (Galium cruciatum Scop.)
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c mnorouncnenn npnnoµnnramn ce nnn nsnpanenn
uernpnp¡ôecrn cr¡ôna, nncoxn 20-60 cm, pasnepeno nnaxnecrn. Hncrara onanno ennnrnunn,
saocrpenn, no ôes ocnnue, µ¡nrn 12-20 mm, mnpoxn 4-10 mm, orrope ronn nnn c peµxn
nnacnnxn, orµony no p¡ôa n no xnnxnre nnaxnecrn. Hneronere na µ¡nrn nnaxnecrn µp¡xxn,
c¡ôpann no 5-9 n nasnenn nonycennnnn n c nannernn npnnnernnnn. Benuero x¡nro,
1,8-2,7 mm n µnamer¡p, c¡c saocrpenn µxnone. Hnoµ¡r ron, rnaµ¡x, x¡nôecr,1,5 mm n µnamer¡p
(raôno 25, ]nr. 2).
Hs nnnaµn, xpacranann, ropn n µp. n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n.
H¡]rn anpnn mnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Bpom Rubia tinctorum L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µ¡nro xopnsonranno xopennme, xoero e uepneno-xa]xno
orn¡n n uepneno orn¡rpe. Cr¡ônoro xarepnnno, µ¡nro µo 1 m, 4-p¡ôecro, rono, no rpanano or
nacouennre naµony mnnuera. Hañ-µonnnre n nañ-ropnnre nncra oônxnoneno cpemynonoxnn,
ocranannre no 4-6 n npemnen, npoµ¡nronarn µo nannernn, c eµna xnnxa, µ¡nrn 2-10 cm,
mnpoxn 0,5-2,5 cm, n ocnonara crecnenn n x¡ca µp¡xxa nnn npnceµnann, no p¡ôa n orµony no
xnnxnre c nacouenn nasaµ mnnuera. Hneronere µpeônn, 4 5- µennn, cnernox¡nrn, µ¡nrn 1,5-
3,0 mm, c¡ôpann n cnnno pasxnonenn mernnuecrn c¡nnernx; xoponxara 5-6 mm n µnamer¡p.
uamxara ôes s¡ônn. Hnoµ¡r oruacrn mececr, c xocrnnxa (raôno 25, ]nr. 3).
Cpema ce pxµxo ns xpacranann, xpañ orpaµn, n µnopone, xaro pyµepanno pacrenne n nxnara
crpana, npeµnmno n Rxna n Hsrouna F¡nrapnx. H¡]rn or mnn µo cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna xopennmero (µpora Rhizoma Rubiae tinctorum), xoero
ce nsxonana npes ecenra cneµ yspxnanero na cemenara nnn pano nanponer. Hamnpa mnpoxo
npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. BT3OBH - CAPRIFOLIACEAE
Hepnen õss Sambucus racemosa L.
Xpacr nnn nncxo µp¡nue, nncoxo µo 5 m. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, neun]ronepecrn, c 3-7
nncruera, na n¡]rxmnre xnonxn nepxµxo n c no 3 nncruera,
(75)
onannn, onanno nannernn nnn ennnrnunn, nas¡ôenn, nourn ronn, µ¡nrn 4-12 cm, mnpoxn 1,5-
6,0 cm. Hpnnncrnnnnre manxn, nannernn, ô¡pso onaµamn. Hneronere c¡ôpann n nn¡rna
xñnennµna mernnna, n µnamer¡p µo 6 cm, ornauano senennxann, nnocneµcrnne
senenox¡nrennxann, oxono 4 mm n µnamer¡p, ncnuxn c µp¡xxn. uamxara c¡c s¡ônn, µ¡nrn
oxono 0,5 mm. Tnunnxnre 3-5. ×ñunnx¡r nonyµonen c 3 npnceµnann ônnsanna. Hnoµ¡r
x¡nôecr, mececr, 4-5 mm n µnamer¡p, cnernouepnen (raôno 25, ]nr. 4).
Cpema ce n nrnonncrnnre ropn n Cpeµna n 3anaµna Crapa nnannna, Bnroma, Cpeµnn n
3anaµnn Poµonn, Pnna. H¡]rn mnn anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. AYIAHKOBH DIPSACEAE
Æsn1ennxana cauorpnsxa Scabiosa ochroleuca L.
¡nyroµnmno nnn mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, nnaxnecro nnn n cpeµnara cn
uacr nourn rono cr¡ôno, nncoxo 20-80 cm, c 2-5 µnoñxn cpemynonoxnn nncra, npocro nnn
pasxnoneno, xaro ncxxa xnonxa san¡pmna c nnerna xomnnuxa. Hncrara r¡cro nnaxnecrn, uecro
nourn cnnn, ropnnre no-cnaôo nnaxnecrn, npnocnonnnre nnponnµno nspxsann nnn nepecro
pasceuenn c nannernn, nas¡ôenn crpannunn µxnone n no-eµ¡p, xñnennµen np¡xen µxn.
Cr¡ônennre nncra nnponnµno µnoñno nepecro naceuenn, c nannernn µenuera. Hneronere
c¡ôpann no mnoro na x¡nôecrn c¡nnernx xomnnuxn c µnamer¡p 1,5-2,5 cm, unxro oônnnxa e
c¡cranena or nnneñnn, saocrpenn, oônxnoneno nnaxnecrn nncruera. Hpn ocnonara na ncexn
nnxr ce namnpa nmcnecr npnnnernnx. uamxara µnoñna n¡nmnara or µne nan¡nno cpacnann
npnnnernn nncruera, nañ-uecro c nnnecra xxnuxa, a n¡rpemnara, c¡mnncxara uamxa,
c¡cranena or 5 uernnxn. Hepn]epnnre nnerone no-eµpn. Benuero 5-µenno, ôneµox¡nro, c x¡ca
rp¡ônna n xoponxa c 5 neeµnaxnn s¡ôena. Tnunnxnre 4, cnoôoµnn. ×ñunnx¡r µonen. Hpn
nnoµonere n¡nmnara uamxa ce sanasna. Tx oôxnama nnoµa n e c 8 rpanunnxn n ropnnx cn xpañ
(raôno 26, ]nr. 1).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn mecra n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. CAOÆHOHBETHH - ASTERACEAE (COMPOSITAE)
1. Bcnuxn nnerone esnuecrn. Pacrennx c mneuen cox ...........2
1*. Bcnuxn nnerone rp¡ôecrn nnn cpeµnnre rp¡ôecrn, a nepn]epnnre
esnuecrn. Pacrennx ôes mneuen cox.........................6
2. Bcnuxn nncra c¡ôpann n poserxa npn ocnonara na cr¡ônoro. Hnero-nocnnxr crp¡x
ôesnncren..............................3
2*. Hneronocnoro cr¡ôno oônncreno....................5
3. Hnernoro nerno mexµy nneronere (pecn. mexµy nnoµonere) noxpnro c nannernn nmcnnnn .
Hernncro npoônrnue Hvpochaeris maculata L.
3*. Hnernoro nerno rono, ôes nmcnnuxn, nonxxora c peµxn uernnxn . . 4
4. Hncrara senenn, ronn nnn c peµxn nnacnnxn, µ¡nôoxo nas¡ôenn µo nepecro pasceuenn
Inyxapue Taraxacum officinale Web.
4*. Hncrara orrope senenn, uernnecro nnaxnecrn, orµony ôenon¡nnecrn, nourn nenoxpañnn . .
. Oônxnonenapynxnxa Hieracium pilosella L.
5. uernnxnre or xn¡punnxara na nnoµa nepecro pasxnonenn.......
.............. Hnnaµna xosx ôpaµa Tragopogon pratensisL.
(76)
5*. uernnxnre or xn¡punnxara na nnoµa npocrn ..............
................... Komnacna canara Lactuca serriola L.
6. Hneronocnnre cr¡ôna ce pasnnnar nanponer npeµn npnocnonnnre nncra n ca noxpnrn c
ôenesnnxann nnn senennxann nmcnn. Komnnuxnre eµnnnunn ...................... Hoµôen
Tussilago farfara L.
6*. Cr¡ônoro oônncreno n ce pasnnna cneµ npnocnonnnre nncra .... 7
7. Pacrennx c ôoµnnnn nncra, nxnmunrenno n nncrara, oônnnamn xomnnuxnre
........................................8
7*. Pacrennx ôes ôoµnnnn nncra.......................9
8. Hone nepn]epnnre nnoµone ôes xn¡punnxa; n¡nmnnre oônnnnn nncruera npoµ¡nxenn n
npocro ôoµnnue.........................
................... B¡nnecr acnypr Carthamus lanatus L.
8*. Bcnuxn nnoµone c xn¡punnxa; n¡nmnnre oônnnnn nncruera npoµ¡nxenn n nepecro
pasxnoneno ôoµnnue . . Hpeceuxa Cnicus benedictus L.
9. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn...........................
................... Tpnµenen ôyrpax Bidens tripartita L.
9*. Hncrara nocneµonarennn nnn c¡ôpann npn ocnonara na cr¡ônoro . .
.............................................10
10. Esnuecrn nnerone nnncnar ncnuxn nnerone rp¡ôecrn nnn camo nepn]epnnre
nnmxonnµnn, µ¡nrn xonxoro rp¡ôecrnre.............11
10* Hepn]epnnre nnerone esnuecrn ....................16
11. Hone nepn]epnnre nnerone c npnnnernn nmcnnuxn...........
............................... Cnemnna Filago L.
11*. Hxnoro nnerno nerno ôes npnnnernn nmcnnuxn...........12
12. Hnoµonere ôes xn¡punnxa........................13
12*. Hnoµonere c xn¡punnxa.........................14
13. Komnnuxnre µpeônn (3 mm, pxµxo µo 5 mm n µnamer¡p), c¡ôpann n
rposµone, rpynnpann n rxcno oônncreno mernnuecro c¡nnerne.........
................ Oônxnonen nennn Artemisia absinthium L.
13*. Komnnuxnre no-eµpn (8-11 mm n µnamer¡p), c¡ôpann n r¡cro mnronnµno c¡nnerne
.....................................
......................... Bparnra Tanacetum vulgareL.
14. Hncrara µ¡nôoxo napxsann nnn pasµenenn, ronn nnn cnaôo naxxnno-
nnµno nnaxnecrn. Oônnnnnre nncruera senenn, na n¡pxa n¡suepnn.......
.................. Oônxnonencnopex Senecio vulgaris L.
14*. Hncrara nenoxpañnn, cnnonnaxnecrn µo ôenon¡nnecrn. Oônnnnnre nncn uera x¡nrn nnn
xa]xnn ...........................15
15. Hncrara ôenon¡nnecrn. Oônnnnnre nncruera x¡nrn µo noproxanonn . ................... Cmnn
Helichrvsum arenarium (L.) Moench
15*. Hncrara cnnon¡nnecrn. Oônnnnnre nncruera xa]xnn..........
............. Oônxnonen ôxn cmnn Gnaphalium uliginosum L.
16. Hnernoro nerno c nmcnnuxn.......................17
16*. Hnernoro nerno rono ..........................19
17. Komnnuxnre eµpn, 5-6 cm n µnamer¡p. Hncrara nenn, c¡pnennµnn . . .................
uepnoxoc Telekia speciosa (Schreb.)Baumg.
17*. Komnnuxnre no-µpeônn. Hncrara npoµ¡nronarn µo nannernn, nepecro
pasceuenn.....................................18
18. Komnnuxnre µpeônn, oxono 4 cm n µnamer¡p, c¡ôpann n mnronnµno
c¡nnerne. Hncrara ôenon¡nnecrn ..........................
.................... X¡nr pannen Achillea clvpeolata S. S.
18*. Komnnuxnre no-eµpn, 2,5-4,5 cm n µnamer¡p, eµnnnunn. Hncrara ronn nnn nourn ronn . .
. . Farpnnno noµpymue Anthemis tinctoria L.
19. Oônnnnnre nncruera n eµnn xptr, npn ocnonara cn c µon¡nnnrennn nnneñno-nannernn
µpeônn nncruera........ Cnopex Senecio L.
(77)
19*. Oônnnnnre nncruera n µna xp¡ra, ôes µon¡nnnrennn nncruera . . 20
20. Komnnuxnre eµnnnunn na n¡pxa na oônxnoneno ôesnncrno cr¡ôno . . ...... C¡pnenncren
µnn cn¡nuorneµ Doronicum columnae Ten.
20*. Komnnuxnre c¡ôpann no mnoro n mernnuecrn n mnronnµnn c¡nnernx na n¡pxa na
oônncreno n pasxnoneno cr¡ôno...............21
21. Komnnuxnre µn¡rnecrn, sn¡nuennµnn nnn sn¡nuennµno -nnnnnµpnu-
nn, no-nncoxn, orxonxoro mnpoxn (2-3 mm n µnamer¡p), c 6-12 nnxra.....
.......................... Enuen Solidago virgaurea L.
21*. Komnnuxnre nonyx¡nôecrn nnn noµoôno na nannuxn, no-mnpoxn, orxonxoro µ¡nrn.
Esnuecrnre nnerone mnoroôpoñnn.............22
22. Xn¡punnxara oôpasynana camo or nnacnnxn . . Oman Inula L.
22*. Xn¡punnxara oôpasynana or eµnn peµ nnacnnxn n or x¡ca nas¡ôena
xoponxa .........................................
........... Oônxnonena ôn¡mnnna Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn.
Enuen Solidago virgaurea L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co xopennme. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno, pasxnoneno,
nncoxo µo 1 m, rono nnn camo n ropnara cn uacr nnaxnecro. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, ronn nnn
cnaôo nnaxnecrn, npnocnonnnre xñnennµnn nnn ennnrnunn, npemnnanamn n xpnnara µp¡xxa,
µ¡nrn µo 10 cm, eµpo nas¡ôenn; cr¡ônennre nncra nocrenenno namanxnamn, ennnrnunn nnn
nannernn, npnceµnann, nenoxpañnn. Komnnuxnre nnnnnµpnunn, c¡ôpann n mernnuecro nnn
rposµonnµno c¡nnerne na n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro, µ¡nrn 7-10 mm, xaro oônnnnnre nm nncruera ca
xepemnµooôpasno napeµenn, saocrpenn, ronn, µ¡nrn µo 8 mm. uamxa nnncna. Hneronere x¡nrn,
oôpasynann or cpacrnanero na 5 nncruera, cpeµnnre rp¡ôecrn, nepn]epnnre esnuecrn, xonro
ca oxono 8 mm µ¡nrn n oxono 2 mm mnpoxn, npoµ¡nronarn µo nnneñnn, 6-12 na ôpoñ.
Tnunnxnre 5, cpacnann c npamnnnnre cn. ×ñunnx¡r µonen. Hnoµonere µ¡nrn oxono 3 mm, c
xn¡punnxa, c¡cranena or nxxonxo peµa rpanann uernnxn (raôno 26, ]nr. 2).
Hs xpacranann, paspeµenn ropn, no cxanncrn n xamennnnn mecra n nxnara crpana, nourn µo
annnñcxnx noxc. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna np¡xnara cr¡ônena uacr c nneronere n nncrara (µpora
Herba Solidaginis virgaaureae), xonro ce c¡ônpar no npeme na n¡]rexa. Hma mnpoxo
npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Cnemnna Filago L.
1. B¡nmnnre oônnnnn nncruera saocrpenn, c nnaxnonnµno npoµ¡nxenne ..................
Oônxnonena cnemnna F. vulgaris Lam.
1 *. Bcnuxn nncruera na oônnnxara r¡nn....................
....................... Honcxa cnemnna F. arvensis L.
Oõnxnonena cnemnna Filago vulgaris Lam. (F. germanica L.)
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno nnn n ocnonara npnnon-µnramo ce cr¡ôno,
nncoxo 5-40 cm, noxpnro c r¡crn nnacnnxn, n ropnara cn uacr pasxnoneno. Hncrara
npnceµnann, r¡cronnaxnecrn, nnneñno-nannernn µo nannernn, µ¡nrn 12-30 mm, mnpoxn 1-4
mm, saocrpenn, pxµxo r¡nn, nenoxpañnn. Hnernnre xomnnuxn µpeônn, µ¡nrn µo 5 mm, c¡ôpann
no 10-30 n
(78)
r¡crn x¡nôecrn rnannuxn c µnamer¡p 6-14 mm, pasnonoxenn n ocnonara na pasxnonennxra n no
n¡pxonere na xnonxnre. Hncruerara na oônnnxara n 5 peµa, nsnpanenn, µ¡nrn 4,0-4,5 mm, or
n¡nmnara crpana nnaxnecrn, x¡m n¡pxa ronn, cnamenox¡nrn, n¡rpemnnre no-µ¡nrn, nnnecrn
n saocrpenn, x¡m n¡pxa uecro uepnennxann. Hneronere mnoro µpeônn, x¡nrn, nepn]epnnre
xencxn, nnmxonnµnn, 20-23 na ôpoñ, c no 3 s¡ôena n pasnonoxenn n nxxonxo peµa,
n¡rpemnnre µnynononn, oônxnoneno 2-3, rp¡ôecrn, c no 4-5 s¡ôena. B¡nmnnre nnoµone ôes
xn¡punnxa, n¡rpemnnre c xn¡punnxa or 1-2 peµnnn r¡nxn n xpexxn uernnxn (raôno 26, ]nr.
3).
Ho cyxn nec¡xnnnn n xamenncrn mecra n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Honcxa cnemnna Filago arvensis L. (Logfia anensis (L.) Holub).
Eµnoroµnmno pacrenne c nsnpaneno, n ropnara cn uacr mernnuecro pasxnoneno cr¡ôno,
nncoxo µo 70 cm, rtcron¡nnecro nnaxnecro. Hncrara npoµ¡nronarn µo nnneñno-nannernn,
saocrpenn, µ¡nrn 5-20 mm, mnpoxn 1-4 mm, mexon¡nnecrn. Komnnuxnre µ¡nrn 2,5-6,5 mm,
mnpoxn 2,5-5,0 mm, c¡ôpann no 2-12 n mnorouncnenn rnannuxn, pasnonoxenn no n¡pxonere na
pasxnonennxra n oôpasynamn mernnuecrn nnn rposµonnµnn c¡nnernx. Hncruerara na
oônnnxara n 5 peµa, r¡cron¡nnecrn, r¡nn, no npeme na yspxnanero snesµonnµno pasnepenn.
Hneronere µpeônn, x¡nrn, xencxnre 15-18, nnmxonnµnn; µnynononnre rp¡ôecrn, rpn na ôpoñ.
Hnoµonere µ¡nrn oxono 3 mm, n¡rpemnnre c xn¡punnxa or nxxonxo peµa uernnxn, a n¡nmnnre
or eµnn peµ uernnxn, xonro necno naµar (raôno 27, ]nr. 1).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n neoôpaôorenn mecra, n nosx n na µpyrn mecra n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn
npes mnn anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Oõnxnonen õnn cunn Gnaphalium uliginosum L. (Filaginella uliginosa(L.) Opi:.)
Eµnoroµnmno pacrenne c¡c cnnonnaxnecro, or ocnonara cn pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 20
cm. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, nnneñno-nannernn µo npoµ¡nronaro onannn, µ¡nrn 10-50 mm,
mnpoxn 2-4 mm, nenoxpañnn, nocrenenno npemnnanamn n µp¡xxa. Komnnuxnre µ¡nrn 3-4 mm,
c¡ôpann no 3-10 n x¡nôecrn rnannuxn no n¡pxonere na xnonxnre n oônnrn or nañ-ropnnre
nncruera, xonro ca no-µ¡nrn or c¡nnernero. Oônnnnnre nncruera nannernn, saocrpenn,
n¡sxa]xnn, no p¡ôa cn nnnecrn, na n¡pxa no-r¡mnn n ronn. Hneronere mnoro µpeônn, µ¡nrn
1,5-2 mm, cnernox¡nrn, nepn]epnnre xencxn nnerone ca nnmxonnµnn, pasnonoxenn n
nxxonxo peµa, a n¡rpemnnre µnynononn ca rp¡ôecrn. Hnoµonere µ¡nrn oxono 0,5 mm,
npoµ¡nronaro nnnnnµpnunn, c xn¡punnxa or eµnn peµ nnacnnxn (raôno 26, ]nr. 4).
Ho nnaxnn rpenncrn n xpañpeunn nec¡xnnnn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1500 m n. n. H¡]rn
mnn oxromnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Cunn Helichrvsum arenarium (L.) Moench
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne, ôenon¡nnecro, c nsnpanenn cr¡ôna, oônxnoneno no
nxxonxo, nncoxn µo 30 cm, pasxnonenn camo n oônacrra na c¡nnernero. Hncrara
nocneµonarennn, nenn, ôenon¡nnecrn, nocrenenno crec-
(79)
nenn x¡m ocnonara cn n mnpoxa µp¡xxa, µ¡nrn 5-7 cm, npoµ¡nronaro nan-nernn µo nnneñnn,
nenoxpañnn. Hnernnre xomnnuxn x¡nôecrn, µ¡nrn n mnpoxn 6-7 mm, c¡ôpann no mnoro
(oxono 30 ) n¡n np¡xno mnronnµno c¡nnerne, µ¡nro 2-5 cm. Oônnnnnre nncruera mnoroôpoñnn
(oxono 30), xñnennµnn nnn npoµ¡nronarn, xepemnµooôpasno napeµenn, nnmonenox¡nrn µo
opanxeno-x¡nrn, pxµxo ôenn. Hneronere snarncrox¡nrn. Hepn]epnnre xencxn nnerone ca
nnmxonnµnn n uecro nnncnar, rorana ncnuxn nnerone ca µnynononn. Hnoµonere µ¡nrn oxono 1
mm, c xn¡punnxa or µ¡nrn uernnxn (raôno 27, ]nr. 2).
Ho nec¡xnnnn mecra no uepnomopcxoro xpañôpexne, n Ceneponsrouna n Rrosanaµna
F¡nrapnx n n Kmcrenµnncxo. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar c¡ôpannre no npeme na n¡]rexa nnernn xomnnuxn
(µpora Flores Helichrysii). Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Ouan Inula L.
1. Eµpo pacrenne, nncoxo 1,0-2,5 m. Hncrara µ¡nrn 40-70 cm, mnpoxn
10-30 cm. Hnernnre xomnnuxn ronemn, 6-8 cm n µnamer¡p............
............................ Fxn oman -A helenium L.
1*. Pacrennx, nncoxn µo 80 cm, nncrara no-x¡cn or 15 cm n no-recnn or 4 cm. Komnnuxnre
µpeônn, µo 12 mm n µnamer¡p .................2
2. Hnoµonere ronn ....... Iepmancxn oman - I. germanica L.
2*. Hnoµonere c npnnernann nnacnnxn.....................
...................... Fpnrancxn oman I. britannica L
Bnn ouan Inula helenium L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µ¡nro, mececro, pasxnoneno r¡mnoxa]xno xopennme,
orn¡rpe ôenesnnxano, µeôeno µo 5 cm, or xoero nsnnsar manxo na ôpoñ µ¡nrn µo 50 cm
npnµar¡unn xopenn. Cr¡ônoro npano, nncoxo µo 2,5 m, n µonnara cn uacr mexonnaxnecro, x¡m
n¡pxa n¡nnecro, cnaôo pasxnoneno. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, eµpn, nepanno nas¡ôenn, orµony
cnno-n¡nnecro nann¡crenn; npnocnonnnre nncra µ¡nrn µo 70 cm, npoµ¡nronaro ennnrnunn,
ocrpn, crecnenn n µ¡nra µp¡xxa; cr¡ônennre no-manxn (10-30 cm), nocrenenno namanxnamn
x¡m n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro, ôes µp¡xxa, oôxnamamn cr¡ônoro c¡c c¡pnennµnara cn ocnona.
Hneronere c¡ôpann n eµpn (6-8 cm n µnamer¡p) xomnnuxn, xonro na n¡pxa na rnannoro cr¡ôno
n pasxnonennxra my oôpasynar pexann mernnnn nnn mnrue. Komnnuxnre c oônnnxa, c¡cranena
or xepemnµooôpasno napeµenn senenn nncruera. Hneronere snarncrox¡nrn n¡rpemnnre
rp¡ôecrn, nepn]epnnre esnuecrn. Hnoµuerara npnsmarnunn, cnaôµenn c xn¡punnxa (raôno 27,
]nr. 3).
Cpema ce pxµxo no nnaxnn cenuecrn mecra n ropnre rnanno n nsrounnre uacrn na crpanara n n
¡ynancxara nnsnna. H¡]rn mnn - cenremnpn.
Kopennmara n xopennre ca µporara Rhizoma n Radix Inulae helenii. Te ce nsxonanar naecen
cneµ ormnpanero na naµsemnara uacr nnn nanponer npeµn pasnnrnero ñ. Hma mnpoxo
npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Iepuancxn ouan Inula germanica L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne e nsnpaneno, r¡cro ôenon¡nnecro cr¡ôno, nncoxo 30-80 cm.
Hncrara µ¡nrn 4,5-10 cm, mnpoxn 1-3 cm, r¡cro-
(80)
nnaxnecrn, nañ-µonnnre yµ¡nxenn, c µp¡xxa, no npeme na n¡]rexa oônxnoneno nsc¡xnar,
ocranannre npoµ¡nronaro nannernn µo nannernn, r¡nn, nenoxpañnn, npnceµnann n c¡c
c¡pnennµnara cn ocnona oôxnamar cr¡ônoro. Komnnuxnre mnorouncnenn, 7-11 mm n
µnamer¡p, oôpasynamn mnronnµno c¡nnerne. Oônnnnnre nncruera or n¡nmnara crpana
npnnernano xnesncro nnaxnecrn, xepemnµooôpasno napeµenn, n¡nmnnre xñnennµnn, mnpoxn
nourn 2 mm, n¡rpemnnre nannernn, no-recnn, ncnuxn xoxecrn. Hneronere x¡nrn,
nepn]epnnre xencxn, esnuecrn, µ¡nrn 8-11 mm, mnpoxn oxono 1 mm, 1-3 mm no-µ¡nrn or
oônnnxara; n¡rpemnnre nnerone rp¡ôec-rn, µnynononn, µ¡nrn µo 6 mm. Hnoµonere ronn, µ¡nrn
oxono 1,5 mm, c xn¡punnxa or eµnn peµ nnacnnxn (raôno 27, ]nr. 4).
Ho nnnaµn, xpacranann n na µpyrn mecra n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Bpn1ancxn ouan Inula britannica L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 15-75 cm, npocro nnn
pasxnoneno, r¡cro npnnernano nnaxnecro nnn nourn rono. Hncrara yµ¡nxeno xñnennµnn µo
nannernn, r¡nn nnn cnaôo saocrpenn, nenoxpañnn nnn cnaôo nas¡ôenn, µ¡nrn 4-15 cm, mnpoxn
1-4 cm, orrope paspeµeno nnaxnecrn, orµony r¡cro nnaxnecrn; µonnnre crecnenn n x¡ca (1-5
cm) µp¡xxa; no-ropnnre c¡c saxp¡rnena nnn c¡pnennµna ocnona, npnceµnann. Hnernnre
xomnnuxn eµnnnunn nnn no 2-4 n c¡nnerne, 2-5,5 cm n µnamer¡p. Oônnnnnre nncruera nourn
eµnaxno µ¡nrn, npnônnsnrenno n µna xp¡ra, nnneñno-nannernn, mnpoxn oxono 1 mm,
nnaxnecrn nnn xnesncrn, nsnnrn nasaµ. Hneronere snarncrox¡nrn. Esnuecrnre nnerone µ¡nrn
15-25 mm, mnpoxn 1,5 mm, nourn µna n¡rn no-µ¡nrn or oônnnxara, n¡rpemnnre rp¡ôecrn.
Hnoµonere µ¡nrn oxono 1,3 mm, c npnnernann nnacnnxn n xn¡punnxa or 15-25 uernnxn (raôno
28, ]nr. 2).
Ho nnaxnn mecra n xaro ôypen n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1500 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac ce cpemar ome 12 nnµa oman, xonro ce pasnnuanar or pasrneµannre rpn nnµa.
Oõnxnonena õnsmnnna Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne, noxpnro c nnacnnxn nnn npnceµnann xnesn. Cr¡ônoro
nncoxo 7-45 cm, uecro or ocnonara pasxnoneno. Hncrara npoµ¡nronarn µo xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 1-
4 cm, mnpoxn 0,2-0,8 cm, nenoxpañnn nnn cnaôo nas¡ôenn, µonnnre c µp¡xxa, ropnnre c¡c
saxp¡rnena ocnona, npnceµnann. Komnnuxnre mnoroôpoñnn, mnpoxn oxono 10 mm. Hncruerara
na oônnnxara nnneñnn µo nnneñno-nannernn, n nxxonxo xp¡ra, neeµnaxnn, nnaxnecrn.
Hneronere cnernox¡nrn. Esnuecrnre nnerone no-µ¡nrn or oônnnxara, mnpoxn 0,6 mm,
nonxxora nnncnar; n¡rpemnnre nnerone rp¡ôecrn. Hnoµonere x¡connaxnecrn, µ¡nrn oxono 1,5
mm; xn¡punnxara c¡cranena or µna peµa uernnxn n¡nmnnre cpacnann n¡n nnµ na x¡ca
nas¡ôena xoponxa, a n¡rpemnnre no-µ¡nrn n rpanann (raôno 28, ]nr. 1).
Ho nnaxnn mecra n mexµy ôypenn n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn mnn oxromnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac ce cpema ome eµnn nnµ ôn¡mnnna Pulicaria dvsenterka (L.f Bernh.), xoxro e
mnororoµnmno pacrenne n esnuecrnre ñ nnerone ca snaunrenno no-µ¡nrn or oônnnxara.
(81)
Hepnoxoc Telekia speciosa (Schreb.) Baumg,
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co µeôeno xopennme. Cr¡ônoro eµnnnuno, nncoxo 90-
200 cm, n ropnara cn uacr pasxnoneno, x¡connaxnecro, uecro uepnennxanoxa]xno. Hncrara
rn¡pµe eµpn, orrope nourn ronn, orµony ]nnonnaxnecrn, µnoñno nnn npocro nas¡ôenn, µ¡nrn
15-20 cm, mnpoxn 6-12 cm, µonnnre n cpeµnnre c x¡ca µp¡xxa, mnpoxo rpn¡r¡nno c¡pnennµnn
nnn c¡pnennµnn, saocrpenn: ropnnre xñnennµnn nnn npoµ¡nronarn, c¡c saoônena nnn mnpoxo
xnnnonnµna ocnona, npnceµnann nnn nourn npnceµnann. Komnnuxnre eµpn, 5-6 cm n
µnamer¡p, c µocra µ¡nra µp¡xxa, c¡ôpann no 2-8 n x¡co rposµonnµno c¡nnerne. Oônnnxara
nonyx¡nôecra, c¡cranena or nxxonxo xp¡ra xepemnµooôpasno napeµenn nncruera, onanno µo
onanno nannernn, r¡nn, c nsnnr nan¡n np¡x. Hneronere r¡mnosnarncrox¡nrn, c esnuecrn
nnerone, recnn, mnoroôpoñnn, mnpoxn 1 mm, µnoñno no-µ¡nrn or oônnnxara; n¡rpemnnre
nnerone rp¡ôecrn. Hnernoro nerno c onannn µo onanno nannernn npnnnernn nncruera.
Hnoµonere ronn, µ¡nrn oxono 6 mm, nmecro c xn¡punnxa c nas¡ôen p¡ô (raôno 28, ]nr. 3).
Ho nnaxnn n xamennnnn mecra n xpañ noronn n ropcxnx noxc na ncnuxn nnannnn mexµy 800 n
2000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Tpnµenen õy1pax Bidens tripartita L.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, rono, pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 15-100 cm.
Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, nocrenenno crecnenn n x¡ca xpnnara µp¡xxa, pasµenenn na 3-5
nannernn nnn npoµ¡nronarn µxna, c no-eµ¡p np¡xen µxn, rpyôo nas¡ôenn. Komnnuxnre 15-25
mm n µnamer¡p n ronxona nncoxn, nsnpanenn nnn ynncnann, eµnnnunn. Oônnnxara
nonyx¡nôecra nnn sn¡nuennµna, c¡cranena or 5-8 n¡nmnn, no-µ¡nrn or xomnnuxnre nncruera,
n¡rpemnnre no-x¡cn, onannn, cnno-x¡nrn. Hnernoro nerno c recnn npnnnernnnn, xonro
onaµar saeµno c nnoµonere. Hneronere xa]xno-x¡nrn, nepn]epnnre xencxn ca esnuecrn,
nonxxora nnncnar; cpeµnnre ca rp¡ôecrn. Hnoµonere ronn, cnnecxann, c 2-4 ocnna, c nacouenn
nasaµ s¡ônn (raôno 28, ]nr. 4).
Ho nnaxnn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1500 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn oxromnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce
n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Barpnnno noµpyuue Anthemis tinctoria L.
¡nyroµnmno nnn mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpanenn, npocrn nnn n ropnara cn
uacr pasxnonenn cr¡ôna, nncoxn 20-80 cm, uecro uepnennxann. Hncrara nocneµonarennn,
orrope ronn nnn nourn ronn, orµony r¡cro nnaxnecrn, n oômoro cn ouepranne npeµ¡nronarn,
nepecro pasceuenn na npoµ¡nronarn nas¡ôenn µxnone. Hnernnre xomnnuxn eµnnnunn, na
µ¡nra µp¡xxa, 2,5-4,5 cm n µnamer¡p, c oônnnxa or xepemnµooôpasno napeµenn nncruera,
npnnernano nnaxnecrn, n¡nmnnre nannernn, saocrpenn, n¡rpemnnre npoµ¡nronarn, r¡nn.
Hnernoro nerno nonyx¡nôecro, c ocrpn, nannernn npnnnernnnn. Hneronere cnernox¡nrn µo
opanxenn, nepn]epnnre esnuecrn, µ¡nrn 2-15 mm, pxµxo nnncnar, n¡rpemnnre rp¡ôecrn.
Hnoµonere cnernocnnn, na n¡pxa c ocr¡p p¡ô nnn c¡ncem x¡ca xxnuxa (raôno 29, ]nr. 1).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn mecra n xpacranann n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna
ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
(82)
Æsn1 pannen Achillea clvpeolata S. S.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne, nxnoro r¡cro ôenonnaxnecro, c npocro, mnoro pxµxo
pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 15-60 cm. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, nannernn, nepecro naµenenn, c
onannn, nannernn nnn µn¡rnecrn nas¡ôenn cermenrn, mnpoxn 2-5 mm; npnocnonnnre nncra
µ¡nrn 8-20 cm, mnpoxn 3-5 cm, na x¡ca µp¡xxa, ropnnre cr¡ônenn npnceµnann, xaro nañ-
µonnnre nncrnn µxnone nourn oôrp¡mar cr¡ônoro. Hnernnre xomnnuxn c¡ôpann n mnronnµno
c¡nnerne n ca c µnamer¡p oxono 4 mm, na µp¡xxa, µ¡nra oxono 2 mm, c yµ¡nxeno xñnennµnn
nnn nannernn oônnnnn nncruera. Hneronere snarncrox¡nrn. Esnuecrnre nnerone µ¡nrn oxono
1 mm, saxp¡rnenn, xaro cnoôoµnara nm uacr e mnoro no-x¡ca or oônnnxara. Hnernoro nerno c
npn-nnernn nmcnnnn. Hnoµonere µn¡rnecrn, oônxnoneno cnnecxann n ôes xn¡punnxa.
Ho xamennnnn n cxanncrn mecra, npeµnmno n¡pxy naponnr repen, no-uecro n mxnnre uacrn na
crpanara. H¡]rn mañ cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Bpa1nra Tanacetum vulgare L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c ronxm ôpoñ nsnpanenn cr¡ôna, nncoxn 40-160 cm, ronn
nnn nnaxnecrn, pasxnonenn na n¡pxa, r¡cro oônncrenn. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, nañ-µonnnre
na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, ropnnre npnceµnann nnn nourn npnceµnann, µ¡nrn 15-25 cm, mnpoxn 5-10
cm, npocro nnn µnoñno nepecro naceuenn, nnaxnecrn µo ronn. Hnernnre xomnnuxn c¡ôpann n
ronxm ôpoñ (µo 100) n r¡crn cnoxnn mnronnµnn c¡nnernx no n¡pxonere na pasxnonennxra, 8-
11 mm n µnamer¡p. Oônnnnnre nncruera ronn, c nnnecr p¡ô, n¡nmnnre xñnennµnn,
n¡rpemnnre nannerno-xñnennµnn. Hnernoro nerno rono. Bcnuxn nnerone rp¡ôecrn, opanxeno-
x¡nrn, µ¡nrn 1,5-2,4 mm, nepn]epnnre no-µ¡nrn; esnuecrn nnerone nnncnar. Hnoµonere
npoµ¡nronarn, µ¡nrn 1,2-1,8 mm, c xoponxa, µ¡nra 0,2-0,4 mm, ôes xn¡punnxa (raôno 29, ]nr.
2).
Ho rpenncrn, ôypenxcann mecra, xpañ orpaµn n n¡rnma, ns xpacranann n ropcxn nonxnn n
nxnara crpana nourn µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nnernnre xomnnuxn (µpora Flores Tanaceti) nnn
np¡xnnre cr¡ônenn uacrn saeµno c nneronere n nncrara (µpora Herba Tanaceti), xonro ce
c¡ônpar no npeme na n¡]rexa.
Oõnxnonen nennn Artemisia absinthium L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne µo nonyxpacr c nµ¡pnenenn npn ocnonara cn cr¡ôna, cnnno
pasxnonenn n r¡cro oônncrenn. Hxnoro pacrenne e r¡cro noxpnro c¡c cpeôpncroôenn
nnacnnxn n nma cnnna npnxrna mnpnsma n ropunn nxyc. ¡onnnre nncra µ¡nrn 4-12 cm, na
µ¡nra µp¡xxa, nourn rpoñno nepecro pasceuenn; nañ-ropnnre npnceµnann, npocro nepecro
pasceuenn, a n sonara na c¡nnernero rpnµennn µo nenn. ¡xnonere na ncnuxn nncra nnneñno-
nannernn µo nannernn, mnpoxn 2-3 mm. Hnernnre xomnnuxn 3-4 mm n µnamer¡p, ynncnann, c
x¡ca µp¡xxa, c¡ôpann no mnoro n cnoxnn ynncnann mernnnn. Oônnnnnre nncruera n µna peµa,
cnnonnaxnecrn, r¡nn, c nnnecr p¡ô, n¡nmnnre nnneñno-nannernn, n¡rpemnnre xñnennµnn.
Hnernoro nerno nnaxnecro. Bcnuxn nnerone rp¡ôecrn, x¡nrn, esnuecrn nnncnar. Hnoµonere
µ¡nrn oxono 1,5 mm, npoµ¡nronarn, ôes xn¡punnxa nnn xoponxa (raôno 29, ]nr. 3).
(83)
Cpema ce ns xpacranann, no rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra, xpañ orpaµn n n¡rnma n nxnara
crpana µox¡m 1500 m n. n. H¡]rn or mnn µo oxromnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar n¡]rxmnre oônncrenn np¡xnn uacrn (µpora Herba
Absinthii), orpxsann na oxono 25 cm or n¡pxa n nauanoro na n¡]rexa. Hamnpa mnpoxo
npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hoµõen Tusilago farfara L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne, n¡]rn pano nanponer, xaro oôpasyna nneronocnn cr¡ôna,
noxpnrn c nmcnecrn uepnennxann nncra. Cr¡ônoro nncoxo 10-25 cm n san¡pmna c eµnnnuna
x¡nra xomnnuxa, c¡cranena or n¡rpemnn rp¡ôecrn n nepn]epnn esnuecrn nnerone, c oônnnxa
or nnneñno-nannernn nncruera. Hnoµonere c ôxna nyxecra xn¡punnxa. Cneµ n¡]rexa resn
cr¡ôna ynxxnar, a ce pasnnnar npnocnonnn saxp¡rneno c¡pnennµnn nncra µo 30 cm n µnamer¡p,
no p¡ôa nas¡ôenn, orµony ôenon¡nnecrn, orrope ronn, r¡mnosenenn, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra µo 10 cm
(raôno 30, ]nr. 1).
Cpema ce n nxnara crpana no nnaxnn cnnen, nsxonn, xpañ pexn n na µpyrn mecra. H¡]rn mapr
mañ.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar no-mnaµnre nncra (µpora Folia FarIarae), xonro ce
c¡ônpar saeµno c µp¡xxnre npes mañ anrycr. Or µ¡nôoxa µpennocr ce nsnonsyna n n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
Cspnennc1en µnn cnsnuorneµ Doronicum columnae Ten.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c rono xopennme. Cr¡ônoro nncoxo 12-60 cm, rono, camo
noµ xomnnuxara xnesncro nnaxnecro, nsnpaneno, cnaôo oônncreno, na n¡pxa cn c eµna, mnom
pxµxo c µne nnn rpn xomnnuxn. Hpnoc-nonnnre nncra µ¡nrn 3-8 cm, mnpoxn 3-7 cm, mnpoxn
saxp¡rnenn µo c¡pnennµnn, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, eµpo n¡nnonnµno nas¡ôenn, ronn nnn no p¡ôa
nnaxnecrn. Cr¡ônennre nncra ca 3-4, nocneµonarennn, saxp¡rneno xñnennµnn, oôxnamamn
cr¡ônoro c¡c c¡pnennµnara cn ocnona. Komnnuxnre 2-3 cm n µnamer¡p. Oônnnxnre nncruera
nnneñno-nannernn, saocrpenn, µ¡nrn 8-14 mm, xnesncro nnaxnecrn. Hnernoro nerno
nsn¡xnano, x¡connaxnecro. Hneronere x¡nrn, nepn]epnnre esnuecrn, µ¡nrn 2-3,5 cm, µnoñno
no-µ¡nrn or oônnnxara, ôes xn¡punnxa; n¡rpemnnre rp¡ôecrn c xn¡punnxa or eµnaxnn,
nas¡ôenn nnacnnxn. Hnoµonere µn¡rnecrn, µ¡nrn 1,5-2,5 mm, c 10 nsn¡xnann peôpa, ronn nnn c
peµxn nnacnnxn (raôno 30, ]nr. 2).
Ho xamennnnn n rpenncrn mecra, ns xpacranann n nnannncxnx n nncoxonnannncxnx noxc na
Cpeµna n 3anaµna Crapa nnannna, Bnroma, Pnna, 3anaµnn Poµonn, Hnpnn, Cnanxnxa, Ocorono
n Konxncxa nnannna. H¡]rn anpnn anrycr. Hsnonsyna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac ce cpemar ome nxxonxo nnµa µnn cn¡nuorneµ, or xonro camo nsrounnxr (Doronicum
orientate Hoffm.) no n¡nmen nnµ e ônns¡x µo onncannx nnµ. Hpn nero oôaue nmcnnre na n¡pxa
na xopennmero n ocnonara na µp¡xxnre na µonnnre nncra ca noxpnrn c ôxna n¡nna, µoxaro
npn c¡pnenncrnnx µnn cn¡nuorneµ resn uacrn ca ronn.
Cnopea Senecio L.
I. Hnernnre xomnnuxn ôes nepn]epnn esnuecrn nnerone..........
..................... Oônxnonen cnopex - S. vulgaris L.
(84)
1*. Hnernnre xomnnuxn c µoôpe pasnnrn nepn]epnn esnuecrn nnerone . 2 2. Bcnuxn nnoµone
ronn .............................
...................... Iopcxn cnopex S. nemorensis L.
2*. Hepn]epnnre nnoµone (or esnuecrnre nnerone) ronn, n¡rpemnnre
nnaxnecrn................. ×xoôon cnopex S.facobaea L.
Iopcxn cnopea Senecio nemorensis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, r¡cro oônncreno, rono nnn cnaôo nnaxnecro
cr¡ôno, nncoxo 50-200 cm. Hncrara µ¡nrn 5-20 cm, mnpoxn 1-7 cm, or µonnara crpana no
cpeµnara xnnxa nnn no nxnara non¡pxnocr nnaxnecrn, or ropnara nourn ronn; µonnnre
cr¡ônenn nncra xñnennµnn nnn ennnrnunn, npemnnanamn n x¡ca, nexcna µp¡xxa, µopn
nerypara nonxxora ce cnycxa no cr¡ônoro, ropnnre cr¡ônenn nncra ennnrnunn nnn ennn-
rnuno-nannernn, ncnuxn saocrpenn n npnceµnann. Komnnuxnre 20-35 mm n µnamer¡p, c¡ôpann
n mnronnµno c¡nnerne. Hnernoro nerno rono. Oônnnxara or eµnn peµ nncruera, µ¡nrn 6-12
mm, ronn, npn ocnonara nm c 3-8 manxn npnc¡nnernn nncruera. Hepn]epnnre nnerone
esnuecrn, 5-8 na ôpoñ, µ¡nrn 12-15 mm, pxµxo nnncnar, n¡rpemnnre rp¡ôecrn, ncnuxn x¡nrn.
Hnoµonere µ¡nrn 4 mm, ronn, c xn¡punnxa or npocrn nnacnnxn (raôno 30, ]nr. 3).
Hs ropn, ropcxn nonxnn, xnoñnonn xpacranann n no xamennnnn mecra n nnannnnre. H¡]rn
mnn cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Rxoõon cnopea Senecio facobaea L.
¡nyroµnmno nnn mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno p¡ôec-ro cr¡ôno, nncoxo 30-
150 cm, or nourn rono µo naxxnnonnµno nnaxnecro, nañ-uecro or cpeµara cnnno pasxnoneno.
¡onnnre nncra µ¡nrn 10-20 cm, oônxnoneno c µ¡nra µp¡xxa, npoµ¡nronaro oôparno
xñnennµnn, r¡no nas¡ôenn nnn nnponnµno nepecro napxsann, naxxnnonnµno n¡nnecrn µo
nourn ronn, ocranannre nncra npnceµnann, npn ocnonara na nerypara c µoôpe pasnnrn
ymnuxn; cpeµnnre cr¡ônenn nncra npocro nepecrn, a ropnnre µnoñno nepecro pasµenenn, c
npoµ¡nronarn nnn nnneñnn, nas¡ôenn nnn nepecro neµenenn, r¡nn µxnone. Hnernnre
xomnnuxn oônxnoneno mnoroôpoñnn, 15-20 mm n µnamer¡p, c¡ôpann n npocra nnn pasxnonena
mnronnµna mernnna. Oônnnnnre nncruera 13 na ôpoñ, nnneñno-nannernn, saocrpenn, c manxn
npnc¡nnernn nnneñnn nncruera npn ocnonara nm. Hneronere snarncrox¡nrn, n¡nmnnre
esnuecrn, µ¡nrn oxono 10 mm, mnpoxn 2 mm, 12-15 na ôpoñ, cpeµnnre rp¡ôecrn. Hnoµonere
npoµ¡nronaro nnnnnµpnunn, µ¡nrn 2-3 mm, or esnuecrnre nnerone ronn, or rp¡ôecrnre
nnaxnecrn, c necno onaµama xn¡punnxa (raôno 30, ]nr. 4).
Cpema ce no cyxn rpenncrn mecra, ns xpacranann, nnnaµn, paspeµenn ropn n nxnara crpana
µox¡m 1800 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Oõnxnonen cnopea Senecio vulgaris L.
Eµnoroµnmno nnn µnyroµnmno (pxµxo mnororoµnmno) pacrenne c nncoxo cr¡ôno (10-60 cm),
rono nnn naxxnnonnµno nnaxnecro, npocro nnn pasxnoneno. Hncrara ronn nnn cnaôo
naxxnnonnµno nnaxnecrn, µ¡nrn 2-10 cm,
(85)
npoµ¡nronaro nonaronnµnn, µ¡nôoxo napxsann nnn pasµenenn, c nas¡ôenn µxnone; µonnnre
crecnenn n µp¡xxa, ropnnre npnceµnann, nonyoôxnamamn cr¡ônoro. Komnnuxnre
nnnnnµpnunn, 4-5 mm n µnamer¡p, c¡ôpann no mnoro n pxµxo mnronnµno c¡nnerne. B¡nmnnre
nncruera na oônnnxara 4-6 n¡rn no-x¡cn or n¡rpemnnre, na n¡pxa cn n¡suepnn. Hneronere
snarncrox¡n-rn, nourn nnnarn camo rp¡ôecrn. Hnoµonere µ¡nrn 1,5-2,0 mm, nnaxnecrn, c
µ¡nra xn¡punnxa (raôno 31, ]nr. 1).
Ho opnnnn, xpañ crpaµn, xaro nnenen ns oxonnn xynrypn, no nacnma n sanycrenn mecra n
nxnara crpana µox¡m 1200 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna naµsemnara my uacr (µpora Herba Senecionis vulgaris),
xoxro ce c¡ônpa no npeme na n¡]rexa. Hpnnara ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac ce cpemar oxono 18 nnµa cnopex, no oônxnonennxr cnopex ne moxe µa ce oô¡pxa c µpyr
nnµ, samoro camo roñ e c napxsann nncra n ôes esnuecrn nnerone. Hecno ce pasnosnana n
xxoôonnxr cnopex, na xoñro nepn]epnnre nnoµone ca ronn, a n¡rpemnnre nnaxnecrn. Hpn
ocranannre nnµone ncnuxn nnoµone ca ronn nnn nnaxnecrn. Xapaxrepnn ôenesn sa ropcxnx
cnopex, xonro ne ce nonrapxr npn µpyrn nnµone c nenn nncra, ca ronemnxr ôpoñ xomnnuxn n
esnuecrn nnerone (5-8).
Hpeceuxa Cnicus benedictus L.
Eµnoroµnmno pacrenne, nncoxo µo 40-50 cm, or ocnonara pasxnoneno, uecro ôes rnanno
cr¡ôno, no c nexamn nnn npnnonµnramn ce ôenon¡nnecrn xnonxn, san¡pmnamn c xomnnuxa.
Hncrara npoµ¡nronaro nannernn, npnocnonnnre µ¡nrn µo 30 cm, mnpoxn 8 cm, nañ-µonnnre c
µp¡xxa, µ¡nôoxo nas¡ôenn nnn nepecro napxsann c ôoµnnnn s¡ônn n µxnone; cpeµnnre n
ocoôeno ropnnre npnceµnann n oôxnamamn cr¡ônoro nnn xnonxnre, ncnuxn nnaxnecrn.
Komnnuxnre eµnnnunn, eµpn, µ¡nrn µo 4 cm, mnpoxn µo 2 cm, oôxp¡xenn or nañ-ropnnre
ôoµnnnn nncra. Oônnnnnre nncruera n nxxonxo peµa, n¡nmnnre x¡cn, san¡pmnamn c npocr
ôoµnn, a n¡rpemnnre no-µ¡nrn, c no-µ¡n¡r nepecr ôoµnn. Hneronere x¡nrn, rp¡ôecrn,
xpañnnre ôesnnoµnn. Hnoµonere nnnnnµpnunn, µ¡nrn 7-8 mm n c xn¡punnxa, c¡cranena or 8-
10 nas¡ôenn npocrn uernnxn n or mnoroôpoñnn µpyrn no-x¡cn (raôno 31, ]nr. 2).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra n Tpaxnñcxara pannnna, Rronsrouna F¡nrapnx,
Hsrounn n Cpeµnn Poµonn, Crpymcxara µonnna n xpañ ôpera na uepno mope. H¡]rn mnn
anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Bsnnec1 acnyp1 Carthamus lanatus L.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne, nxnoro naxxnnonnµno nnaxnecro. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno, na
n¡pxa pasxnoneno, nncoxo 25-100 cm, r¡cro oônncreno. Hncrara xoxecrn, xnesncrn, ôoµnnnn,
nañ-µonnnre mnpoxo nannernn, n ocnonara cn pasmnpenn n npnceµnann; cpeµnnre n ropnnre
x¡co nannernn, c¡c c¡pnennµnara cn ocnona oôxnamar cr¡ônoro, ncnuxn nepecro napxsann µo
nµn¡ônaro nas¡ôenn. Komnnuxnre eµnnnunn no n¡pxonere na xnonxnre, µ¡nrn 3,5-4 cm,
mnpoxn 2-2,5 cm, oôxp¡xenn or nañ-ropnnre nncra, xonro nocrenenno npemnnanar n
nncruerara na oônnnxara. Oônnnnnre nncruera nnneñno-nannernn, eµpn, san¡pmnamn c
ôoµnnue. Hneronere rp¡ôecrn, x¡nrn, c uepnennxann xnnxn. Hnoµonere xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn µo
5 mm, uern-
(86)
pnp¡ôecrn, ronn. Xn¡punnxnre c¡cranenn or nxxonxo nnneñnn, pecnnuecrn nmcnnuxn (raôno
31, ]nr. 3).
Ho cyxn xamennnnn mecra n nxna F¡nrapnx µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
He1nnc1o npoõn1nue Hvpochaeris maculata L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno cr¡ôno, npocro nnn c 2-3 pasxnonennx na
n¡pxa, nncoxo 15-100 cm, x¡connaxnecro n ôesnncrno nnn c 1-2 nncruera n nxxonxo nmcnnuxn
na n¡pxa. Hncrara µ¡nrn 4-30 cm, ennnrnunn, npoµ¡nronarn µo xñnennµnn, c¡ôpann n poserxa,
nenoxpañnn nnn nas¡ôenn, crecnenn x¡m ocnonara cn, npnceµnann, nnaxnecrn. Komnnu-xnre
eµpn, mnpoxn 4,5-6 cm, nnaxnecrn, eµnnnunn nnn no nxxonxo na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, xoxro noµ
xomnnuxara e saµeôenena. Oônnnnnre nncruera cnnpan-no napeµenn n nxxonxo xp¡ra.
Hnernoro nerno c recnn, nannernn nmcnecrn npnnnernnnn. Hneronere esnuecrn, x¡nrn,
µnoñno no-µ¡nrn or oônnnxara, cnaôo nnaxnecrn. Hnoµonere nnnnnµpnunn, µ¡nrn 10-17 mm, c
µ¡nra uonxa n xn¡punnxa, c¡cranena or eµnn peµ nepecrn uernnxn (raôno 31,]nr. 4).
Hs cenuecrn mecra, xpañ ropn n ropcxn nonxnn, no nnannncxn nnnaµn naµ 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn
mañ oxromnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Annaµna xosn õpaµa Tragopogonpratensis L.
¡nyroµnmno nnn mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c mneuen cox, c nsnpaneno npocro nnn
pasxnoneno, rono nnn cnaôo naxxnnonnµno nnaxnecro cr¡ôno, nncoxo 30-70 cm. Hncrara
nnneñno-nannernn, mnpoxn 4-20 mm, ronn, npnceµnann, n ocnonara cn pasmnpenn,
nonyoôxnamamn cr¡ônoro, nonxxora no p¡ôa n¡nnonnµnn, µonnnre µ¡nrn 10-40 cm, ropnnre
3-8 cm. Kom-nnuxnre eµpn, oônxnoneno eµnnnunn na n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro. Oônnnxara
c¡cranena or eµnn xp¡r nncruera, xonro n ocnonara cn oruacrn ca cpacnann nomexµy cn.
Hneronere esnuecrn, x¡nrn. Hnoµonere µ¡nrn 16-22 mm, crecnenn n uonxa, panna na
npnocnonnara uacr; xn¡punnxara c¡cranena or eµnn peµ nepecrn uernnxn, xonro npn ocnonara
cn ca cpacnann nomexµy cn (raôno 32,]nr. 1).
Cpema ce µocra uecro no cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra n nxna F¡nrapnx. H¡]rn mnn
anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Kounacna cana1a Lactuca serriola L.
Eµnoroµnmno nnn µnyroµnmno pacrenne c mneuen cox, c nsnpaneno pasxnoneno cr¡ôno,
nncoxo 30-150 cm, n µonnara cn uacr c ôoµnnnn, xopann uernnxn. Hncrara ronn, cnnxann,
orµony no cpeµnara xnnxa ôoµnnnn, µonnnre pasµaneueno n¡nnonnµno nepecro naceuenn n
ôoµnnno nas¡ôenn, c oô¡pnarn nasaµ ôoµnnnn µxnone; µonnnre c µp¡xxa, ropnnre npnceµnann,
nonyoôxnamamn cr¡ônoro n c¡c crpenonnµnn ymnuxn. C¡nnernero yµ¡nxena nnpamnµanna
mernnna. Oônnnnnre nncruera ronn, µ¡nrn 8-12 mm, na n¡pxa cn uepnennxann. Hneronere
ôneµox¡nrn. Hnoµonere cnnecxann, n¡suepnn, c no 5-7 peôpa or ncxxa crpana, µ¡nrn 3 mm, na
n¡pxa c uonxa n xn¡punnxa or ôenn nepecrn uernnxn, napeµenn n nxxonxo peµa (raôno 32, ]nr.
2).
(87)
Ho rpenncrn mecra, nsxonn, xpañ n¡rnma, ns nocenn n oxonnn xynrypn n nxnara crpana µox¡m
1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Inyxapue Taraxacum officinale Web.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c mneuen cox. Kopen¡r npan, oônxnoneno nepasxnonen,
µ¡n¡r 20-60 cm, mnpox 1-3 cm, orn¡n uepneno-xa]xn, orn¡rpe ôxn. Hncrara npnocnonnn,
c¡ôpann n poserxa, µocra napnpama no ]opma nnneñno-nannerna nnn npoµ¡nronaro
nannernn, µ¡nrn µo 50 cm, ronn nnn cnaôo nnaxnecrn, nas¡ôenn µo µ¡nôoxo n¡nnonnµno
napxsann, nepecro pasceuenn nnn pasµenenn. Hneronere c¡ôpann n c¡nnerne xomnnuxa, no
eµna na n¡pxa na ôesnncrno, xyxo, nnnnnµpnuno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 50 cm. Komnnuxara eµpa, c
mnoroôpoñnn x¡nrn esnuecrn nnerone, oônnra c¡c senenn oônnnnn nncruera. Hnoµonere
µpeônn, µ¡nrn 3-4 mm, na n¡pxa c xn¡punnxa or ôenn nnacnnxn (raôno 32, ]nr. 3).
Pasnpocrpaneno e n nxnara crpana no rpenncrn mecra n nsocranenn semn, xpañ n¡rnma,
mnoro uecro xaro ôypen. ¡ocrnra nourn µo 2500 m n. n. H¡]rn npes nennx nererannonen ceson
or mapr µo noemnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna rnanno xopen¡r (µpora Radix Taraxaci). Ho-manxo
npnnoxenne nma nxnoro pacrenne saeµno c xopennre, roero ce c¡ônpa no npeme na n¡]rexa.
Kopennre ce nsnaxµar naecen, xoraro nncrara sanounar µa ynxxnar, nnn npes nponerra n
nauanoro na pasnnrnero nm (mapr anpnn). Hma ronxma ynorpeôa n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Oõnxnonena pynnnxa Hieracium pilosella L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c mneuen cox, c µ¡nrn n r¡nxn ns-µ¡nxn, no xonro
nncruerara nocrenenno namanxnar no pasmep. Hncrara npnocnonnn, npoµ¡nronaro xñnennµnn
µo nannernn, µ¡nrn 10-120 mm, mnpoxn 5-20 mm, orrope senenn, uernnecro nnaxnecrn, orµony
ôenon¡nnecrn, nenoxpañnn, pxµxo cnrno nas¡ôenn. Cr¡ônoro npocro, x¡m n¡pxa pxµxo
pasµnoeno, ôenon¡nnecro, nnaxnecro nnn xnesncro, nonxxora rono, ôesnncrno, nncoxo 5-30 cm
n san¡pmna na n¡pxa c eµna nnerna xomnnuxa. Oônnnnnre nncruera nnneñno-nannernn, µ¡nrn
6-12 mm, saocrpenn, nnaxnecrn µo ôenon¡nnecrn, r¡cro xnesncrn. Hneronere esnuecrn,
ôneµox¡nrn, xpañnnre c uepnenn ueprn. Hnoµonere nnnnnµpnunn, c 10 cnaôo nsnnrn
naµn¡xnn peôpa n c xn¡punnxa or eµnn peµ ne c¡ncem ôenn uernnxn (raôno 32, ]nr. 4).
Ho ropcxn nonxnn, rpenncrn mecra n na µpyrn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 2000 m n. n.
H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
B meµnnnnara ce ynorpeôxna nxnara naµsemna uacr (µpora Herba Hieracii pilosellae), xoxro ce
ôepe n nauanoro na n¡]rexa.
E±HOCEME±EAHH PACTEHHR
1. ×ñunnx¡r ropen oxononnernnre nncruera npnxpenenn noµ nero. Tnunnxnre
6......................................2
1*. ×ñunnx¡r µonen oxononnernnre nncruera npnxpenenn naµ nero. Tnunnxnre 3...........
Fnarnanepynnxa Iris pseudacorus L.
2. Bncoxo pasxnonenn rpenncrn pacrennx c nnaxnecrn nncra, c¡ôpann n
(88)
cnonuera n¡pxy cr¡ônoro n xnonnre.........................
..................... 3añua cxnxa Asparagus officinalis L.
2*. Pacrennx c eµpn, mnpoxo ennnrnunn, naµnnnenn nncra, µ¡nrn 20-25 cm, mnpoxn µo 18
cm........ Fxna uemepnxa Jeralrum album L.
CEM. KPEMOBH - LILI ACEAE
Bnna ueuepnxa Jeratnim album L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co xonyconnµno xopennme, c ronxm ôpoñ saµeôenenn
xopenn. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno, nncoxo 70-150 cm, n ropnara cn uacr pasxnoneno, n ocnonara cn
oônnro c nncrnn nnarannma, noxpnro c mexn nnacnnxn. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, µonnnre
mnpoxo ennnrnunn, ropnnre nannernn, no-µpeônn, orrope ronn, orµony r¡cro nyxecrn, c µ¡ro-
nnµno xnnxynane. C¡nnernero mernnuecro. Hneronere x¡nro-senenn, c 6 eµnaxnn
oxononnernn nncruera, pasnonoxenn n µna xp¡ra, ennnrnunn, c npnnnernnnn. Tnunnxnre 6, n
µna xp¡ra. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c 3 cr¡nôuera. Hnoµ¡r mnorocemenna xyrnñxa. O1ponno! (raôno
33, ]nr. 1).
Ho nnaxnn nnannncxn nonxnn, xpañ noronn n xpacranann n¡n ncnuxn nncoxn nnannnn mexµy
800 n 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn anrycr.
B meµnnnnara ce nsnonsynar xopennmero n xopennre (µpora Rhizoma Veratrii cum radicibus).
Te ce nsxonanar npes ecenra, cneµ yspxnanero na cemenara, xoraro nncrara sanounar µa
ynxxnar, nnn pano nanponer, npeµn µa e sanounano pasnnrnero na pacrennero.
3anua cnnxa Asparagus officinalis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c¡c cnnno pasnnro xopennme, noxpnro c nmcnn. Cr¡ônoro
nncoxo 50-150 cm, nsnpaneno, rono, cnnno pasxnoneno, xaro xnonxnre nsnnsar noµ ocr¡p ¡r¡n.
Hncrara n¡n nnµ na nmcnnnn, n nasnnre na xonro ce pasnnnar cnonuera c 3-6(8) r¡nxn, 1-3 cm
µ¡nrn nnmxonnµ-nn senenn xnonxn, samecrnamn c¡mnncxnre nncra. Hneronere eµnonononn,
µnyµomnn, sn¡nuennµnn, c¡ôpann no 1-2, c x¡ca µp¡xxa, c unenue no cpeµara n c npocr 6-
nncren x¡nrennxanosenen oxononnernnx, c nncruera, pasnonoxenn n µna xp¡ra. Tnunnxnre 6.
×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r uepnena x¡nôecra xroµa (raôno 33, ]nr. 2).
Cpema ce pxµxo ns xpacranann n rpenncrn mecra n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn anpnn mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar xopennmero n xopennre (µpora Rhizoma et Radix
Asparagii), xonro ce nsxonanar npes cenremnpnoxromnpn, n naµsemnara uacr (Herba
Asparagii), xoxro ce ôepe nanponer. Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. HEPYHHKOBH IRIDACEAE
Bna1na nepynnxa Iris pseudacorus L.
Pacrenne c µeôeno xopennme n cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 1,5 m, pasxnoneno, c mnpoxo nnneñnn,
nenoxpañnn, meuonnµnn nncra, mnpoxn µo 2,5 cm. Hnero-
(89)
nere npannnnn, c µ¡nra µp¡xxa, c¡ôpann no 3-8 na pasxnonennxra na cr¡ônoro, npn ocnonara
nm c oônnnxa or 1-3 npnnnernnxa, nonxxora mexypecro noµyrn. Oxononnernnx¡r n µonnara cn
uacr xaro x¡ca rp¡ônna, n¡nmnnre nncruera µ¡nrn µo 7 cm, x¡nrn, xñnennµnn, no cpeµara c
opanxeno nerno n nypnypnn xnnxn, n¡rpemnnre µpeônn, nnneñnn, no-x¡cn n no-recnn or
µxnonere na crtnôuero. Cr¡nôuero na n¡pxa rpnµenno, c¡c cnnno cnnecxann nenuennµnn
µxnone, xonro na n¡pxa cn ca µ¡nôoxo µnypasµennn; npamnnnnre ca noµ rxx. ×ñunnx¡r µonen.
Hnoµ¡r xyrnñxa (raôno 33, ]nr. 3).
Ho saônarenn n mouypnnnn mecra n xpañ noµoemn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn
npes mañ n mnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
(90)
BHAKH C KAmRBH HBETOBE H CTHBETHR
±BYCEME±EAHH PACTEHHR
HECPACAOBEHEHHH PACTEHHR
1. Hncrara nannernn µo nnneñno-nannernn, mnpoxn µo 1,5 cm, nañ-uecro cpemynonoxnn
................ Paxnra Salix purpurea L.
1*. Hncrara xñnennµnn µo saxp¡rnenn, no-mnpoxn or 3 cm, nocneµonarennn
..........................................2
2. Hnoµ¡r nanoµoôxna manxa mnmapxa. Kpañpeunn pacrennx.......
..................... uepna enma Alnus glutinosa Gaerth.
2*. Hnoµ¡r nemnnx. Pacre no cyxn mecra ...................
............................ Hecxa Corvlus avellana L.
CEM. BTPBOBH SAUCACEAE
Paxn1a Salix purpurea L.
Xpacr, nncox µo 5 m, c xnnann xnonxn, ornauano uepnennxann, no-x¡cno x¡nro-cnnn, ronn.
Hncrara nañ-uecro cpemynonoxnn, npnceµnann (var. amplexicaulis Boiss.), pxµxo c x¡ca
µp¡xxa n nocneµonarennn (var. purpurea), or µnere crpann nan¡nno ronn, nannernn µo
nannerno-nnneñnn, µ¡nrn 4-12 cm, mnpoxn 1,0-1,5 cm, saocrpenn, n ocnonara saxp¡rnenn n
nenox-pañnn, pxµxo nennre nenoxpañnn nnn µo ocnonara nas¡ôenn. ¡nyµomno pacrenne.
Hneronere ôes oxononnernnx, pasnonoxenn, n r¡crn pecn, xonro ce pasnnnar npeµn nncrara n
ca cnaôµenn npn ocnonara cn c nxxonxo µpeônn nncruera. B ocnonara na ncexn nnxr ce namnpa
no eµna npnnnerna nmcna, xoxro n ropnnx cn xpañ e uepnena µo n¡suepna. M¡xxnre nnerone c
no 2 cpacnann rnunnxn n eµna nexrapna xnesa npn ocnonara nm. Xencxnre nnerone c eµnn
npnceµnan xñunnx, c x¡co crtnôue n nexrapna xnesa. M¡xxnre pecn µ¡nrn µo 5 cm n µeôenn
µo 1 cm, a xencxnre µ¡nrn 2-3 cm n µeôenn 0,5 cm. Hnoµ¡r xocmara, pasnyxnama ce xyrnñxa
(raôno 34, ]nr. 1).
Kpañ pexn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1600 m n. n. H¡]rn mapr mañ.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna rnanno xopara (µpora Cortex Salicis), xoxro ce c¡ônpa
pano nanponer. B napoµnara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar n nncrara, no-pxµxo n pecnre.
CEM. BPE3OBH BETULACEAE
Hepna enma Alnus glutinosa Gaertn.
¡¡pno, nncoxo µo 35 m, pxµxo xpacr, c¡c cnno-uepna nanyxana xopa. Hncrara nocneµonarennn,
oôparno xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 3-9 cm, mnpoxn 3-7 cm,
(91)
na n¡pxa saxp¡rnenn n npxsann, x¡m ocnonara xnnnonnµno crecnenn, ornauano nenxann,
n¡nnonnµno napxsann nnn nexcno nas¡ôenn. Hncrnara µp¡xxa µ¡nra. Oxononnernnx¡r npocr,
4-µenen. M¡xxnre nnerone c no 4 rnunnxn, c¡ôpann n nnnnnµpnunn ynncnann pecn,
pasnonoxenn no n¡pxonere na xnonxnre no 3 n nasnnre na uepneno-xa]xnn noxpnnnn nmcnn.
Xencxnre c¡nnernx pasnonoxenn noµ m¡xxnre pecn c ]opma na x¡cn onannn mnmapxn, no 2 n
nasnnre na ocoôenn nmcnn, xonro npn nnoµonere nµ¡pnenxnar n oôpasynar c¡nnoµnx,
nanoµoôxnamn mnmapxn. Te ca xñnennµnn, saxp¡rnenn, µ¡nrn 1-2 cm n 1 cm n µnamer¡p, cnno-
uepnn. Hnoµ¡r ôesxpnno, saxp¡rneno uepnennxanoxa]xno opexue (raôno 34, ]nr. 2).
Kpañ pexnre n n nnsnnnre n nxnara crpana n n µonnnx nnannncxn noxc µox¡m 1000 m n. n.
H¡]rn npes ]enpyapn n mapr.
B ctnpemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar spennre mnmapxn (µpora Fructus Alni), nncrara
(Folia Alni) n xopara (Cortex Alni). Hsnonsyna ce mnpoxo n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. AECKOBH CORYLACEAE
Oõnxnonena necxa Corvlus avellana L.
Xpacr, nncox µo 5 m. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, oôparno xñnennµnn, saxp¡rnenn µo onannn,
µ¡nrn µo 13 cm, mnpoxn 6-10 cm, x¡m n¡pxa nsneµn¡x crecnenn n saocrpenn, n ocnonara
c¡pnennµnn, c x¡ca µp¡xxa (0,5-1 cm), no p¡ôa cn nenpannnno ocrpo µnoñno nannnenn.
Hneronere eµnonononn, eµnoµom-nn n ce pasnnnar pano nanponer npeµn pasnncrnanero.
M¡xxnre nnerone c¡ôpann n ynncnann nnnnnµpnunn pecn, no 2-4 n rpyna, µ¡nrn µo 8 cm.
Oxononnernnx nnncna. Bcexn m¡xxn nnxr c¡cranen or 4 pasµnoenn rnunnxn, npnxpenenn x¡m
nasnara na xa]xnox¡nrennxana nmcna, cpacnann c npnnnernnnnre. Xencxnre nnerone
pasnonoxenn no µna n manxn n¡nxonnµnn oôpasynannx, or xonro no npeme na n¡]rexa ce
noµanar camo uepnennre ônnsanna. Hnoµ¡r eµnocemenen, nepasnyxnnn (nemnnx); oônxnoneno
nemnnnnre ca c¡ôpann n rpyna no 3-5; nnoµnara oônnnxa n¡n nnµ na uamxa, nenpannnno n
µ¡nôoxo nspxsana, µ¡nra xonxoro camnx nemnnx nnn no-x¡ca or nero (raôno 34, ]nr. 3).
Hs xpacranannre, xaro noµnec n ropnre, ocoôeno no xpanmara nm n ns ceunma. Bnpoxo
pasnpocrpanen e n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1800 m n. n. H¡]rn ]enpyapn anpnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar nnoµonere (µpora Fructus Coryli avellanae), xopara
(Cortex Coryli avellanae), xoxro ce c¡ônpa nanponer, n nncrara (Folia Coryli avellanae).
Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CPACAOBEHEHHH PACTEHHR
1. Hncrara ô¡ôpexonnµnn, nenoxpañnn....................
....................... Konnrnnx Asarurn europaeum L..
1*. Hncrara c µpyra ]opma.....,......................2
2. Hneronere npannnnn, c¡ôpann n r¡cro xnaconnµno c¡nnerne; nenuero
µ¡nro 2-3 mm. Hncrara c¡ôpann n npnocnonna poserxa..............
............................. Xnnonnex PlantagoL.
2*. Hneronere µnyycrnn, nenpannnnn, c¡ôpann n mernnuecrn nnn rposµo-
nnµnn c¡nnernx. Benuero no-µ¡nro or 5 mm ....................
.................... Cem. Xnnennuenn Scrophulariaceae
(92)
CEM. KOHHTHHKOBH ARISTOLOCHIACEAE
Konn1nnx Asarum europaeutn L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µeôeno n¡nsxmo xopennre. Cr¡ônoro x¡co, nonernano,
µ¡nro 2-10 cm, c 3 xa]xnn nmcnn n ocnonara cn, µ¡nrn 1 -2 cm. Hncrara 2-3 na ôpoñ, c µ¡nra
µp¡xxa (µo 10 cm), npesnmynamn, ô¡ôpexonnµnn µo saxp¡rnenn, mnpoxn 5-10 cm, c¡c
c¡pnennµna ocnona, neno-xpañnn, n¡cxann. Hneronere eµnnnunn, np¡xnn, c npocr
sn¡nuennµen oxononnernnx, µ¡n¡r oxono 1,5 cm, 3-µenen, nnonerono-xa]xn, c rpn¡r¡nno
xñnennµnn µxnone, no-x¡cn or rp¡ônnara. Tnunnxnre 12. ×ñunnx¡r µonen, 6-rnes-µen, c 6
cr¡nôuera, cpacnann n ocnonara cn. Hnoµ¡r 6-rnesµna xyrnñxa. O1ponno!(raôno 34, ]nr. 4).
B¡n nnaxnn n cenuecrn, nañ-uecro ôyxonn ropn n npeµnnannnnre n nnannnnre mexµy 300 n
1200 m n. n. H¡]rn mapr mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna nxnoro pacrenne saeµno c xopennmero (µpora Herba et
Rhizoma Asari). Hpnnara ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. ÆHBEHHHEBH SCROPHULARIACEAE
1. Hncrara nocneµonarennn. Hneronere noeµnnnunn n nasnnre na nan-
nernn npnnnernnnn, eµpn...............................
................ P¡xµnn nanp¡crnnx - Digitalisferruginea L.
1*. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn. Hneronere c¡ôpann no nxxonxo n nonycennnnn c oôma µp¡xxa,
pasnonoxenn n nasnnre na nncrara nnn n mernnna na n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro..................................2
2. Cr¡ônoro uern¡prnro, c rxcno xpnnarn p¡ôone. Kopennmero n¡snecro, ne e rpyµxonnµno
saµeôeneno. ¡xnonere na uamxara c nnnecr p¡ô, no-mnpox or 0,5 mm......................................
............. Kpnnaro xnnennue Scrophularia umbrosa Dum.
2*. Cr¡ônoro uern¡prnro, no ôes peôpa. Kopennmero rpyµxotnµno saµeôeneno. ¡xnonere na
uamxara c nnnecr p¡ô, no-recnn or 0,5 mm.........
............... B¡snecro xnnennue Scrophularia nodosa L.
Bssnec1o annennue Scrophularia nodosa L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c rono cr¡ôno, nncoxo 40-80 cm. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn,
onanno nannernn, saocrpenn, n ocnonara cn saxp¡rnenn, µ¡nrn 5-15 cm, mnpoxn 2-8 cm,
nas¡ôenn, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra µo 2,5 cm. Hneronere c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 2 cm, noxpnra c xa]xnn,
nourn uepnn xnesncrn nnacnnxn n c¡ôpann no 3 4 n nonycennnnn n nasnnre na nncrara,
ncnuxn oôpasynamn npoµ¡nronaro, µ¡nro µo 45 cm mernnuecro c¡nnerne, c nnneñnn
npnnnernnnn. uamxara x¡ca (1,7-2,5 mm), rona, na n¡pxa 5-µenna. Benuero µ¡nro 7-10 mm,
µnyycrno, uepnennxanoxa]xno. Tnunnxnre 4, cxpnrn n¡n nenuero. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r
xyrnñxa, pasnyxnama ce na µne uacrn. O1ponno! (raôno 35, ]nr. 1).
(93)
Cpema ce no cenuecrn mecra n nxna F¡nrapnx µo 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ oxromnpn.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Kpnna1o annennue Scrophularia umbrosa Dum. (S. alata Gibb.)
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno rono xpnnaro cr¡ôno, nncoxo 40-120 cm.
Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, npoµ¡nronaro nannernn, saocrpenn, nas¡ôenn, µ¡nrn µo 9 cm,
mnpoxn µo 4 cm, n ocnonara saxp¡rnenn, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra µo 5 cm. Hneronere no 3 na oôma
xnesncra µp¡xxa (µoxaro µp¡xxnre na orµennnre nnerone ca ronn) n µo 1 cm µ¡nrn, c¡ôpann n
npoµ¡nronaro mernnuecro c¡nnerne, µ¡nro µo 25 cm; npnnnernnnnre nannernn. uamxara 5-
µenna, rona, µ¡nra 2-3 mm. Benuero µnyycrno, µ¡nro 5-6 mm, c¡c senena rp¡ônna n cpeµen µxn
na µonnara ycrna, a ocrananara my uacr senennxanoxa]xna. Tnunnxnre 4, cxpnrn n rp¡ônnara.
×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r xyrnñxa. O1ponno!(raôno 35, ]nr. 2).
Cpema ce no nnaxnn n mouypnnnn mecra n nxna F¡nrapnx µox¡m 1200 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn
cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Psaµnn nanpsc1nnx Digitalis fermginea L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c rono, npocro, nsnpaneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 30-70 cm, n
poserxa npnocnonnn nncra. Hncrara npoµ¡nronaro nannernn µo nannernn, nenoxpañnn, ronn
nnn cnaôo pecnnuecrn, nocneµonarennn, µ¡nrn 7-20 cm, mnpoxn 1,5-2,5 cm, n ocnonara
crecnenn n µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 2-4 cm. Hneronere c¡ôpann n¡n np¡xno rposµonnµno c¡nnerne,
µ¡nro 15-25 cm, naneµeno, na µeôenn µp¡xxn, µ¡nrn 2-5 mm, n nasnnre na nannernn
npnnnernnnn. uamxara rp¡ôecra, 5-µenna, c¡c saxp¡rnenn, no p¡ôa cn nnnecrn µenuera, µ¡nrn
7-10 mm. Benuero µnyycrno, µ¡nro 16-35 mm, xa]xno nnn x¡nro-xa]xno c p¡xµnnn nnn
nnoneronn nerna, c rp¡ônna, µ¡nra 8-10 mm, x¡nôecro nsµyra, c neeµnaxno µ¡nrn ropna n
µonna ycrna. Tnunnxnre 4. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r mnorocemenna xyrnñxa. O1ponno! (raôno
35, ]nr. 3).
Hs ropnre n Crapa nnannna, Rrosanaµna F¡nrapnx, Crpanµxa n Rronsrouna F¡nrapnx.
H¡]rn mnn anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. ÆHBOBAEKOBH PLANTAGINACEAE
Ænnonnex Plantago L.
1. Hncrara mnoro no-µ¡nrn, orxonxoro mnpoxn, nnneñno-nannernn nnn
nannernn........................................
............... Hanneronncren xnnonnex P. lanceolataL.
1*. Hncrara 2-4 n¡rn no-µ¡nrn, orxonxoro mnpoxn, xñnennµnn nnn mnpoxo
ennnrnunn....................................
........................ Ionxm xnnonnex P. maforL.
(94)
Aanne1onnc1en annonnex Plantago lanceolata L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne, nourn rono nnn noxpnro c m¡xecrn nnacnnxn, c nannernn
nnn nnneñno-nannernn nncra, c 3-7 nourn ycnopeµnn xnnxn, c x¡ca µp¡xxa, nenoxpañnn nnn
cnaôo nas¡ôenn, ccnuxn c¡ôpann n npnocnonna poserxa. Hneronere no mnoro n r¡cro
nnnnnµpnuno c¡nnerne, µ¡nro 1-7 cm, na n¡pxa na ôesnncren nneronocen crp¡x, nncox 8-60
cm. uamxara 4-µenna, nenuero rp¡ôecro, x¡m ropnnx xpañ 4-µenno, nnnecro, µ¡nro oxono 2-3
mm, cnernoxa]xno c¡c cnernoxa]xnn npnnnernnnn. Tnunnxnre 4, c µ¡nrn µp¡xxn. ×ñunnx¡r
ropen. Hnoµ¡r µnyrnesµna xyrnñxa, µ¡nra oxono 3 mm, c no eµno ceme n¡n ncxxo rnesµo (raôno
35, ]nr. 4).
Hs nnnaµn, cyxn rpenncrn n nec¡xnnnn mecra, xpañ n¡rnma n crpaµn n na µpyrn mecra n
nxnara crpana µo 2000 m n.n. H¡]rn anpnn cenremnpn. B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce
nsnonsynar nncrara (µpora Folia Plantaginis lanceolatae), xonro ce ôepar no npeme na n¡]rexa,
cemenara (Semen Plantaginis lanceolatae) n npecnnxr cox. Hma mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
Ionnu annonnex Plantago mafor L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c mnpoxn, xñnennµnn nnn ennnrnu-nn nncra, nsneµn¡x
crecnenn n x¡ca µp¡xxa, nenoxpañnn nnn n ocnonara cn cnaôo nas¡ôenn, ncnuxn c¡ôpann n
npnocnonna poserxa. Hneronere c¡ôpann n nnnnnµpnuno c¡nnerne, µ¡nro 2-40 cm, n ocnonara
cn paspeµeno, panno nnn no-x¡co or ôesnncrnnx crp¡x. uamxara 4-µenna, µ¡nra 1,5-2,5 mm,
nenuero rp¡ôecro, 4-µenno, µ¡nro oxono 2 mm, cnernoxa]xno, c r¡mnn µenuera. Tnunnxnre 4.
×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r µnyrnesµna xyrnñxa (raôno 36, ]nr. 1).
Cpema ce xaro ôypen no nnaxnn rpenncrn mecra, n nsxonn, xpañ n¡rnma n crpaµn n nxnara
crpana. H¡]rn mnn oxromnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nan¡nno pasnnrnre nncra (µpora Folia Plantaginis
majoris), xonro ce ôepar no npeme na n¡]rexa. Hsnonsyna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
E±HOCEME±EAHH PACTEHHR
1. Hneronere c µoôpe pasnnr oxononnernnx, c 6 r¡mnoxa]xnn nncruera, napeµenn n µna xp¡ra,
c ropen xñunnx n c¡ôpann n mernnuecro c¡nnerne. Hncrara eµpn, mnpoxo xñnennµnn, mnpoxn
µo 20 cm.................
.................... uepna uemepnxa Jeratrum nigrum L.
1*. Hneronere ôes oxononnernnx, saoônxonenn or cnernoxa]xnn nnacnn-xn n c¡ôpann n
nnnnnµpnuno c¡nnerne xouan. Hncrara nnneñnn, mnpoxn µo 10mm.......... Tecnonncren
nanyp Tvphaangustifolia L.
CEM. HAHYPOBH - TYPHACEAE
Tecnonnc1en nanyp Tvpha angustifolia L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µ¡nro n¡nsxmo xopennme. Hneronocnoro cr¡ôno nncoxo
µo 2 m, ôes n¡snn n mexµyn¡snnx, oônxnoneno oônnc-
(95)
reno n na n¡pxa c eµno (pxµxo c µne nnn noneue) xencxo c¡nnerne n naµ nero, orµaneueno,
eµno m¡xxo c¡nnerne xouan. Hncrara nnocxn, nnneñnn, recnn, mnpoxn 4-10 mm, ôes cpeµna
xnnxa n c ycnopeµno xnnxynane, no-µ¡nrn or c¡nnernero. Hneronere ôes oxononnernnx.
Xencxnre n m¡xxnre c¡nnernx µ¡nrn oxono 10-35 cm, pasµaneuenn eµno or µpyro na 3-10 cm,
cnernoxa]xnn. M¡xxnxr nnxr c 1-7 rnunnxn, c pasnonoxenn oxono rxx mnoxecrno nnacnnxn.
Xencxnxr nnxr camo or pasnonoxen na µ¡nra µp¡xxa nnoµnnx c ropen xñunnx, saoônxonen or
mnoro nnacnnxn (raôno 36, ]nr. 2).
Ho sacroxnn n ôannoreuamn noµn n xpañ mouypnma n nxna F¡nrapnx µox¡m 1200 m n. n.
H¡]rn mnn anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac nma ome 2 nnµa nanypn, no npn eµnnnx m¡xxnxr n xencxnxr xouan ce µonnpar n
nncrara ca no-mnpoxn or 1 cm, a npn µpyrnx nnµ nncrara ca nsn¡xnann n xencxnxr xouan ne e
no-µ¡n¡r or 6-7 cm.
CEM. KPEMOBH - ULIACEAE
Hepna ueuepnxa Jeratrum nigrum L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, n ropnara uacr pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 60-
120 cm, noxpnro c mexn nnacnnxn, a n c¡nnernero nourn nannacreno. Hpnocnonnnre nncra
mnpoxo ennnrnunn, ronn, µ¡nrn 20-40 cm, mnpoxn 6-20 cm, saocrpenn, nocrenenno
namanxnamn x¡m n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro, naµnnnenn. Hneronere mnoroôpoñnn, oônxnoneno
c¡ôpann n mer-nnuecro c¡nnerne, µ¡nro 30-60 cm. Oxononnernnx¡r npocr, nenuennµen, c 6
r¡mnoxa]xnn nnn r¡mnouepnenn eµnaxnn nncruera, pasnonoxenn n 2 xp¡ra, oxono 1,5 cm n
µnamer¡p; nnernnre µp¡xxn pannn nnn manxo no-µ¡nrn or oxononnernnxa, ôxno nannacrenn,
npn ocnonara cn c x¡cn nannernn npnnner-nnnn. Tnunnxnre 6, nanononnna no-x¡cn or
oxononnernnxa. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r xñnennµna xyrnñxa. O1ponno! (raôno 36, ]nr. 3).
Cpema ce ns xpacranann n ropcxn nonxnn n Ceneponsrouna F¡nrapnx, 3anaµna Crapa nnannna,
Kmcrenµnncxo, Cpeµnn Poµonn n na µpyrn mecra. H¡]rn mnn anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
(96)
BHAKH CTC CHHH H CHHLO-BHOAETOBH HBETOBE
±BYCEME±EAHH PACTEHHR
HECPACAOBEHEHHH PACTEHHR
1. Oxononnernnx¡r npocr, c¡cranen or eµnn xp¡r nncruera ........
....................... Cem.Hmrnxonn Ranunculaceae
1 *. Oxononnernnx¡r c¡cranen or 2 nnn noneue xp¡ra nncruera, or xonro n¡rpemnnxr nnn
n¡rpemnnre xp¡rone c¡crannxnar nenuero; nonxxora nncruerara n na µnara xp¡ra ca
uamxonnµnn, senenn.................2
2. Hneronere npannnnn..............................
....................... Cem.Hmrnxonn Ranunculaceae
2‚. Bcnuxn nnerone nenpannnnn nnn xpañnnre nnerone n c¡nnernero nenpannnnn, a
n¡rpemnnre npannnnn.........................3
3. Tnunnxnre no-manxo or 10.........................4
3*. Tnunnxnre 10 nnn noneue..........................5
4. Tnunnxnre 8........... Cem.Tenuapxonn Polvgalaceae
4*. Tnunnxnre 5 ............ Cem. Temenyronn Jiolaceae
5. Tnunnxnre 10, cpacnann c µp¡xxara n¡n nnµ na rp¡ônna.........
............................ Cem.Foôonn Fabaceae
5‚. Tnunnxnre mnoroôpoñnn, cnoôoµnn ....................
....................... Cem.Hmrnxonn Ranunculaceae
CEM. AKTHKOBH RANUNCULACEAE
t. Hneronere nenpannnnn ...........................2
1*. Hneronere npannnnn............................3
2. Hneronere c µ¡nra mnopa...........................
............. Oônxnonena pannna Consolida regalis S. F. Grav
2*. Hneronere n¡n nnµ na mnem, ôes mnopa..................
.................. Cnnx camaxnrxa Aconitum variegatum L.
3. Hneronere c¡ôpann no mnoro n¡n np¡xnn mnronnµnn mernnnn.....
...........Oônxnoneno oônunnue Thalictrum aquilegifolium L.
3*. Hneronere eµnnnunn ............................4
4. Hncrara 2-3 n¡rn nepecro pasceuenn n pasnonoxenn no cr¡ônoro . . . ................ ¡amacxa
ueneônrxa NigelladamascenaL.
4*. Hncrara rpnµennn, ncnuxn nsnnsamn or xopennmero..........
.................. I¡n¡ôonn ounuxn Hepatica nobilis Mill
±auacxa ueneõn1xa Nigella damascena L.
Eµnoroµnmno rono pacrenne c nsnpaneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 20-30 cm, uecro n ocnonara cn c
nnoneron orren¡x. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, npnceµnann, nxxonxo n¡rn nepecro pasceuenn, c
recnonnneñnn µenuera, c noµnnr p¡ô. Hneronere npannnnn, eµnnnunn, xaro ncexn or rxx noµ
uamxara e c 5 nepecro naceuenn npnnnernn nncruera,no-µ¡nrn or camnx nnxr n pasnonoxenn n
(97)
xp¡r. uamenncruerara nenuennµnn, 5 na ôpoñ, cnnn, n ocnonara cn nsneµn¡x crecnenn n
nox¡r, na n¡pxa saocrpenn. Benuenncruerara npen¡pnarn n nex-rapnnnn, 5-8 na ôpoñ, nxxonxo
n¡rn no-x¡cn or uamenncruerara, µnyycrnn, ropnara ycrna r¡no xñnennµna, 2 n¡rn no-x¡ca or
µonnara, pasceuena no cpeµara cn na nannernn µenuera, noxpnrn c nnacnnxn. Tnunnxnre
mnoro. Hnoµnnnnre 5 na ôpoñ, nsµyrn, 1-1,5 cm µ¡nrn, cpacnann nourn µo n¡pxa cn (raôno 37,
]nr. 1).
Hs xpacranannre no xpañôpexnero na uepno mope, Hsrouna n Cpeµna Crapa nnannna, mxnara
uacr na Crpymcxara µonnna, µonnnara na p. Mecra, Hnpnn, Hsrounn Poµonn n Tpaxnñcxara
nnsnna. H¡]rn mañ mnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Cnnn cauaxn1xa Aconitum variegatum L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c rpyµxonnµno saµeôenenn xopenn, c nsnpaneno rono
cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 1,5 m. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, µonnnre c µp¡xxa, ropnnre npnceµnann,
µ¡nôoxo µnanennµno pasceuenn na 5-7 µxna c pomônuna ]opma n nas¡ôenn. Hneronere
c¡ôpann no 1-2 n¡n np¡xnn rposµonnµnn c¡nnernx na µ¡nrn (10-30 mm) ronn µp¡xxn. Oxonon-
nernnx¡r nenpannnen, c¡cranen or 5 cnnn nenuennµnn uamenncruera, or xonro nañ-ropnnre 3
ca c¡ôpann n¡n nnµ na mnem, nncox 1,5-3,0 cm. Pasnnnar ce camo 2 nenuenncruera, npen¡pnarn
n nexrapnnnn. Tnunnxnre mnoro, ronn. Hnoµnnnnre 5. Hnoµ¡r mexynxa, µo ocnonara cn
cnoôoµna. O1ponno! (raôno 37, ]nr. 2).
Hs xamennnnn n cxannn mecra, xpacranann, xpañ noronn n nourn ncnuxn nncoxn nnannnn
mexµy 1200 n 2350 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Oõnxnonena pannna Consolida regalis S. F. Grav (Delphinium consolida L.)
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c rono nnn cnaôo nnaxnecro cr¡ôno, nncoxo 20-50 cm.
Hncrara nocneµonarennn, µnanennµno 2-3 n¡rn rpoñno pasceuenn na mnoxecrno
recnonnneñnn, 1 -2 mm mnpoxn µenuera, µonnnre c µp¡xxa, ropnnre npnceµnann. Hneronere
nenpannnnn, c¡ôpann n mernnuecrn n rposµonnµnn c¡nnernx, c npnnncrnnnn c nnneñna
]opma, µ¡nrn 3-4 mm. uamxara c 5 nncruera, oôarpenn nañ-uecro cnnto, nanoµoôxnamn
nenuero, µ¡nrn 15-30 mm, xñnennµnn; nañ-ropnoro nncrue c mnopa, µ¡nra 14-18 mm. Benuero
neµopasnnro, xaro rpn or nenuenncruerara ca cpacnann n ca npen¡pnarn n nexrapnnx c mnopa,
nxnmuena n mnopara na uamxara; crpannunnre µne nenuenncruera nnncnar. Tnunnxnre mnoro.
Hnoµnnx¡r eµnn. Hnoµ¡r mexynxa, µ¡nra 8-15 mm (raôno 37, ]nr. 3).
Hs nocenn n no cyxn rpenncrn mecra n nxnara crpana µo 1300 m n. n. nsxnmunrenno xaro
nnenen n ôypen. H¡]rn mañ anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Isnsõonn ounuxn Hepatica nobilis Mill.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co nnaxnecro xopennme. Hncrara 3-µennn, µ¡nrn 2-5
cm, mnpoxn 1-4 cm, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 5-15 cm, n ocnonara c¡pnennµnn, nenoxpañnn, orµony
oônxnoneno nnoneronn, ornauano nnaxnec-
(98)
rn, no-x¡cno ronn. Hneronere npannnnn, eµnnnunn, na µ¡nra nnaxnecra µp¡xxa (5-15 cm).
Oxononnernnx¡r npocr, nenuennµen, c 6-7 (10) rxcno ennn-rnunn nncruera, µ¡nrn 10-12 mm,
mnpoxn 5-6 (8) mm, na n¡pxa saxp¡rnenn n ronn, nenoxpañnn, nañ-uecro r¡n¡ôonocnnn. Hoµ
oxononnernnxa ce namnpar 3 senenn nncruera, µ¡nrn 8-10 mm, nenoxpañnn, nnaxnecrn,
nanoµoôxnamn uamxa. Tnunnxnre mnoroôpoñnn, c ôenn nnn posonn µp¡xxn n ôenn npamnn-
nn. Hnoµnnnnre mnoroôpoñnn, cpeôpncro nnaxnecrn. Hnoµ¡r côopen, c¡cranen or mnoro
opexuera, µ¡nrn 3,0-3,5 mm (raôno 37, ]nr. 4).
Cpema ce ns ropnre n xpacranannre n µonnnx nnannncxn noxc n ryx-ram no cxnononere na
Crapa nnannna, Cpeµna ropa, Poµonnre, Pnna, Hnpnn n na mnoro mecra n Rrosanaµna
F¡nrapnx µox¡m 1700 m n. n. H¡]rn ]enpyapn anpnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
Oõnxnoneno oõnunnue Thalictrum aquilegifolium L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c rono nsnpaneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 40-100 cm. Hncrara eµpn,
n oômoro cn ouepranne mnpoxo rpn¡r¡nnn, 2-3 n¡rn nepecrn, µonnnre c µp¡xxa, ropnnre
npnceµnann; orµennnre nncruera oôparno xñnennµnn, na µp¡xxa nnn npnceµnann, na n¡pxa cn
oônxnoneno rpnµennn, µ¡nrn 2-5 cm, mnpoxn 0,5-4,0 cm, no p¡ôa cn uecro nas¡ôenn.
Hneronere npannnnn, mnorouncnenn, c¡ôpann n mnronnµnn mernnnn. Oxononnernnx¡r npocr,
c¡cranen or 4 (5) uamenncruera, ôneµonnoneronn, µpeônn. Benuenncruera nnncnar. Tnunnxnre
mnoro na ôpoñ, µ¡nrn 5-12 mm, oônxnoneno no-µ¡nrn or oxononnernnxa. Hnoµnnnnre oxono 10
nnn noneue, cnaôµenn c µocra µ¡nra µp¡xxa. Hnoµ¡r côopen, c¡cranen or eµnocemennn
opexuera (raôno 38, ]nr. 1)
Hs xpacranann n ropcxn nonxnn n npeµnnannncxnx n nnannncxnx noxc n nxnara crpana nourn
µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. BOBOBH FABACEAE
1. Hncrara neun]ronepecrn, c 5-10 µnoñxn nncruera. Foô¡r ôes uonxa . . ..........................
Xaônex Galega officinalisL.
1*. Hncrara rpoñnn. Foô¡r c uonxa.......................
.................. Cnncmnnµyx Trigonella coerulea (L.) Ser.
Æaõnex Galega officinalis h.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, xyxo, rono cr¡ôno nnn c peµxn nnacnnxn,
nncoxo 40-150 cm. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, neun]ronepecrn, µ¡nrn 5-20 cm, c npoµ¡nronarn
µo nannernn nncruera, µ¡nrn 1-5 cm, mnpoxn 0,4-1,5 cm, c x¡ca µp¡xxa (0,5 mm). Hneronere
c¡ôpann n µ¡nro rposµo-nnµno c¡nnerne. uamxara sn¡nuennµna, µ¡nra 4-5 mm, c 5 nourn
eµnaxnn mnnonnµnn s¡ônn, pascexno nnaxnecra. Benuero cnernocnnto, rono, µ¡nro 1-1,5 cm, c
xapaxrepno sa ôoôonnre pacrennx ycrpoñcrno µnere µonnn nncruera ca cpacnann n
oôpasynar naµnñxara, µpyrnre µne naµ rxx ca cnoôoµnn (xpnnna), a orrope e ]naruero, µ¡nro 7-
8 mm, r. e. manxo no-µ¡nro or xpnnnara n naµnñxara. Tnunnxnre 10, or xonro ropnara camo
nanononnna e cpacnana c ocranannre. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r ôoô, nnneñno-nnnnnµpnuen,
µ¡n¡r 2-5 cm, ôes uonxa (raôno 38, ]nr. 2).
(99)
Hs nnaxnn cenuecrn mecra, n nsxonn, xpañ ropn n na µpyrn mecra µox¡m 1300 m n. n. H¡]rn
npes mnn n anrycr.
Haµsemnara uacr, c¡ôpana no npeme na n¡]rexa, e µporara Herba Galegae. Vnorpeôxna ce n n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
Cnn cunnµyx Trigonella coerulea (L.) Ser.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno nnn nonernano, rono nnn cnaôo oxocmeno
cr¡ôno, nncoxo 10-60 cm. Hncrara rpoñnn, c nnnecrn npn-nncrnnnn, npn ocnonara cn cpacnann
c nncrnara µp¡xxa. Hncruerara µ¡nrn 20-50 mm, mnpoxn 5-20 mm, onanno npoµ¡nronarn,
ocrpo nas¡ôenn. C¡nnernero x¡nôecro, r¡cro, na µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 2-5 cm. Hneronere µ¡nrn 6,5-
7,5 mm, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 1,5-2,0 cm. uamxara µ¡nra 2,5-3,0 mm, 5-µenna, c 5 s¡ôena. Benuero
cnnto, µ¡nro 5,5-6,5 mm. unaruero no-µ¡nro or xpnnnara n naµnñxara. Foô¡r xñnennµen,
µ¡n¡r 4-5 mm, nocrenenno crecnen n µ¡nra uonxa (raôno 38, ]nr. 3).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn mecra, xpañ n¡rnma n nocenn n nxna F¡nrapnx. H¡]rn mañ mnn.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. TEAHAPKOBH POLYGALACEAE
Oõnxnonena 1enuapxa Polvgala vulgaris L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpanenn nnn n ocnonara cn npnnonµnramn ce, ronn nnn
cnaôo nnaxnecrn cr¡ôna, nncoxn 10-40 cm. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, npnceµnann, nenoxpañnn,
µonnnre oôparno xñnennµnn nnn xñnennµnn, ropnnre no-µ¡nrn, nnneñno-nannernn. Hneronere
oônxnoneno cnnn, pxµxo posonn nnn ôenn, nenpannnnn, c¡ôpann n¡n np¡xnn rposµonnµnn
c¡nnernx. uamxara 5-nncrna, n¡rpemnnre 2 nncruera no-eµpn, nenuennµnn (r. nap. xpnnna),
ennnrnunn, µ¡nrn 6-7 mm, r¡nn, x¡m ocnonara nocrenenno crecnenn, c µoôpe pasnnuanama ce
mpexa or xnnxn, xoxro npn nnoµonere nsn¡xna. Pasnnrn nenuenncruera 3, cpacnann nomexµy
cn n c rnunnxonn µp¡xxn; nañ-µonnoro (npeµnoro) e no-eµpo, n¡n nnµ na naµnñxa, xoxro
ornpeµ e x¡µpano nspxsana. Tnunnxnre 8, n ocnonara cpacnann n eµno cnonue, a narope n µne
cnonuera c no 4 rnunnxn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r crpannuno cnnecxana, no xpax xpnnara,
oôparno c¡pnennµna xyrnñxa, µ¡nra 5 mm n mnpoxa 3,5 mm (raôno 39, ]nr. 1).
Hs nnnaµn n xpacranann n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1400 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ mnn. Vnorpeôxna
ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
3aoe.erra. Io.»+a me.:apra Polvgala mafor L. (er. npu ou.ru c :epeeuu u posoeu
µeemoee).
CEM. TEMEHYIOBH JIOLACEAE
Teuenyra Jiola L.
1. Pacrenne ôes naµsemno cr¡ôno. Hneronere c µ¡nra µp¡xxa, npnxpenenn, xaxro n nncrara, sa
n¡pxa na xopennmero. Crpannunnre nenuenncruera
nsnnrn naµony .....................................
.................... Mnpnsnnna remenyra J. odorata L.
(100)
1*. Pacrenne c µoôpe pasnnro nsnpaneno n pasxnoneno cr¡ôno. Crpannunnre nenuenncruera
nsnnrn narope .........................
.................... Tpnnnerna remenyra J.tricolorL.
Mnpnsnnna 1euenyra Jiola odorata L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c¡c cnnno pasxnoneno xopennme, ôes naµsemno cr¡ôno, c
µ¡nrn (10-25 cm) naµsemnn nxopenxnamn ce nsµ¡nxn. Hncrara saxp¡rneno ô¡ôpexonnµnn, c
µ¡nôoxo c¡pnennµna ocnona, µ¡nrn 1-9 cm, mnpoxn 1-8 cm, nas¡ôenn, c mexn nnacnnxn µo
nourn ronn. Hncrnara µp¡xxa µ¡nra 6-12 cm. Hneronere no 2-15 na xopennme, ncexn na
orµenna µp¡xxa, µ¡nra .4-15 cm, eµpn, µ¡nrn 1,5-2,5 cm. uamenncruerara 5, cnoôoµnn, npn
ocnonara cnaôµenn c nspacr¡nn. Benuenncruerara c¡mo 5, uernpn or xonro eµnaxnn, a neroro
(µonnoro) c mnopa, nnoneronn, n ocnonara ôenesnnxann, crpannunnre pecnnuecrn. Tnunnxnre
5. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r mno-rocemenna xyrnñxa (raôno 38, ]nr. 4).
Hs xpacranann n ropn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mapr mañ.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar xopennmero c xopennre (µpora Rhizoma et Radix
Violae odoratae), xonro ce nsxonanar npes mapr mnn, nxnara naµsemna uacr (µpora Herba
Violae odoratae) n nneronere (Flores Violae odoratae). Hma mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
Tpnnne1na 1euenyra Jiola tricolor L.
Eµnoroµnmno, µnyroµnmno nnn mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno cr¡ôno,
nncoxo 10-45 cm. ¡onnnre nncra c¡pnennµno-xñnennµnn, ropnnre npoµ¡nronaro ennnrnunn
nnn npoµ¡nronaro nannernn, µ¡nrn 6,0-7,5 cm, mnpoxn 5-20 mm, c µ¡nra µp¡xxa, x¡co
oxocmenn, ocoôeno no p¡ôa n no cpeµnara xnnxa. Hpnnncrnnnnre nepecro pasµenenn, c no-
ronxm np¡xen µxn, µ¡nrn 10-25 mm. Hneronere na µ¡nra µp¡xxa (12 cm), eµnnnunn, µ¡nrn 1,0-
3,5 cm, pasnonoxenn n nasnnre na ropnnre n cpeµnnre nncra. Iopnnre nenuenncruera r¡nn,
cnnto-nnoneronn, crpannunnre c¡c c¡mara oxpacxa nnn no-cnernn, c 1-3 r¡mnn nnnnn, a
µonnoro n ocnonara cn x¡nro, c 5-7 r¡mnn nnnnn, no xpax nnonerono, uecro ôneµo; mnopara
cnnto-nnonerona. Honxxora rpnre µonnn nncruera nnn ncnuxnre ca x¡nrennxann (raôno 38,
]nr. 5).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra, ns xpacranann, opnnnn n nocenn, uecro xaro nnenen.
Cpema ce n nxna F¡nrapnx µox¡m 1800 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Violae tricoloris), xoxro
ce c¡ônpa no npeme na n¡]rexa. Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac nma ronxm ôpoñ nnµone remenyrn c¡c cnnto-nnoneronn nnerone, nopaµn xoero e
nanoxnrenno ôenesnre na naôpannre pacrennx µa ce cpannxnar nañ-nnnmarenno c µaµennre
onncannx.
CPACAOBEHEHHH PACTEHHR
1. ×ñunnx¡r µonen. Hneronere c¡ôpann n xomnnuxn n oônnrn c oôma oônnnxa or nañ-ropnnre
nnµonsmenenn nncra..................2
(101)
1*. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hneronere pasnonoxenn no µpyr naunn......3
2. Tnunnxnre 4, cnoôoµnn...... Cem.Hyrauxonn Dipsaceae
2*. Tnunnxnre 5, cpacnann c npamnnnnre cn.................
...................... Cem. Cnoxnonnernn Asteraceae
3. ×ñunnx¡r oôpasynan or µne cnoôoµnn nononnnxn, xonro camo na n¡pxa ca c¡eµnnenn c
oômo ônnsanne n ce pasµenxr npn yspxnanero na nnoµa . . .................. Tpenncr snmsenen
Jinca herbacea W. K.
3*. ×ñunnx¡r ycrpoen no µpyr naunn....................4
4. ×ñunnx¡r n¡nmno pasµenen na 4, pxµxo na 2 uacrn, mexµy xonro nsnnsa
cr¡nôuero....................................5
4*. ×ñunnx¡r nxn................................6
5. Tnunnxnre 5. Hneronere n noneuero cnyuan npannnnn. Hncrara nocneµonarennn ...........
Cem. Ipananonncrnn Boraginaceae
5*. Tnunnxnre 2 nnn 4. Benuero nenpannnno, µnyycrno. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn .................
Cem.Vcrnonnernn Lamiaceae
6. Hsnpanen xpacr nnn xarepnnn nonyxpacr................7
6*. Tpenncrn pacrennx.............................8
7. Xpacr. Tnunnxnre 2. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn ..............
.........,................. Hmnxx Svringa vulgaris L.
7*. Honyxpacr. Tnunnxnre 5. Hncrara nocneµonarennn ..........
...................... Pasnoµnnx Solatium dulcamara L.
8. Hneronere nenpannnnn...........................9
8*. Hneronere npannnnn...........................10
9. Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r 4-rnesµen. Hpn yspxnanero nnoµ¡r ce pasnaµa na 4 opexuera ......
Heueôna n¡pônnxa Jerbena officinalis L.
9*. Tnunnxn 2. ×ñunnx¡r 2-rnesµen. Hpn yspxnanero nnoµ¡r ne ce pasnaµa na orµennn
opexuera............ Bennxµenue Jeronica L.
10. Cr¡nôuerara 5, cpacnann n µonnara cn uacr................
....................... Capxo]añ Plumbago europaea L.
10*. Cr¡nôuero 1, npocro nnn µnypasµenno................11
11. Tnunnxnre pasnonoxenn cpemy neneunnre µxnone............
......................... Ornnnue Anagalis arvensis L.
11*. Tnunnxnre pasnonoxenn cpemy mexµnnnre na neneunnre µxnone . .
.............................................12
12. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, eµnaxnn. Hnoµ¡r eµnornesµna, pasnyxnama ce na µne nononnnxn
xyrnñxa............ Tnnrxna Gentiana L.
12*. ¡onnnre nncra nocneµonarennn, ropnnre cpemynonoxnn, xaro eµnnnxr e eµ¡p, a µpyrnxr
µpeôen. Hnoµ¡r uepna xroµa ...............
....................... Hyµo ônne Atropa bella-donna L.
3aoe.erra. Ce+. He.uroeu Primulaceae. O e u u e : e Anagalis arvensis L. (er. npu ou.ru
c :epeeuu u posoeu µeemoee).
CEM. CAPKOmAEBH PLUMBAGINACEAE
Capxoqan Plumbago europaea L.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, cnnno pasxnoneno rono cr¡ôno, nncoxo 30-100
cm. Hncrara cnnto-senenn, nocneµonarennn, r¡cro xnesncro nas¡ôenn, npnceµnann, µonnnre n
cpeµnnre cr¡ônenn nncra mnpoxo ennnrnunn µo mnpoxo nannernn, n ocnonara c ymnuxn,
xonro oôxnamar cr¡ônoro, 5-8 cm µ¡nrn n 3-5 cm mnpoxn, ropnnre nncra n no pasxnonennxra
(102)
nannernn µo nnneñnn, nocrenenno nsµpeônxnamn n npemnnanamn n npnnner-nnnn. Hneronere
nourn npnceµnann n c¡ôpann n¡n np¡xnn xnaconnµnn c¡nnernx. uamxara 5-7 mm µ¡nra, n¡n
nnµ na rp¡ônna, noxpnra c eµpn xnesn. Benuero nnonerono nnn posono, c µ¡nra rp¡ônna n 6-
µenen µncx, nourn 2 n¡rn no-µ¡n¡r or uamxara. Tnunnxnre 5, cnoôoµnn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen.
Hnoµ¡r npoµ¡nronara pasnyxnnna xyrnñxa, µ¡nra 5-8 mm (raôno 39, ]nr. 2).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra, xpañ orpaµn n µp. xaro ôypen. Cpema ce nancxx¡µe n
no-ronnnre uacrn na crpanara no uepnomopcxoro xpañôpexne, n Rronsrouna F¡nrapnx,
Tpaxnñcxara nnsnna, cxnononere na Poµonnre, n mxnara uacr na Crpymcxara µonnna n µp.
µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. MACAHHOBH OLEACEAE
Amnnx Svringa vulgaris L.
Xpacr, nncox 2-5 m, c¡c cpemynonoxnn nenoxpañnn nncra, µ¡nrn 5-10 cm, mnpoxn 4-9 cm,
xñnennµnn µo mnpoxo xñnennµnn, saocrpenn, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra µo 4 cm. Hneronere c¡ôpann no
mnoro n cnoxnn rposµonnµnn c¡nnernx, µ¡nrn 10-20 cm. uamxara µ¡nra oxono 2 mm,
uernpns¡ôecra. Benuero c rp¡ônna, µ¡nra 8-15 mm, c 4-µenna pasnepena xoponxa, nnonerono (n
xynrypnn coprone ôxno nnn posono). Tnunnxnre 2, sarnopenn n¡n neneunara rp¡ônna.
×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r cyxa, rona, µnyrnesµna pasnyxnnna xyrnñxa, µ¡nra 1,0-1,6 cm (raôno
39, ]nr. 3).
Hs xpacranann n cyxn xamennnnn n cxannn mecra, rnanno n¡pxy naponnx. Cpema ce no
uepnomopcxoro xpañôpexne, n ¡ynancxara pannnna, Crapa nnannna, 3anaµna F¡nrapnx,
Crpymcxara µonnna, Poµonnre, Crpanµxa n µp. µox¡m 900 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nneronere (µpora Flores Syringae) n nncrara (Folia
Syringae). Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. THHTRBOBH - GENT1ANACEAE
Tnn1nna Gentiana L.
1. Benuero na n¡pxa cn c 5 µxna.........................
.................. Mouypna rnnrxna G.pneumonantheL.
1*. Benuero na n¡pxa cn c 4 µxna ........................
......................... Cnnx rnnrxna G.cruciataL.
Mouypna 1nn1nna Gentiana pneumonanthe L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, npocro nnn pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 15-60
cm. Hncrara xoxecrn, cpemynonoxnn, npnceµnann nnn na mnoro x¡ca µp¡xxa, nenoxpañnn,
nnneñnn µo onanno nannernn, r¡nn, µ¡nrn 3-6 cm, mnpoxn 2-10 mm, c eµna xnnxa n c noµnnr
nncren p¡ô. Hneronere pasnonoxenn no nxxonxo (1-10) n nasnnre na nañ-ropnnre nncra na
n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro. uamxara rp¡ôecra, µ¡nra 15-20 mm, 2-3 n¡rn no-x¡ca or nenuero, c 5
nnneñnn, saocrpenn, x¡co nas¡ôenn s¡ônn. Benuero cnnto, eµpo,
(103)
µ¡nro 3,5-5 cm, ]ynnennµno, c 5 xñnennµnn µxna, nxxonxo n¡rn no-x¡cn or neneunara
rp¡ônna. Tnunnxnre 5, c¡c cpacnann npamnnnn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c x¡co cr¡nôue. Hnoµ¡r
eµnornesµna, pasnyxnama ce na µne xyrnñxa (raôno 39, ]nr. 4).
Hs nnaxnn nnnaµn n rop]nma n 3anaµna n Cpeµna Crapa nnannna, Cpeµna ropa, 3anaµnn n
Cpeµnn Poµonn, Bnroma, Pnna, Hosencxa nnannna, Hmnnn n µp. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Cnnn 1nn1nna Gentiana cruciata L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno nnn npnnonµnramo ce ne-pasxnoneno
cr¡ôno,nncoxo µo 50 cm. Hpnocnonnnre nncra c¡ôpann n poserxa, a cr¡ônennre
mnoroôpoñnn,cpemynonoxnn, cpacnann n ocnonara cn n µ¡nro nnarannme, npoµ¡nronaro
ennnrnunn nnn onanno nannernn, x¡m n¡pxa crecnenn, µ¡nrn 4-11 cm, mnpoxn 12-35 mm, c no
3 xnnxn. Hneronere npnceµnann, c¡ôpann no mnoro n nasnnre na ropnnre nncra n n
nonycennnx na n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro. uamxara rp¡ôecro-sn¡nuennµna, 2-3 n¡rn no-x¡ca or
nenuero, c 4 x¡cn nnnecrn s¡ôena. Benuero r¡mnocnnto, µ¡nro 2,0-4,0 cm, uernpnµenno, c
onanno rpn¡r¡nnn µxnone, µ¡nrn 5-7 mm. Tnunnxnre 4, c¡c cnoôoµnn npamnnnn. ×ñunnx¡r
ropen. Hnoµ¡r xyrnñxa (raôno 40, ]nr. 1).
Ho xamennnnn cxnonone, ns xpacranann n ropcxn nonxnn n nnannncxnre pañonn n nxna
F¡nrapnx. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Gentianae), nncrara
(µpora Folia Gentianae) n xopen¡r (Radix Gentianae). Haµsemnara uacr ce c¡ônpa no npeme na
n¡]rexa, a xopennre ce nsnaxµar npes ecenra. Hamnpa mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
V nac ce cpemar n µpyrn nnµone rnnrxnn c¡c cnnn nnerone, no noneuero or rxx ca µpeônn
eµnoroµnmnn nnn mnororoµnmnn pacrennx. Camo ropcxara rnnrxna (G. asclepiadea L.)e
ônnsxa µo mouypnara rnnrxna, no ce pasnnuana or nex no rona, ue nncrara ñ ca no-µ¡nrn n no-
mnpoxn, c 3-5 µeôenn xnnxn.
CEM. TOHHOBH APOCYNACEAE
Tpennc1 snusenen Jinca herbacea W.K.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c n¡nsxmn ôesnnoµnn cr¡ôna, a nne-ronocnnre
npnnonµnramn ce, ronn, µ¡nrn µo 60 cm. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, xoxecrn, x¡m µonnnx cn
xpañ nocrenenno crecnenn n x¡ca µp¡xxa, ennnrnunn, µ¡nrn 2-6 cm, mnpoxn 1-2 cm,
nenoxpañnn, no p¡ôa pecnnuecrn. Hneronere nnoneronn nnn cnnto-nnoneronn, pasnonoxenn
noeµnnnuno n nasnnre na nncrara. uamxara x¡ca, c 5 recnonnneñnn saocrpenn µxna.
Beneunara rp¡ônna µ¡nra 10-15 mm, c xoponxa or 5 pasnepenn ennnrnunn nncruera, µ¡nrn 12-
18 mm. Tnunnxnre 5, cnoôoµnn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, oôpasynan or µne cnoôoµnn nononnnxn,
xonro camo na n¡pxa cn ca c¡eµnnenn c oômo ônnsanne n ce pasµenxr npn yspxnanero na
nnoµa. O1ponno!(raôno 39, ]nr. 5).
Cpema ce ns xpacranann n no cyxnre xamennnnn mecra, npeµnmno na naponnrn repenn n nxnara
crpana µox¡m 1500 m n. n. H¡]rn or anpnn µo mnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
B rpaµnnnre ce xynrnnnpar xaro µexoparnnnn pacrennx µna nnµa snmsenen, naµsemnara uacr n
nncrara na eµnnnx or xonro man¡x snmsenen (J. minor L.), ce nsnonsynar n c¡npemennara
meµnnnna (µpora Herba Vincae
(104)
minoris n µpora Folia Vincae minoris). Honxxora rpenncrnxr n manxnxr snmsenen noµnnxnar.
CEM. IPAHABOAHCTHH BORAGINACEAE
1. Ornop¡r na neneunara rp¡ônna nourn sarnopen or 5 nmcnecrn
nspacr¡xa..........................................2
1*. Ornop¡r na neneunara rp¡ônna ne e sarnopen c nspacr¡nn......4
2. Benuero rp¡ôecro, n ropnara cn uacr nepasnepeno ............
..................... uepen oman Svmphvtum officinale L.
2*. Benuero rp¡ôecro, n ropnara cn uacr c pasnepena xoponxa...... 3
3. Beneunara rp¡ônna no-x¡ca or pasnepenara uacr na nenuero; npn ornopa c x¡nrn, rnaµxn
nmcnn.............................
............. Honcxa nesaôpanxa Mvosotisarvensis(L.)Hill.
3*. Beneunara rp¡ônna no-µ¡nra or pasnepenara uacr na nenuero; ornop¡r saxpnr or ôenn
nmcnn c pecnnuxn........................
.................... Heueônonnnue Anchusa officinalis L.
4. Benuero nenpannnno, c 5 neeµnaxnn µxna. Tnunnxnre c neeµnaxno µ¡nrn µp¡xxn n cr¡puar
naµ nenuero..........................
................ Oônxnoneno ycoñnnue Echium vulgare L.
4*. Benuero npannnno, c eµnaxnn µxnone. Tnunnxonnre µp¡xxn cxpnrn n
rp¡ônnara.......................................5
5. uamxara pasceuena nañ-mnoro µo cpeµara.................
............... Heueôna meµynnna Pulmonaria officinalisL.
5*. uamxara pasceuena nourn µo ocnonara..................6
6. Beneunara rp¡ônna orn¡rpe c 5 naµn¡xnn peµnnn or nnacnnxn. Hnoµ¡r ôes
µp¡xxa.....................................
. . . . Bnonerono nrnue npoco Lithospermum purpureocoeruleumL.
6*. Beneunara rp¡ônna orn¡rpe ôes peµnnn or nnacnnxn. Hnoµuerara c µp¡xxn..............
Añnaxnna Alkanna tinctoria (L.) Tausch.
3aoe.erra. Buo.emoeo nmu:e npoco Lithospermumpurpureo-coeruleum L. (er. npu ou.ru c
:epeeuu u posoeu µeemoee).
Annaanna Alkanna tinctoria (L.) Tausch.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c mnorouncnenn npnnonµnramn ce cr¡ôna, nncoxn 10-30
cm, uernnecro nnaxnecrn, no ôes xnesncrn nnacnnxn. Kopen¡r µeôen, µ¡n¡r 20-25 cm,
c¡µ¡pxam uepneno ôarpnnno nemecrno, xoero ce npoxnxna neµnara npn npeuynnanero my n e
xapaxrepen ôener sa rosn nnµ. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, nannernn, µ¡nrn 6-15 cm, mnpoxn 0,7-
1,5 cm, ôes npnnncrnnnn, npnocnonnnre c µp¡xxa, ropnnre npnceµnann, nourn oôxnamamn
cr¡ônoro. Hneronere npannnnn, c¡ôpann n¡n np¡xnn eµnocrpannn c¡nnernx, c npoµ¡nronaro
nannernn npnnnernnnn. uamxara µ¡nra 4-8 mm, no-µ¡nôoxo or nononnnara cn 5-µenna.
Benuero cnnto, ]ynnennµno, c x¡ca rp¡ônna n 5-µenna xoponxa, 6-7 mm n µnamer¡p, ôes
nspacr¡nn n ornopa na neneunara rp¡ônna. Tnunnxnre 5, npnxpenenn x¡m cpeµara na
rp¡ônnara. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, n¡nmno pasµenen na 4 uacrn. Hnoµ¡r ce pasnaµa na 4 opexuera
(raôno 40, ]nr. 2).
Ho cyxn xamennnnn mecra n mxnara uacr na Tpaxnñcxara pannnna n Crpymcxara µonnna.
H¡]rn mapr mnn.
B meµnnnnara n mnnanoro ce e nsnonsynan xopen¡r (µpora Radix Alkannae). Hamnpa
npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
(105)
Oõnxnoneno yconnnue Echium vulgare L.
¡nyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, nourn nepasxnoneno cr¡ôno, noxpnro c
pasnepenn uernnxn, namnpamn ce n¡pxy ôpaµannuxn saeµno c oônxnonennre npnnernann
nnacnnxn, nncoxo 30-90 cm. Hncrara nannernn, npnocnonnnre nocrenenno crecnenn n xpnnara
µp¡xxa, npnnernano uernnecrn, µ¡nrn 5-15 cm, mnpoxn 8-20 mm, cr¡ônennre no-µpeônn,
npnceµnann. C¡nnernero cnaôo pasxnoneno, nourn xnaconnµno nnn rposµonnµno, µ¡nro µo 20
cm. uamxara µ¡nôoxo 5-µenna, µ¡nra 5-12 mm. Benuero µ¡nro 10-15 mm, c rp¡ônna, ne no-
µ¡nra or uamxara, c mnpox ron ornop n nenpannnna 5-µenna xoponxa, xaro ropnnre ñ µxnone
ca eµpn, µo 4-5 mm, nourn µna n¡rn no-µ¡nrn or µnara µonnn µxna. Hneronere ornauano
posono-uepnenn, no-x¡cno cnnn. Tnunnxnre 5, neeµnaxno µ¡nrn n cr¡puar nan¡n. ×ñunnx¡r
ropen. Opexuerara onanno rpncrennn, manxn, µ¡nrn 2,0-2,5 mm (raôno 40, ]nr. 3).
Ho rpenncrn n neoôpaôorenn mecra, xpañ n¡rnma n xaro nnenen n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn mañ
noemnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
3aoe.erra. He:eoua +eovuuµa Pulmortaria officinalis L. (er. npu ou.ru c :epeeuu u posoeu
µeemoee).
Hepen ouan, oõnxnoneno sapacnnue Svmphvtum officinale L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 80-150 cm, c x¡co xopennme, c
µeôenn uepnn xopenn. Hxnoro pacrenne noxpnro c pasnepenn uernnxn. ¡onnnre nncra
xñnennµno nannernn, c x¡ca µp¡xxa, ropnnre n cpeµnnre nannernn, saocrpenn, nnsôernamn,
µ¡nrn 10-15 cm, mnpoxn 3-5 cm. Hneronere manxo na ôpoñ, c¡ôpann n ynncnann np¡xnn
c¡nnernx. uamxara 5-µenna, µo nononnnara nnn µo ocnonara cn pasceuena na nannernn,
saocrpenn µxnone. Benuero µ¡nro 12-20 mm, nnonerono, pxµxo posono nnn ôxno, c rp¡ônna
oxono 2 n¡rn no-µ¡nra or uamxara, n ropnara cn uacr nepasnepeno, c¡mo c 5 x¡cn µxna n c
nannerno-mnnonnµnn pecnnuecrn nmcnnnn, no xpax xnesncrn, sarnapxmn rp¡ônnara my.
Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Opexuerara xñnennµnn, uepnn, ônecrxmn, rpnp¡ôecrn, µ¡nrn
5-6 mm (raôno 41, ]nr. 1).
Hs nnaxnn nnnaµn xpañ pexn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 900 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna xopennmero c xopennre (µpora Radix Symphyti),
xonro ce nsnaxµar n xpax na nxroro n ecenra. Hsnonsyna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Aeueõno nnnue Anchusa officinalis L.
¡nyroµnmno nnn mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne, r¡cro noxpnro c pasnepenn uernnxn.
Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno, nañ-uecro npocro, nncoxo 20-80 cm, r¡cro oônncreno. Hncrara
npoµ¡nronaro nannernn nnn nnneñno-nannernn, nenoxpañnn nnn no p¡ôa n¡nnonnµnn, µ¡nrn
5-12 cm, mnpoxn 1,0-2,5 cm, µonnnre c µp¡xxa, ropnnre npnceµnann. Hneronere c¡ôpann n
cnnpanonnµnn c¡nnernx, xonro ca pasnonoxenn n mernnna, c manxn npnnnernnnn, noxpnrn c
pecnnuxn. uamxara µo nononnnara pasceuena na 5 nannernn, uernnecrn, saocrpenn µxna, µ¡nrn
5-7 mm, npn nnoµonere µ¡nrn µo 10 mm. Benuero nnonerono, c rp¡ônna, µ¡nra 1,0-1,5 cm, c
pasnepena xoponxa, mnpoxa 5-9 mm, c r¡nn xaµn]enn nmcnn npn ornopa na rp¡ônnara.
Tnunnxn-
(106)
re 5, cxpnrn n¡n neneunara rp¡ônna. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Opexuerara naôp¡uxann (raôno 41, ]nr.
2).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra n xpañ n¡rnma n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1400 m n. n.
H¡]rn mañ cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Honcxa nesaõpanxa Mvosotis arvensis (L.J Hill.)
¡nyroµnmno, pxµxo eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c eµnnnuno, nsnpaneno, npocro nnn
pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 20-60 cm, r¡cro pasnepeno, nnaxnecro. Hpnocnonnnre nncra
c¡ôpann n poserxa, oôparno xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 8 cm, mnpoxn 1,5 cm, nocrenenno crecnenn n
µp¡xxa; cr¡ônennre npoµ¡nronaro nannernn, npnceµnann, µ¡nrn 2-5 cm, mnpoxn 0,5-1,0 cm,
ncnuxn noxpnrn c npnnernann nnacnnxn. C¡nnernxra eµnocrpannn, nneronere pexano
pasnonoxenn. Hneronere c x¡ca µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 0,5-2 mm, xoxro npn nnoµonere ce yµ¡nxana n
µocrnra µo 10 mm, 2-3 n¡rn no-µ¡nra or uamxara, xoxro e sn¡nuennµna, sarnopena, 5-µenna.
Benuero cnernocnnto, µpeôno, c pasnepena xoponxa, 2-4 mm n µnamer¡p, c 5 r¡nn nmcnn,
sarnapxmn ornopa na rp¡ônnara. Opexuerara rnaµxn, ônecrxmn (raôno 41, ]nr. 3).
Cpema ce ns ropn, xpacranann, nocenn n nnnaµn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1600 m n. n. H¡]rn
anpnn mnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. BTPBHHKOBH JERBENACEAE
Aeueõna nspõnnxa Jerbena officinalis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno uernpnp¡ôecro, n ropnara cn uacr pasxnoneno
cr¡ôno, nncoxo 30-100 cm. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, nepecro napxsann, cpeµnnre cr¡ônenn 3-
µennn, c eµpn, nenpannnno nas¡ôenn µxnone, or xonro cpeµnnxr e no-ronxm or ocranannre; no-
ropnnre npoµ¡nronarn, nas¡ôenn; np¡xnnre nenoxpañnn. Hneronere µpeônn, pasnonoxenn
napxµxo n mnoronnernn xnacone, c¡ôpann n eµpa, pxµxa mernnna. uamxara rp¡ôecra, 5-µenna.
Benuero ]ynnennµno, nenpannnno 5-µenno, nourn µnyycrno, ôneµonnonerono, µ¡nro µo 5,5
mm. Tnunnxnre 4, cxpnrn n¡n neneunara rp¡ônna. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r ce pasnaµa na 4
opexuera (raôno 40, ]nr 4.)
Ho rpenncrn n ôypenxcann mecra, mexµy oxonnn xynrypn n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn mañ
oxromnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar n¡]rxmnre np¡xnn uacrn (µpora Herba Verbenae),
xonro ce orpxsnar na oxono 20 cm or n¡pxa. Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. YCTHOHBETHH LAMIACEAE (LABIATAE)
1. Iopnara ycrna mnoro x¡ca, µnyµenna....................
................... H¡nsxmocpemnnue Afuga reptans L.
1 *. Benuero xcno µnyycrno; ropnara ycrna µoôpe pasnnra.........2
2. Tnunnxnre 2.................... Kaxyna Salvia L.
2*. Tnunnxnre 4.................................3
3. uamxara c 2 nenn ycrnn (cneµ npen¡]rxnanero nn¡rno sarnopenn); na rp¡ônara crpana na
ropnara ycrna nma nanpeuen, nañ-uecro nsnnr xaro r¡n-
(107)
xa nspacr¡x.......................................
............. Oônxnonena npenapa ScutellariagalericulataL.
3*. uamxara c 5 s¡ôena nnn µnyycrna; µonnara ycrna c 3 s¡ôena nnn c µpyra ]opma, no nnnarn
ôes nanpeuen nspacr¡x na rp¡ônara crpana.....4
4. uamxara xcno µnyycrna µonnara c 2, ropnara c 3 s¡ôena, r. e. nspe-s¡r mexµy resn µne
rpynn s¡ônn e no-µ¡nôox, orxonxoro mexµy ocranannre s¡ônn..........................................5
4*. uamxara ne e µnyycrna, a e c 5 eµnaxnn s¡ôena.............6
5. Hpnnnernnre nncruera c¡pnennµno-ô¡ôpexonnµnn, uecro nennre nnn
camo no ropnnx cn p¡ô oôarpenn nnoneronouepnennxano.............
............... Oônxnonena npnmnnna Prunella vulgaris L.
5*. Hpnnnernnre nncruera nannernn, saocrpenn...............
........ Oônxnoneno mnpnsnnnue Acinos arvensis(Lam.)Dandv
6. Tnunnxnre cr¡puar naµ nenuero ... Hcon Hvssopus officinalis L.
6*. Tnunnxnre ne cr¡puar naµ nenuero.....................
............ Fp¡mnxnona camoôañxa Glechoma hederacea L.
Hsnsnmo cpemnnue Afuga reptans L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno uernpnp¡ôecro cr¡ôno, nncoxo 10-40 cm, c
n¡nsxmn oônncrenn nsµ¡nxn. Hpnocnonnnre nncra npoµ¡nronarn nnn xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 4-12
cm, mnpoxn 1-4 cm, c µ¡nra µp¡xxa, c peµxn s¡ônn, sanasnamn ce npn n¡]rexa; cr¡ônennre
cpemynonoxnn, npnceµnann, mnpoxo xñnennµnn nnn npoµ¡nronarn, ncnuxn n¡nnonnµno
nas¡ôenn, nourn ronn, nocrenenno npemnnanamn n npnnnernn nncra, xonro ca nenn, uecro n
ocnonara cn cnnxann. Hneronere pasnonoxenn no 6-8 n npemnenn n nasnnre na nncrara n
oôpasynar n¡xnnno xnaconnµno c¡nnerne. uamxara sn¡nuennµna, c 5 xnnxn, nnaxnecra, µ¡nra
4-6 mm. Benuero µ¡nro 14-17 mm, cnnto pxµxo posono nnn ôxno, µnyycrno, c mnoro x¡ca
npxsana ropna ycrna, µonnara 3-µenna, c oôparno c¡pnennµen, mnoro eµ¡p cpeµen µxn.
Tnunnxnre 4, cr¡puamn naµ ropnara ycrna, xaro crpannunnre ca no-µ¡nrn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen.
Hnoµ¡r ce pasnaµa na eµnocemennn opexuera (raôno 41, ]nr. 4).
Cpema ce uecro no nnaxnn rpenncrn n oôpacnn c xpacrn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1800 m
n. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Oõnxnonena npenapa Scutellaria galericulata L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno nnn npnnonµnramo ce uernpnp¡ôecro cr¡ôno,
nncoxo 15-90 cm, nourn rono, npocro nnn pasxnoneno. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, µ¡nrn 2-6 cm,
mnpoxn 0,5-2,0 cm, onannn nnn onanno nannernn, nas¡ôenn, saocrpenn, ronn nnn nnaxnecrn,
na x¡ca µp¡xxa. Hneronere pasnonoxenn no eµnn n nasnnre na cpeµnnre n ropnnre nncra, na
x¡ca µp¡xxa (1-2 mm), oô¡pnarn na eµna crpana n oôpasynamn cpannnrenno pxµxo c¡nnerne.
uamxara rona nnn x¡copecnnuecra, µ¡nra 3-4 mm, µnyycrna, c nenn ycrnn. Benuero cnnto-
nnonerono, µnyycrno, c µ¡nra rp¡ônna. Iopnara ycrna nµn¡ônara, na n¡pxa npxsana, c 2
nspacr¡xa npn ocnonara cn, µonnara nxna. Tnunnxnre 4, crpannunnre 2 no-x¡cn. ×ñunnx¡r
ropen. Opexuerara nourn x¡nôecrn (raôno 42, ]nr. 1).
Cpema ce pxµxo no nnaxnn cenuecrn mecra n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn mañ mnn. Vnorpeôxna
ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
(108)
Bpsmnnnona cauoõanxa Glechoma hederacea L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c n¡nsxmn nnn npnnonµnramn ce ue-rnpnp¡ôecrn cr¡ôna,
nncoxn 10-50 cm, c mnorouncnenn nxopenxnamn ce n¡n n¡snnre nsµ¡nxn, nxnoro noxpnro c
x¡cn nnacnnxn µo nourn rono. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, ô¡ôpexonnµnn µo c¡pnennµno
saxp¡rnenn, no xpax nas¡ôenn, µonnnre c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 3-9 cm. Hneronere no 2-5 n npemnen n
nasnnre na cpeµnnre n ropnnre nncra, c nnmxonnµnn npnnnernnnn. uamxara rp¡ôecra, µ¡nra
5,0-6,5 mm, c 15 xnnxn, µnyycrna, ropnara c 3, µonnara c 2 s¡ôena, 3-4 n¡rn no-x¡cn or
rp¡ônnara. Benuero cnnto-nnonerono, µnyycrno, µ¡nro 10-22 mm, oônxnoneno 2-2,5 n¡rn no-
µ¡nro or uamxara. Tnunnxnre 4. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r cyx, pasnaµam ce na 4 opexuera
(raôno 42, ]nr. 2).
Ho nnaxnn mecra n xpacranann n nxna F¡nrapnx µox¡m 1 200 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna nxnara n¡]rxma naµsemna uacr (µpora Herba
Glechomae), xoxro ce c¡ônpa npes mañ n mnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Ho-pano n o]nnnannara n napoµnara meµnnnna ôp¡mnxnonara camoôañxa ce e nsnonsynana
noµoôno na xocmarara camoôañxa (ypôannue) G. hirsuta W. K., npn xoxro s¡ônnre na
uamxara ca pannn na rp¡ônnara nnn ca 2 n¡rn no-x¡cn or nex.
Oõnxnonena npnmnnna Prunella vulgaris L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno npnnonµnramo ce cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 50 cm, c
ôesnnoµnn naµsemnn nsµ¡nxn, rono nnn cnaôo oxocmeno. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, c µp¡xxa,
µ¡nra 0,5-4,0 cm (nañ-ropnnre oônxnoneno npnceµnann), xñnennµno npoµ¡nronarn, µ¡nrn 4-9
cm, mnpoxn 2-4 cm, ronn, nourn nenoxpañnn. Hneronere c¡ôpann no 4-6 n nasnnre na nañ-
ropnnre nncra, xaro oôpasynar saxp¡rneno nnn yµ¡nxeno r¡cro xnaconnµno c¡nnerne, c
mnpoxo ô¡ôpexonnµnn npnnnernnnn, na n¡pxa nsneµn¡x saocrpenn, c nnoneronouepnennxan
pecnnuecr p¡ô. uamxara µ¡nra 8-9 mm, rp¡ôecrosn¡nuennµna, c 10 xnnxn, µnyycrna. Benuero
cnnto-nnonerono, µ¡nro 10-15 mm, c np¡cren or nnacnnxn npn ocnonara na rp¡ônnara,
µnyycrno ropnara ycrna mnemonnµna, µonnara rpnµenna. Tnunnxnre 4, c¡ôpann noµ
ropnara ycrna. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµuerara opexuera, µ¡nrn 1,5-2,0 mm (raôno 42, ]nr.3)
Ho rpenncrn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1400 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna
ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Oõnxnoneno unpnsnnnue Acinos arvensis (Lam.) Dandv (Calamintha acinos Clairv.,
Saturefa acinos Scheele)
Eµnoroµnmno nnn µnyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno nnn npnnonµnramo ce
nnaxnecro cr¡ôno, nncoxo 10-40 cm, npocro nnn pasxnoneno. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn,
xñnennµnn µo npoµ¡nronaro pomônunn, saocrpenn c xnnnonnµna ocnona, na n¡pxa cn c
nxxonxo s¡ôena nnn nourn nenoxpañnn, µ¡nrn 7-15 cm, mnpoxn 3-8 mm, nnaxnecrn, c x¡ca
µp¡xunna. Hneronere no 3-8 n nasnnre na nncrara n oôpasynar xnaconnµno c¡nnerne; npnnner-
nnnnre saocrpenn. uamxara rp¡ôecra, µ¡nra 5-7 mm, c 13 xnnxn, µnyycrna, xnesncro
nnaxnecra. Benuero ôneµonnonerono, µ¡nro 7-12 mm, 1-1,5 n¡rn
(109)
no-µ¡nro or uamxara, c nnocxa npxsana ropna ycrna n 3-µenna µonna ycrna. Tnunnxnre 4,
µnere n¡nmnn no-µ¡nrn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r saxp¡rnenn opexuera (raôno 42, ]nr.4).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra n µxnara crpana µox¡m 1200 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ
anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hcon Hvssopus officinalis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c¡c cnnen apomar n c mnoroôpoñnn npnnonµnramn ce nnn
nsnpanenn cr¡ôna, nncoxn 30-60 cm, npocrn nnn mer-nnuecro pasxnonenn, x¡µpanonnaxnecrn.
Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, recnonnneñnn, c noµnnr nncren p¡ô, nourn npnceµnann, nenoxpañnn,
c¡c cxtcenn xnonxn n nasnnre cn, nnaxnecrn. Hneronere c¡ôpann no 3-7 n cnonuera n nasnnre
na nncrara, nmar oôma µp¡xxa n oôpasynar no n¡pxonere na xnonxnre npoµ¡nronarn
xnaconnµnn c¡nnernx c¡c saocrpenn npnnnernnnn. uamxara rp¡ôecra, c 15 xnnxn n 5 nourn
eµnaxnn, xnesncro nnaxnecrn s¡ônn. Benuero cnnto-nnonerono, µnyycrno, µ¡nro 7-12 mm, c
rp¡ônna manxo no-µ¡nra or uamxara; ropnara ycrna nourn nnocxa n npxsana, µonnara
rpnµenna, c no-mnpox n npxsan cpeµen µxn. Tnunnxnre 4, cr¡puamn naµ nenuero. ×ñunnx¡r
ropen. Opexuerara µn¡rnecrn, µ¡nrn oxono 2 mm (raôno 42, ]nr.5).
Cpema ce no naponnrn cxann n Rrosanaµna F¡nrapnx n n Fenorpaµunmxo. H¡]rn mnn
cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Hyssopii), xoxro ce
c¡ônpa no npeme na n¡]rexa. Hpnnara ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Kaxyna Salvia L.
1. Hnernnre npemnenn c mnoro nnerone 15-30...............
.................. Hpemnenecra xaxyna S. verticillata L.
1*. Hnernnre npemnenn c manxo nnerone no-manxo or 10.......2
2. Hncruerara, xonro ce namnpar npn ocnonara na nnernnre npemnenn, nnoneronouepnennxann
n µ¡nrn xonxoro uamxara. Cr¡ônoro ôes poserxa or
npnocnonnn nncra...................................
........................ Iopcxa xaxyn a S. nemorosa L.
2*. Hncrara, xonro ce namnpar npn ocnonara na nnernnre npemnenn, senenn (pxµxo nxxon
camo na n¡pxa nnoneronouepnennxann) n snaunrenno no-manxn or uamxara. Hpnocnonnnre
nncra c¡ôpann n poserxa...........
.................,..... Hnnaµna xaxyna S. pratensis L.
Annaµna xaxyna Salvia pratensis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 100 cm, n ropnara uacr
cnaôo pasxnoneno n c xnesncrn nnacnnxn, n µonnara uacr camo c npocrn nnacnnxn. Hncrara
cpemynonoxnn, npoµ¡nronaro xñnennµnn, c¡c c¡pnennµna ocnona, µnoñno nas¡ôenn nnn
nspxsann, oxocmenn, npnocnonnnre c µp¡xxa, µ¡nrn 5-12 cm, mnpoxn 2-6 cm, ropnnre
npnceµnann. Hneronere no 4-6 n npemnen, oôpasynamn yµ¡nxeno, npocro c¡nnerne. uamxara
rp¡ôecra, µ¡nra 7-11 mm, µnyycrna, noxpnra c xnesncrn nnacnnxn. Benuero eµpo, µ¡nro 20-30
mm, µnyycrno, cnnto-nnonerono, pxµxo ôxno, c eµpa c¡pnonnµno nsnnra nxna ropna ycrna c
xnesncrn nnacnnxn n rpnµenna µonna ycr-
(110)
na. Tnunnxnre 2, cr¡puamn naµ nenuero. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Opexuerara xp¡rnn (raôno 43, ]nr.
1).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn mecra n nnnaµn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1200 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn anrycr.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna
Iopcxa xaxyna Salvia nemorosa L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno nnn npnnonµnramo ce cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 60
cm, n ropnara uacr pasxnoneno n noxpnro c npocrn nnacnnxn, ôes poserxa or npnocnonnn
nncra. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, µonnnre cr¡ônenn npoµ¡nronaro xñnennµnn, n ocnonara
c¡pnennµnn c µ¡nra µp¡xxa, µ¡nrn 3ƒ8 cm, mnpoxn 2-4 cm, cnaôo nnaxnecrn, nas¡ôenn;
ropnnre npnceµnann. Hnernnre npemnenn c 2-6 nnxra. uamxara µ¡nra 6-7 mm, noxpnra c
npocrn n xnesncrn nnacnnxn. Benuero cnnto-nnonerono, µ¡nro 8-14 mm, nonxxora posono,
µnyycrno. Tnunnxnre 2. ×ñunnx¡r ropen (raôno 43, ]nr.2).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn mecra n xpacranann n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn mañ anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hpemnenec1a xaxyna Salvia verticillata L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, uecro pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 20-80 cm,
noxpnro c npocrn nnacnnxn. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn; µonnnre npoµ¡nronaro xñnennµnn, c
µp¡xxa n 2 manxn nncrnn µenuera na µp¡xxara, µ¡nrn 5-10 cm, mnpoxn 3-5 cm, nas¡ôenn,
oxocmenn; ropnnre npnceµnann. Hnernnre npemnenn c mnoro nnerone, rpynnpann n npocro
nnn pasxnoneno c¡nnerne. Hnernara µp¡xxa µ¡nra 4-6 mm. uamxara rp¡ôecra, µ¡nra oxono 6
mm, uepnennxana, c nnacnnxn. Benuero nnoneronouepnennxano, µ¡nro 8-15 mm, µnyycrno.
Tnunnxnre 2. ×ñunnx¡r ropen (raôno 43, ]nr.3).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n ôypenxcann mecra n nxna F¡nrapnx µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn
oxromnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac ce xynrnnnpa n rpaµnnnre, a no xpañôpexnero ce cpema n noµnnxna Salvia oIIicinalis L.
(rpaµnncxn uañ), nponsxoxµama or Cpeµnsemnomopcxara oônacr. Hsnonsynar ce nncrara ñ
(µpora Folia Salviae). Ornnuana ce or ncnuxn namn cnnton¡]rxmn nnµone xaxyna no rona, ue
neneunara ñ rp¡ônna orn¡rpe e ôes np¡cren or nnacnnxn, xax¡nro nma npn onncannre no-rope
nnµone.
CEM.KAPTOmOBH SOLANACEAE
1. Hneronere no nxxonxo (1-3), nsnnsamn or nasnnre na nncrara, ncexn c
orµenna µp¡xxa. Hnoµ¡r uepna xroµa........................
....................... Hyµo ônne Atropa belladonna L.
1*. Hneronere no mnoro (3-25) n nonycennnnn na oôma µp¡xxa, nsnnsama or nasnnre na
nncrara. Hnoµ¡r uepnena xroµa.................
...................... Pasnoµnnx Solatium dulcamara L.
Ayµo õnne Alropa belladonna L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡c, µeôen, pasxnonen xopen n µeôeno nsnpaneno, n
ropnara cn uacr pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 2 m. ¡onnnre nncra eµnnnunn, ropnnre no µna
(eµnnnxr eµ¡p, a µpyrnxr man¡x nnµons-
(111)
menen npnnncrnnx), npoµ¡nronaro ennnrnunn, saocrpenn, nenoxpañnn, µ¡nrn µo 20 cm,
mnpoxn µo 10 cm, c x¡ca µp¡xxa. Hneronere naneµenn, ncnuxn c orµenna µp¡xxa. uamxara
nourn µo ocnonara cn 5-µenna. Benuero noµoôno na µenna, xa]xno-nnonerono, c¡c cnaôo
pasnepenn µenuera, µ¡nro 2-3 cm, mnpoxo 10-18 mm. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r n¡cxana, eµpa
(15-20 mm n µnamer¡p) uepneno-nnonerona couna xroµa c mnoro cemena. O1ponno! (raôno 43,
]nr.4).
Hs cenuecrn ropn, xpacranann n ceunma, cpannnrenno pxµxo n Crapa nnannna, Poµonnre,
Cpeµna ropa n na µpyrn mecra µox¡m 1600 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nncrara (µpora Folia Bella-donnae), xonro ce c¡ônpar
neuep no npeme na n¡]rexa, n xopen¡r (µpora Radix Bella-donnae), xoñro ce nsxonana neµnara
cneµ n¡]rexa. Hsnonsyna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Pasnoµnnx Solatium dulcamara L.
Karepnnn nonyxpacr c µ¡nro µo 2 m cr¡ôno, rono nnn nnaxnecro. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, c
µp¡xxa, µ¡nra µo 3 cm, nenoxpañnn, no ]opma rn¡pµe pasnnunn, oônxnoneno npoµ¡nronaro
xñnennµnn, saocrpenn, µ¡nrn 5-9 cm, mnpoxn 2,5-5,0 cm, nenn nnn c µne manxn npoµ¡nronarn
µenuera n ocnonara. Hneronere no mnoro n cennnnn, nsnnsamn or nasnnre na nncrara. uamxara
n nenuero 5-µennn. Benuero µncxonnµno, nnonerono, c pasnepenn nan¡n µxnone, 10-15 mm n
µnamer¡p. Tnunnxnre 5, xñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r xñnennµna xroµa, µ¡nra 10-15 mm. O1ponno!
(raôno 43, ]nr. 5).
Cpema ce uecro no nnaxnn n cenuecrn xpacranann, xpañ xnnnma n orpaµn n nxnara crpana
µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar oônncrenn xnonn (µpora Herba Dulcamarae, Stipites
Dulcamarae), xonro ce c¡ônpar or mapr µo mañ nnn npes oxromnpn n noemnpn. Hsnonsyna ce n
n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. ÆHBEHHHEBH SCROPHULARHCEAE
Bennxµenue Jeronica L.
1. C¡nnernero np¡xno, r. e. ro e npxxo npoµ¡nxenne na cr¡ônoro.....
.................... Knacncro nennxµenue J.spicataL.
1*. C¡nnernxra crpannunn, r.e.nnnarn nsnnsar or nasnnre na cr¡ônennre
nncra........................................2
2. Cr¡ônoro n nncrara ronn...........................
.................. Horouno nennxµenue J. beccabunga L.
2*. Cr¡ônoro n nncrara xocmarn........................
................... Heueôno nennxµenue J. officinalisL.
Aeueõno nennxµenue Jeronica officinalis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c n¡nsxmn, nxopenxnamn ce cr¡ôna n nsnpanenn n¡pxone n
nneronocnn xnonxn, ne no-nncoxn or 30 cm, nxnoro nnaxnecro. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, c x¡ca
µp¡xxa, ennnrnunn nnn npoµ¡nronaro oôparno xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 1,5-5,0 cm, mnpoxn 1-2 cm,
cnrno nas¡ôe-
(112)
nn. C¡nnernxra r¡crn, xnesncro nnaxnecrn, rposµonnµnn, µ¡nrn 3-10 cm, nsnpanenn.
Hneronere c x¡ca µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 1-3 mm, c npnnnernnnn, µ¡nrn 3-5 mm. Benuero cnernocnnto c
nnoneron orren¡x, 6-8 mm n µnamer¡p. Tnunnxnre 2. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµnara xyrnñxa
xnesncro nnaxnecra (raôno 44, ]nr. 1).
Cpema ce µocra uecro ns ropnre n nxnara crpana µox¡m 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxna naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Veronicae), xoxro ce
c¡ônpa no npeme na n¡]rexa. Hma mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Ho1ouno nennxµenue Jeronica beccabunga L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nexamo cr¡ôno, nxopenxnamo ce n¡n n¡snnre, na n¡pxa
nsµnramo ce na nncounna µo 60 cm, rono. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, npoµ¡nronaro xñnennµnn,
µ¡nrn 2-7 cm, mnpoxn 0,5-2,5 cm, cnrno nas¡ôenn, saocrpenn, c x¡ca µp¡xxa (ocoôeno no-
ropnnre). C¡nnernxra rposµonnµnn, cpemynonoxnn, nsnnsamn or nasnnre na ropnnre nncra.
Hneronere c x¡ca rona µp¡xxa, nourn panna na manxnre (oxono 1 mm mnpoxn) npnnnernnnn.
Benuero r¡n¡ôonocnnto, c no-r¡mnn nnnnn, 5-10 mm n µnamer¡p. Tnunnxnre 2. ×ñunnx¡r
ropen. Hnoµnara xyrnñxa rona (raôno 44, ]nr. 2)
Cpema ce uecro no nnaxnn mecra n xpañ noronn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1600 m n. n. H¡]rn
anpnn mnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Knacnc1o nennxµenue Jeronica spicata L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, r¡cro oxocmeno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 20-70 cm.
Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, npoµ¡nronaro nannernn, r¡nn, µ¡nrn 2-9 cm, mnpoxn 0,5-3 cm,
nenoxpañnn, r¡cronnaxnecrn, c x¡ca µp¡xxa, ropnnre npnceµnann. C¡nnernero eµnnnuno,
r¡cro, µ¡nro 530 cm. Hnernnre µp¡xxn snaunrenno no-x¡cn or uamxara, nourn npnceµnann,
xnesncro nnaxnecrn. uamxara 4-µenna, oônxnoneno xnesncra. Benuero xpxo r¡n¡ôonocnnto,
pxµxo ôxno, µ¡nro 6-7 mm. Tnunnxnre 2. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµnara xyrnñxa nnaxnecra (raôno
44, ]nr.3).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra n ns xpacranann n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn mnn
cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. AYIAHKOBH DIPSACEAE
1. Oômoro nnerno nerno noxpnro c nmcnecrn npnnnernnnn........
................... Cnntornanue Succisapratensis Moench
1*. Oômoro nnerno nerno noxpnro c nnacnnxn................
.......... Honcxo uepnenornanue Knautia anensis (L.) Coult.
Cnntornanue Succisa pratensis Moench
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno rono nnn nnaxnecro cr¡ôno, nncoxo 50-150 cm.
Hpnocnonnnre nncra c x¡ca µp¡xxa, ennnrnuno-nannernn, nenoxpañnn, a cr¡ônennre
cpemynonoxnn, 2-3 µnoñxn nannernn,
(113)
c¡c cpacnann n¡n nnarannme µp¡xxn, ronn. Hneronere c¡ôpann n x¡nôecrn xomnnuxn, oxono 2
cm n µnamer¡p, oônnrn or nxxonxo senenn saocrpenn nncruera, napeµenn n µna peµa;
npnnnernnnnre ennnrnunn, µ¡nrn 6-7 mm. uamxara rp¡ôecra, c 4 peôpa n 8 ôpasµn, na n¡pxa
na r. nap. n¡nmna uamxa (oôpasynana or cpacnanero na npnnnernn nncruera) ce namnpa
c¡mnncxara uamxa (n¡rpemna uamxa), xoxro e µncxonnµna n san¡pmna c 4-5 uernnxn. Benuero
cnnto-nnonerono, µ¡nro 4-8 mm, 4-µenno. Tnunnxnre 4. ×ñunnx¡r µonen (raôno 45, ]nr. 1).
Hs nnaxnn nnnaµn n npeµnnannncxnre n nnannncxnre mecrnocrn n sanaµnnre uacrn na
crpanara. H¡]rn mnn oxromnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Honcxo uepnornanue Knautia arvensis (L.) Coult.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, na n¡pxa oônxnoneno pasxnoneno cr¡ôno,
nncoxo 30-120 cm, n µonnara uacr c oô¡pnarn naµony uernnxn, narope nourn rono µo r¡cro
x¡co oxocmeno. ¡onnnre nncra npoµ¡nronaro nannernn, nas¡ôenn; cr¡ônennre nnponnµnn nnn
nepecro pasµenenn, no-pxµxo nenn, c r¡crn xopann nnacnnxn. C¡nnernxra x¡nôecrn, c oônnnxa
or nxxonxo nncruera. B¡nmnara uamxa cnnecxana, 4-p¡ôecra, c 4 nnn noneue s¡ônn no xpax,
n¡rpemnara uamxonnµna c¡c s¡ônn, noµoônn na uernnxn. Hneronere cnerno-nnoneronn, pxµxo
uepneno-nnoneronn µo posono-ôenn, nepn]epnnre no-ronemn or µpyrnre. Tnunnxnre 4.
×ñunnx¡r µonen (raôno 45, ]nr. 2).
Ho rpenncrn mecra, nnnaµn n xpacranann n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn mañ cenremnpn.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. CAOÆHOHBETHH - ASTERACEAE (COMPOSITAE)
1. C¡nnernxra npannnnn x¡nôecrn rnannuxn, 1,5-4,5 cm n µnamer¡p, ôes oôma oônnnxa n
c¡cranenn or ronxm ôpoñ nnnnnµpnunn eµnonnernn xomnnuxn, ncxxa or xonro npnrexana
coôcrnena oônnnxa. Bcnuxn nnerone rp¡ôecrn.
Foµnnnn pacrennx...................................
.................. Oônxnonen uenxµnnx Echinops ritro L.
1*. C¡nnernxra c µpyra ]opma (nonyx¡nôecrn, nnocxn, nnnnnµpnunn n µp.) n ncxxo
npeµcrannxna eµna xomnnuxa c oôma oônnnxa n no-ronxm ôpoñ nnerone. Hneronere rp¡ôecrn,
]ynnennµnn, esnuecrn n µp. Heôoµnnnn pacrennx...........................................2
2. Kpañnnre nnerone ]ynnennµnn, cpeµnnre rp¡ôecrn. Hnoµonere c xn¡punnxa............ Cnnx
mernnunna Centaurea cvanus L.
2 : Bcnuxn nnerone esnuecrn. Hnoµonere ôes xn¡punnxa...........
...................... Cnnx xn¡uxa Cichorium intvbusL.
Oõnxnonen uennµnnx Echinops rilro L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c npocrn (eµno nnn nxxonxo) cr¡ôna, x¡m n¡pxa
pasxnonenn, nncoxn 20-60 cm, n µonnara uacr xnesncro nnaxnecrn n ôenon¡nnecrn. Hncrara n
oômoro cn ouepranne ennnrnunn, npnceµnann, µ¡nrn 10-20 cm, orrope ronn, orµony
ôenon¡nnecrn, eµnnnuno nnn µnoñno nepecro pasceuenn, c nnneñno-nannernn µenuera,
san¡pmnamn c ôoµnn, no no p¡ôa cn ôes x¡cn mnnuera. C¡nnernxra 1 - 5 no n¡pxonere na
pasxnonennx-
(114)
ra, x¡nôecrn, ôes oôma oônnnxa, c¡cranenn or ronxm ôpoñ nnnnnµpnunn eµnonnernn
xomnnuxn, ncxxa or xonro e noxpnra c¡c coôcrnena noxpnnxa or xepemnµooôpasno napeµenn
ronn nncruera, xaro n¡nmnnre oônnnnn nncruera ca npen¡pnarn n r¡nxn uernnxn. Hneronere
cnnn, rp¡ôecrn. Hnoµonere nnnnnµpnunn, noxpnrn c npnnernann nnacnnxn, µ¡nrn oxono 6 mm,
na n¡pxa c xoponxa or cpacnann n ocnonara cn uernnxn (raôno 45, ]nr.3).
Ho cyxn n xamennnnn mecra n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn mnn - oxromnpn.
3a neueônn nenn ce nsnonsynar nnoµonere (µpora Fructus Echinopsi). Vnorpeôxna ce n n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
Cnnn ue1nnunna Centaurea cvanus L.
Eµnoroµnmno, pxµxo µnyroµnmno pacrenne c nsnpaneno, cnnno pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo
20-80 cm, cnaôo naxxnnonnµno n¡nnecro. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, c¡mo cnaôo
naxxnnonnµno n¡nnecrn, µonnnre nannernn, ne-noxpañnn nnn nnponnµno naceuenn, c µp¡xxa,
cr¡ônennre nnneñno-nanner-nn, nenoxpañnn, npnceµnann. Komnnuxnre eµnnnunn no
n¡pxonere na pasxnonennxra, onanno-nnnnnµpnunn, 12-13 mm n µnamer¡p. Oônnnxnre
nncruera c ôxn nnnecr npnµar¡x, no p¡ôa cn pecnnuecrn; n¡nmnnre senenn; n¡rpemnnre
x¡nrennxann, uecro c nnoneron orren¡x. Kpañnnre nnerone no-eµpn, r¡n¡ôonocnnn,
]ynnennµnn; n¡rpemnnre rp¡ôecrn, nnoneronn. Hnoµonere µ¡nrn 3,5-4 mm, ]nnonnaxnecrn, c
x¡ca (oxono 1mm) xn¡punnxa (raôno 45,]nr. 4).
Hs nocenn, xamenncrn n rpenncrn mecra n xpañ n¡rnma oônxnoneno xaro nnenen.
Pasnpocrpanena e n nxna F¡nrapnx. H¡]rn mañ cenremnpn. B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce
nsnonsynar nnernnre xomnnuxn (µpora Flores Centaureae, Flos Cyanii). Hsnonsyna ce mnpoxo n
n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Cnnn ansuxa Cichorium intvbus L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µ¡n¡r, nperenonnµen mececr xopen. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno,
naôpasµeno, uernnecro nnaxnecro µo rono, n ropnara cn uacr pasxnoneno, nncoxo 20-120 cm.
Hpnocnonnnre nncra c¡ôpann n poserxa, rpanann, nenpannnno nepecro pasµenenn c no-eµ¡p
np¡xen µxn, µ¡nrn 7-30 cm, mnpoxn 1-12 cm, c x¡ca µp¡xxa; cr¡ônennre nocneµonarennn,
nannernn, npnceµnann n nonyoôxnamamn cr¡ônoro, nas¡ôenn; nañ-ropnnre nenoxpañnn.
Komnnuxnre eµnnnunn nnn no nxxonxo c x¡ca µp¡xxa nnn nourn npnceµnann n nasnnre na
nañ-ropnnre nncra, 3-4 cm n µnamer¡p; oônnnnnre nncruera n µna xp¡ra, pxµxo xnesncro
pecnnuecrn. Bcnuxn nnerone esnuecrn, cnnn, pxµxo ôenn. Hnoµonere oôparno xñnennµnn, c 2-5
recnn p¡ôa, µ¡nrn 2-3 mm, c xn¡punnxa or 1-2 peµa x¡cn nmcnnnn (raôno 45, ]nr. 5).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn mecra, xpañ n¡rnma, n nsxonn, ns oxonnn xynrypn n na µpyrn mecra n
nxnara crpana µox¡m 1200 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn oxromnpn. B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce
nsnonsyna xopen¡r (µpora Radix Cichorii), xoñro ce nsnaxµa npes ecenra, a no-pxµxo n
naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Cichorii). Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
(115)
BHAKH CTC 3EAEHH HBETOBE H CTHBETHR
±BYCEME±EAHH PACTEHHR
HECPACAOBEHEHHH PACTEHHR
1. ¡¡pnera nnn xpacrn, nonxxora xarepnnnn nnn ynnnnn .......2
1*. Tpenncrn pacrennx.............................7
2. Karepnnn xpacr c neunosenenn nncra...................
........................... Fp¡mnxn Hedera helix L.
2*. Hsnpanenn µ¡pnera n xpacrn c onaµnnnn nncra............
..............................................3
3. Oxononnernnx¡r µnoen, c¡cranen or uamxa n nenue. Hnoµ¡r xoxnuxa, saoônxonena or
xp¡rno cyxo nnnecro xpnno nnn n¡x c mececr oxononnoµnnx.uecro ôoµnnnn
xpacrn................................................ Cem.3¡pnacrenonn Rhamnaceae
3*. Oxononnernnx¡r npocr, c¡cranen or eµnn xp¡r nncruera, nnn neµopasnnr, nnn
nnncna................................4
4. ¡¡pno c nenn nas¡ôenn nncra c acnmerpnuna ocnona n nnnyxno
pasxnonenn crpannunn xnnxn. Cemero c xpnnarxa ...............
...................... Honcxn ôpxcr Ulmus minor Mill.
4*. ¡¡pnera c nenn nncra c¡c cnmerpnuna ocnona n nepasxnonenn crpannunn xnnxn. Hnoµ¡r
opexue, xyrnñxa nnn nxnmuen nsnxno nnn oruacrn n pasnyxnnna ôoµnnna xyrnñxa, nnn x¡n¡µ,
nocranen n nannuxonnµ-
na xynyna, oôxnamama camo µonnara my uacr..................
..............................................5
5. Hnoµonere nxnmuenn n pasnyxnnna xyrnñxa nnn n nannuxonnµna xynyna, noxpnra c
mnnuera nnn nmcnn . . . Cem. Fyxonn Fagaceae
5*. Hnoµ¡r xyrnñxa nnn opexue.......................6
6. ¡¡pno c ôxna xopa. Hnoµ¡r cnnecxano opexue, cnaôµeno c nnnecro xpnnne.....................
Fpesa Betulapendula Roth.
6*. ¡¡pno c xopa, xoxro ne e ôxna. Hnoµ¡r xyrnñxa, a cemenara cnaôµenn c xn¡punnxa 3
............................... Tonona Populus L.
7. Vnnnno pacrenne c xyxo p¡ôecro cr¡ôno, noxpnro c mnnuera. Hncrara µnanennµno 3-5-
µennn......... Xmen Humulus lupulus L.
7*. Pacrennx c n¡nsxmo nnn nsnpaneno cr¡ôno, ôes ôoµnn.......8
8. uamenncruera napeµenn n µna xp¡ra, nenuero nnncna (nneronere
µpeônn, senennxann, c¡ôpann n cennnnn)......................
........................ Bannue Alchemilla vulgaris L.
8*. uamenncruerara napeµenn n eµnn xp¡r.................
.............................................9
9. Hpnnncrnnnnre n¡n nnµ na nnnecra rp¡ônna, oônnnamn cr¡ônara . ........................
Cem.Hanaµonn Polvgonaceae
9*. Hpnnncrnnnnre c µpyro ycrpoñcrno nnn nncrara ôes npnnncrnnnn .
.............................................10
10. ¡onnnre nncra na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, µnanennµno nspxsann na 5-10 ocrpo nas¡ôenn µxna
............ Kyxypxx Helleborus odorus W. K.
10*. Hncrara npocrn, nenn..........................11
(116)
11.Hncraranpocrn, nas¡ôenn. Pacrennx c napnnnn nnacnnxn...... .
.................. Oônxnonena xonpnna Urtica dioica L.
11*. Hncrara nenoxpañnn. Pacrennx ôes napnnnn nnacnnxn........
.............................................12
12. Hncrara nocneµonarennn..........................
....................... Cem.Hoôoµonn Chenopodiaceae
12*. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn........................13
13. Hncrara nenoxpañnn, µpeônn, µ¡nrn 2-8 mm. Cr¡ônara nonernann nnn cnaôo
npnnonµnramn ce......... Hscnnnnnue Hemiaria L.
13*. Hncrara nas¡ôenn, eµpn, µ¡nrn 3-10 cm. Cr¡ônara nsnpanenn .... ................ Oônxnonen
npones MercurialisperennisL.
CEM. BTPBOBH SALICACEAE
Tonona Populus L.
1. B¡spacrnnre nncra none orµony ôxno nann¡crenn...........
............................ Fxna ronona P. alba L.
1*. B¡spacrnnre nncra n or µnere crpann ronn..............2
2. Hncrara rpn¡r¡nno pomônunn µo nourn c¡pnennµnn, na n¡pxa cnnno
crecnenn n saocrpenn, npannnno nas¡ôenn.....................
........................... uepna ronona P.nigraL.
2*. Hncrara saxp¡rnenn nnn rpn¡r¡nno ennnrnunn, x¡co saocrpenn n
nenpannnno nas¡ôenn.................................
........................... Tpenernnxa P.tremula L.
Bnna 1onona Populus alba L.
¡¡pno c¡c senennxanocnna xopa, nncoxo µo 35 m. Mnaµnre xnonxn saoônenn, ôenonnaxnecrn.
H¡nxnre noxpnrn c µne n noneue nmcnn. Hncruerara npocrn, nocneµonarennn, µ¡nrn 6-15 cm,
saoônenn, c µp¡xxa µo 6 cm, µ¡nôoxo µnanennµno 3-5-µennn, orµony uecro noxpnrn c ôenn
nnacnnxn, orrope ronn, n¡cxann; npnnncrnnnnre pano onaµnar. ¡nyµomno pacrenne c nnerone,
c¡ôpann n pecn m¡xxnre µ¡nrn 4-7 cm, a xencxnre 10-12 cm, nnnnnµpnunn, ynncnann,
pasnnnamn ce eµnonpemenno c nncrara. Hpnnner-nnnnre x¡nrennxann nnn senennxann, no
p¡ôa nas¡ôenn n pecnnuecrn. M¡xxnre nnerone c 6-10 rnunnxn, a xencxnre c ropen xñunnx,
ron, c x¡co cr¡nôue. Oxononnernnx¡r n¡n nnµ na µpeôna nannuxa. Hnoµ¡r pasnyxnnna xyrnñxa
(raôno 46, ]nr. 1).
Pasnpocrpanena e no nec¡xnnnn n uax¡necrn mecra, rnanno xpañ pexnre n nxnara crpana µox¡m
1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mapr mañ.
Tpene1nnxa Populus tremula L.
¡¡pno c rnaµxa senennxanocnna xopa, nncoxo µo 25-30 m, mnaµnre xnonxn senennxanoxa]xnn,
oônxnoneno ronn. Hncrara saxp¡rnenn nnn rpn¡r¡nno pomônunn, µ¡nrn 3-8 cm, or µnere
crpann ronn n rnaµxn, no p¡ôa nnnrxo n nenpannnno nas¡ôenn, c µp¡xxa panna na nerypara n
cnnno crpannuno cnnecxana n ropnara cn nononnna. Hneronere c¡ôpann n ynncnann pecn, pas-
(117)
nnnamn ce npeµn nncrara, m¡xxnre µ¡nrn µo 15 cm, xencxnre no-x¡cn, c µna-nennµno
nspxsann n m¡xnarn npnnnernnnn. Tnunnxnre 5-12, c xpxouepnenn npamnnnn. ×ñunnx¡r
ropen, c µne xonnunn xpxouepnenn ônnsanna. Hnoµ¡r pasnyxnnna xyrnñxa, cemenara c
xn¡punnxa (raôno 46, ]nr.2).
Hs ropn, ceunma, noxapnma n µpyraµe npeµnmno n nnannnnre nourn µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn
npes mapr n anpnn.
Hepna 1onona Populus nigra L.
¡¡pno c r¡mnocnna µo n¡suepna xopa, c ronn nnnnnµpnunn xnonxn, nncoxo µo 30 m. Hncrara
nocneµonarennn, saocrpenn, rpn¡r¡nnopomônunn, µ¡nrn 5-10 cm, mnpoxn 4-8 cm, na µp¡xxa,
µ¡nra 4-7 cm, crpannuno cnnecxana. Hneronere c¡ôpann n ynncnann nnnnnµpnunn pecn,
m¡xxnre µ¡nrn µo 9 cm, xencxnre µo 12 cm, pasnnnamn ce npeµn nncrara, c µnanennµno
nspxsann, pano onaµnamn npnnnernnnn. M¡xxnre nnerone c 20-30 rnunnxn c ôenn µp¡xxn n
xpxouepnenn npamnnnn, xencxnre c eµnn nnoµnnx c ropen xñunnx n cr¡nôue c 2 ônnsanna.
Hnoµnara xyrnñxa µ¡nra oxono 8,5 mm, xñnennµna, pasnyxnama ce no µna mena, c mnoro
cemena, cnaôµenn c µ¡nrn ôenn nnacnnxn (raôno 46, ]nr. 3).
Ho uax¡necrn, nec¡xnnnn n xamennnnn mecra xpañ pexnre n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n.
H¡]rn npes mapr n anpnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nponernnre n¡nxn na rpnre nnµa rononn (µpora
Gemmae Populi), a raxa c¡mo n rxxnara xopa. Hsnonsynar ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. BPE3OBH BETULACEAE
Bpesa Betula pendula Roth.
¡¡pno, nncoxo µo 30 m, c ôxna nmmema ce na xopnsonrannn nnnnn xopa, a na crapnre µ¡pnera
n µonnara uacr na cr¡ônara nourn uepna. Hncrara rpn¡r¡nno xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 4-7 cm,
mnpoxn 2,5-4cm, x¡m ocnonara mnpoxo xnnnonnµnn nnn orceuenn, na n¡pxa saocrpenn, no
p¡ôa µnoñno ocrpo nas¡ôenn, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 2-3 cm. Hneronere c¡ôpann n pecn m¡xxnre
no 2-3, npnceµnann no n¡pxo nere na xnonxnre, µ¡nrn µo 6 cm, ynncnann, c¡c cnaôo pasnnr 4-
µenen oxononnernnx, a xencxnre nnnnnµpnunn, nsnpanenn, µ¡nrn 2-4 cm, senenn, ôes
oxononnernnx. Hnoµ¡r cnnecxano opexue, cnaôµeno c nnnecro xpnno (raôno 46, ]nr. 4).
Hs ceunma, noxapnma n na µpyrn mecra, nañ-uecro n sonara na nrnonncrnnre ropn. Cpema ce
n¡n ncnuxn no-nncoxn nnannnn na F¡nrapnx. H¡]rn npes anpnn n mañ.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nncrara (µpora Folia Betulae), nepasnnrnre nncrnn
n¡nxn (µpora Gemmae Betulae) n nonyuennxr upes cyxa µecrnnannx na xnonnre xarpan (Pix
Betulae). Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. BYKOBH - FAGACEAE
1. Hncrara no xpanmara npannnno ocnnecro nas¡ôenn. M¡xxnre pecn rn¡pµn, nsnpanenn
narope. Hnoµonere nxnmuenn nsnxno n cnnno ôoµnnna n
(118)
pasnyxnnna oônnnxa c¡c senen nnxr.........................
.......................... Kecren Castanea sativa Mill.
1*. Hncrara no xpanmara no-cnnno nnn no-cnaôo nspxsann. M¡xxnre pe-cn ynncnann naµony.
Hnoµ¡r x¡n¡µ, nocranen n nannuxonnµna xynyna, oôxnamama camo µonnara my
uacr..........................2
2. Hncrara nnnarn npnceµnann (ôes nnn nourn ôes µp¡xxa), nnoµonere
n¡pxy µ¡nra, na n¡pxa nsr¡nena µp¡xxa......................
.......................... Heren 歓 Quercus robur L.
2*. Hncrara nnnarn c µoôpe pasnnra µp¡xxa, nnoµonere npnceµnann, c
x¡ca n µeôena µp¡xxa.................................
............... 3nmen 歓 Quercus petraea (Matuschka) Liebl.
Kec1en Castanea sativa Mill.
¡¡pno, nncoxo µo 40 m. Hncrara ennnrnuno-nannernn, µ¡nrn 8-25 cm, mnpoxn 5-8 cm,
nas¡ôenn, s¡ônnre mnnonnµno npoµ¡nxenn; µp¡xxara µ¡nra 1,5-3 cm. Hneronere c¡ôpann n
µ¡nrn (5-20 cm), nsnpanenn, xnaconnµnn c¡n-nernx. B ropnnx xpañ na c¡nnernero ca
pasnonoxenn mnoro m¡xxn nnerone, c 5-6-µenen oxononnernnx n 10-20 rnunnxn. Xencxnre
nnerone ca eµnnnunn nnn µo 3 n rpynn, pasnonoxenn noµ m¡xxnre nnerone n nmar 5-8-µenen
oxononnernnx n 6-rnesµen nnoµnnx, oôxnanar orn¡n or xynynara. Bcxxa xynyna r¡cro noxpnra
c rn¡pµn ôoµnnnn mnnone n c¡µ¡pxa 1 -3 nnoµa c no eµno ceme. Cneµ yspxnane xynynara ce
pasnyxna n nnoµonere onaµnar (raôno 47, ]nr. 1).
Oôpasyna ropn no cenepnnre cxnonone na Fenacnna, n Cnanxnxa naµ c. Herpono, n Orpaxµen.
Cpemar ce n eµnnnunn µ¡pnera n noµnoxnero na Hnpnn n 3anaµnn n Cpeµnn Poµonn.
Hsonnpano naxoµnme nma n 3anaµna Crapa nnannna naµ Fepxonnna. H¡]rn npes mañ n mnn.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
3nuen µsõ, ropyn Quercus petraea (Matuschka) Liebl. (Qn. sessils Ehrh.)
¡¡pno, nncoxo µo 40 m. Mnaµnre xnonn c r¡nxa n rnaµxa xopa, a crnononere c µeôena cnno-
xa]xna, µ¡nôoxo nanyxana xopa. H¡nxnre µpeônn, µ¡nrn µo 8 mm, xñnennµnn. Hncrara
nocneµonarennn, mnpoxo onannn nnn xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 7-12 cm, mnpoxn 6-9 cm, na n¡pxa
mnpoxo saoônenn, n ocnonara saxp¡rnenn µo xnnnonnµnn, no xpax nnnrxo µo cpeµno µ¡nôoxo
na-µenenn nnn nepecro naceuenn, c 5-8 µnoñxn saxp¡rnenn µo yµ¡nxenn µxnone, x¡m n¡pxa na
nerypara nocrenenno namanxnamn. Hncrnara µp¡xxa µ¡nra 12-30 mm. M¡xxnre nnerone
pasnonoxenn noeµnnnuno n¡pxy ynncnann pecn, µ¡nrn 4-8 cm, c 6-8-µenen oxononnernnx n 6-
10 rnunnxn. Xencxnre nnerone c¡ôpann no 2-5, pxµxo noneue, npnceµnann nnn na x¡ca µo 1 cm
µp¡xxa, c µonen xñunnx n cr¡nôue c 3 ônnsanna. Hnoµ¡r (x¡n¡µ) oônnr n ocnonara cn or
uamxa (xynyna), 8-14 mm n µnamer¡p, orn¡n noxpnra c µpeônn, xñnennµno-nannernn, r¡cro
nyxecrn, nnocxn nnn nsn¡xnann nmcnn. X¡n¡µ¡r xñnennµen, µ¡n¡r 3,6- 4,5 cm, n µnamer¡p 8-
25 mm (raôno 47, ]nr. 2).
Oôpasyna oômnpnn uncrn nacaxµennx nnn n npnmec c µpyrn nnµone. Tona e nañ-uecro
cpemannxr µ¡ô n F¡nrapnx. Pasnpocrpanen e n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1600 m n. n. H¡]rn npes
anpnn n mañ.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna xopara na xnonxnre n mnaµnre cr¡ôna, ne no-µeôenn
or 10 cm (µpora Cortex Quercus), oôenena pano nanponer. Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
(119)
Ae1en µsõ Quercus robur L. (Qu. pedunculata Ehrh.)
¡¡pno c r¡mnocnna nanyxana xopa, c ronn uepnennxann xnonxn, nncoxo µo 50 m. H¡nxnre
xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 5-7 mm, saocrpenn, noxpnrn c oxocmenn nmcnn. Hncrara nocneµonarennn,
oôparno xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 8-20 cm, mnpoxn 3-10 cm, nenpannnno nspxsann, x¡m ocnonara
crecnenn, c ymnuxn, c 5-7 µnoñxn µxnone, orµony nnaxnecrn, orrope ronn; nncrnara µp¡xxa
µ¡nra 2-7 mm nnn nncrara npnceµnann. M¡xxnre pecn µ¡nrn 3-5 cm, ynncnann, c 5-8-µenen
senennxan oxononnernnx; xencxnre nnerone c¡ôpann n rposµonnµnn c¡nnernx na µ¡nra (3-12
cm) rona µp¡xxa. Kynynara nonyc]epnuna, 7-14 mm n µnamer¡p, oônnra c µpeônn, mnpoxo
xñnennµnn, xepemnµooôpasno napeµenn nmcnn. X¡n¡µ¡r xñnennµno yµ¡nxen, µ¡n¡r 1,5-5 cm,
n µnamer¡p 7-27 mm (raôno 47, ]nr. 3).
Hpeµnmno n nnsnnnre, xaro oôpasyna camocroxrennn nacaxµennx n npnmec c µpyrn
mnpoxonncrnn nnµone n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1200 m n. n. H¡]rn npes mañ n mnn.
Hpnnoxennero my e xaxro na snmnnx 歓.
Pasrneµannre µna nnµa µ¡ô ca cnnno nsmenunnn, xaro nanocneµ¡x peµnna or napnannnre nm ce
npnemar or nxxon anropn sa camocroxrennn nnµone. Hesanncnmo or rona re ce nxnmunar n
raônnnara sa onpeµenxne n morar µa ce nsnonsynar xaro neueônn pacrennx.
Bnpoxo pasnpocrpanenn y nac ca cneµnnre rpn µoôpe oôocoôenn nnµa: nep (Qu. cerris L.),
unnro nncra nmar npn ocnonara cn mnnonnµnn npnnncrnnnn n xynynara my e noxpnra c
nsxpnnenn nasaµ mnnone; ônaryn (Qu.frainetto Ten., Qu. conferta Kit.), unnro nncra ca eµpn,
npnceµnann, c ymnuxn, oôxnamamn xnonxnre; xocmar nnn ôxn µ¡ô (Qu.pubescens Willd.), npn
xoñro mnaµnre xnonxn n nncrara ca r¡cro xocmarn, a nncrara n nnoµonere ca npnceµnann.
CEM. BPRCTOBH ULMACEAE
Honcxn õpnc1 Ulmus minor Mill (J. campestris L.)
¡¡pno, nncoxo µo 40 m. Mnaµnre xnonxn ronn nnn peµxonnaxnecrn c x¡nrennxana xopa,
crapnre xnonxn ronn, oônxnoneno c xpnnonnµnn xopxonn oôpasynannx, c¡c cnno-xa]xna xopa.
Hncrnnre n¡nxn ronn. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, xñnennµnn, oôparno xñnennµnn µo oôparno
nannernn, acnmerpnunn, µnoñno µo rpoñno nannnenn, µo 8 cm µ¡nrn n 4 cm mnpoxn, c
nnnyxno pasxnonenn crpannunn xnnxn, orrope ronn, orµony nnaxnecrn, na µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 1-
1,5 cm. Hneronere µnynononn, c npocr oxononnernnx, c¡c senennxan nnxr, oônxnoneno 4-5-
µenen, µ¡n¡r oxono 3 mm, c¡ôpann n cnonuecrn c¡nnernx c nnnecro, oôparno xñnennµno
xpnnne (xpnnarxa), mnpoxo µo 3 cm, c nspes na ropnara crpana, xoñro µocrnra opexuero (raôno
47, ]nr. 4).
Hs mnpoxonncrnn ropn rnanno n nnsnnnre n n µonnnx nnannncxn noxc µox¡m 1000 m n. n.
H¡]rn npes mapr n anpnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxna xopara (µpora Cortex „lmi). Hamnpa npnnoxenne n n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. KOHOHOBH CANNABACEAE
Xuen Humulus lupulus L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c ynnnno p¡ôecro cr¡ôno, µ¡nro µo 6 m, c x¡cn mnnuera,
xyxo. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, µ¡nrn 10-15 cm, µnane-
(120)
nnµno nspxsann na 3-5 µxna, µ¡nôoxo c¡pnennµnn npn ocnonara cn, no p¡ôa nannnenn,
saocrpenn, cnaôµenn c eµpn nannernn npnnnernnnn; nncrnnre µp¡xxn pannn nnn no-x¡cn or
nncrnara nerypa. Hneronere eµnonononn, µnyµomnn, senennxann µo x¡nrennxann. M¡xxnre
nnerone µpeônn, oxono 5 mm n µnamer¡p, c 5-µenen oxononnernnx n 5 rnunnxn, c¡ôpann n x¡cn
mernnuecrn c¡nnernx, nsnnsamn or nasnnre na nncrara. Xencxnre nnerone pasnonoxenn n
nasnnre na x¡nro-senenn nncronnµnn npnnnernnnn, xonro oôpasynar 2-3 cm µ¡nrn ynncnann
mnmapxonnµnn c¡nnernx, µocrnramn npn yspxnanero µo 5 cm µ¡nxnna. Ho n¡rpemnara
crpana na resn npnnnernn nmcnn ce namnpar x¡nrn erepnunomacnenn xnesn. Hnoµ¡r mnpoxo
xñnennµno opexue, µ¡nro oxono 3 mm (raôno 48, ]nr.1).
Ho nnaxnn mecra, ns xpacranann n xpañ pexn n nxna F¡nrapnx nourn µo 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn
mañ anrycr. Orrnexµa ce n xaro cencxocronancxa xynrypa.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar mnmapxnre (µpora Strobili lupuli), xonro ce orx¡cnar
npeµn pasn¡]rxnanero, n xnesnre (µpora Glan duiae lupuli, Lupulinum). Vnorpeôxna ce n n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. KOHPHBOBH URTICACEAE
Oõnxnonena xonpnna Urtica dioica L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne, noxpnro nxnoro c napnnnn nna-cnnxn, c µ¡nro n¡nsxmo
pasxnoneno xopennme. Hneronocnnre cr¡ôna nsnpanenn, uernpnp¡ôecrn, nncoxn µo 2 m.
Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, npoµ¡nronaro c¡pnennµnn, onannn nnn nannernn, µ¡nrn µo 15 cm,
mnpoxn 2-8 cm, x¡m n¡pxa saocrpenn, no p¡ôa eµpo nas¡ôenn; nncrnara µp¡xxa µo nononnnara
or µ¡nxnnara na nerypara. Hpnnncrnnnnre 4, npoµ¡nronarn, nnnecrn. ¡nyµomno pacrenne c
eµnonononn nnerone, pasnonoxenn n peconnµnn c¡nnernx, µ¡nrn µo 10 cm, nsnnsamn or
nasnnre na ropnnre nncra; m¡xxnre pecn oônxnoneno nsnpanenn, a xencxnre ynncnann.
Oxononnernn-x¡r na m¡xxnre nnerone e or 4 eµnaxnn nncruera, na xencxnre nnerone µnere
n¡nmnn nenuenncruera ca x¡cn, a µnere, n¡rpemnn µna n¡rn no-µ¡nrn. Tnunnxnre 4, xñunnx¡r
ropen. Hnoµ¡r cyxo eµnocemenno opexue (raôno 48, ]nr. 2).
Hs nxnara crpana xaro pyµepanno pacrenne. Crnra nourn µo annnñcxnx noxc. H¡]rn mañ
oxromnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nncrara (µpora Folia „rticae), xonro ce ôepar or mañ
µo cenremnpn, n xopennmero (µpora Rhizoma „rticae), xoero ce nsxonana npes cenremnpn.
Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. AAHA±OBH POLYGONACEAE
1. Oxononnernnx¡r 4-µenen...........................
................. Boµnonnnepnue Polvgonum hvdropiper L.
1*. Oxononnernnx¡r 6-µenen .........................2
2. Hncrara c¡c crpenonnµna ocnona......................
........................... Kncenen Rumexacetosa L.
2*. Hncrara c¡c saxp¡rnena, c¡pnennµna nnn xnnnonnµna ocnona.....
..................... Annnñcxn nanaµ Rumex alpinus L.
(121)
Kncenen Rumex acetosa L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro µnyµomno pacrenne c nsnpaneno rono nnn oxocmeno cr¡ôno, nncoxo
µo 1 m, oônncreno n pasxnoneno. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, npnocnonnnre n µonnnre cr¡ônenn
na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, ropnnre npnceµnann, xñnennµno npoµ¡nronarn, µ¡nrn 3-15 cm, mnpoxn 1,5-5
cm, c¡c crpenonnµna ocnona, nenoxpañnn. Haµ ocnonara na ncexn nncr cr¡ônoro e oôxnanaro
or nnnecro, no p¡ôa nas¡ôeno nnn naneneno nnarannme. Hneronere eµnonononn, c¡ôpann n¡n
np¡xna pexana mernnna. Oxononnernnx¡r npocr, senennxan, c¡cranen or 6 nncruera,
pasnonoxenn n µna xp¡ra, saxp¡rnenn, c¡pnennµno-xñnennµnn µo nonyxp¡rnn; n¡rpemnnre
cnaôµenn c ôpaµannuxn, npn nnoµonere ce paspacrnar, xaro oôxnamar nnoµa. Tnunnxnre 6,
pasnonoxenn no µne. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c 3 nnmxonnµnn cr¡nôuera, c xnuecrn ônnsanna.
Hnoµ¡r rpncrenno, n¡cxano r¡mnoxa]xno opexue (raôno 48, ]nr. 3).
Hs nnaxnn nnnaµn n nxnara crpana nourn µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Rumicis acetosae) n
nncrara. Hamnpa mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Annnncxn nanaµ Rumex alpinus L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µeôeno n¡nsxmo noµsemno xopennme n c, µeôen
x¡nrennx¡n xopen. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno, nncoxo 1 -2 m, pasxnoneno, naôpasµeno, uepnennxano
nnn x¡nrennxano, n c¡nnernero xocmaro. Hpnocnonnnre nncra c µ¡nra xneôonnµna µp¡xxa, c
mnpoxo xñnennµna ]opma, nexo n¡nnonnµnn no p¡ôa, eµpn, c¡c saxp¡rnen np¡x n c¡pnennµna
ocnona; cpeµnnre cr¡ônenn nncra c xñnennµna ]opma n µp¡xxa, a nañ-ropnnre ca nañ-µpeônn,
c xnnnonnµna ocnona, npemnnanama n µp¡xxa. Bnarannmara eµpn, ôenesnnxann. Hneronere
senennxann, c¡ôpann n mernnuecro c¡nnerne. Hnernnre ¡p¡xxn µ¡nrn, nsnnrn naµony,
c¡unenenn n µonnara cn uacr. Oxononnernnx¡r 6-µenen; n¡rpemnnre nepnronnn nncruera
mnpoxo rpn¡r¡nno onannn, µ¡nrn 6 mm, mnpoxn 4 mm, nenoxpañnn nnn c¡c cnaôo n¡nnonnµen
p¡ô. ôes ôpaµannuxn. Tnunnxnre 6. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r cyxo opexue (raôno 48, ]nr. 4).
Ho nnaxnn xamennnnn mecra, xpañ xomapn n noronn n¡n ncnuxn no-nncoxn nnannnn
npeµnmno n sanaµnara uacr na crpanara. H¡]rn mañ anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna xopen¡r (µpora Radix Rumici alpini). Hsnonsyna ce n n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
Boµno nnnepnue Polvgonum hvdropiper L.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c ocr¡p napnnn nxyc. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno, pasxnoneno,
rono, nncoxo µo 1 m, uecro npn yspxnanero na nnoµonere nxnoro nouepnenxna. Hncrara
nocneµonarennn, npoµ¡nronaro nannernn nnn nannernn, µ¡nrn 5-12 cm, mnpoxn 1,5-2,5 cm,
nenoxpañnn, x¡m ocnonara crecnenn n x¡ca µp¡xxa (0,5-1,5 cm) nnn nourn npnceµnann, ronn.
Hncrnnre nnarannma n ocnonara na nncrara nnnnnµpnunn, nnnecrn, ronn no p¡ôa pec-
nnuecrn. Hneronere c¡ôpann n¡n np¡xnn, ynncnann xnaconnµnn c¡nnernx.
(122)
Oxononnernnx¡r 4-µenen, senennxan, na n¡pxa uepnennxan, poson nnn ôxn, µ¡n¡r 3,5-4,5 mm,
c¡c snarncrox¡nrn µo x¡nrennxann xnesn noµoônn na rouxn. Tnunnxnre 6 (8). ×ñunnx¡r
ropen. Hnoµ¡r cyxo opexue, µ¡nro 2-3 mm (raôno 49, ]nr. 1).
Ho nnaxnn n mouypnnnn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn oxromnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Polygoni hydropiperis),
xoxro ce c¡ônpa no npeme na n¡]rexa. Hpnnara ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
B namara crpana ce cpemar peµnna nnµone nnnepnue, nxxon or xonro ca ônnsxn µo onncannx
nnµ, no roñ ce pasnnuana no cnnno nmrnnnx cn nxyc, nnncnam npn µpyrnre nnµone.
CEM. AOBO±OBH CHENOPODIACEAE
Cnaµxa 1pena Chenopodium L.
1. Hxnoro pacrenne noxpnro c xnesncrn nnacnnxn n n cnexo c¡croxnne nsµana cnnna npnxrna
mnpnsma. ¡onnnre nncra nepecro napxsann, ropnnre µo nourn nenn......................................
............................... Ornnue Ch. Botrvs L.
1*. Ionn pacrennx nnn noxpnrn c ôxn ôpamnecr, necno nsrpnnam ce nanen .......................
uynen CA. bonus-henricusL.
Ornnue Chenopodium botrvs L.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 70 cm, noxpnro c
xnesncrn nnacnnxn. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, n oômoro cn ouepranne xñnennµnn µo
npoµ¡nronarn, rtnn, c xnnnonnµna ocnona, nenpannnno nepecro nspxsann, na µp¡xxa, µ¡nra µo
3 cm, nañ-ropnnre n c¡n-nernero oônxnonno nenoxpañnn. Hneronere µnynononn, pasmecenn c
xencxn, c¡ôpann n nnpamnµanno mernnuecrn c¡nnernx no n¡pxonere na xnonxnre.
Oxononnernnre nncruera 4-5, recnn, xñnennµnn, ôes rp¡ôen p¡ô, senennxann, cnaôo cpacnann
n ocnonara cn, oônnnamn nsnxno nnoµa. Tnunnxnre 1-5. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c µne x¡cn
cr¡nôuera. Hnoµ¡r nemonnµno cnnecxan, mnpox 0,5-0,7 mm (raôno 49, ]nr. 2).
Ho xamennnnn, nec¡xnnnn n cyxn rpenncrn mecra n nxnara crpana µo 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn
oxromnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna nxnara naµsemna uacr (µpora Herba Chenopodii
botrys). Hamnpa npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hynen Chenopodium bonus-henricus L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µeôen, mececr mnorornanecr xopen. Cr¡ônara oônxnoneno
mnorouncnenn, nsnpanenn, nncoxn µo 80 cm,, npocrn nnn pasxnonenn, senenn nnn
uepnennxann, c mnoro p¡ôone; mnaµnre xnonxn c ôxn ôpamnecr nanen. Hncrara
nocneµonarennn, eµpn, rpn¡r¡nno xonnennµnn µo nourn crpenonnµnn n ocnonara cn,
nenoxpañnn nnn cnaôo n¡nnonnµnn no p¡ôa cn, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 5-8 cm. Hneronere µnynononn
nnn camo xencxn, senennxann, c¡ôpann n xnaconnµno-mernnuecrn c¡nnernx, n ocnonara nm
pas-
(123)
mecenn c nncra. Oxononnernnre nncruera 4-5, ôes rp¡ôen p¡ô, nnnecrn. Tn-unnxnre 2-5.
×ñunnx¡r ropen, c 2- 3 ônnsanna. Hnoµ¡r crpannuno cnnecxan (raôno 49, ]nr. 3).
Ho rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra, oxono xomapn n nnaµnnma, npeµnmno n nnannnnre naµ 1000
m n. n. H¡]rn mañ mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna xopen¡r (µpora Radix Chenopodii Bonus-henrici),
xoñro ce nsxonana x¡cno npes nxroro nnn pano nanponer. Hamnpa npnnoxenne n n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
CEM. KAPAMmHAOBH - CARYOPHYLLACEAE
Hscnnnnnue Herniaria L.
1. Hncrara n uamenncruerara ronn.......................
....................... Iono nscnnnnnue H. glabra L.
1*. Hncrara n uamenncruerara nnaxnecrn...................
................... Bnaxnecro nscnnnnnue H.hirsutaL.
Iono nscnnnnnue Herniaria glabra L.
Eµnoroµnmno, µnyroµnmno nnn mnororoµnmno rpenncro, rono nnn cnrno nnaxnecro pacrenne
c nonernann, or ocnonara cn pasxnonenn cr¡ôna. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, npnceµnann,
nenoxpañnn, manxn, µ¡nrn 2-7 mm, mnpoxn 1-4 mm, ennnrnunn µo oôparno xñnennµnn, c manxn
nnnecrn npnnncrnnnn. Hneronere c¡ôpann no 5-12 na rpynn n x¡nôecrn nnn nourn
xnaconnµnn c¡nnernx n nasnnre na nncrara, npnceµnann. uamenncruerara 5, n µonnara cn
rpernna cpacnann, ennnrnunn nnn xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn oxono 5 mm, senenn. Benuenncruerara
c¡mo 5, neµopasnnrn µo nnmxonnµnn, no-x¡cn or uamxara. Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r ropen,
nourn cxpnr n nnernoro nerno. Hnoµ¡r pasnyxnnna xyrnñxa, no-x¡ca or uamxara. O1ponno!
(raôno 49, ]nr. 4).
Ho cyxnre rpenncrn, nec¡xnnnn n xamenncrn mecra n no cxannre n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000
m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Herniariae glabrae),
xoxro ce c¡ônpa no npeme na n¡]rexa. Hma mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Bnaxnec1o nscnnnnnue Herniaria hirsuta L.
Eµnoroµnmno pacrenne c¡c cnnno pasxnoneno or ocnonara cr¡ôno, c n¡nsxmn, nonernann no
semxra xnonxn, noxpnrn c x¡cn nnacnnxn. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, npoµ¡nronaro ennnrnunn,
µ¡nrn 4-8 mm, mnpoxn µo 2 mm, r¡nn, nsnxno nnn camo no p¡ôa nnaxnecrn; npnnncrnnnnre
manxn, saocrpenn. Hneronere nourn npnceµnann, µ¡nrn 1-1,5 mm, c¡ôpann n x¡nôecrn nnn
yµ¡nxenn c¡nnernx rnanno no crpannunnre pasxnonennx, uamenncruerara nnaxnecrn,
senennxann, xñnennµnn, 5 na ôpoñ, µ¡nrn µo 1,5 mm, n ocnonara cn cpacnann, saocrpenn,
n¡nmnnre µne no-eµpn, ncnuxn nnn none rpn or rxx san¡pmnar c uernnxn, µ¡nrn µo 1 mm.
Benuenncruerara c¡mo 5, c¡ncem neµopasnnrn, nnmxonnµnn, cxpnrn n uamxara. Tnunnxnre 2-
5, x¡cn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c nourn npnceµnano ônnsanne. Hnoµnara xyrnñxa no-x¡ca or
uamxara. O1ponno! (raôno 50, ]nr. 1).
(124)
Ho nec¡xnnnn n xamennnnn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1400 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn
cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna nxnara naµsemna uacr (µpora Herba Herniariae
hirsutae), xoxro ce c¡ônpa no npeme na n¡]rexa. Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Ionoro n nnaxnecroro nscnnnnnue ne rpxôna µa ce cmecnar npn c¡ônpanero…
CEM. AKTHKOBH RANUNCULACEAE
Kyxypnx Helleborus odonis W. K.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µeôeno n¡nsxmo xopennme, c¡c cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 60 cm.
Hpnocnonnnre nncra (nañ-uecro eµnn) npesnmynamn, c µ¡nra µp¡xxa, µnanennµnn nspxsann
na 5-13 onanno nannernn, ocrpo nas¡ôenn µxna; cr¡ônennre no-µpeônn, npnceµnann.
Hneronere x¡nro senenn, 2-4 na ôpoñ, 5-7 cm n µnamer¡p. uamxara 5-nncrna, eµpa, senena,
sanasnama ce npn yspxnanero na nnoµonere. Benuenncruerara 8-12, neµopasnnrn n npen¡pnarn
n nexrapnnnn, mnoro no-manxn or nncruerara na uamxara. Tnunnxnre mnoro. Hnoµnnnnre 3-8,
c ropen xñunnx. Hnoµ¡r côopen, c¡cranen or cpacnann n ocnonara cn nnocxn mexynxn.
O1ponno!(raôno 50, ]nr. 2).
Hs xpacranann n nonxnn n npeµnnannncxnx n nnannncxnx noxc n nxnara crpana nourn µo 1800
m n. n. H¡]rn ]enpyapn anpnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar xopennre n xopennmero (µpora Rhizoma et Radix
Hellebori). Hpnnara ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. PO3OHBETHH ROSACEAE
mannue Alchemilla vulgaris L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c n¡nsxmo r¡mnoxa]xno xopennme n nsnpaneno rono nnn
nnaxnecro pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 50-60 cm. Hpnocnonnnre nncra na µ¡nra µp¡xxa (µo
20 cm), n oômoro cn ouepranne saxp¡rnenn µo ô¡ôpexonnµnn, n pasnnuna crenen µnanennµno
pasµenenn na 7-11 µxna, xonro ca nsnxno nnn camo n¡n np¡xnara cn uacr nas¡ôenn; cr¡ônennre
nncra c¡c snaunrenno no-x¡cn µp¡xxn, nañ-ropnnre npnceµnann. Hneronere µpeônn,
senennxann, ôes npnnnernn nncra, c¡ôpann n cennnxonnµnn c¡nnernx. Benuero nnncna.
uamxara c¡cranena or µna xp¡ra c no 4, pxµxo c no 5 nncruera, xaro nncruerara na n¡nmnnx
xp¡r ca nourn µna n¡rn no-x¡cn or resn na n¡rpemnnx. Tnunnxnre 4 (5). ×ñunnx¡r eµnn,
ropen, c nnmxonnµno cr¡nôue, c ronuecro ônnsanne. Hnoµ¡r cnnecxano xñnennµen, na n¡pxa
saocrpen, sarnopen n xpymxnnoro nnerno nerno (raôno 50. ]nr. 3).
Ho nnaxnn mecra, rop]nma, xpañ noronn n nnannnnre naµ 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn npes mnn n
mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nncrara (µpora Folia Alchemillae) nnn nxnoro
pacrenne (Herba Alchemillae), xonro ce c¡ônpar no npeme na n¡]rexa. Honxxora ce nsnaxµar
saeµno c xopennmero. Hamnpa mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Bnµ¡r e cnnno nonnmop]en. V nac e npeµcranen c peµnna napnannn (uecro onpeµenxnn xaro
nnµone), rpyµno pasnnunmn µopn n or cnennanncrn. Te nxmar npaxrnuecxo snauenne n¡n
np¡sxa c ônnxoc¡ônpanero.
(125)
CEM. MAEHKOBH - EUPHORBIACEAE
Oõnxnonen npones Mercurialis perennis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c npocro, nepasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 15-45 cm, n
µonnara cn uacr nourn rono, narope oxocmeno. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, ennnrnuno nannernn
µo ennnrnunn, µ¡nrn 3-10 cm, nas¡ôenn, saocrpenn, n ocnonara xnnnonnµnn, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa
(µo 4,5 cm), cnaôo pecnnuecrn, c µpeônn ôenn nnnecrn npnnncrnnnn. ¡nyµomno pacrenne c
eµnono-nonn nnerone, c¡ôpann n xnaconnµnn c¡nnernx. nsnnsamn or nasnnre na nncrara, c
npocr oxononnernnx, c¡cranen or 3 uamenncruera, µ¡nrn oxono 2 mm, ronn. Benuenncruerara
nnncnar. M¡xxnre nnerone c oxono 10 rnunnxn, c¡ôpann no nxxonxo n nourn npnceµnann no
µ¡nxnnara na npex¡cnaroro c¡nnerne, xoero e µ¡nro 3-8 cm. Xencxnre nnerone c ropen
xñunnx n µne nnmxonnµnn ônnsanna, c¡ôpann no 1-4 n¡pxy µoôpe pasnnra oôma µp¡xxa, µ¡nra
µo 3 cm, xoxro npn nnoµonere ce yµ¡nxana. Hnoµ¡r cnnecnara x¡nôecra xyrnñxa, mnpoxa 6-7
mm, c xopann nnacnnxn. O1ponno!(raôno 51, ]nr. 1).
Ho nnaxnn n cenuecrn ropncrn mecra n npeµnnannnnre n nnannnnre n nxnara crpana µox¡m
2000 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna, a no-pano ce e
nsnonsynan n n o]nnnannara meµnnnna.
CEM. 3TPHACTEHOBH RHAMNACEAE
1. Hpnnncrnnnnre rn¡pµn, npen¡pnarn n ôoµnnnn mnnone. Hnoµ¡r xp¡rna, cyxa, nnocxa
n mnpoxo xpnnara xoxnuxa.................
..................... ¡paxa Jaliums spina-christi Mill.
1*. Hpnnncrnnnnre mexn, neôoµnnnn. Hnoµ¡r ronuecra xoxnuxa c xoxecr nnn mececr
oxononnoµnnx .............................2
2. Foµnnn xpacr c x¡cn xnonxn, x¡m n¡pxa mnnonnµno saocrpenn. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn,
nas¡ôenn............................
........... Cnaônrenna s¡pnnxa Rhamnus catharticus L.
2*. Heôoµnnn xpacr c nocneµonarennn nenoxpañnn nncra..........
..................... 3¡pnacren Frangula alnus Mill.
±paxa Paliurus spina-christi Mill. (P. aculeatus Lam.)
Cnnno pasxnonen xpacr, nncox 2-3 m. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, xñnennµnn nnn ennnconnµnn
µo saxp¡rnenn, µ¡nrn 2-4 cm, mnpoxn 1,5-3 cm, r¡nn nnn x¡co saocrpenn, n ocnonara
saxp¡rnenn nnn cnaôo c¡pnennµnn, nexcno cnrno nas¡ôenn µo nenoxpañnn, xoxecrn, ronn,
n¡cxann. Hncrnnre µp¡xxn µ¡nrn µo 1 cm, 2-4 n¡rn no-x¡cn or nerypara. Hpnnncrnnnnre
nnµonsmenenn n 2 rn¡pµn, x¡cn xa]xnn ôoµnna, or xonro eµnnnxr e no-µ¡n¡r, xoco nsnpanen,
a µpyrnxr no-x¡c n nsnnr nasaµ. Hneronere µpeônn, 2-4 mm n µnamer¡p, µnynononn, c¡ôpann n
nasnenn rposµonnµnn c¡nnernx, x¡nrennxanosenenn; uamxara n nenuero c no 5 nncruera.
Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r nonyµonen, nourn nan¡nno cpacnan c nnernoro nerno. Hnoµ¡r cyxa
nepasnyxnnna xoxnuxa c 2-3 cemena, oôxnanara or cyxo, no xpax n¡nnonnµno nnocxo nnnecro
xpnno, 2-3 cm n µnamer¡p, c¡c cnernox¡nr µo xa]xn nnxr (raôno 51, ]nr. 2).
Ho cyxn xamennnnn mecra n ns xpacranann, nancxx¡µe n no-ronnnre uacrn na crpanara µox¡m
600 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar nnoµonere (µpora Fructus Paliuri). Hsnonsyna ce n n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
(126)
Cnaõn1enna sspnnxa Rhatnnus catharticus L.
Xpacr nnn neronxmo µp¡nue, nncoxo 4-6 m, c x¡cn xnonxn, nxxon or xonro ôoµnnnn. Hncrara
cpemynonoxnn, xñnennµnn µo ennnrnunn, or ncxxa crpana c no 3-4 µ¡nronnµnn xnnxn, µ¡nrn
3-7 cm, mnpoxn 2-3 cm, na n¡pxa r¡nn, no xpax x¡co nannneno nas¡ôenn, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 1-2
cm. Hneronere eµnonononn, senennxann, no 10-15 n cnonue n nasnnre na nncrara, µ¡nrn 4-5 mm,
na µp¡xxn, µ¡nrn 5-8 mm. uamxara n nenuero c no 4 nncruera; m¡xxnre nnerone c no 4
rnunnxn, xencxnre c nonyµonen 3-4-rnesµen xñunnx. Hnoµ¡r couen, xocrnnxon, uepen n
ônecrxm, µ¡n¡r 6-8 mm (raôno 51, ]nr. 3).
Hs xpacranannre n nxnara crpana npeµnmno xpañ pexnre µox¡m 1200 m n. n. H¡]rn npes mañ n
mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar yspennre uepnn nnoµone (µpora Fructus Rhamni
catharticae), nncrara (µpora Folia Rhamni catharticae) n xopara (Cortex Rhamni catharticae).
Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
3spnac1en Frangula alnus Mill. (Rhamnus frangula L.)
Xpacr nnn nncxo µp¡nue c rnaµxa cnno-xa]xna n¡cxana xopa, nncoxo 5-7 m. Mnaµnre xnonxn
uepneno-xa]xnn, c ôenesnnxann xopnsonrannn nemanxn. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, ennnrnunn
µo oôparno xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 4-7 cm, mnpoxn 2-4 cm, ornauano nnaxnecrn, no-x¡cno ronn,
nenoxpañnn, c nepecro xnnxynane, c¡c 7-9 npann xnnxn or ncxxa crpana, c x¡ca µp¡xxa (µo
1,5 cm). Hneronere eµnnnunn nnn no 2-7 n nasnnre na nncrara, µpeônn, µ¡nrn 3-4 mm,
ôneµosenenn, µnynononn, 5-µennn, na µp¡xxa, µ¡nra µo 1,5 cm. uamxara rona. Tnunnxnre 5.
×ñunnx¡r nonyµonen. Hnoµ¡r couen, ronuecr, xocrnnxonnµen, ornauano senen, cneµ rona
uepnen, a npn yspxnanero uepen, 6-10 mm n µnamer¡p (raôno 51, ]nr. 4).
Ho nnaxnn xpacranaunn mecra n xpañ pexn nourn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1300 m n. n. H¡]rn
mañ mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxna nscymenara xopa or mnaµn cr¡ôna n xnonn (µpora
Cortex Frangulae), xonro ce oôennar nanponer npeµn noxnxnanero na nncrara. Kopara ce
ynorpeôxna, cneµ xaro ornexn eµna roµnna nnn cneµ xaro ce nscymn npn 100 †C n
npoµ¡nxenne na eµnn uac. Hamnpa mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hopaµn rona ue xopara ce c¡ônpa npeµn pasnncrnanero, rx uecro ce ô¡pxa c xopa or enma,
n¡pôa, c nxxon nnµone s¡pnnxa n µp. Kopara na s¡pnacrena ce pasnnuana necno or xopara na
s¡pnnxara no rona, ue npn nocranxne n¡n noµa n sarpxnane ce onnerxna nnmnenouepneno, a
s¡pnnxara xepemnµenoopanxeno. 3¡pnacren¡r ce pasnnuana or resn xpacrn n µ¡pnera n no
rona, ue xoraro nexo ce ocr¡pxe ropnnxr nnacr na xopara my, ce nnxµa uepnen nnacr, xoñro
npn nocouennre nnµone e senen nnn xa]xn.
CEM. BPTmARHOBH ARALIACEAE
Bpsmnnn Hedera helix L.
H¡nsxm xpacr c¡c cr¡ôno, µ¡nro µo 30 m, c mnoroôpoñnn µoôannn (xnararennn) xopenn no
nero. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, neunosenenn, xoxecrn n n¡cxann, or µna rnna nenoxpañnn,
µ¡nrn µo 12 cm, c ennnrnuna nnn oôpar-
(127)
no xñnennµna ]opma noµ c¡nnernxra, n 3-5-µennn, µ¡nrn µo 15 cm no nererarnnnnre xnonxn, c
nncrna µp¡xxa, ne no-µ¡nra or nerypara, ôes npnnncrnnnn. Hneronere oônxnoneno µnynononn,
senennxanox¡nrn, c¡ôpann n cennnnn, oôpasynamn rposµonnµnn c¡nnernx, pasnonoxenn no
n¡pxonere na xnonxnre. uamxara or 5 cnrnn s¡ôuera nnn nourn nnncna. Benuenncruerara
µ¡nrn 3-5 mm, 5 na ôpoñ. Tnunnxnre 5, no-x¡cn or nenuenncruerara. Hnoµnnx¡r c µonen nnn
nonyµonen xñunnx, 5-rnesµen, c 5 cpacnann cr¡nôuera. Hnoµonere x¡nôecrn, npn yspxnanero
r¡mnonnoneronn nnn uepnn, 8-10 mm n µnamer¡p, c 2-5 cemena, xonro yspxnar na cneµnamara
roµnna. O1ponno!(raôno 51, ]nr. 5).
Hs ropn n cenuecrn mecra, no-pxµxo n no cxann n nxnara crpana nourn µo 1500 m n, n. H¡]rn
npes anrycr n cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nncrara (µpora Folia Hederae), xonro ce ôepar no
npeme na n¡]rexa. Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CPACAOBEHEHHH PACTEHHR
CEM. MACAHHOBH OLEACEAE
Hnannncxn ncen Fraxinus excelsior L.
¡¡pno, nncoxo µo 40 m, c¡c cnna nnn cnno-xa]xna rnaµxa xopa. H¡nxnre uepnn. Hncrara
cpemynonoxnn, c µp¡xxa, neun]ronepecrn, eµpn, µ¡nrn µo 40 cm, c¡cranenn or 7-17
npnceµnann nncruera, µ¡nrn 4-12 cm, mnpoxn 1,5-5 cm, npoµ¡nronaro onannn, npoµ¡nronaro
nannernn n nannernn, ocrpo nas¡ôenn, x¡m ocnonara nenoxpañnn, saocrpenn, ôes
npnnncrnnnn. Hneronere c¡ôpann no mnoro n mernnuecrn c¡nnernx, xonro nsnnsar or nasnnre
na mnnanoroµnmnnre nncra n ce pasnnnar npeµn pasnncrnanero. Hneronere µnynononn, m¡xxn
n xencxn, ncnuxn ôes uamxa n nenue. ¡nynononnre nnerone nmar ropen xñunnx, c yµ¡nxeno
cr¡nôue n µne rnunnxn. B xencxnre nnerone nma camo nnoµnnx, a rnunnxnre ca neµopasnnrn
nnn nnncnar. M¡xxnre nnerone nmar camo 2 rnunnxn. Hnoµ¡r e nnocxa xpnnarxa,
npoµ¡nronaro ennnrnuna, µ¡nra 3,5-4,5 cm, mnpoxa µo 1 cm, n ocnonara pasmnpena, x¡µero e
nxnmueno cemero (raôno 52, ]nr. 1).
Cpema ce n mnpoxonncrnn ropn rnanno n npeµnnannnnre n nnannnnre µox¡m 1200 m n. n.
H¡]rn npes anpnn n mañ.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nncrara (µpora Folia Fraxini) n xopara na cr¡ônoro
(Cortex Fraxini). Hsnonsyna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
E±HOCEME±EAHH PACTEHHR
1. Honyxpacrue c mnpoxn nncronnµnn xnonxn c ôoµnnue na n¡pxa. Hncrara peµynnpann µo
nmcnnnn. Hneronere pasnonoxenn no cpeµnara xnnxa
na nncronnµnnre xnonxn...............................
..................... Foµnnn sanncr Ruscus aculeatus L.
1 *. Tpenncrn pacrennx c nopmanno pasnnrn nncra.............2
2, Cr¡ônoro ynnnno, neôoµnnno, c¡c c¡pnennµnn nncra. Hnoµ¡r uepnena xroµa........................
Fpeñ Tamus communis L.
(128)
2*. Heynnnnn pacrennx. Hncrara nnneñnn, crpenonnµnn nnn xonnennµnn
..............................................3
3. Hncrara eµpn, mnpoxn, xonnennµnn nnn crpenonnµnn, nañ-uecro c µp¡xxa. C¡nnernero
mececr nnnnnµpnuen xouan c oônnnen nncr.......4
3*. Hncrara nnneñnn, ôes µp¡xxa. C¡nnernxra ôes oônnnen nncr. Cr¡ônara xyxn, c n¡snn.
Oxononnernnx¡r peµynnpan µo nmcnnnn..........5
4. Fnarno pacrenne c rpnp¡ôecro cr¡ôno n meuonnµnn nncra. C¡nnernero pasnonoxeno xoco
orcrpann na cr¡ônoro....................
............................ Axopyc Acorus calmus L.
4*. Cyxosemno pacrenne c rpyµxa. Hncrara nnocxn, mnpoxo xonnennµnn.
C¡nnernero na n¡pxa na ôesnncrnoro cr¡ôno oônnro c mnpoxo noxpnnano . .
. . . Hernncr smnxpnnx ArummaculatumL.
5. Hxxonxo xnaconnµnn xnonxn nsnnsar µnanennµno or n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro. Hnennre nourn
pannn nomexµy cn........................
...................... Tpocxor Cvnodon dactvlon (L.f Pers.
5*. C¡nnernero xnaconnµno, c pasµaneuenn nnn cnaôo npnnoxpnnamn ce npnceµnann
xnacuera.......... Hnpeñ Agropvrum repens (L.) P. B.
CEM. KPEMOBH LILIACEAE
Boµnnn sannc1 Ruscus aculeatus L.
Hncxo nonyxpacrue c¡c cnnno pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 30-60 cm, c n¡nsxmo xopennme.
Kpañnnre xnonxn nnocxn, nncronoµoônn, µ¡nrn 1 -3 cm, mnpoxn 5-10 mm, mnpoxo nannernn,
na n¡pxa ôoµnnno saocrpenn; n¡pxy rxx ca pasnonoxenn neµopasnnrnre nncra, xonro nmar nnµ
na nmcnnnn. Hneronere eµnonononn, µnyµomnn, pasnonoxenn no eµnn nnn no nxxonxo n¡pxy
cpeµnara xnnxa na nncronnµnnre xnonxn n nasnara na eµnam saôenexnm npnnnernnx.
Oxononnoµnnx¡r npocr, senennxan, µ¡n¡r µo 2 mm, c 6 nncruera, pasnonoxenn n µna xp¡ra,
xaro n¡rpemnnre ca no-x¡cn or n¡nmnnre. Tnunnxnre 3. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c x¡co cr¡nôue.
Hnoµ¡r mececra uepnena xroµa (raôno 52, ]nr. 2).
Hs ropn n xpacranann npeµnmno n no-ronnnre uacrn na crpanara µox¡m 900 m n. n. H¡]rn npes
mapr n anpnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar xopennre n xopennmero (µpora Radix et Rhizoma
Rusci). Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. BPEHOBH DIOSCOREACEAE
Bpen Tamus communis L.
Mnororoµnmno pacrenne c mececro rpyµecro xopennme, µ¡nro µo 20-30 cm, mnpoxo 5-10 cm, c
n¡nmen xa]xn xopxon nnacr n ôenesnnxana cnysecra c¡pnennna. Cr¡ônoro rpenncro, ynnnno,
µ¡nro 1 -3 m. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, eµpn µ¡nrn 8-14 cm, mnpoxn 4-11 cm, oôparno
xñnennµnn µo ô¡ôpexonnµnn, c µ¡nôoxa c¡pnennµna ocnona, na n¡pxa saocrpenn, nenoxpañnn,
c µ¡nra µp¡xxa. Hneronere eµnonononn, µnyµomnn, ôneµosenennxann, c¡ôpann n rposµonnµnn
c¡nnernx, pasnonoxenn n nasnnre na no-ropnnre cr¡ônenn nncra. Oxononnernnx¡r c 6
nncruera, npn m¡xxnre nnerone cpacnann nourn µo n¡pxa cn n¡n nnµ na sn¡nue c µnamer¡p µo
6 mm, c 6 s¡ôena, a npn xencxnre
(129)
nnerone nncruerara cpacnann camo n ocnonara cn. Tnunnxnre 6. ×ñunnx¡r µonen, c¡c cr¡nôue,
pasµeneno na 3, n sannrn naµony ônnsanna. Hnoµ¡r uepnena xroµa. O1ponno! (raôno 52, ]nr.
3).
Hs ropn n xpacranann npeµnmno n no-ronnnre uacrn na crpanara µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn
mañ mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna noµsemnara uacr (µpora Rhizoma Tami), xoxro ce
nsxonana npes ecenra. Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. ÆHTHH POACEAE (GRAMINEAE)
Hnpen Agropvrum repens (L.f P. B.)
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µ¡nrn n¡nsxmn noµsemnn nsµ¡nxn. Cr¡ônara nsnpanenn,
nncoxn 50-150 cm. Hncrara nnocxn, mnpoxn 4-8 mm, ronn nnn orrope nnaxnecrn n rpanann, c
ronn nnn nnaxnecrn nnarannma, c ycnopeµno xnnxynane. Esnuero x¡co, µo 1 mm, xaro xxnuxa.
Knac¡r nsnpanen, µ¡n¡r 10-15 cm, c rona nnn pecnnuecra neuynnnna oc. Hneronere c¡ôpann n
mnoroôpoñnn xnacuera, pasµaneuenn nnn cnaôo npnnoxpnnamn ce, onanno nannernn, µ¡nrn 8-
16 mm, c 4-7 nnxra. Bcxxo xnacue oônnro c no µne nnenn, nourn eµnaxnn, nocrenenno
saocrpenn, uecro c ocnnue, nannernn, µ¡nrn 7-12 mm, ronn. Hneronere npocro ycrpoenn
ncexn nnxr nma no µne nnennnn (ropna n µonna), oôxnamamn 3-re rnunnxn n nnoµnnxa, xoñro
e c ropen xñunnx; µonnara nnennna 9-11 mm, saocrpena nnn npemnnanama n x¡c µo 6 mm ocnn,
ropnara nnennna no-x¡ca. Hnoµ¡r s¡pno (raôno 52, ]nr. 4).
Cpema ce ns rpenncrn mecra, nacnma, nnnaµn, xpacranann n µp. n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1600 m
n. n. H¡]rn mnn anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar noµsemnnre nsµ¡nxn (µpora Rhizoma Graminis),
xonro ce nsxonanar npes ecenra nnn nanponer. Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Tpocxo1 Cvnodon dactvlon (L.) Pers.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c n¡nsxmo xopennme n µ¡nrn noµsemnn n naµsemnn
nsµ¡nxn. Cr¡ônara n¡sxoµxmn nnn nsnpanenn, nncoxn µo 50 cm, pasxnonenn or ocnonara cn.
Hncrara nnneñnn, mnpoxn 2-3 mm, no p¡ôa ocrpo rpanann, ronn nnn oxocmenn, c ycnopeµno
xnnxynane; esnuero x¡co, pecnnuecro. C¡nnernero c 3-7 xnaconnµnn xnonxn, µ¡nrn 3-5 cm,
nsnnsamn or eµna rouxa. Knacuerara eµnonnernn, napeµenn n µna peµa or eµnara crpana na
xnonxnre, crpannuno cnnecxann. Hnennre µ¡nrn 2-2,5 mm, pannn nomexµy cn, cnnxann, na
n¡pxa cn ocnnecro saocrpenn. Hnennnnre no xpax n na r¡pôa cn pecnnuecrn (raôno 53, ]nr. 1).
Bnpoxo pasnpocrpaneno e no nec¡xnnnn n rpenncrn mecra, nacnma n na µpyrn mecra n nxnara
crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n., nañ-uecro xaro nnenen. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar noµsemnnre uacrn na rpocxora (µpora Rhizoma
Graminis italici), xonro ce nsnaxµar pano nanponer nnn npes nropara nononnna na nxroro µo
ecenra. Hsnonsyna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
(130)
CEM. 3MHRPHHKOBH ARABEAE
Axopyc Acorus calntus L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c xopnsonranno xopennme, µ¡nro µo 1,5 m n µeôeno µo 3
cm, c¡c cnnna npnxrna mnpnsma. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno, cnaôo pasxnoneno, rpnp¡ôecro, nncoxo
50-150 cm. Hncrara nnneñno meuonnµnn, µ¡nrn 60-100 cm, mnpoxn µo 3 cm, n ocnonara cn c
mnpoxo nnnecro nnarannme, xoero no xpax e uepneno-nnonerono. C¡nnernero x¡nrosenenn-
xano, nnnnnµpnuno, µ¡nro 4-12 cm, noµoôno na napennuen xouan, c mnoroôpoñnn µpeônn
nneruera, pasnonoxeno xoco orcrpann, xaro naµ nero npoµ¡nxana noxpnnnnxr nncr
(noxpnnanoro). Oxononnernnx¡r c¡cranen or 6 npoµ¡nronarn, na n¡pxa saxp¡rnenn, oôparno
xñnennµnn nncruera, no-mnpoxn, orxonxoro µ¡nrn. Tnunnxnre 6. Hnoµ¡r cyxa, yµ¡nxena
mnorocemenna uepnena xroµa (raôno 53, ]nr. 2).
Ho mouypnnnn mecra xpañ p. Hcx¡p n Camoxoncxo n Co]nñcxo none n n Kasann¡mxo. V nac ce
cpema camo xaro npeneceno pacrenne. H¡]rn mañ mnn.
3a neueônn nenn n c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna xopennmero (µpora Rhizoma Calami),
xoero ce nsxonana npes ecenra.
He1nnc1 sunnpnnx Arum maculatum L
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c onanna nnn nnnnnµpnuna noµsemna rpyµxa, or xoxro
nsnnsar 2-3 crpenonnµnn nnn xonnennµnn nncra, µ¡nrn 15-40 cm, pasnonoxenn na r¡nxa µ¡nra
µp¡xxa (n ocnonara cn pasmnpena n¡n nnarannme), xonro oôrp¡mar nneronocnnx crp¡x.
Hneronere eµnonononn, c¡ôpann n c¡nnerne mececr xouan, oônnr c noxpnnen nncr; xencxnre
pasnonoxenn n µonnara uacr na xouana, c¡cranenn camo or eµnornesµnn xñunnnn, m¡xxnre
pasnonoxenn no-rope, c¡cranenn or 3-4 npamnnxa. Mexµy m¡xxnre n xencxnre n naµ
m¡xxnre nnerone ce namnpar nnmxonnµnn npnµar¡nn. Hoxpnnnnxr nncr orn¡n e senennxan,
no xpax n µonnara cn uacr xpxo nnn r¡mnouepneno oôarpen, crecnen, nocne mnpoxo pasnepen n
n ropnnx cn xpañ xa]xno-nnoneron. Hnoµ¡r opanxeno-uepnena couna xroµa. O1ponno! (raôno
53, ]nr. 3).
Hs cenuecrnre ropncrn mecra npeµnmno n nnannncxnx noxc nourn n nxna F¡nrapnx. H¡]rn
mapr mañ.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar cnexnre rpyµxn (µpora Tubera Ari maculati), xonro
ce nsnaxµar, npeµn µa ce pasnnxr nncrara. ¡eñcrnnero na nsc¡xnannre rpyµxn e cnaôo. Hma
mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac ce cpemar ome µna nnµa smnxpnnx, rpyµxnre na xonro ce nsnonsynar n meµnnnnara.
Tona ca nsrounnxr smnxpnnx (A. orientate Mill.), unnro rpyµxn ca saxp¡rnenn n cnnecxann, n
nrannancxnxr smnxpnnx (A. italicum Mill.), npn xoñro oônnnnnxr nncr n ropnnx cn xpañ e ôxn.
(131)
BHAKH C BEAH HBETOBE
±BYCEME±EAHH PACTEHHR
HECPACAOBEHEHHH PACTEHHR
1. ¡¡pnera nnn xpacrn (nonxxora ynnnnn).................2
1*. Tpenncrn pacrennx.............................4
2. Hncrara npocrn, nenoxpañnn, nas¡ôenn nnn nspxsann no nañ-pasnnuen naunn ..................
Cem. Posonnernn Rosaceae
2*. Hncrara µnanennµnn, c 3 nnn noneue nncruera nnn nepecrn.....
..............................................3
3. Vnnnen xpacr c nepecrn nncra n npannnnn nnerone c npocr nenuenn-
µen oxononnernnx. Tnunnxnre mnoro, cnoôoµnn .................
................... Oônxnonen noner Clematis vitalba L.
3*. ¡¡pnera n xpacrn c nsnpanenn cr¡ôna. Hncrara nepecrn. Oxonon-
nernnx¡r µnoen, c uamxa n nenue. Tnunnxnre 10 nnn mnoro...........
......................... Cem. Posonnernn Rosaceae
4. Oxononnernnx¡r npocr, c¡cranen or eµnn xp¡r nncruera.......
...................... Cem. Cennnxonnernn Apiaceae
4*. Oxononnernnx¡r µnoen, c¡cranen or uamxa n nenue.........5
5. Hneronere nenpannnnn. Tnunnxnre 10, or xonro 9 cpacnann n rp¡ônna, a µecerara cnoôoµna
. . Opnnuna µerennna Trifolium arvense L.
5*. Hneronere npannnnn............................6
6. Tnunnxnre noneue or 15..........................7
6*. Tnunnxnre µo 10, pxµxo µo 15......................8
7. Tnunnxonnre µp¡xxn cpacnann n µonnara uacr.............
........................... Cem.Cnesonn Malvaceae
7*. Tnunnxonnre µp¡xxn cnoôoµnn......................
......................... Cem. Posonnernn Rosaceae
8. Hnoµnnnnre nxxonxo. Hncrara mececrn, nonynnnnnµpnunn......
....................... Fxna rn¡crnra Sedum album L.
8*. Hnoµnnx¡r camo eµnn. Hncrara ne ca mececrn............9
9. Hncrara npocrn, nenoxpañnn nnn nas¡ôenn.............10
9*. Hncrara cnoxnn nnn µ¡nôoxo nspxsann, nnn naceuenn na µxnone . .
...................... Cem. Cennnxonnernn Apiaceae
10. Cr¡nôuero eµno................................
..................... Cem. Kp¡cronnernn Brassicaceae
10*. Cr¡nôuerara µne nnn noneue, nnn ônnsannara npnceµnann......
.............................................11
11.Hncrara nocneµonarennn nnn ncnuxn c¡ôpann npn ocnonara na
cr¡ônoro.......................................13
11*. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn ........................12
12. uamxara cpacnanonncrna c 5 s¡ôena....................
........................ Canynue Saponaria officinalish.
12*. uamxara c¡cranena or 4-5 cnoôoµnn nncruera..............
................. Bpaôuonn upenna Stellaria media (L.)Jill.
13. ×ñunnx¡r c 5 cr¡nôuera...........................
................... Cnaônrenen nen Linum catharticum L.
13*. Cr¡nôuerara µne nnn c 4 npnceµnann ônnsanna...........14
(132)
14. Cr¡nôuerara µne ...............................
....... Kp¡rnonncrna xamenonomxa Saxifraga rotundifolia L.
14*. Fes pasnnrn cr¡nôuera, c 4 nourn npnceµnann ônnsanna........
........................ Cem.Pocnnonn Parnassiaceae
CEM. KAPAMmHAOBH CARYOPHYLLACEAE
Bpaõuonn upenna Stellaria media (L.) Jill.
Eµnoroµnmno nnn µnyroµnmno pacrenne c nonernano nnn npnnonµnramo ce cr¡ôno, c eµna
xocmara nnnna. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, µonnnre xñnennµnn, saocrpenn, µ¡nrn µo 2 cm,
mnpoxn µo 1 cm, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra µo 1,5 cm, ropnnre npnceµnann, ncnuxn ronn. Hneronere
c¡ôpann n ronuecrn c¡nnernx, nañ-uecro xnesncro nnaxnecrn, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, c rpenncrn
nncronnµnn npnnnernnnn. uamxara 5-µenna, nenuenncruerara c¡mo 5, ôenn, µ¡nôoxo
µnyµennn, pannn nnn no-x¡cn or uamxara, nonxxora nnncnar. Tnunnxnre 3-5 (10). ×ñunnx¡r
ropen, c 3 cr¡nôuera. Hnoµ¡r yµ¡nxena xyrnñxa, no-µ¡nra or uamxara (raôno 54, ]nr. 1).
Cpema ce no nnaxnn mecra, ropcxn nonxnn, xpañ n¡rnmara xaro ôypen, ns nnnnre xaro
nnenen, µox¡m 1500 m n. n. H¡]rn or panna nponer µo x¡cna ecen. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
3aoe.erra.Canvu:e Saponaria officinalis L. (er. npu ou.ru c :epeeuu u posoeu µeemoee).
CEM. AKTHKOBH RANUNCULACEAE
Oõnxnonen none1 Clematis vitalba L.
Cr¡ônoro µ¡pnenncro, xarepnnno (no µpyrn µ¡pnera), µ¡nro µo 30 m. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn,
npocro nepecrn, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, c 3-9 onannn, no-pxµxo nnneñno-nannernn, nenoxpañnn nnn
eµpo nas¡ôenn nncruera, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 0,5-2 cm. Hneronere ôenn, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, c¡ôpann
n cnoxnn mer-nnuecrn c¡nnernx, np¡xnn nnn nsnnsamn or nasnnre na nncrara. Oxononner-
nnx¡r npocr, nenuennµen, or 4 (pxµxo 5) npoµ¡nronarn, r¡nn, r¡cro ôeno-nnaxnecrn nncruera,
µ¡nrn 6-10 mm. Tnunnxnre mnoro na ôpoñ, nourn pannn na oxononnernnxa. Hnoµnnnnre
nnaxnecrn, mnoro na ôpoñ, c ropen xñunnx, c µ¡nro cr¡nôue. Hnernoro nerno nnaxnecro.
Hnoµ¡r côopen, or mnoro cnnecxann opexuera, noxpnrn c nnacnnxn. O1ponno n cneao
csc1onnne! (raôno 54, ]nr. 2).
Hs xpacranann n ropn n nxna F¡nrapnx µox¡m 1200 m n.n. H¡]rn mañ cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nncrara (µpora Folia Clematis vitalbae), xopen¡r
(µpora Radix Clematis vitalbae) n nneronere (µpora Flores Clematis vitalbae). Hsnonsyna ce
mnpoxo n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
(133)
CEM. KPTCTOHBETHH - BRASSICACEAE (CRUCIFERAE)
1. Hnoµ¡r mymynxa, nañ-manxo 4 n¡rn no-µ¡n¡r, orxonxoro mnpox . . .
..............................................2
1*. Hnoµ¡r mymynunna, ne no-µ¡n¡r nnn no-manxo or 4 n¡rn no-µ¡n¡r, orxonxoro mnpox
..................................4
2. Hncrara nenn, nas¡ôenn............................
............. H¡xnunna Alliaria officinalis (MB) Cav. et Grande
2*. Hncrara nepecrn...............................3
3. Bymynxara cnnecxana, npana. Cemenara n¡n ncxxo rnesµo pasnonoxenn n eµnn
peµ......................................
................... Hnnaµna ropna CardaminepratensisL.
3*. Bymynxara noµyra, nnnnnµpnuna, nsnnra. Cemenara n¡n ncxxo rnesµo pasnonoxenn n µne
peµnnn ............................
................. Horouapxa Nasturtium officinale (L.) Desv.
4. Hncrara oôrp¡mar cr¡ônoro c¡c c¡pnennµnara cn nnn crpenonnµna
ocnona.........................................5
4*. Hncrara crecnenn x¡m ocnonara cn nnn c µp¡xxa n ne oôrp¡mar cr¡ônoro ..............
Hennµnmxa Coronopus procumbens Gilib.
5. Hnoµ¡r rpn¡r¡nen, nañ-mnpox na n¡pxa cn................
............ Onuapcxa ropônuxa Capsella bursa-pastoris Med.
5*. Hnoµ¡r (ôes µa ce rneµar xpnnonnµnnre my nspacr¡nn, axo nma raxnna) onanen nnn
ennnrnuen..............................6
6. C¡n¡pmeno rono pacrenne. Inesµara na nnoµa c no 1-8 cemena.....
..................... Honona n¡xnuxa Thlaspi arvense L.
6*. Hncrara noxpnrn c nnacnnxn. Inesµara na nnoµa c no eµno ceme . . . .................. Poµnnna
rpena Cardariadraba(L.)Desv.
Asanunna, uecnona 1pena Alliaria officinalis (MB.) Cav. et Grande
¡nyroµnmno pacrenne c nsnpaneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 120 cm, p¡ôecro naôpasµeno, n µonnara
cn uacr pascexno oxocmeno c pasnepenn µ¡nrn nnacnnxn, n ropnara uacr rono. Hpnocnonnnre n
µonnnre cr¡ônenn nncra c µ¡nra µp¡xxa (µo 12 cm), ô¡ôpexonnµnn µo c¡pnennµnn,
n¡nnooôpasno nas¡ôenn µo nenoxpañnn, ocranannre cr¡ônenn rpn¡r¡nno c¡pnennµnn, na x¡ca
µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 5-17 cm, mnpoxn 4-15 cm. C¡nnernero mnronnµno, no-x¡cno npn nnoµonere ce
yµ¡nxana n crana rposµonnµno. Hnernnre µp¡xxn r¡nxn, ronn, nourn pannn na uamxara.
uamenncruerara 4 na ôpoñ, µ¡nrn 2,5-4 mm, c ôxna nnnecra nnnna no p¡ôa cn.
Benuenncruerara 4, ôenn, µ¡nrn 5-8 mm, nourn µnoñno no-µ¡nrn or uamxara. Tnunnxnre 6 (or
rxx µne no-x¡cn). ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Bymynxara npoµ¡nronara, cnaôo 4-crenna, µ¡nra 2-8 cm,
uernpnp¡ôecra, cnaôo npnm¡nnara xaro ôpoennna, saocrpena. Hxnoro pacrenne nma
cnenn]nuna mnpnsma na uec¡n (raôno 54, ]nr. 3).
Hs ropn n cenuecrn xpacranann npeµnmno n nnannnnre µox¡m 1600 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn
mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxna nxnoro pacrenne (µpora Herba Alliariae), xoero ce
c¡ônpa no npeme na n¡]rexa. Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
(134)
Ho1ouapxa Nasturtium officinale (L.) Desv.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c npnnonµnramo ce xyxo n rono cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 60 cm,
nxopenxnamo ce no namnpamnre ce µo nounara n¡snn. Hncrara neun]ronepecrn, na µ¡nra
µp¡xxa, µonnnre c 1-3, ropnnre c 5-9 nncruera, saxp¡rnenn µo ennnrnunn, nas¡ôenn µo
nenoxpañnn, c x¡ca µp¡xxa. Hneronere na µp¡xxn, µ¡nrn 5-8 mm, c¡ôpann n rposµonnµnn c¡n-
nernx no n¡pxonere na cr¡ônara. uamenncruerara 4, mnpoxo pasnepenn, µ¡nrn 2-3 mm.
Benuenncruerara c¡mo 4, ôenn, µ¡nrn 4-6 mm. Tnunnxnre 6 (4 • 2), c nnoneronn µp¡xxn n
x¡nrn npamnnnn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c eµno cr¡nôue. Hnoµ¡r noµyr, nnnnnµpnuen, nsnnr,
µ¡n¡r 13-18 mm. Cemenara n¡n ncxxo rnesµo napeµenn n µne peµnnn.
Ho nnaxnn mecra n xpañ noµoemn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1500 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn
oxromnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nncrara (µpora Folia Nasturtii). Hamnpa npnnoxenne
n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Annaµna ropna Cardamine pratensis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno rono cr¡ôno, nncoxo 20-50 cm, oônxnoneno
nepasxnoneno, n ocnonara cn c poserxa or nncra. Hncrara neun]ronepecrn, npnocnonnnre c
µ¡nra µp¡xxa, c 1-7 µnoñxn onannn µo ô¡ôpexonnµnn ronn nncruera, nenoxpañnn nnn c manxn
s¡ônn, c x¡ca µp¡xunna; np¡xnoro nncrue no-ronxmo, cr¡ônennre nncra npnceµnann nnn c
x¡ca µp¡xxa, c 2-5 µnoñxn npoµ¡nronarn nnn nnneñnn, nenoxpañnn npnceµnann nncruera.
C¡nnernero ornauano mnronnµno, no-x¡cno rposµonnµno yµ¡nxeno, c 8-20 nnxra, c x¡ca
µp¡xunna, µ¡nra 1 -2 cm. uamenncruerara 4, onannn, µ¡nrn oxono 3 mm. Benuenncruerara 4,
µ¡nrn µo 15 mm, ôenn nnn ôneµoposonn. Tnunnxnre 6 (4 • 2). ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c eµno cr¡nôue.
Hnoµ¡r npana mymynxa, µ¡nra 2-4 cm, cnnecxana n npn pasnyxnanero ñ xanauerara ñ ce
nsnnnar nasaµ (raôno 54, ]nr. 4).
Ho nnaxnn mecra n nnsnnnre. H¡]rn mnn anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Onuapcxa 1opõnuxa Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Med.
Eµnoroµnmno nnn µnyroµnmno pacrenne c nsnpaneno npocro nnn pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo
20-50 cm, rono nnn mexo nnaxnecro. Hpnocnonnnre nncra c¡ôpann n poserxa, c µp¡xxa, nenn,
nas¡ôenn nnn nepecro naµenenn, cr¡ônennre npnceµnann, nocneµonarennn, nenn nnn
nenpannnno nspxsann, c 2 nspacr¡xa, npnnnuamn na yxo, xonro oôxnamar cr¡ônoro. Hneronere
ôenn, c¡ôpann n rposµonnµno c¡nnerne, xoero npn nnoµonere cnnno ce yµ¡nxana. uamxara c 4
nncruera, µ¡nrn 1-2 mm, xñnennµnn nnn nannernn, c ôxn nnnecr p¡ô. Benuenncruerara c¡mo 4,
ôenn, µ¡nrn 2-3 mm, na n¡pxa cn saxp¡rnenn n nµn¡ônarn, c eµno mnnue, uecro posonn nnn
nnncnar. Tnunnxnre 6, or xonro 2 no-x¡cn, xaxro e npn ncnuxn nnµone or rona cemeñcrno.
×ñunnx¡r ropen. Bymynunnnre rpn¡r¡nnn, µ¡nrn 6-9 mm, nexo npxsann na n¡pxa cn (raôno
54, ]nr. 5).
Cpema ce no cmernma, xpañ n¡rnma n µp. µox¡m 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn noemnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Bursae pastoris). Hma
mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
(135)
Honona nsanuxa Thlaspi arvense L.
Eµnoroµnmno rono pacrenne c nsnpaneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 60 cm, npocro nnn pasxnoneno n
ropnara cn uacr. Hpnocnonnnre nncra c¡ôpann n poserxa, c µp¡xxn, oôparno onannn;
cr¡ônennre npnceµnann, npoµ¡nronarn, n ocnonara c ymnuxn, oôxnamamn cr¡ônoro, ncnuxn
noneue nnn no-manxo nas¡ôenn. C¡nnernxra rposµonnµnn, cneµ npen¡]rxnanero yµ¡nxenn.
uamenncruerara 4, µ¡nrn oxono 1-2 mm. Benuenncruerara c¡mo 4, ôenn, oôparno xñnennµnn,
µ¡nrn 3-4 mm. Tnunnxnre 6 (4 • 2). ×ñunnx¡r ropen, cr¡nôuero eµno. Hnoµonere 10-16 mm n
µnamer¡p, cnnecxann, c mnpoxn (oxono 3 mm) xpnna n x¡co cr¡nôue na n¡pxa (raôno 55, ]nr.
1).
Hs nnnn, opnnnn, xpañ n¡rnma n µp. n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 mn. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Poµnnna 1pena Cardaria draba (L.f Desv. (Lepidum draba L.)
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno cr¡ôno, noxpnro c nnacnnxn, nncoxo 15-90 cm,
n ropnara cn uacr mnronnµno pasxnoneno. Hpnocnonnnre nncra crecnenn n µp¡xxa, eµpo
nas¡ôenn µo nnponnµno naµenenn; cpeµnnre n ropnnre cr¡ônenn nncra npnceµnann, oôparno
onannn µo nannernn, µ¡nrn µo 6 cm, mnpoxn µo 4 cm, c¡c c¡pnennµnara cn ocnona oôxnamamn
cr¡ônoro. C¡nnernxra mnronnµnn. uamenncruerara 4, ronn, µ¡nrn 1,5-2 mm, c ôxn nnnecr p¡ô.
Benuenncruerara 4, ôenn, µ¡nrn oxono 4 mm. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c eµno cr¡nôue. Bymynunnnre
µ¡nrn 3-4,5 mm, mnpoxn 3,5-5,0 mm, oôparno c¡pnennµnn, ôes nsµaµenn crpannunn p¡ôone
(raôno 55, ]nr. 2).
Hs nycreemn n ôypenxcann mecra, noxpañ crpaµn, n¡rnma n na µpyrn mecra n nxnara crpana.
Pasnpocrpaneno e µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn oxromnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
Hennµnuxa Coronopus procumbens Gilib.
Eµnoroµnmno nnn µnyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c¡c cnnno pasxnonenn n nonernann nnn
npnnonµnramn ce cr¡ôna, nncoxn µo 30 cm. Hncrara ronn, µ¡nôoxo nepecro pasceuenn, c
npoµ¡nronarn nannernn, nenoxpañnn nnn napxsann µenuera. Hneronere c¡ôpann n cônrn
c¡nnernx, cpemynonoxnn na nncrara. Hnernnre µp¡xxn µ¡nrn µo 2 mm. Hneronere ôenn, c
uamxa n nenue c no 4 nncruera, µ¡nrn oxono 2 mm. Tnunnxnre 6 (4 • 2). ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c
eµno cr¡nôue. Bymynunnnre cnnecxann, µ¡nrn 2-3 mm, ô¡ôpexonnµnn, cnnno mpexecro
naôp¡uxann nnn ôpaµannuecrn (raôno 55, ]nr. 3).
Kpañ n¡rnma, no nycreemn mecra, cmernma n µp. n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn
anpnn mnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. ±EBEAEHOBH CRASSULACEAE
Bnna 1nsc1nra Sedum album L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro, rono pacrenne, pasxnoneno or ocnonara cn, or xoxro nsnnsar
crenemn ce ôesnnoµnn, r¡cro oônncrenn nsµ¡nxn n nsnpanenn nneronocnn cr¡ôna, nncoxn 5-
20 cm. Hncrara µ¡nrn 4-12 cm, no-
(136)
cneµonarennn, nonynnnnnµpnunn, npnceµnann. C¡nnernxra r¡crn, mnronnµnn, cnnno
pasxnonenn. Hneronere mnoroôpoñnn, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 1-4 mm. uamenncruerara 5, ronn, n
ocnonara cn cpacnann, r¡nn. Benuenncruerara 5, µ¡nrn 3-4 mm, 3-4 n¡rn no-µ¡nrn or
uamenncruerara, saocrpenn, yµ¡nxeno nannernn, ôenn nnn nonxxora c posonn xnnxn.
Tnunnxnre 10, nourn pannn na nenuero, c uepnenn ô¡ôpexonnµnn npamnnnn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen.
Hnoµ¡r côopen, or 5 mexynxn, µ¡nrn µo 4 mm (raôno 55, ]nr. 4).
Ho xamennnnn mecra n cxann µox¡m 2500 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. KAMEHOAOMKOBH - SAXIFRAGACEAE
Kpsrnonnc1na xauenonouxa Saxifraga rotundifona L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c xopnsonranno xopennme n nsnpanenn ronn nnn xnesncro
nnaxnecrn pasxnonenn cr¡ôna, nncoxn 15-70 cm. Hpnocnonnnre nncra na µ¡nra µp¡xxa,
saxp¡rneno ô¡ôpexonnµnn µo nourn xp¡rnn, µ¡nrn 3-8 cm; cr¡ônennre nncra no-manxn n
manxo na ôpoñ, ncnuxn eµpo saxp¡rneno nas¡ôenn, uecro orµony cnnxanouepnennxann. Hnero-
nocnnre cr¡ôna nncoxn µo 60 cm, oônxnoneno pasxnonenn, c npocrn nnn xnesncrn nnacnnxn
µo nourn ronn. C¡nnernero pexana mernnna, c nnernn µp¡xxn, µ¡nrn oxono 2,5 cm, c
npnnnernnnn, µ¡nrn 3-4 mm. uamenncruerara 5, cnoôoµnn, µ¡nrn 2-3 mm, saocrpenn.
Benuenncruerara 5, µ¡nrn 5-10 mm, oônxnoneno 2-3 n¡rn no-µ¡nrn or uamxara, mnpoxo
ennnrnunn, ôenn, c uepnenn rouxn, nenoxpañnn. Tnunnxnre 10. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c µne
pasnepenn cr¡nôuera. Hnoµ¡r mnorocemenna xyrnñxa, µ¡nra 4,5-6 cm (raôno 55, ]nr. 5).
Ho nnaxnn cenuecrn ropn, xamennnnn mecra, mouypnnnn nnnaµn, xpañ nnannncxn norouera n
nnannnnre na Rrosanaµna F¡nrapnx, Bnroma, Pnna, Ocorono, Hnpnn, Fenacnna, Cnanxnxa,
Crapa nnannna n µp. nourn µo 2700 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. POCHHOBH - PARNASS1ACEAE
Pocnna Pamassia palustris L.
Mnororoµnmno, nan¡nno rono rpenncro pacrenne, oônxnoneno c eµnnnuno nepasxnoneno
cr¡ôno, nncoxo 5-50 cm. Hourn ncnuxn nncra ca c¡ôpann n npnocnonna poserxa, na µ¡nra
µp¡xxa (2-10 cm), onannn, µ¡nrn µo 4 cm, mnpoxn µo 3 cm, n ocnonara c¡pnennµnn,
nenoxpañnn; cr¡ônennre oônxnoneno eµnnnunn, npnceµnann, oôxnamamn cr¡ônoro.
Hneronere eµnnnunn, 15-30 mm n µnamer¡p, ôenn, na n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro. uamxara µ¡nôoxo 5-
µenna, µ¡nra 6-8 mm. Benuenncruerara c¡mo 5 na ôpoñ, µ¡nrn 5-15 mm, r¡nn. Tnunnxnre 10, 5
or xonro ôes npamnnnn n ca pasnonoxenn mexµy µpyrnre. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c 4 nourn
npnceµnann ônnsanna. Hnoµ¡r xyrnñxa, pasnyxnama ce na 4 µxna (raôno 55, ]nr. 6).
Hs mouypnnnn nnnaµn, rop]nma, xpañ nnannncxn noronn. Cpema ce µocra uecro no ncnuxn
nnannnn or noµnoxnero nm nourn µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn npes mnn n anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
(137)
CEM. PO3OHBETHH ROSACEAE
1. Hsnpanenn nnn µ¡ronnµno nsnnrn µo xarepnnnn xpacrn.......2
1*. Tpenncrn pacrennx n nonyxpacrn ....................5
2. Hnoµnnnnre pasnonoxenn n¡pxy nsn¡xnano nnerno nerno n npn ys-
pxnanero cranar mececrn, uepnn nnn uepnenn...................
................................ K¡nnna Rubus L.
2*. Hnoµnnnnre pasnonoxenn n¡rpe n µ¡nôoxo nµn¡ônaro nnerno nerno n npn yspxnanero
cranar cyxn, a crennre na nnernoro nerno mececrn, uepnenn ........................... Bnnxa
Rosa L.
3. Honyxpacrn, unnro cr¡ôna ymnpar ncxxa ecen. Cr¡ônara c rn¡pµn,
ocrpn, uecro c¡pnonnµno nsnnrn mnnuera ....................
............................ Mannna Rubus idaeus L.
3*. Tpenncrn pacrennx. Cr¡ônara ôes mnnone............... 4
4. uamxara c eµnn xp¡r nncruera. Hncrara nepecrn............
............................ Opexue Filipendula Mill.
4*. uamxara c µna xp¡ra nncruera (µnoñna uamxa).............
............................ ×roµa Fragaria vesca L.
Opexue Filipendula Mill.
1.Hpnocnonnnre nncra c 2 - 5 µnoñxn nncruera, mnpoxn 1,5 cm n noneue n mexµy rxx µpeônn
nas¡ôenn nncruera. Benuenncruerara µ¡nrn 2-5 mm .......... Fpxcronncrno opexue F.
ulmaria (L.) Maxim.
1*. Hpnocnonnnre nncra c mnoroôpoñnn (naµ 8 µnoñxn) µpeônn, nepecro napxsann nncruera,
no-recnn or 1 cm, eµnaxnn. Benuenncruerara µ¡nrn 5-9 mm.............. Hnnaµno opexue F.
vulgaris Moench.
Annaµno opexue Filipendula vulgaris Moench.(F. hexapetala Gilib.)
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co xopennme n nperenonnµnn nnn nourn c]epnuno
saµeôenenn aµnenrnnnn xopenn. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno, nncoxo µo 80 cm, rono, n ropnara cn uacr
pasxnoneno. Hpnocnonnnre nncra neun]ronepecrn, c 8-25 µnoñxn ronemn nncruera, xaro
mexµy ncexn µne µnoñxn nma no µne manxn nncruera (ncxxo ronxmo nncrue e µ¡nro 0,5-2 cm),
npoµ¡nronarn, µ¡nôoxo nas¡ôenn µo nepecro naµenenn, orrope ronn, orµony no xnnxnre
nnaxnecrn. Hpnnncrnnnnre eµpn, nas¡ôenn. C¡nnernxra mernnuecrn, np¡xnn, µ¡nrn 310 cm.
uamenncruerara oônxnoneno 5 (6), µ¡nrn oxono 1 mm. Benuenncruerara ôenn, pxµxo
ôneµoposonn, oônxnoneno no 6 (5), µ¡nrn 5-9 mm. Tnunnxnre mnoroôpoñnn. ×ñunnnnre 9-12,
cnoôoµnn. Hnoµonere côopnn, mexynxn, µ¡nrn 3-4 mm, npann, nnaxnecrn (raôno 56, ]nr. 1).
Hs nnnaµn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1500 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ mnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
Bpnc1onnc1no opexue Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co xopennme n nnmxonnµnn xopenn. Cr¡ônoro
nsnpaneno, nncoxo µo 2 m, n ropnara cn uacr pasxnoneno, rono nnn nnaxnecro, r¡cro
oônncreno. Hpnocnonnnre nncra neun]ronepecrn, c 2-5 µnoñxn ronemn nncruera, µ¡nrn 2-8
cm, mnpoxo xñnennµnn, saocrpenn, nannnenn µo npxsann, np¡xnoro µ¡nôoxo rpnµenno mexµy
rxx
(138)
µpeônn nncruera, ncnuxn nañ-uecro cnnno oxocmenn. Hneronere µpeônn, 6-8 mm n µnamer¡p,
c¡ôpann n r¡crn mernnuecrn c¡nnernx, µ¡nrn µo 25 cm. uamenncruerara 5 (6), µ¡nrn oxono 1
mm. Benuenncruerara ôenn nnn x¡nrennxanoôenn, 5 nnn 6, oôparno xñnennµnn. Tnunnxnre
mnoro, µna n¡rn no-µ¡nrn or nenuenncruerara. ×ñunnnnre 6-10, x¡nôecrn, npnceµnann.
Hnoµnnre mexynxn µ¡nrn 3-4 mm, ronn, cnnpanno nsnnrn (raôno 56, ]nr. 2).
Kpañ nnannncxn noronn n no nnaxnn nnnaµn n Crapa nnannna, Pnna, Poµonnre, Bnroma,
Ocorono, Co]nñcxo none µox¡m 2500 m n. n. H¡]rn npes mnn n anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar np¡xnnre uacrn (µpora Herba „lmariae), xonro ce
c¡ônpar n nauanoro na n¡]rexa. Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Ksnnnn, uannna Rubus L.
1. Hncrara nepecrn, c 5-7 nncruera. Hnoµonere uepnenn (pxµxo x¡nrn), npn yspxnanero cn ce
orµenxr or nnernoro nerno n n¡rpe ce nonyuana xyxnna......................... Mannna R. idaeus
L.
1*. Hncrara µnanennµnn. Hnoµonere uepnn, cpacnann c nnernoro nerno
n ce orµenxr saeµno c¡c c¡pnennnara my.....................
............................. K¡nnna R. sp. Diversae
Mannna Rubus idaeus L.
Honyxpacr, nncox µo 2,5 m. Oôpasynannre npes µaµena roµnna cr¡ôna ca rpenncrn, c¡c
cnnxanosenen nanen, ôesnnoµnn n c x¡cn, r¡nxn mnnuera. Hpes nropara roµnna re
nµ¡pnenxnar, n¡]rxr n cneµ oôpasnanero na nnoµonere ymnpar, a n¡nsxmoro xopennme µana
nonn nsµ¡nxn. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, neun]ronepecrn, c 5-7 nncruera, pxµxo rpoñnn,
orrope nourn ronn, cnno-senenn, orµony npnnernano cpeôpncro nann¡crenn; nncruerara
npoµ¡nronarn µo xñnennµnn, saocrpenn, nepannomepno ocrpo nannnenn, crpannunnre nourn
npnceµnann, np¡xnoro no-eµpo. Hneronere c¡ôpann no nxxonxo n mernnuecrn c¡nnernx.
Hneronere ôenn, oxono 1 cm n µnamer¡p, na µp¡xxa. uamxara n nenuero c no 5 nncruera.
Tnunnxnre n nnoµnnnnre no mnoro. Hnoµ¡r côopen, uepnen, c¡cranen or mnoroôpoñnn
xocrnn-xonn nnoµuera, necno ce orµenx or xonnunoro nnerno nerno (raôno 56, ]nr. 3).
Ho cxannnre cnnen, ceunma, noxapnma, xamennnnn cxnonone n xpacranann n nxnara crpana
µox¡m 2500 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nncrara (µpora Folia Rubi idaei) n nnoµonere (µpora
Fructus Rubi idaei). Bnpoxo ce nsnonsyna n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Ksnnnn Rubus sp. Diversae
Hourn ncnuxn ocranann nnµone or poµa Rubus. xonro ca xpacrn n nmar uepnn nnoµone, rpañno
cn¡psann c nnernoro nerno, or xoero ne ce orµenxr, ca nsnecrnn na namnx napoµ noµ nmero
x¡nnnn, xaro nourn ne ce pasnnuanar orµennnre nnµone. V nac ca nsnecrnn ronxm ôpoñ nnµone
x¡nnnn. Cr¡ônara nm ca nµ¡pnenenn, µ¡ronnµno nsnnrn, nonernann nnn nourn
(139)
nsnpanenn, pxµxo xarepnnnn, noxpnrn c rn¡pµn ôoµnnnn mnnuera. Hncrara nm ca
nocneµonarennn, µnanennµnn, c 5-7 nncruera, pxµxo rpoñnn, ronn nnn nnaxnecrn, nas¡ôenn,
saocrpenn x¡m n¡pxa. Hneronere nm ca c¡ôpann n manxonnernn rposµonnµnn c¡nnernx.
Hnernoro nerno e nsn¡xnano n no p¡ôa my ca pasnonoxenn uamxara n nenuero. uamxara c 5
nncruera, sanasnamn ce npn nnoµa. Benuenncruerara c¡mo 5, ôenn npn noneuero nnµone,
pxµxo µo r¡mnouepnenn, nanpnmep x¡pnanouepnenara x¡nnna R. sanguineus Friv.
Tnunnxnre n nnoµnnnnre mnoroôpoñnn. Hnoµonere côopnn, c¡cranenn or mnoroôpoñnn
xocrnnxonn nnoµuera (raôno 56, ]nr. 4).
Cpemar ce ns ceunma, ropcxn xpacranann, ropcxn nonxnn n nxnara crpana nourn µo 2000 m n.
n. H¡]rxr mañ oxromnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nncrara (µpora Folia Rubi Iruticosi), nnoµonere
(µpora Fructus Rubi Iruticosi) n xopen¡r (Radix Rubi Iruticosi), xoñro ce nsxonana x¡cno npes
ecenra, a nncrara ce c¡ônpar npes nxroro. Hamnpar mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
3aoe.erra. Lunra Rosa canina L.(b)k. npu ou.ru c :epeeuu u posoeu µeemoee).
Rroµa Fragaria vesca L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co xa]xno xopennme n µ¡nrn n¡nsxmn naµsemnn
nsµ¡nxn, xonro ce nxopenxnar. Hncrara nourn camo npnocnonnn, rpoñnn, c µ¡nra µp¡xxa (µo
20 cm), nnaxnecrn: nncruerara µ¡nrn 1-6 cm, mnpoxn 2,5-3,5 cm, onannn µo pomônunn,
nas¡ôenn; npn-nncrnnnnre nannernn, nenoxpañnn, µ¡nro saocrpenn. Hneronocnnre cr¡ôna
nncoxn 5-30 cm, ôesnncrnn, nourn nsnpanenn, no-µ¡nrn or nncrara, oxocmenn. Hneronere
oxono 15 mm n µnamer¡p, ôenn. uamxara µnoñna, c no 5 saocrpenn, nnaxnecrn, eµnaxno µ¡nrn
nncruera. Benuenncruerara 5, µ¡nrn µo 10 mm, cnoôoµnn. Tnunnxnre 20. ×ñunnnnre
mnoroôpoñnn, ronn. Hnernoro nerno cneµ npen¡]rxnanero ce paspacrna n oôpasyna mececra,
orn¡n uepnena n¡xnnna xroµa, no non¡pxnocrra na xoxro ca npacnann µpeônnre nnoµuera
opexuerara. uamxara ocrana npn nnoµa, pasnepena.
Hs ropn, xpacranann, ropcxn nonxnn n cxannn cnnen n nxnara crpana nourn µo 2000 m n. n.
H¡]rn mañ anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nncrara (µpora Folia Fragariae), xonro ce c¡ônpar or
mañ µo anrycr, n nnoµonere (µpora Fructus Fragariae). Hamnpa mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. BOBOBH - FABACEAE (PAPILIONACEAE)
Opnnuna µe1ennna Trifolium arvense L.
Eµnoroµnmno nnn µnyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno nnaxnecro cr¡ôno, nncoxo 10-
40 cm. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, rpoñnn, c µp¡xxa, unxro µ¡nxnna e pasnnuna n nocrenenno
namanxna narope, xaro nañ-ropnnre nncra ca npnceµnann. Hncruerara npoµ¡nronaro nnneñnn,
µ¡nrn 1-2 cm, mnpoxn 2-4 mm, nenoxpañnn nnn n ropnara cn uacr cnrno nas¡ôenn.
Hpnnncrnnnnre nannernn, nenoxpañnn, nnnecrn, noneuero uepnennxann. Hneronere ôenn nnn
ôneµoposonn, c¡ôpann n xñnennµnn, c]epnunn nnn nnnnnµpnunn rnannuxn, µ¡nrn 1,5-4 cm,
nourn npnceµnann, a µp¡xxara na c¡nnernero e panna nnn no-µ¡nra or rnannuxara. uamxara
rp¡ôecra, µ¡nra
(140)
5-9 mm, c 5 mnnonnµnn s¡ôena. Benuero oxono 2 n¡rn no-µ¡nro or uamxara, cneµ
npen¡]rxnanero cnernoxa]xno. Tnunnxnre 10. Hnoµ¡r ôoô (raôno 57, ]nr. 1).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn mecra uecro xaro ôypen n nnenen. Pasnpocrpaneno e n nxnara crpana µox¡m
1500 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ. oxromnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. AEHOBH LINACEAE
Cnaõn1enen nen Linum cathanicum L.
Eµnoroµnmno, pxµxo µnyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c r¡nxo, npocro cr¡ôno, nncoxo 10-30
cm. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, no xpax pecnnuecrn, µpeônn (5-20 mm), npnceµnann, µonnnre
oôparno xñnennµnn, ropnnre nannernn, saocrpenn. Hneronere ôenn, µpeônn, c¡ôpann n¡n
np¡xnn mernnuecrn c¡nnernx. uamenncruerara saocrpenn, ennnrnunn, µ¡nrn 2-3 mm, n
ropnara cn uacr no p¡ôa xnesncro nnaxnecrn, µna n¡rn no-x¡cn or nenuero. Benuenncruerara
µ¡nrn 4-5 mm, saxp¡rnenn, n ocnonara cn x¡nrennxann. Tnunnxnre 5.×ñunnx¡r ropen c 5
cr¡nôuera. Hnoµ¡r xyrnñxa, µ¡nra 1,5-3 mm (raôno 57, ]nr. 2).
Hs nnaxnn nnnaµn, rop]nma n cenuecrn xamennnnn cxnonone n nxnara crpana n
npeµnnannncxnx n nnannncxnx noxc µox¡m 1500 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ anrycr.B c¡npemennara
meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxna nxnara naµsemna n¡]rxma uacr (µpora Herba Lini cathartici)
CEM. CAE3OBH MALJACEAE
3aoe.erra. He:eoua pvra Althea officinalis L.. epaouucra pvra Alttiea rosea (L.) Cav.
(er. npu ou.ru c :epeeuu u posoeu µeemoee).
CEM. CEHHHKOHBETHH AP1ACEAE (JMBELLIFERAE)
1. C¡nnernxra cônrn, ronuecrn, saeµno c oônnnxara cnnno ôoµnnnn . . . ................. Honcxn
nerporon EevtcampestreL.
1*. C¡nnernxra n oônnnnnre nm nncruera ne ca ôoµnnnn.........2
2. ×ñunnx¡r n nnoµ¡r noxpnrn c nmcnn, mnnuera nnn nnacnnxn ... 3
2*. ×ñunnx¡r n nnoµ¡r ronn, rnaµxn, p¡ôecrn nnn xpnnarn.......4
3. Ctnnernero or 3-5(6) rnannn n¡ua, ôes oônnnnn nncruera npn ocnonara nm. Hnoµ¡r na n¡pxa
c rono nocue........................
............. Man¡x asmanyx Anthriscus cereifolium (L.) Hoffm.
3*. C¡nnernero or 10-50 rnannn n¡ua, c oônnnxa or nepecro nspxsann
nncruera. Hnoµ¡r xñnennµen, ôes nocue.......................
......................... ¡nn mopxon DaucuscarotaL.
4. Inannnre n¡un npn ocnonara cn c oônnnxa, c¡cranena or mnoro nncruera (noneue or
4)...................................5
4*. Inannnre n¡un na c¡nnernero npn ocnonara cn ôes oônnnxa or nncruera (pxµxo c oônnnxa,
c¡cranena or nxxonxo neeµnaxnn nncruera).....7.
5. uamxara na n¡pxa c 5 s¡ôuera........................
.................. Boµen mopau Oenaniheaquatica(L.)Poir.
5*. uamxara na n¡pxa ôes s¡ôuera (nnn c nexcno saôenexnmn s¡ôuera).
. ..............................................6
(141)
6. Cr¡ônoro c uepnennxann nerna. B ocnonara na ncexn cennnx 3-6
nncruera, pasnonoxenn or eµnara crpana na c¡nnernero.............
........................ Fyunnnm Conium maculatum L.
6*. Cr¡ônoro ôes nerna. ¡p¡xxnre na cennnnnre n ocnonara cn ôes oônnnxa or
nncruera................. Knmnon Carutn carvi L.
7. Hncrnnre µxnone no-mnpoxn or 1 cm nnn npnocnonnnre nncra neµn¡x
nepecrn......................................8
7*. Hncrnnre µxnone no-recnn or 0,5 cm nnn nncrara cnoxno nepecrn . . ........................
H¡cxanue Aethusa cvnapium L.
8. Hnernnre µp¡xxn npn ocnonara cn c oônnnunna or nncruera......
.............. Hanunuena nnmxnxa Angelicapancicii Jandas
8*. Hneronere npn ocnonara cn ôes oônnnunna or nncruera.......9
9. Hnoµtrcnnecxan orx¡m r¡pôa, a no xpanmara xpnnar. Inannnre n¡un 30-50 . . . .
Hpemnenecrµenncnn Heracleum verticilatum Panc
9*. Hnoµ¡r orx¡m r¡pôa nsµyr, ôes xpnnna no xpanmara. Inannnre n¡un 4-15
........................................10
10. Hpnocnonnnre nncra npocro nepecrn, c xñnennµnn, nourn µo ocnonara cn nas¡ôenn
nncruera ................................
......... Kamenonomxona ôeµpennna Pimpinella saxifraga L.
10*. ¡onnnre nncra nepecro naceuenn, c rpn¡r¡nnn µxnone, nas¡ôenn camo n ropnara cn uacr,
c no 4-5 s¡ôuera, naµony nenoxpañnn...........
..................... ..... Hennna Apium gmveolens L.
Honcxn ne1poron Ervngium campestre L.
Mnororoµnmno ôoµnnno rono pacrenne c¡c cnnno pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 30-60 cm n
µeôen nperenonnµen xopen. Hpnocnonnnre nncra µ¡nrn n mnpoxn 15-30 cm, µ¡nôoxo µnoñno
3-µennn, c nnsôernamn µxnone, ôoµnnno nas¡ôenn µo napxsann, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 10-20 cm;
cpeµnnxr µxn µnoñno nnn rpoñno naceuen, c ôoµnnnn s¡ônn. Cr¡ônennre nncra npocro
nas¡ôenn, oôxnamamn cr¡ônoro. Hneronere ôenn, c¡ôpann n cônrn rnannuxn, n ocnonara c
oônnnunna or ôoµnnnn nnneñno-nannernn nncruera, nourn 2 n¡rn no-µ¡nrn or rnannuxara.
Hnoµ¡r ennnconnµen, noxpnr c x¡cn mnnuera, pasnaµam ce na µne nononnnxn (raôno 57, ]nr.
3).
Cpema ce mnoro uecro no nacnma n cyxn rpenncrn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n.
H¡]rn npes mnn n anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna xopen¡r (µpora Radix Eryngii). Hamnpa npnnoxenne n
n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Mansx asuanyx Anthriscus cereifolium (L.) Hoffm.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno naôpasµeno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 70 cm, rono nnn
n¡n n¡snnre c pasnepenn mexn nnacnnxn. Hncrara rpn¡r¡nno xñnennµnn, rpn n¡rn nepecrn
(µxnonere or n¡pnn n nropn nopxµ¡x na µp¡xxn), c nepecro napxsann µenuera, c peµxn
nnacnnxn. C¡nnernero cennnx c no 3-5(6) rnannn n¡ua, ôes oônnnxa. Hpn ocnonara na
nnernnre µp¡xxn oônnnunna or 1-4 nnneñnn nncruera. Hneronere ôenn. uamxara nnncna. Ben-
uenncruerara µ¡nrn oxono 1 mm. Hnoµ¡r nnneñno npoµ¡nronar, no-µ¡n¡r or 5 mm, na n¡pxa c
µ¡nro µo 4 mm mnnonnµno cr¡nôue, noxpnro c x¡cn, nsnnrn narope rn¡pµn uernnxn (raôno 57,
]nr. 4).
Ho cyxn xamennnnn mecra, xpacranann, no cnnypn n nnnaµn, oônxnoneno xaro ôypen. H¡]rn
mañ mnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
(142)
Kauenonouxona õeµpennna Plmpinella saxifraga L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nperenonnµen xopen. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno, nncoxo 20-60
cm, nnnrxo naôpasµeno, n µonnara cn uacr r¡cro, n ropnara cnaôo nyxecro, pxµxo rono.
Hpnocnonnnre nncra pasnonoxenn n poserxa, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, npocro nepecrn, c 3-7 µnoñxn
npnceµnann nncruera nnn c x¡ca µp¡xxa, xñnennµnn, nas¡ôenn nourn µo ocnonara cn;
cpeµnnre cr¡ônenn nncra nourn nepecrn, c 3-µennn xnnnonnµnn µenuera, a nañ-ropnnre
rpnµennn nnn c nourn neµopasnnra nerypa, c¡croxma ce or 1-3 µpeônn nnmxonnµnn nncruera,
npnceµnann na npoµ¡nronarn nnnecrn nnarannma. C¡nnernero cnoxen cennnx or 6-15 rnannn
n¡ua, ôes oônnnxa npn ocnonara cn. Hneronere ôenn, c 5 nenuenncruera, r¡cronnaxnecrn
orµony. uamxara ôes s¡ônn. ×ñunnx¡r µonen, c x¡co cr¡nôue. Hnoµ¡r xñnennµen, orcrpann
cnnecxan, ron, µ¡n¡r 2-2,5 mm (raôno 58, ]nr. 1).
Cpema ce no cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra n ns xpacranann n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1500 m
n. n. H¡]rn mnn anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna xopen¡r (µpora Radix Pimpinellae), xoñro ce nsxonana
pano npes nponerra. Hsnonsyna ce mnorocrpanno n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Boµen uopau Oenanthe aquatica (L.) Poir.
Eµnoroµnmno nnn µnyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, xyxo, naôpasµeno cr¡ôno,
nncoxo µo 1,5 m, cnnno saµeôeneno n ocnonara cn, c nperenonnµen, saµeôenen xopen. ¡onnara
my uacr oônxnoneno e noµ noµara n e c¡c cx¡cenn mexµyn¡snnx, c mnoroôpoñnn xopenuera no
n¡snnre. Hncrara µ¡nrn 4-12 cm, mnpoxn µo 8 cm, 3-4 n¡rn nepecro naµenenn, ronn, c
pasnepenn nnneñnn nnn nnmxonnµnn µenuera. Hneronere xepma]poµnrnn, c¡ôpann n cnoxen
cennnx, c 5-15 n¡ua, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, cpemynonoxnn na nncrara nnn nasnenn, ôes oônnnunna
or nncruera, a npn ocnonara na ncexn cennnx nma oônnnxa or nnneñnn, saocrpenn nncruera.
Hnernnre µp¡xxn µ¡nrn 24 mm. uamxara c 5 x¡cn (1-1,5 mm) s¡ôena; nenuero ôxno, 2,5-5 mm
n µnamer¡p, c 5 cnoôoµnn nncruera. Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r µonen. Hnoµ¡r npoµ¡nronar, ron,
µ¡n¡r 4-5 mm, c r¡nxa µp¡xxa. O1ponno! (raôno 58, ]nr. 2).
Hs mouypnma n ônara n nxnara crpana npeµnmno n nnsnnnre. H¡]rn mnn anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar yspennre nnoµuera (µpora Fructus Phellandrii).
Hamnpa npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac ce cpemar ome 8 nnµa or rosn poµ, xonro nmar n c¡nnernxra cn xaxro xepma]poµnrnn,
raxa n m¡xxn, rnunnxonn nnerone, a xopennre nm ca r¡nxn, camo nxxon or rxx c ronuecrn
naµeôenxnannx.
Ascxanue Aethusa cvnapium L.
Eµnoroµnmno nnn µnyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno xyxo cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 2 m,
oônxnoneno eµnnnuno, cnaôo naôpasµeno. Hncrara µ¡nrn 815 cm, mnpoxn 4-14 cm, µnoñno
nnn rpoñno nepecrn, c rpn¡r¡nnn nnn xñnennµnn, µ¡nôoxo napxsann nnn pasµenenn recnn
µxnone; µonnnre nncra na µp¡xxn, µ¡nrn µo 5 cm, a ropnnre npnceµnann na pasmnpennre
nncrnn nnarannma. Cennnnnre c no 10-20 neeµnaxno µ¡nrn n¡ua, ôes oônnnxa nnn c oônnnxa
or 1 -2 nncruera. Oônnnunnara eµnocrpanna, c 3 nnneñnn, pasnepenn nncruera. Hneronere
ôenn. Hnoµuerara ronn, cnnecxann. O1ponno!(raôno 59, ]nr. 1).
(143)
Cpema ce xaro ôypen n nnenen ns xpacranannre n nocennre n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn mnn
anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Byunnnm Conium maculalum L.
Eµnoroµnmno nnn µnyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nenpnxrna mnpnsma, c xyxo rono
pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 2,5 m, c uepnennxann nerna. Hncrara ronn, mnpoxo rpn¡r¡nnn,
µ¡nrn 30-60 cm, mnpoxn 25-40 cm, c µp¡xxa, rpoñno nepecrn, c xñnennµno-nannernn µxnone c
nas¡ôenn nnn nspxsann µenuera; cpeµnnre n ropnnre mnoro no-µpeônn, npnceµnann. C¡nne-
rnxra cnoxnn cennnnn, or 10-20 rnannn n¡ua c oônnnxa or 3-6 xñnennµno-nannernn ronn
nncruera. B ocnonara na nneronere nma oônnnunna or 3-6 nncruera, pasnonoxenn or eµnara
crpana na ctnnernero. Hneronere ôenn. Hnoµ¡r ron, saxp¡rnen, µ¡n¡r 2,5 mm. O1ponno!
(raôno 58, ]nr. 3).
Cpema ce µocra uecro xpañ orpaµn, no cmernma n µp. xaro ôypen n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000
m n. n. H¡]rn npes mnn n mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar crp¡xonere (µpora Herba Conii maculati) n nnoµonere
(µpora Fructus Conii maculati). Hma ronxmo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hennna, xepnns Apium graveolens L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µeôen nperenonnµen xopen n nsnpaneno, uecro xyxo,
cnnno pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 1 m. Hncrara ronn, µonnnre nepecro naceuenn, na µ¡nra
µp¡xxa, saxp¡rneno pomônunn, rpnµennn, nas¡ôenn camo n ropnara uacr, ropnnre nncra nourn
npnceµnann, rpoñnn nnn rpnµennn. Cennnnnre mnoroôpoñnn, µpeônn, npnceµnann nnn na
x¡ca µp¡xxa, c 4-12 rnannn n¡ua, ôes oônnnxa npn ocnonara na rnannnre n¡un. Hneronere
ôenesnnxanoôenn, ôes oônnnunna npn ocnonara nm. uamxara ôes s¡ônn. Hnoµ¡r ron,
crpannuno cnnecxan, c naµn¡xnn peôpa, µ¡n¡r 1,5 mm (raôno 59, ]nr. 2).
Hs nnaxnn n saônarenn mecra no xpañôpexnero na mopero, xpañ ¡ynan. Mapnna, Crpyma (n
Herpnuxo). H¡]rn mnn anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar xopen¡r (µpora Radix Apii) n nnoµonere (µpora
Fructus Apii). Hsnonsyna ce mnpoxo n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Knunon Carum carvi L.
¡nyroµnmno nnn mnororoµnmno rpenncro rono pacrenne c nperenonnµen xopen. Cr¡ônoro
cnnno pasxnoneno, xyxo, nncoxo µo 1,5 m. Hncrara 2-3 n¡rn nepecrn, µ¡nrn 6-15 cm, mnpoxn 2-
8 cm, c nannerno-nnneñnn µo nnneñnn µxnone, µ¡nrn 3-25 mm n mnpoxn 1 -1,5 mm;
npnocnonnnre nncra c µ¡nra µp¡xxa, ropnnre npnceµnann, pasmnpenn npn ocnonara cn n¡n
nnarannma. C¡nnerne-ro cnoxen cennnx c 5-16 neeµnaxnn rnannn n¡ua, ôes oônnnxa nnn c
oônnnxa or 1-2 nncruera. Hneronere ôenn, pxµxo posonn, ôes oônnnunna npn ocnonara nm.
Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r µonen. Hnoµ¡r ron, npoµ¡nronar, µ¡n¡r 4-5 mm, c naµn¡xnn peôpa,
npn yspxnanero cn ce pasµenx na µne (raôno 58, ]nr. 4).
Hs nnnaµn, ropcxn nonxnn n npeµnnannncxnx n nnannncxnx noxc n nxna Rrosanaµna F¡nrapnx
n n 3anaµna n Cpeµna Crapa nnannna, 3anaµnn n Cpeµnn Poµonn. Pnna, Hnpnn µox¡m 1600 m
n. n. H¡]rn mañ mnn.
(144)
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nnoµonere (µpora Fructus Carvi). Hsnonsyna ce n n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hanunuena nnmnnxa Angelicapancicii Jandas
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µeôen nperenonnµen xopen n xyxo, rono nnn n nañ-
ropnara cn uacr r¡cronyxecro cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 2 m, n¡n n¡snnre noµyro, n ropnara cn uacr
pasxnoneno, µomarononnonerono. Hncrara c x¡ca µp¡xxa (4-12 cm) n eµpn, cnnno noµyrn
nnarannma (8-12 cm µ¡nrn n 5-8 cm mnpoxn), npocro µo µnoñno n rpoñno nepecr, c onanno
ennnrnunn, npnceµnann, nas¡ôenn µxnone (8-14 cm µ¡nrn n 3-8 cm mnpoxn); nañ-ropnnre
nncrnn µxnone nnsôernamn no nncrnara µp¡xxa. Hneronere ôenn, 15-18 mm n µnamer¡p,
c¡ôpann n cennnnn, c¡cranenn or mnoxecrno (40-80) r¡cro n x¡co nyxecrn n¡un, ôes oônnnxa
or nncruera npn ocnonara nm. Hnernnre µp¡xxn µ¡nrn 1,5-3,5 mm, n ocnonara cn c oônnnunna
or 5-12 rpn¡r¡nno nannernn, saocrpenn nncruera. Hnoµ¡r ron, mnpoxo xñnennµen, cnnecnar, c
3 naµn¡xnn peôpa n xpnnar p¡ô (raôno 60, ]nr. 1).
Cpema ce no cenuecrn nnaxnn n xamennnnn mecra n xpañ nnannncxn noronn naµ 800 m n. n.
H¡]rn npes mnn anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar xopen¡r (µpora Radix Angelicii PaniiIiii) n nnoµonere
(Fructus Angelicii Paniicii). Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hpemnenec1 µenncnn Heracleum verticillatum Panc
¡nyroµnmno µo mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne, nncoxo µo 1,5 m, n ropnara cn uacr
npemnenonnµno pasxnoneno, naôpasµeno. Hncrara 10- 40 cm µ¡nrn n 5-25 cm mnpoxn, nepecrn,
c nepecro naµenenn µxnone, nnaxnecrn; µonnnre nncra c µp¡xxn, µ¡nrn µo 20 cm, nocrenenno
namanxnamn narope n np¡xnnre µo npnceµnann. Hneronere ôenn, 7-10 mm n µnamer¡p,
nepn]epnnre no-eµpn, c¡ôpann n cnoxnn cennnnn, c 15-50 rnannn n¡ua, ôes oônnnxa.
Hnoµonere oôparno-xñnennµnn, cnnecnarn, 8-11 mm µ¡nrn, ronn, no p¡ôa nnnecro xpnnarn
(raôno 60, ]nr. 2).
Ho nnaxnn n cenuecrn mecra, nourn nsxnmunrenno xpañ nnannncxnre noronn. Cpema ce n
Cpeµna n 3anaµna Crapa nnannna, Bnroma, Pnna, Cpeµnn n 3anaµnn Poµonn, Hnpnn,
Cnanxnxa, Fenacnna n Ocoroncxa nnannna, mexµy 1000 n 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn anrycr.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
±nn uopxon Daucus carota L.
Eµnoroµnmno nnn µnyroµnmno pacrenne c mececr nperenonnµen xopen n nsnpaneno
naôpasµeno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 1,5 m, n ropnara cn uacr pasxnoneno, c pasnepenn nnacnnxn µo
rono. Hncrara 2-4 n¡rn nepecrn, c npoµ¡nronarn, nas¡ôenn µo nspxsann nncruera, c pasnepenn
nnacnnxn. C¡nnernxra cnoxen cennnx or 10-15 rnannn n¡ua, ronn n pxµxo pecnnuecrn c
oônnnxa or nepecro napxsann nncruera. B ocnonara na orµennnre cennnnn 2-3 nenn, no-pxµxo
2-3-µennn nncruera. Hneronere ôenn, pxµxo cnaôo x¡nrennxann, xpañnnre no-eµpn. Hnoµ¡r
µ¡n¡r 3-4 mm, c µ¡nrn xopann uernnxn (raôno 59, ]nr. 3).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn mecra, xpañ n¡rnma, crpaµn, ns nocenn n oxonnn xynrypn n nxnara crpana
µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
(145)
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar cnexo nsxonannxr xopen (µpora Radix Carotae
recens) n nnoµonere (µpora Fructus Carotae recens). Hsnonsyna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CPACAOBEHEHHH PACTEHHR
1. Hapasnrno pacrenne ôes senenn nncra. Cr¡ônoro nnmxonnµno, ynnnamo ce. Hneronere
c¡ôpann n manxn ronuecrn c¡nnernx ............
......... Enponeñcxa xyxynnua npexµa CuscutaeuropaeaL.
1*. Pacrennx c¡c senenn nncra........................2
2. Benuenncruerara 5, ôenesnnxann, µo ocnonara cn cnoôoµnn ......
.............. Kp¡rnonncrna mypana Pvrola rotundifolia L.
2*. Benuenncruerara n µonnara uacr noneue nnn no-manxo cpacnann n oôpasynar rp¡ônna nnn
nourn ne ca cpacnann, no rorana ca µ¡pnera c 4 nenuenncruera (xcen)....................................3
3. ×ñunnx¡r µonen nnn nonyµonen.................... . 4
3*. ×ñunnx¡r ropen............................. . 9
4. Hneronere c¡ôpann n xomnnuxn n oôxp¡xenn c oôma oônnnxa or nañ-ropnnre nncra.
uamxara nnncna. Tnunnxnre 5, cpacnann c npamnnnnre cn . . ...................... Cem.Cnoxno
nnernn Asteraceae
4*. C¡nnernxra or µpyr rnn mnronnµnn, mernnuecrn n µp.......5
5. Hncrara pasnonoxenn n npemnenn no 6-9.................
.......................... Cem.Fpomonn Rubiaceae
5*. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn nnn nocneµonarennn.............6
6. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn..........................7
6*. Hncrara nocneµonarennn.........................8
7. Tnunnxnre 5. Xpacrn nnn µp¡nuera, pxµxo rpenncrn pacrennx.....
.......................... Cem.F¡sonn Caprifoliaceae
7*. Tnunnxnre 3. Tpenncrn pacrennx .....................
................. Heueôna µnnxnxa Jaleriana officinalis L.
8. Tnunnxnre 8-10. Xpacruera ... Cem.Hnpenonn Ericaceae
8*. Tnunnxnre 5. Tpenncrn pacrennx .....................
........... Oônxnonen ycrpen JincetoxicumhirundinariaMed.
9. ×ñunnx¡r n¡nmno pasµenen na 4 uacrn, xaro nnoµ¡r ce pasnaµa na 4
opexuera.......................................10
9*. ×ñunnx¡r nxn...............................11
10. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, nenuero npannnno, rnunnxnre 5.......
.................... Hrnuenpoco Lithospermum arvense L.
10*. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, nenuero nenpannnno, µnyycrno. Tnunnxnre 4......................
Cem.Vcrnonnernn Lamiaceae
11. ¡¡pno c¡c cpemynonoxnn neun]ronepecrn nncra. Tnunnxnre 2. ... ..........................
M¡xµpxn Fraxinus ornusL.
11*. Tpenncrn pacrennx............................12
12. Tnunnxnre 4, or xonro µnere nonxxora ca ôes npamnnnn........
........................ Cnpornna Gratiola officinalis L.
12*. Tnunnxnre 5, ncnuxn c µoôpe pasnnrn npamnnnn..........13
13. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, rpnµennn, nnanamn n c µ¡nra µp¡xxa . . . . ......................
Iopunnue Menvanthes trifoliata L.
13*. Hncrara nocneµonarennn........................14
14. Pacrennx c ynnnno nnn nonernano cr¡ôno..................
..................... Cem.Honernnonn Convohulaceae
14*. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno..... Cem.Kapro]onn Solanaceae
(146)
CEM. MYPABEHH FYROLACEAE
Kpsrnonnc1na uypana Pvrola rotundifolia L.
Mnororoµnmno rono pacrenne c n¡nsxmo xopennme n nenn npesnmynamn npnocnonnn nncra,
xp¡rnn µo onannn, µ¡nrn 3-6 cm, mnpoxn 3-5 cm, nas¡ôenn µo nourn nenoxpañnn, na µp¡xxa,
µ¡nra 3-7 cm. Hneronere c¡ôpann n xnaconnµno c¡nnerne na n¡pxa na ôesnncren crp¡x, nncox
10-15 cm, apomarnn (mnpnsma na momnna c¡nsa), 10-15 na ôpoñ, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 4-8 mm, c
nnnecr npnnnernnx npn ocnonara ñ. uamxara nourn µo ocnonara cn 5-µenna, µ¡nra 2-4 mm, c
nnneñno-nannernn saocrpenn µxnone. Benuero c 5 µo ocnonara cn cnoôoµnn nncruera,
sn¡nuennµno, c 5-8 mm µ¡nrn, oôparno xñnennµnn ôenesnnxann n pasnepenn, nourn µnoñno no-
µ¡nrn or uamxara. Tnunnxnre 8-10. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c eµno 5-µenno crtnôue na n¡pxa cn.
Hnoµ¡r ronuecra xyrnñxa (raôno 61, ]nr. 1).
Hs cenuecrnre nrnonncrnn ropn na Bnroma mexµy 1200 n 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn anrycr,
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nncrara (µpora Folia Pyrolae).
3aoe.erra. Ce+. Hupeuoeu Ericaceae. Me:o eposoe - Araosraphvlos uva-ursi Spreng.
Bopoeuuru Jaccinium. (er. npu ou.ru c :epeeuu u posoeu µeemoee).
CEM. MACAHHOBH OLEACEAE
Msaµpnn Fraxinus ornus L.
¡¡pno c rnaµxa xopa, nncoxo µo 20 m. Mnaµnre n¡nxn cnernoxa]xnn nnn cpeô¡pnocnnn, cnrno
nnaxnecrn. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, neun]ronepecrn, µ¡nrn 15-20 cm, c 5-11 cnnno napnpamn
no ]opma nncruera, nañ-uecro saocrpeno ennnrnunn nnn xñnennµno-nannernn, µ¡nrn 4-10 cm,
mnpoxn 2-4 cm, cnrno nas¡ôenn, c x¡ca µp¡xunna; oômara nncrna µp¡xxa µ¡nra 5-15 cm.
Hneronere c¡ôpann n mnoronnernn mernnuecrn c¡nnernx, xonro ce noxnxnar no n¡pxonere na
xnonxnre cneµ pasnnrnero na nncrara. Hneronere c uamxa n nenue; uamxara ce sanasna cneµ
yspxnanero na nnoµa n¡n nnµ na 4 s¡ôuera. pasnonoxenn npn ocnonara my. Benuenncruerara 4,
nourn necpacnann, xpemanoôenesnnxann, µ¡nrn 5-6 mm, recnonnneñnn, nxxonxo n¡rn no-µ¡nrn
or uamxara. Tnunnxnre oônxnoneno 2. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c µ¡nro cr¡nôue. Hnoµ¡r
eµnocemenno opexue c¡c cnnno pasnnra xpnnarxa, µ¡nra 2-3 cm, mnpoxa 4-6 mm, na n¡pxa r¡na
nnn npxsana (raôno 59, ]nr. 4).
Hs cmecenn mnpoxonncrnn ropn, xpacranann n no cyxnre xamennnnn mecra µox¡m 1400 m n. n.
H¡]rn npes anpnn n mañ.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna oôenenara pano nanponer n nscymena xopa (µpora
Cortex Fraxini). Hpnnara ce mnpoxo n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
3aoe.erra. Ce+. Iop:ue:eeu Menvanthaceae. Iop:ue:e Menvtinthes trifoliala L. (er. npu
ou.ru c :epeeuu u posoeu µeemoee).
(147)
CEM. YCTPEAOBH ASCLEPIADACEAE
Oõnxnonen yc1pen Jincetoxicum hirundinaria Med. (Cvnanchum vinceto-xicum Pers.)
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno r¡nxo cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 1 m, x¡m ropnnx xpañ
xocmaro camo no µne cpemynonoxnn naµn¡xnn nnnnn, pxµxo rono. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn,
µonnnre xñnennµnn, ropnnre nannernn, µ¡nrn 6-10 cm, mnpoxn 3-5 cm, nenoxpañnn, no p¡ôa
x¡co pecnnuecrn, na x¡ca µp¡xxa (5-10 mm). Hneronere no 1-2 n nasnnre na nncrara, ôenn, na
µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 1-4 cm. uamxara 5-µenna, c¡c saocrpenn µxnone. Benuero µncxonnµno, 8-10 mm
n µnamer¡p, µ¡nôoxo 5-µenno, pasnepeno. Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c µne cr¡nôuera,
cpacnann x¡m n¡pxa cn n eµno ônnsanne. Hnoµ¡r mnorocemenna xyrnñxa, µ¡nra 5-6 cm.
O1ponno!(raôno 60, ]nr. 3).
Hs peµxn ropn, xpacranann n nonxnn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1200 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna noµsemnara uacr (µpora Rhizoma Cynanchi).
Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. KYKYBHHOHPEƱOBH CUSCUTACEAB
Enponencxa xyxynnua npeaµa Cuscuta europaea L.
Hapasnrno eµnoroµnmno ôesnncrno pacrenne c ynnnno, µeôeno xaro xanan (µo 2,5 mm),
uepnennxano rono cr¡ôno. Hneronere µ¡nrn 2-3 mm, c¡ôpann n pexann x¡nôecrn c¡nnernx c
µnamer¡p µo 1,5 cm. uamxara oôparno xonnu-na, µ¡nra µo 3 mm, x¡nrennxana nnn xa]xna,
µ¡nôoxo pasceuena na 4-5 µxna. Benuero rp¡ôecro, no-µ¡nro or uamxara, ôxno, ôxno-posono µo
x¡nro, µ¡nro 2,5-5,0 mm, c x¡ca µp¡xunna, µ¡nôoxo 4-5-µenno, npn ycrnero na neneunara
rp¡ônna c nenn µnyµennn nmcnn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c 1-2 cr¡nôuera. Tnunnxnre 5. Hnoµ¡r
xyrnñxa (raôno 60, ]nr. 4).
Hapasnrnpa no pasnnunn rpenncrn pacrennx. Cpema ce n nxna F¡nrapnx nourn µo 2000 m n. n.
H¡]rn mañ oxromnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna c¡ôpanara no npeme na n¡]rexa naµsemna uacr (µpora
Herba Cuscutae). Hpnnara ce mnpoxo n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. HOBETHHOBH CONJOLJULACEAE
1. Hpnnnernnnnre mnpoxo xñnennµnn nnn mnpoxo c¡pnennµnn, npnnoxpnnamn nourn nsnxno
uamxara ...........................
.......... Oônxnoneno uaµ¡pue Calvstegiaseptum (L.) R. Br.
1*. Hpnnnernnnnre recnonnneñnn, µpeônn, orµaneuenn or uamxara . . . .............
Oônxnonena nonernna ConvolvulusarvensisL.
Oõnxnoneno uaµspue Calvstegia septum (L.) R. Br.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c n¡nsxmo xopennme n µ¡nro, ynnnno, rono nnn nnaxnecro
cr¡ôno, µ¡nro µo 2-3 m. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, na
(148)
µ¡nra µp¡xxa (3-5 cm), npocrn, ô¡ôpexonnµnn µo rpn¡r¡nno xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 5-10 cm n
nourn ronxona mnpoxn, nenoxpañnn nnn cnaôo n pxµxo nas¡ôenn, ronn. Hneronere no eµnn n
nasnnre na nncrara, na µp¡xxa, no-µ¡nra or nncrnara µp¡xxa, ôenn, nonxxora c uepnenn nerna,
]ynnennµnn, µ¡nrn 3,5-6 cm. uamxara x¡ca, c 5 s¡ôena n npn ocnonara cn noxpnra c µna eµpn,
mnpoxo xñnennµnn npnnnernnxa, µ¡nrn 1,5-3 cm. Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r rona
xyrnñxa (raôno 61, ]nr. 2).
B nxnara crpana ns xpacranann n ropn, n cenuecrn n nnaxnn mecra nañ-neue n nnsnnnre n
npeµnnannnnre. H¡]rn mañ anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxna xopennmero (µpora Radix Calystegiae).
Oõnxnonena none1nna Convolvulus arvensis L.
Mnororoµnmno ynnnno nnn nonernano rpenncro pacrenne c¡c cr¡ôno, µ¡nro µo 2 m. Hncrara
nocneµonarennn, nenn, nenoxpañnn nnn cnaôo nas¡ôenn, npoµ¡nronaro xñnennµnn µo
nannernn, µ¡nrn µo 5 cm, mnpoxn µo 4 cm, n ocnonara xonnennµnn nnn crpenonnµnn,
oônxnoneno ronn, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa. Hneronere no 1-2 n nasnnre na nncrara, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa,
npn ocnonara cn c µna manxn nnneñnn npnnnernnxa. uamxara sn¡nuennµna, c 5 s¡ôena.
Benuero ]ynnennµno, ôxno nnn posono, c 5 no-r¡mnn xnnxn, µ¡nro 1,5-3 cm. Tnunnxnre 5.
×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r nourn c]epnuna pasnyxnnna xyrnñxa (raôno 61, ]nr. 3).
Cpema ce xaro nnenen n ôypen no rpenncrn mecra, nsxonn, oôpaôorenn mecra n µp. n nxnara
crpana µox¡m 1200 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ oxromnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna nxnoro n¡]rxmo pacrenne (µpora Herba Convolvuli).
Hpnnara ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. IPAHABOAHCTHH BORAOINACEAE
H1nue npoco Lithospermum arvense L.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nperenonnµen xopen n nsnpaneno, npocro nnn x¡m n¡pxa
pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 40 cm, uernnecro nnaxnecro. Hncrara nocneµonarennn,
npnnernano uernnecrn, µonnnre npoµ¡nronaro xñnennµnn, crecnenn n µp¡xxa, r¡nn, µ¡nrn µo
4 cm, mnpoxn µo 8 mm, ropnnre nannernn, npnceµnann, saocrpenn, nenoxpañnn. Hneronere c
x¡ca µp¡xxa, c¡ôpann n oônncrenn, cnnpanonnµnn, r¡crn c¡nnernx. uamxara µ¡nôoxo 5-
µenna, c¡c saocrpenn, r¡cro uernnecrn s¡ônn. Benuero ôxno, µ¡nro 4-6 mm, npannnno, noxpnro
c nnacnnxn, neneunara rp¡ônna orn¡rpe c 5 naµn¡xnn peµnnn or nnacnnxn. Tnunnxnre 5, c
mnoro x¡ca µp¡xxa. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, 4-µenen. Hnoµ¡r xñnennµno opexue, µ¡nro µo 3 mm
(raôno 61, ]nr. 4).
Hs nocenn n rpenncrn mecra µocra uecro xaro pyµepanno pacrenne n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1100
m n. n. H¡]rn mapr mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar crp¡xonere (µpora Her‡a Lithospermi), xopen¡r
(µpora Radix Lithospermi) n cemenara (Semen Lithospermi). Hsnonsyna ce mnpoxo n n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
(149)
CEM. YCTHOHBETHH - LAMIACEAE (LABIATAE)
1. Benuero xcno µnyycrno...........................2
1*. Benuero c eµna ycrna µonna, ropnara nnncna .............
.....,............... Fxno no歓nue Teucrium polium L.
2. Tnunnxnre nan¡nno cxpnrn n rp¡ônnara na nenuero...........
............... Oônxnonen nuennnox Marront vulgareL.
2*. Tnunnxnre cr¡puar nan¡n or rp¡ônnara na nenuero..........3
3. uamxara xcno µnyycrna µonnara ycrna c µne, ropnara c rpn s¡ôena . ........................
Marounna Melissa officinalisL.
3*. uamxara ne e µnyycrna...........................4
4. ¡onnara ycrna c ronxm oôparno c¡pnennµen cpeµen µxn n cnaôo pasnnrn n¡n nnµ na r¡nxn
s¡ôuera crpannunn µxnone.................
................. Fxna m¡prna xonpnna LamiumalbumL.
4*. ¡onnara ycrna c µpyra ]opma........................
............... Oônxnonena xoua ônnxa NepetacatariaL.
Bnno noµsõnue Teucrium polium L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne, nourn nonyxpacrue, c¡c cnnno pasxnonenn ôenon¡nnecrn,
nexamn nnn npnnonµnramn ce cr¡ôna, nncoxn µo 40 cm, n ropnara cn uacr mernnuecro
pasxnonenn. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, npnceµnann, npoµ¡nronarn µo nnneñnn, x¡m ocnonara
xnnnonnµno crecnenn, µ¡nrn µo 3 cm, mnpoxn µo 6 mm, n¡nnonnµno nas¡ôenn c noµnnr p¡ô,
ôenon¡nnecrn, ocoôeno or µonnara crpana. Hneronere c¡ôpann n npocrn nnn cnoxnn, x¡nôecrn
nnn xñnennµnn rnannuxn no n¡pxonere na xnonxnre, µ¡nrn 5-8 mm, nourn npnceµnann,
ôenon¡nnecrn. uamxara rp¡ôecra nnn sn¡nuennµna, c 10 xnnxn n 5 s¡ôena. Benuero ôxno nnn
x¡nrennxanoôxno, manxo no-µ¡nro or uamxara. Cpeµnnxr µxn na µonnara ycrna ronxm,
crpannunnre n¡n nnµ na s¡ônn. Tnunnxnre 4, eµna noµanamn ce or nenuero. ×ñunnx¡r ropen.
Hnoµ¡r ce pasnaµa na 4 opexuera (raôno 62, ]nr. 1).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n npnneunn mecra n nxna F¡nrapnx µox¡m 900 m n.n. H¡]rn mañ
cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Teucrii poll).
Vnorpeôxna -ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Oõnxnonen nuennnox Marrubnm vulgare L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c ropunn nxyc n nenpnxrna mnpnsma. Cr¡ônoro or
ocnonara pasxnoneno, uernpnp¡ôecro, nsnpaneno, nncoxo 20-60 cm, ôenon¡nnecro. Hncrara
cpemynonoxnn, saxp¡rnenn n saxp¡rneno xñnennµnn µo mnpoxo ennnrnunn, µ¡nrn 2-4 cm,
orrope r¡mnosenenn, orµony ôenon¡nnecrn, no p¡ôa nepannomepno eµpo nas¡ôenn, µonnnre c
µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 1-3 cm, ropnnre nocrenenno crecnenn n x¡ca mnpoxa µp¡xxa. Hneronere
c¡ôpann no mnoro (20-50) n nn¡rnn x¡nôecrn npemnenn, oônxnoneno 6-8 na ôpoñ. uamxara
rp¡ôecra, c 10 eµnaxnn, mnnonnµnn n na n¡pxa cn xyxecro sannrn s¡ônn, n¡nnecra. Benuero 5-
nncrno, ôxno, cpacnano, µnyycrno ropnara ycrna rxcna n npana, nourn nnocxa, na n¡pxa
µnyµenna, µonnara rpn-µenna, c no-mnpox cpeµen µxn; rp¡ônnara na nenuero cxpnra n
uamxara. Tnunnxnre 4. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r cyx, pasnaµam ce na 4 opexuera (raôno 61,
]nr. 5).
Ho rpenncrn n ôypenxcann mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ mnn.
(150)
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna nxnara naµsemna uacr (µpora Herba Marrubii), xoxro
ce c¡ônpa no npeme na n¡]rexa. Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Bnna usp1na xonpnna Lamium album L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µ¡nro n¡nsxmo xopennme. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno,
uernpnp¡ôecro, nncoxo µo 80 cm, xyxo, pxµxo nnaxnecro. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, na xp¡cr no
n¡snnre, c¡pnennµno-onannn, µ¡nrn 3-12 cm, mnpoxn 1-5 cm, saocrpenn, peµxonnaxnecrn,
nas¡ôenn; µonnnre c µ¡nra µp¡xxa (1,5-3 cm), ropnnre nourn npnceµnann. Hneronere
pasnonoxenn no 6-8 n nasnnre na ropnnre nncra. uamxara sn¡nuennµna, µ¡nra 9-15 mm, n
ropnnx cn xpañ 5-µenna, c 5 xnnxn n c 5 nourn eµnaxnn s¡ôena. Benuero µ¡nro 2-2,5 cm, ôxno,
5-µenno, µnyycrno, cpacnano n xonenuecro nsnnra rp¡ônna, nourn 3 n¡rn no-µ¡nro or
uamxara, c¡c cnnno nnaxnecra ropna ycrna, mnemonnµno nsµyra, a µonnara c¡pnennµna;
neneunara rp¡ônna c xoco pasnonoxen orn¡rpe np¡cren or nnacnnxn. Tnunnxnre 4. ×ñunnx¡r
ropen. Hnoµ¡r cyx, pasnaµam ce na 4 opexuera.
Cpema ce pxµxo xpañ orpaµn n no ôypenxcann mecra n Rrosanaµna F¡nrapnx. H¡]rn anpnn
mnn (raôno 62, ]nr. 2).
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar cymennre nnerone ôes uamxara (µpora Flores Lamii
albi) n nncrara (µpora Folia Lamii albi). Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Oõnxnonena xoua õnnxa Nepeta cataria L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c mnoroôpoñnn nsnpanenn, pasxnonenn uernpnp¡ôecrn
cr¡ôna, nncoxn 40-100 cm. Hxnoro pacrenne cnnonnaxnecro. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, ropnnre
npoµ¡nronarn, n ocnonara cn c¡pnennµnn, saocrpenn, µ¡nrn 2-8 cm, mnpoxn 2-4 cm, c x¡ca
nncrna µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 0,5-4 cm. Hneronere c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 7-9 mm, pasnonoxenn n npemnenn n
nasnnre na ropnnre nncra, xaro oôpasynar xnaconnµnn c¡nnernx c nnneñnn, saocrpenn
npnnnernann, µ¡nrn 1,5-3 mm. uamxara rp¡ôecra, manxo nsnnra n noneraro orpxsana, c 15
xnnxn, µ¡nra 5,5-7,5 mm, c¡c saocrpenn s¡ônn. Benuero µ¡nro 810 mm, ôxno nnn ôxno-
posono, µonnara ycrna c uepnennxann nerna, rpnµenna, a ropnara cnaôo nµn¡ônara. Tnunnxnre
4, pasnonoxenn noµ ropnara ycrna. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Opexuerara ennnrnunn, µ¡nrn oxono 1,5
mm, ronn n rnaµxn, 4 na ôpoñ (raôno 62, ]nr. 3).
Ho ôypenxcann n xamennnnn mecra, xpañ n¡rnma n orpaµn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n.
H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Nepetae catariae). Hma
mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Ma1ounna Melissa officinalis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, uernpnp¡ôecro, r¡cro pasxnoneno cr¡ôno,
nncoxo µo 1,5 m, c xapaxrepna nnmonena mnpnsma, noxpnro c npocrn n xnesncrn nnacnnxn.
Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 2-9 cm, mnpoxn 1,5-5 cm, nourn ronn, µonnnre c
µ¡nra µp¡xxa, c¡c c¡pnennµna ocnona, r¡no nas¡ôenn; ropnnre npoµ¡nronarn, c xnnnonnµna
ocnona n x¡ca µp¡xxa. Hneronere c¡ôpann no 4-12 n npemnenn n nasnnre na
(151)
ropnnre nncra, na µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 3-6 mm. Hpnnnernnnnre xñnennµno-nan-nernn, µ¡nrn 0,5-1
cm, crecnenn n µp¡xxa. uamxara sn¡nuennµna, µnyycrna, c 13 xnnxn, µ¡nra 7-8 mm, oxocmena.
Benuero ôenesnnxano µo n¡sposono, µ¡nro 8-15 mm, c nsnnra n cpeµara neneuna rp¡ônna,
nourn rono, µnyycrno; ropnara ycrna npxsana, µonnara rpnµenna. Tnunnxnre 4, µne or xonro ca
no-µ¡nrn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r ce pasnaµa na 4 cyxn opexuera, µ¡nrn 1,5-2 mm (raôno 62,
]nr. 4).
Ho xamennnnn mecra n xpacranann n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn
cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar np¡xnnre uacrn na cr¡ônoro saeµno c nncrara
(µpora Herba Melissae), xonro ce c¡ônpar nenocpeµcrneno npeµn n¡]rexa x¡m cpeµara na
mnn, nnn camo nncrara (µpora Folia Melissae). Hamnpa mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
CEM. KAPTOmOBH SOLANACEAE
1. Hneronere ]ynnennµnn, eµpn, µ¡nrn 5-10 cm. Hnoµ¡r ôoµnnna xyrnñxa, µ¡nra 4-6
cm.....................................
.......................... Taryn Datura stramonium L.
1*. Hneronere mnoro no-manxn n µncxonnµno pasnepenn. Hnoµ¡r uepna counaxroµa............
Kyuemxo rposµe Solatium nigrum L.
Kyuemxo rposµe Solanum nigrum L.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, pasxnoneno, p¡ôecro, rono nnn cnaôo oxocmeno
cr¡ôno, nncoxo 20-70 cm. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, Bnpoxo xñnennµnn µo pomônunn,
saocrpenn, uecro c n¡nnonnµen p¡ô, µ¡nrn µo 10 cm, mnpoxn µo 6 cm, ronn nnn nnaxnecrn,
crecnenn n µp¡xxa. Hneronere c¡ôpann no nxxonxo (5-10) n nsnnrn naµony pexann
nonycennnnn. uamxara 5-nncrna, µpeôna (1-2,5 mm), na n¡pxa c 5 s¡ôena. Benuero ôxno, c 5
nncruera, µo cpeµara cn cpacnano n rp¡ônna, a n ropnara cn uacr µncxonnµno pasnepeno, 8-14
mm n µnamer¡p. Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r uepna, pxµxo opanxeno-uepnena
mececra xroµa. O1ponno!(raôno 62, ]nr. 5).
Ho rpenncrn n ôypenxcann mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn
cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar np¡xnnre mnaµn xnonxn saeµno c nncrara (µpora
Herba Solani nigri). Hsnonsyna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Ta1yn Datura stramonium L.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nenpnxrna mnpnsma n nsnpaneno, pasxnoneno, oônxnoneno
rono cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 2 m. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, µ¡nrn µo 20 cm, mnpoxn µo 15 cm,
xñnennµnn, saocrpenn, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa n c eµpo nenpannnno nspxsann µxnone. Hneronere no
eµnn n nasnnre na nncrara, na µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 5-12 mm. uamxara n¡n nnµ na rp¡ônna, µ¡nra 3-5
cm, na n¡pxa cn c 5 rpn¡r¡nnn s¡ôena. Benuero ôxno, eµpo, ]ynnennµno, na n¡pxa c 5
saocrpenn µxna. Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r mnorocemenna eµpa, ôoµnnna xyrnñxa.
Cnnno o1ponno! (raôno 63, ]nr. 1).
Ho rpenncrn n ôypenxcann mecra n nxnara crpana. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
(152)
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar nncrara (µpora Folia Stramoni), xonro ce c¡ônpar no
npeme na n¡]rexa 2-3 n¡rn npes roµnnara (or mnn µo cenremnpn) n no n¡smoxnocr c no-x¡cn
µp¡xxn.
CEM. ÆHBEHHHEBH SCROPHJLARIACEAE
Cnpo1nna Gratiola officinalis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c n¡nsxmn xopennma, noxpnrn c me-cecrn nmcnn.
Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno nnn npnnonµnramo ce, nncoxo 20-80 cm, rono, xyxo, n ropnara cn uacr
pasxnoneno. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, nannernn, npnceµnann n nonyoôxnamamn cr¡ônoro,
µ¡nrn 3-5 cm, mnpoxn 0,5-1 cm, n ocnonara nenoxpañnn, n ropnara cn uacr nas¡ôenn, ronn.
Hneronere eµnnnunn, nsnnsamn or nasnnre na nncrara, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, n ocnonara cn c no 2
npnnnernnxa. uamxara µo ocnonara cn 5-µenna, c nnneñno-nannernn µxnone. Benuero ôxno µo
posono, µ¡nro 15-20 mm, c mnpoxa n µ¡nra rp¡ônna n µnypasµenna, nourn µnyycrna xoponxa.
Pasnnrn rnunnxn µne. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r npoµ¡nronara, pasnyxnama ce no 4-re mena
xyrnñxa. O1ponno! (raôno 63, ]nr. 2).
Ho nnaxnn nnnaµn n xpañ mouypnma n nxnara crpana nourn µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn
cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna nxnara naµsemna uacr (µpora Herba Gratiolae), xoxro
ce c¡ônpa no npeme na n¡]rexa. Hamnpa npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. BPOmOBH RUBIACEAE
Enmnue, nenxa Galium L.
1. Mnororoµnmno pacrenne c nsnpaneno, rnaµxo, nepasxnoneno cr¡ôno.
C¡nnernero mnronnµno, pasnonoxeno na n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro..........
............... Mnpnsnnno entonue G. odoratum(L.)Scop.
1*. Eµnoroµnmno pacrenne c nexamo nnn xarepnnno, rpanano, pasxnoneno cr¡ôno. Hneronere
c¡ôpann n cennnxonnµnn c¡nnernx, np¡xnn n nsnnsamn or nasnnre na nncrara...............
Henxa G. aparine L.
Mnpnsnnno entonue Galium odoratum (L.) Scop. (Asperula odorata L.)
Pacrenne c r¡nxo n¡nsxmo xopennme n npano, uernpnp¡ôecro, npn npemnennre oxocmeno,
nourn nepasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 50 cm. Hncrara npemnenecro pasnonoxenn, ropnnre no
8, µonnnre no 6, oôparno nannernn, µ¡nrn 2-5 cm, mnpoxn 0,5-1,5 cm, ronn, no p¡ôa rpanann,
xa n¡pxa c mnn-ue. C¡nnernxra np¡xnn, mnronnµnn, c no 3 xnonxn. Hneronere c µp¡xxa,
µ¡nra 1-3 mm, xoxro npn nnoµonere ce yµ¡nxana µo 3-10 mm. Benuero ôxno, ]ynnennµno, 3-7
mm n µnamer¡p, c 4 µxna. uamxara ne e pasnnra. Tnunnxnre 4. ×ñunnx¡r µonen. Hnoµ¡r cyx,
pasnyxnam ce na µne nononnnxn, no non¡pxnocrra c¡c saxpnnenn xyxnuxn (raôno 63, ]nr. 3).
Hs cenuecrn ropn n npeµnnannncxnx n nnannncxnx noxc mexµy 600 n 1800 m n. n. H¡]rn npes
anpnn n mañ.
(153)
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Asperulae), xoxro ce
c¡ônpa npeµn n¡]rexa. Hma mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Aenxa Galium aparine L.
Tpenncro pacrenne c nonernano uernpnp¡ôecro cr¡ôno, µocrnramo µo 1,5 m µ¡nxnna, no
p¡ôonere c ocrpn, sannrn nasaµ uernnxn. Hncrara oôparno nannernn, no 6-9 n npemnen, µ¡nrn
3-6 cm, mnpoxn 3-8 mm, rpanann, orµony c¡c cnnxann uernnxn. Hneronere ôenn, c¡ôpann n
cennnxonnµnn c¡nnernx, nsnnsamn or nasnnre na nncrara. uamxara neµopasnnra. Benuero
µncxonnµno, nourn ôes rp¡ônna, 1,5-1,7 mm n µnamer¡p. Tnunnxnre 4. ×ñunnx¡r µonen.
Hnoµ¡r cyx, pasnaµam ce na µna µxna, c xyxecro nsnnrn uernnxn (raôno 63, ]nr. 4).
Hs xpacranann, nocenn, xpañ n¡rnma, xaro pyµepanno pacrenne n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m
n. n. H¡]rn mañ cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna n¡]rxmara naµsemna uacr (µpora Herba Galii
aparinae). Hsnonsyna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. BT3OBH CAPRIFOLIACEAE
1. Hncrara npocrn, napxsann na rpn µxna...................
.............. Kapron, uepnena xannna Jiburnum opulusL.
1*. Hncrara cnoxno nepecrn..........................2
2. Tpenncro pacrenne. Hncrara oônxnoneno c 5 nncruera, c nannerno mn-nonnµnn
npnnncrnnnn......... Tpenncr ô¡s Sambucus ebulus L.
2*. Xpacr nnn manxo µp¡nue. Hncrara oônxnoneno c 5-7 nncruera, ôes npnnncrnnnn................
uepen ô¡s Sambucus nigra L.
Tpennc1 õss Sambucus ebulus L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c n¡nsxmo xopennme n nsnpaneno, rono, naôpasµeno
cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 2 m. Hncrara rexonepecrn, c xñnennµnn µo xñnennµno nannernn, ronn nnn
oxocmenn nncruera, µ¡nrn 5-16 cm, mnpoxn 1,0-4,5 cm, saocrpenn, cnrno nas¡ôenn. Hneronere
c nenpnxrna mnpnsma, c¡ôpann n¡n np¡xna nnocxa mnronnµna mernnna, mnpoxa 5-16 cm, c 3
rnannn n¡ua. uamxara c 5 s¡ôena. Benuero ôxno, orn¡n uepnennxano, mnpoxo 6-8 mm, 5-µenno.
Tnunnxnre 5, c uepnennxann npamnnnn. ×ñunnx¡r µonen, c npnceµnano ônnsanne. Hnoµ¡r
xroµonnµen, mececr, uepen, µ¡n¡r oxono 4 mm (raôno 64, ]nr. 1).
Ho nycreemn ôypenxcann mecra, xpañ n¡rnma n µp. n nxnara crpana nourn µo 2000 m n. n.
H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nnoµonere (µpora Fructus Ebuli), xopen¡r (µpora
Radix Ebuli) n nneronere (µpora Flores Ebuli). Hamnpa mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
Hepen õss, cnnpuonnna Sambucus nigra L.
Xpacr nnn nncxo µp¡nue, nncoxo µo 10 m, c¡c cnno-xa]xnn xnonxn, c¡c cnernn nemanxn no
rxx. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, µ¡nrn µo 35 cm, neun]rone-
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pecrn, c npoµ¡nronarn µo ennnrnunn, µ¡nro saocrpenn, nas¡ôenn, cnaôo oxocmenn nncruera,
µ¡nrn 4-12 cm n mnpoxn 2-6 cm. Hneronere c¡ôpann no n¡pxonere na xnonxnre n cnoxno
mnronnµno c¡nnerne, µo 30 cm n µnamer¡p, c 5 rnannn n¡ua, cneµ npen¡]rxnanero ynncnano.
uamxara c 5 s¡ôena. Benuero ôxno, 6-9 mm n µnamer¡p, 5-µenno. Tnunnxnre 5, c eµpn x¡nrn
npamnnnn. ×ñunnx¡r µonen c 3 npnceµnann ônnsanna. Hnoµ¡r uepno-nnonerona mececra
xroµa, µ¡nra oxono 4 mm (raôno 64, ]nr. 2).
Hs xpacranann, ropn n nacenenn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1500 m n. n. H¡]rn npes mañ n
mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nañ-uecro nneronere (µpora Flores Sambuci), a no-
pxµxo nnoµonere (µpora Fructus Sambuci) n xopen¡r (µpora Radix Sambuci). Hneronere ce
ôepar npeµn n¡nnoro nm pasn¡]rxnane, a nnoµonere cneµ n¡nnoro nm yspxnane. Hsnonsyna
ce n xopara na cr¡ônoro. Hamnpa mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Kap1on, uepnena xannna Jiburnum opulus L.
Cnnno pasxnonen xpacr nnn nncxo µp¡nue, nncoxo µo 4 m. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, n oômoro
cn ouepranne mnpoxo xñnennµnn µo saxp¡rnenn, µ¡nrn n mnpoxn 5-12 cm, µnanennµno
nspxsann na 3, pxµxo na 5 µxna, eµpo nas¡ôenn, orrope ronn, orµony nnaxnecrn; nncrnara
µp¡xxa µ¡nra 1-3 cm, npn ocnonara cn c µna nnmxonnµnn npnnncrnnxa, a na n¡pxa c µne
npnceµnann xnesn. Hneronere ôenn, c¡ôpann n nnocxn mnronnµnn c¡nnernx no n¡pxonere na
xnonxnre, c µnamer¡p 4-11 cm. uamxara c 5 sanasnamn ce s¡ôuera. Benuero 5-µenno. Hañ-
n¡nmnnre nnerone ôesnnoµnn, c nnocxo nenue, 15-20 mm n µnamer¡p, nxxonxo n¡rn no-eµpn or
n¡rpemnnre, xonro ca 4-7 mm n µnamer¡p, sn¡nuennµnn, nnoµnn. Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r
µonen, c x¡co cr¡nôue n 3-µenno ônnsanne. Hnoµ¡r x¡nôecr, 8-10 mm n µnamer¡p, mececr, c
uepnen nnxr n eµna xocrnnxa (raôno 64, ]nr. 3).
Hs ropn n xpacranann rnanno n nnannnnre nourn µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn npes mañ n mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar c¡ôpannre pano npes nponerra n nscymenn xopn or
mnaµn xnonxn (µpora Cortex Viburni). Hpnnara ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. ±HARHKOBH JALERIANACEAE
Aeueõna µnnnnxa Jaleriana officinalis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co neprnxanno xopennme n c¡c cnonuecrn saµeôenenn
xopenn. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno, naôpasµeno, xyxo, rono nnn n µonnara cn uacr oxocmeno, nncoxo
µo 2 m. Hncrara nepecrn, c 3-25 µnoñxn nnneñno-nannernn nnn nnneñnn, nenoxpañnn nnn
nas¡ôenn µxnone; nañ-µonnnre nncra c µ¡nra, cpeµnnre c x¡ca µp¡xxa, a np¡xnnre
npnceµnann. C¡nnernero ronxmo, pasxnoneno, mnronnµno. 3¡ônnre na uamxara no npeme na
n¡]rexa nepasnnrn, sannrn nan¡rpe, no npn nnoµonere ce paspacrnar n pasnepena, nepecra
xn¡punnxa. Benuero ôxno, pxµxo posono, rp¡ôecro-]ynnennµno, c 5 pasnepenn µxna n npn
ocnonara na rp¡ônnara c xyx nspacr¡x. Tnunnxnre 3. Hnoµ¡r eµnornesµen, cyx (raôno 65, ]nr.
1).
Ho nnaxnn n cenuecrn mecra ns xpacranann n µp. nourn µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ mnn.
(155)
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar xopennre saeµno c xopennmara (µpora Radix
Valerianae, Rhizoma cum radicibus Valerianae), xonro ce nsxonanar cneµ yspxnanero na
nnoµonere (anrycr-cenremnpn). Hamnpa mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. CAOÆHOHBETHH - ASTERACEAE (COMPOSITAE)
1. Hneronocnnre cr¡ôna ce pasnnnar pano nanponer npeµn npnocnonnn-re n ca noxpnrn c¡c
senennxann nnn ôenesnnxann nmcnn. Hpnocnonnnre nncra eµpn (µo 60 cm mnpoxn),
c¡pnennµnn, nas¡ôenn ................
........... Onuapxa Petasiteshvbridus(L.)Gdert., Meveret Schreb.
1*. Cr¡ônara ce pasnnnar cneµ npnocnonnnre nncra, snaunrenno no-µpeônn n oônxnoneno c
µpyra ]opma..........................2
2. Komnnuxnre c nepn]epnn esnuecrn nnerone, oôarpenn ôxno n c x¡nrn n¡rpemnn rp¡ôecrn
nnerone............................3
2*. Bcnuxn nnerone n xomnnuxnre eµnaxno oôarpenn nnn ncnuxn nnerone
rp¡ôecrn........................................4
3. Bcnuxn nncra npnocnonnn n nenn. Hneronocnnxr crp¡x na n¡pxa cn camo c eµna
xomnnuxa............. Hapnuxa Bellisperennis L.
3*. Hncrara cr¡ônenn, µnoñno µo rpoñno nepecro nspxsann. Komnnuxnre
mnoroôpoñnn no n¡pxonere na pasxnonennxra...................
...................... Hañxyuxa Matricaria chamomilla L.
4. Hnoµonere ôes xn¡punnxa. Hncrara µnoñno µo rpoñno nepecro nspxsann c nnneñno-
nannernn µenuera...........................
...................... Fxnpannen Achillea millefolium L.
4*. Hnoµonere c xn¡punnxa. Hncrara nenn. Oônnnnnre nncruera na xomnnuxnre ôenn nnn
posonn..............................
............ Bnromxn eµennañc Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn.
Hapnuxa Bellis perennis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne ôes naµsemno cr¡ôno, c x¡co xopennme. Hncrara
nonaronnµnn, c¡ôpann n npnocnonna poserxa, µ¡nrn µo 6 cm, mnpoxn µo 3 cm, crecnenn n
xpnnara µp¡xxa, r¡nn, oxocmenn, c eµna xnnxa, nas¡ôenn nnn nenoxpañnn. Or poserxara
nsnnsa nneronocnnxr crp¡x, nncox µo 15-20 cm, c eµna xomnnuxa, or 1 µo 3 cm n µnamer¡p.
Oômoro nnerno nerno nsn¡xnano. Oônnnnnre nncruera µ¡nrn 3-7 mm, npoµ¡nronarn, r¡nn.
Kpañnnre nnerone ôenn, xencxn, esnuecrn, µ¡nrn 4-11 mm, pxµxo n¡sposonn, cpeµnnre
rp¡ôecrn, x¡nrn, µnynononn. Hnoµonere cnnecxann, µ¡nrn 1-1,5 mm, nnaxnecrn, ôes xn¡punnxa
(raôno 64, ]nr. 4).
Ho rpenncrn mecra n xpacranann n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1400 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar nnernnre xomnnuxn (µpora Flores Bellidis perennis).
Hsnonsyna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Bn1omxn eµennanc Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, ôenon¡nnecro cr¡ôno, nncoxo 7-30 cm n c
oônncrenn nxopenxnamn ce nsµ¡nxn. Hncrara ôenon¡nnecrn, npnocnonnnre nonaronnµnn,
nocrenenno crecnenn n xpnnara µp¡xxa, µ¡nrn µo 4 cm n mnpoxn µo 8 mm, cr¡ônennre
nnneñnn, npnceµnann. Kom-
(156)
nnuxnre µpeônn, 2-10 mm n µnamer¡p, c nnocxo nnerno nerno. Hneronere µnyµomnn.
Hncruerara na oônnnxara n m¡xxnre xomnnuxn r¡nn, no-x¡cn or nneronere n oônxnoneno
ôenn, a n xencxnre xomnnuxn saocrpenn, no-µ¡nrn or nneronere n oônxnoneno posonn.
Xencxnre xomnnuxn camo c nnmxonnµnn nnerone, a m¡xxnre xomnnuxn camo c m¡xxn,
rp¡ôecrn nnerone. Hnoµonere c xn¡punnxa (raôno 65, ]nr. 2).
Ho cyxn nnannncxn n nncoxonnannncxn xamennnnn mecra, nourn n¡n ncnuxn no-nncoxn
nnannnn. H¡]rn mañ anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxna nxnoro pacrenne saeµno c xomnnuxnre (µpora Herba
Antennariae). Hsnonsyna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Bnn pannen Achillea millefolium L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µ¡nrn n¡nsxmn nsµ¡nxn. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno, nncoxo
20-80 cm, oxocmeno, oônncreno, oônxnoneno nepasxnoneno. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, n
oômoro cn ouepranne npoµ¡nronaro nannernn, µ¡nrn 3-5 cm, mnpoxn 0,5-1,5 cm, µnoñno µo
rpoñno nepecro pasµenenn, c nnneñno-nannernn µenuera, san¡pmnamn c ocnnue, oxocmenn;
µonnnre nncra c µp¡xxa, ropnnre npnceµnann. Komnnuxnre µpeônn, mnpoxn 3-5 mm, c¡ôpann
no mnoro n r¡cro, nnocxo mnronnµno c¡nnerne. Oônnnnnre nncruera na xomnnuxnre
xepemnµooôpasno napeµenn, no p¡ôa cn nnnecrn, uepneno-xa]xnn, a n cpeµara senenn,
oxocmenn. B¡rpemnnre nnerone n xomnnuxnre rp¡ôecrn, x¡nrennxanoxa]xnn, nepn]epnnre
ôenn, esnuecrn, pxµxo n¡sposonn. Hnoµonere cnnecxann, ôes xn¡punnxa (raôno 65, ]nr. 3).
Hs nnna n, cyxn rpenncrn mecra, xpacranann n µp. n nxnara crpana nourn µo 2000 m n. n.
H¡]rn mañ cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nnernnre xomnnuxn (µpora Flores MilleIolii) n
np¡xnnre uacrn, orpxsann 15-20 cm noµ n¡pxa (µpora Herba MilleIolii). Vnorpeôxna ce mnpoxo
n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Aanxyuxa, nanxa Matricaria chamomilla L.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, rono, cnnno pasxnoneno n ropnara cn uacr
cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 60 cm. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, µ¡nrn 4-7 cm, µnoñno µo rpoñno nepecro
napxsann, c nnneñnn µenuera, ne no-mnpoxn or 0,5 mm. Hnernnre xomnnuxn np¡xnn,
eµnnnunn, 18-25 mm n µnamer¡p, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa no n¡pxonere na pasxnonennxra. Oônnnnnre
nncruera nourn n eµnn peµ, r¡nn, c nnnecr xa]xn p¡ô. B¡rpemnnre nnerone x¡nrn, rp¡ôecrn,
na n¡pxa c 5 s¡ôena. Hepn]epnnre esnuecrn nnerone ôenn, cpeµno oxono 15 na ôpoñ, µ¡nrn 6-9
mm, no-µ¡nrn or oônnnxara, n no-crapnre xomnnuxn noµnnrn naµony. ¡¡noro na xomnnuxnre
(oômoro nnerno nerno) xonyconnµno, xyxo. Hnoµ¡r ôes xn¡punnxa.
Ho rpenncrn n ôypenxcann mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ
cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nnernnre xomnnuxn (µpora Flores Chamomillae).
Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Onuapxa Pelasites hvbridus (L.) Gaert., Mever et Schreb.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c mececro n¡nsxmo xopennme. Hneronocnnxr crp¡x ôxn
nnn uepnennxan, naxxnnonnµno oxocmen, c uepnennxa-
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nn nmcnn, c np¡xnn rposµonn µnn c¡nnernx n ce pasnnna npeµn nncrara; no npeme na n¡]rexa
nncox µo 40 cm, a no npeme na nnoµonomennero µo 80 cm. Komnnuxnre c pasnopoµnn
µnyµomnn nnerone, ôenn µo ôneµoposonn n uepnennxann. M¡xxnre pacrennx c manoôpoñnn
recnorp¡ôecrn nepn]epnn xencxn nnerone n c mnoroôpoñnn ôesnnoµnn µnynononn nnerone;
xencxnre pacrennx c mnoroôpoñnn nepn]epnn recnorp¡ôecrn xencxn nnerone, xoco orpxsann
n ncneµcrnne na rona nonyesnuecrn n c mnoroôpoñnn ôesnnoµnn esnuecrn µnynononn nnerone.
Cneµ npen¡]rxnanero ce pasnnnar npnocnonnn, saxp¡rneno c¡pnennµnn, mnoro eµpn nncra (µo
60 cm), nepannomepno nas¡ôenn, orrope senenn, ronn, orµony cnernocnnn, rtcron¡nnecro
nann¡crenn, na µ¡nra xyxa µp¡xxa, orrope c µna p¡ôa. Fnnsannara r¡nn (raôno 66, ]nr. 1).
Ho xamennnnn nnaxnn mecra n xpañ pexnre n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1500 m ,u. n. H¡]rn npes
nponerra.
B ctnpemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar nncrara (µpora Folia Petasites) n xopennmara
(Rhizoma Petasites), xonro ce c¡ônpar n xpax na nererannxra. Hpnnara ce n n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
V nac nma ome µna nnµa onuapxa, npn xonro nncrnnre µp¡xxn ca nn¡rnn n orrope saxp¡rnenn.
E±HOCEME±EAHH PACTEHHR
1. ×ñunnx¡r µonen oxononnernnre nncruera ca npnxpenenn naµ nero . ..........................
Koxnue Galanthus nivalis L.
1*. ×ñunnx¡r ropen oxononnernnre nncruera ca npnxpenenn noµ nero
......................................................................................................................2
2. Hneronere pasnonoxenn no 1 -2 n nasnnre na cpeµnnre cr¡ônenn nncra ........... Momxona
c¡nsa Polvgonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce
2*. Hneronere no n¡pxonere na cr¡ônara n rposµonnµnn nnn cennnxonnµ-nn
c¡nnernx......................................3
3. Hneronere pasnonoxenn n pexano rposµonnµno c¡nnerne. .................... Momnna c¡nsa
Convallaria mafalis L.
3*, Hneronere c¡ôpann n nonyx¡nôecr cennnx.................
........................... Henypµa Allium ursinum L.
CEM. KPEMOBH LILIACEAE
Aenypµa Allium ursinum L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro nyxonnuno pacrenne. Hyxonnnara eµnnnuna, npoµ¡nronara, µ¡nra 2-
6 cm, c pasnnmnama ce na ycnopeµnn nnaxna nnnecra oônnnxa, ôes nnn c µpeônn crpannunn
nyxonnuxn. Hncrara oônxnoneno µna, pxµxo eµnn nnn rpn, eµnaxnn, nsnnsamn or nyxonnnara,
mnpoxn 3-5 cm, ennnrnuno-nannernn, c µ¡ronnµno xnnxynane, x¡m ocnonara crecnenn n µ¡nra
µp¡xxa, x¡m n¡pxa saocrpenn; nnarannmero yµ¡nxeno. Hneronere c¡ôpann na n¡pxa na
ôesnncrnnx nneronocen crp¡x n nonyx¡nôecr cennnx, c oônnnxa or 2-3 noxpnnnn nncra, pano
onaµamn. Crp¡x¡r nncox 15-40 cm, rpncrenen, npn ocnonara cn oônnr or nncrnnre nnarannma.
Hnernnre µp¡xxn nsnpanenn, µ¡nrn µo 2 cm, no-µ¡nrn or oxononnernnxa, npn ocnonara cn ôes
npnnnernnnn. Hneronere ôenn, c no 6 nnneñno-nannernn, r¡nn nnn saocrpenn ôenn nncrue ra,
µ¡nrn 9-12 mm, pasnonoxenn n µna xp¡ra (npocr nenuennµen oxononnernnx, nepnron) (raôno
66, ]nr. 4).
(158)
Hs cenuecrn nnannncxn ropn nourn n nxnara crpana rnanno naµ 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn
mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar crp¡xonere (µpora Herba Allii ursini) n nyxonnnnre
(µpora Bulbus Allii ursini). Hma xapaxrepna mnpnsma, noµoôna na uec¡n, n nourn c¡moro
npnnoxenne xaro nero. Hsnonsyna ce mnpoxo n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Mounna csnsa Convailaria mafalis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro rono pacrenne c r¡nxo, µ¡nro xopnsonranno xopennme, or xoero
nsnnsar nncrara n nneronocnoro cr¡ôno. Hncrara npn-ocnonnn, oônxnoneno µna,
npoµ¡nronaro ennnrnunn, µ¡nrn 10-20 cm, mnpoxn 4-10 cm, c µ¡ronnµno xnnxynane,
nenoxpañnn, x¡m n¡pxa saocrpenn, n ocnonara crecnenn n oôpasynar µ¡nro nnnecro
nnarannme. Hneronocnoro cr¡ôno nncoxo 15-40 cm, ôesnncrno, nepasxnoneno, na n¡pxa c
pexano rposµonnµ-no c¡nnerne c 6-15 cnnno apomarnn nnxra, oô¡pnarn na eµna crpana. Oxo-
nonnernnx¡r npocr, sn¡nuennµen, oôpasynan or cpacrnanero na 6 cnexnoôenn nncruera, µ¡nrn
5-10 mm, ynncnann, na n¡pxa cn c 6 x¡cn s¡ôena. Hpn ocnonara na ncexn nnxr nma nnnecr
npnnnernnx, no-x¡c or nnernara µp¡xxa, xoxro e µ¡nra 6-18 mm. Tnunnxnre 6, no-x¡cn or
oxononnernnxa n cpacnann c nero. ×ñunx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r x¡nôecra opanxeno-uepnena
mececra xroµa, 10-12 mm n µnamer¡p. O1ponno!(raôno 66, ]nr. 3).
Hs ropn n xpacranann n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1400 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Convallariae),
nneronere (µpora Flores Convallariae) n nncrara (Folia Convallariae), xonro ce c¡ônpar no
npeme na n¡]rexa. Hañ-mnoro ce ynorpeôxnar nneronere n nncrara. Hpnnara ce n n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
Mouxona csnsa Polvgonatum odoralum (Mill.) Druce (P. officinale L.)
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µeôeno, mececro xopnsonranno xopennme n nsnpaneno
rono p¡ôecro cr¡ôno, nncoxo 15-50 cm. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, c x¡ca µp¡xxa nnn nourn
npnceµnann, pasnonoxenn n µna peµa, npoµ¡nronaro xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 3-12 cm, mnpoxn 2-5
cm, nenoxpañnn, c µ¡ronnµno xnnxynane. Hneronere ôenn, c npocr nenuennµen oxononnernnx,
apomarnn, pasnonoxenn no 1-2 n nasnnre na nncrara x¡m cpeµara na cr¡ônoro, ynncnann,
c¡cranenn or 6 cpacnann n rp¡ônna nncruera, µ¡nra µo 25 mm n c 6 senennxann s¡ôena n
ropnnx ñ xpañ. Tnunnxnre 6 npnxpenenn x¡m cpeµara na rp¡ônnara. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r
cnnxanouepna mececra xroµa (raôno 66, ]nr. 2).
Hs ropn n xpacranann n nxnara crpana µo x¡m 1500 -m n. n. H¡]rn npes mañ n mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna cnexoro xopennme (µpora Rhizoma Polygonati).
Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. KOKHHEBH AMARYLLIDACEAE
Koxnue Galanthus nivalis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nyxonnna µo 1,5 cm n µnamer¡p, c oônnnxa or cyxn crapn
nncra. Cr¡ônoro npocro, nncoxo µo 25 cm, na n¡pxa camo c eµnn ynncnan naµony nnxr. Hncrara
npnocnonnn, uecro µna, nsnnsa-
(159)
mn nanpano or nyxonnnara, nnocxn, nnneñnn, c ycnopeµna nepnarypa, mnpoxn 4-15 mm, na
µ¡nxnna µo 15 cm, na n¡pxa n¡sr¡nn. Oxononnernnx¡r npocr (nenuennµen), c 6 ôenn, µo
ocnonara cn pasµenenn nncruera n¡nmnnre rpn ca no-µ¡nrn (12-25 mm), yµ¡nxeno onannn,
cnaôo pasnepenn, oôpasynamn ]ynnñxa nnn sn¡nue; n¡rpemnnre 3 nncruera ca µnoñno no-
x¡cn, yµ¡nxeno oôparno c¡pnennµnn, na n¡pxa c¡c seneno nerno, cônnxenn, oôpasynamn
xoponxa. Tnunnxnre 6, c mnoro x¡cn µp¡xxn. ×ñunnx¡r µonen. Hnoµ¡r mececr, x¡nro-senen,
x¡nôecr (raôno 66, ]nr. 5).
Hs xpacranann, ropn n cxannn nonxnn n nxnara crpana nourn µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn ]enpyapn
anpnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna n¡]rxmara naµsemna uacr (µpora Herba Galanthus
nivalis).
(160)
BHAKH C HEPBEHH H PO3OBH HBETOBE
±BYCEME±EAHH PACTEHHR
HECPACAOBEHEHHH PACTEHHR
1. Xpacrn....................................2
1*. Tpenncrn pacrennx.............................3
2. Hncrara npocrn, nenoxpañnn. Hneronere c npocr oxononnernnx . . . ..................... Fxcno
µp¡nue Daphne me:ereumL.
2*. Hncrara cnoxnn, c nas¡ôenn nncruera. Oxononnernnx¡r µnoen (c uamxa n nenue)..........
Oônxnonenamnnxa Rosa canina L.
3. Oxononnernnx¡r npocr, c¡cranen or eµnn peµ nncruera nnn neµopasnnr (nonxxora nnncna
nan¡nno)..........................4
3*. Oxononnernnx¡r or µna nnn noneue xp¡ra nncruera, xaro n¡rpemnnxr c¡cranx
nenuero..................................6
4. Hpnnncrnnnnre n¡n nnµ na nnnecra rp¡ônna, oônnnama cr¡ônoro.
Hncrara npocrn......................................
........................ Cem. Hanaµonn Polvgonaceae
4*. Hpnnncrnnnnre c µpyro ycrpoñcrno nnn nncrara ôes npnnncrnnnn. Hncrara
nepecrn...................................5
5. C¡nnernero np¡xno, r¡mnouepneno, ronuecro..............
.................. Heueôno µnnue Sanguisorba officinalis L.
5*. C¡nnernero pasxnoneno, nneronere cnernouepnenn...........
.......................... Cem. Maxonn Papaveraceae
6. Hneronere nenpannnnn...........................7
6*. Hneronere npannnnn...........................10
7. Tnunnxnre µo 8...............................8
7*. Tnunnxnre 10................................9
8. Tnunnxnre 8, cpacnann n µne rpynn.....................
.................. Ionxma renuapxa Polvgaut mafor Jacq.
8*.Tnunnxnre2-3 ........... Cem.Maxonn Papaveraceae
9. Bcnuxn rnunnxn cpacnann c µp¡xxnre cn nnn µener cpacnann n eµna cnoôoµna......................
Cem.Foôonn Fabaceae
9*. Tnunnxonnre µp¡xxn µo ocnonara cn cnoôoµnn.............
............................ Pocen Dictamnus albus L.
10. Tnunnxnre noneue or 15.........................11
10*. Tnunnxnre µo 10, pxµxo µo 15 .....................13
11. Tnunnxonnre µp¡xxn cpacnann nonen µonnara cn uacr.........
........................... Cem.Cnesonn Malvaceae
11*. Tnunnxonnre µp¡xxn cnoôoµnn......................
......................... cem.Foxyponn Paeoniaceae
12. Hncrara cnoxnn nnn µ¡nôoxo µnanennµno nspxsann, nnn nsceuenn na
µxnone ..........................................
....................... Cem. 3µpanenonn Geraniaceae
12*. Hncrara npocrn, nenoxpañnn nnn nas¡ôenn.............13
13. Benuenncruerara 6..............................
................. Oônxnonena ônarnx Lvthrum salicaria L.
13*. Benuenncruerara 4 nnn 5........................14
(161)
14. Benuenncruerara 4............................ 15
14*. Benuenncruerara 5..............................
................... Cem. Kapam]nnonn Carvophvllaceae
15. Pacrenne nsoônnno noxpnro c npocrn n pasxnonenn xnesncrn nna-
cnnxn ...........................................
....................... Beuepnnx Hesperis matronalis L.
15*. Pacrenne rono nnn c npocrn nnacnnxn ..................
................... Hnnaµna ropna Curdamine pratensis L.
CEM. AAHA±OBH POLYGONACEAE
Kspnannue, naua 1pena Polvgonum L.
1. Hneronere none oruacrn pasmecenn c¡c cr¡ônennre nncra. Oônncreno-ro cr¡ôno nocrenenno
npemnnana n c¡nnerne, r. e. nxma xcno c¡nnerne ....
........................... Haua rpena P. aviculareL.
1*. Hneronere c¡ôpann n ôesnncren xnac, cnaôµen c orµenna µp¡xxa . . . ............................
K¡pnannue P. bistorta L.
Haua 1pena Polvgonum aviculare L.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c¡c cnnno pasxnoneno, oônxnoneno n¡nsxmo nnn
npnnonµnramo ce cr¡ôno. Hncrara ennnrnunn µo nnneñno-nannernn, µpeônn, µ¡nrn 2-5 cm,
mnpoxn 0,5-1,5 cm, nocneµonarennn, ne-noxpañnn, saocrpenn nnn r¡nn, c x¡ca µp¡xxa nnn
nourn npnceµnann. B ocnonara na ncexn nncr nnnecro µnyµenno rp¡ôecro nnarannme, mnoro
no-x¡co or mexµyn¡snnxra. Hneronere posonn, no-pxµxo µo ôenn, eµnnnunn nnn c¡ôpann na
rpynn no 2-6 n nasnnre na nncrara. Hneronere c npocr oxononnernnx, µ¡n¡r 3-4 mm, nsrpaµen
or 5 cpacnann n ocnonara cn nncruera. Tnunnxnre 8. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c 3 cr¡nôuera. Hnoµ¡r
rpncrenno opexue, µ¡nro 2,5-3,5 mm, xñnennµno, c maronoxa]xna naôp¡uxana non¡pxnocr
(raôno 67, ]nr. 1).
Bnpoxo pasnpocrpanena e no rpenncrn mecra, xpañ croôopn, n¡rnma, µnopone nourn µo
annnñcxara sona. H¡]rn or mañ µo noemnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Polygoni avicularis),
xoxro ce c¡ônpa npes nxnoro npeme na n¡]rexa. Hsnonsyna ce mnpoxo n n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
Kspnannue Polvgonum bistorta L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µeôeno, smnennµno nsnnro, orn¡n uepno, npn pasuynnane
posono-uepneno xopennme. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno, rono, nepasxnoneno, nncoxo 30-100 cm, na
n¡pxa c xnaconnµno c¡nnerne, µna n¡rn no-µ¡nro, orxonxoro mnpoxo, µ¡nro 2-7 cm, µeôeno 2-
1,5 cm. Hpnocnonnnre n µonnnre cr¡ônenn nncra eµpn, npoµ¡nronaro xñnennµnn µo
npoµ¡nronaro nannernn, n ocnonara xnnnonnµnn nnn nsneµn¡x crecnenn n µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 4-30
cm; cpeµnnre no-µpeônn, c x¡ca µp¡xxa nnn nourn npnceµnann, oôxnamamn c ocnonara cn
cr¡ônoro; nañ-ropnnre mnoro µpeônn,
(162)
nannernn µo nnneñnn, npnceµnann, ncnuxn nenoxpañnn. Bnarannmara mnoro µ¡nrn, rp¡ôecrn,
xa]xnn. Hneronere posonn µo posono-uepnenn, µ¡nrn 3-4 mm, c 5-µenen npocr oxononnernnx,
pasµenen nourn µo ocnonara cn. Tnunnxnre 8. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c 3 crtnôuera. Opexuero µ¡nro
4-5 mm, ocrpo rpnp¡necro, rnaµxo (raôno 68, ]nr. 1).
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna xopennmero (µpora Rhizoma Bistortae), xoero ce
nsxonana naecen, xoraro nncrara n cr¡ônoro sanounar µa ynxxnar. Bnpoxo ce ynorpeôxna n n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
Or poµa Polvgonum L. y nac nma nourn 20 nnµa, no npocro nepasxnoneno xnaconnµno
c¡nnerne, noµoôno na P. bistorta, nma camo P. viviparum L., na xoñro nneronere ca ôenn.
Bcnuxn ocranann nnµone, xonro npnnnuar na nauara rpena n ca c nnerone, pasmecenn c nncra,
ca mnororoµnmnn pacrennx.
CEM. KAPAMmHAOBH CARYOPHYLLACEAE
1. Cr¡nôuerara 2 .................................
........................ Canynue Saponaria officinalis L.
1*. Cr¡nôuerara 5.................................
........................K¡xnnna Agrostemtna githago L.
Ksxnnna Agrostemtna githago L.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, x¡m n¡pxa nnnyxno pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo
30-100 cm, noxpnro c r¡crn mexn nnacnnxn. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, nnneñnn µo nnneñno-
nannernn, µ¡nrn 8-15 cm, mnpoxn oxono 1 cm, npnnernano nnaxnecrn. Hneronere eµpn,
pasnonoxenn no eµnn nnn no nxxonxo na n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro n neronnre pasxnonennx. uamxara
cpacnana, rp¡ôecro-sn¡nuennµna, crecnxnama ce x¡m ropnara uacr, c 10 nnnecrn ôpasµn, rpyôo
nnaxnecra, µ¡nra 3-7 cm, n ropnara cn uacr c µ¡nrn µo 3 cm nnneñnn, nncronnµnn, saocrpenn
s¡ônn, no-µ¡nrn or nenuero. Benuenncruerara r¡mnouepnenn nnn cnernouepnenn, oôparno
onannn, na n¡pxa nnnrxo npxsann. Tnunnxnre 10. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c 5 crtnôuera. Kyrnñxara
eµnornesµna, pasnyxnama ce na 5 µxna. O1ponno! (raôno 67, ]nr. 2).
Hs nocennre n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1400 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ mnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
Canynue Saponaria officinalis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µocra µeôen uepnennxan xopen. Cr¡ônara no nxxonxo,
n¡sxoµxmn nnn nsnpanenn, oônxnoneno ronn, nncoxn 30-90 cm, n ropnara cn uacr pasxnonenn.
Hncrara cpemynonoxnn na xp¡cr, npoµ¡nronarn µo nannernn, nenoxpañnn, saocrpenn, c 3
xnnxn, µ¡nrn 5-12 cm, x¡m ocnonara crecnenn n x¡ca µp¡xxa nnn npnceµnann. Hneronere c
µp¡xxa, no 1-2 n nasnnre na nañ-ropnnre nncra n oôpasynamn na n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro n
pasxnonennxra mernnuecrn c¡nnernx. uamxara cpacnana, rp¡ôec-ra, µ¡nra oxono 20 mm, c 5
s¡ôena. Benuero posono µo ôxno, oôpasynano or 5 cnoôoµnn nncruera, µ¡nrn oxono 1 cm, c
onanna, cnaôo µnyµenna ropna uacr, c yµ¡nxena rxcna µonna uacr nox¡r, n µna nspacr¡xa
npn ocnonara nm. Tnunnxnre 10. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c 2 crtnôuera. Hnoµ¡r xñnennµna mnoroce-
menna xyrnñxa (raôno 68, ]nr. 2).
(163)
Hs xpacranann, xpañ orpaµn, no nnaxnn mecra xpañ pexnre n µpyraµe n nxnara crpana µox¡m
1400 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar xopen¡r (µpora Radix Sapona riae), xoñro ce
nsxonana x¡cno npes nxroro nnn pano npes ecenra, n n¡]rxmara naµsemna uacr (µpora Herba
Saponariae). Vnorpeôxna ce mnpoxo n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. BOÆYPOBH - PAEON1ACEAE
Boayp Paeonia L.
1. Hncrnnre µxnone recnonnneñnn (no-recnn or 5 mm) ..........
.................... Tecnonncren ôoxyp P. tenuifolia L.
1*. Hncrnnre µxnone xñnennµnn nnn ennnrnunn, mnpoxn naµ 10 mm .... ......................
Vxpacen ôoxyp P. peregrina Mill.
Tecnonnc1en õoayp Paeania tenuifolia L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co xopennme n rpyµecro saµeôe-nenn xopenn.
Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno, naµn¡xno naôpasµeno, nncoxo 15-50 cm, nourn nepasxnoneno, na n¡pxa c
eµnn, pxµxo c µna nnxra. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, c¡c cpannnrenno µ¡nra µp¡xxa, µnoñno nnn
rpoñno nepecro pasceuenn, c nnneñnn nnn nnneñno nnmxonnµnn µenuera, no-recnn or 5 mm.
Hneronere eµpn , 6-8 cm n µnamer¡p. uamxara c 6 senennxanouepnenn nncruera. Benuero
x¡pnanouepneno µo nourn r¡mnouepneno, c 8 mnpoxo xñnennµnn nncruera, µ¡nrn 3-4 cm n
mnpoxn 1,5-2,5 cm. Tnunnxnre mnoroôpoñnn, c uepnenn µp¡xxn n x¡nrn npamnnnn.
Hnoµnnnnre 4-5 na ôpoñ, r¡cronnaxnecrn, c ropen xñunnx. Hnoµ¡r côopen, mexynxa (raôno 67,
]nr. 3).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra n nsrounnre uacrn na crpanara n n Co]nñcxo. H¡]rn
npes anpnn n mañ. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Yxpacen õoayp Paeonia peregrina Mill.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nperenonnµno saµeôenen xopen n x¡co xopennme.
Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno, nepasxnoneno, nncoxo 50-90 cm, naµn¡xno naôpasµeno. Hncrara
nocneµonarennn, 2-3 n¡rn rpoñno nepecrn naµenenn, c recnn, ennnrnunn µo mnpoxo
rpn¡r¡nnn xpañnn µxnone, µ¡nôoxo npxsann nnn eµpo nas¡ôenn. Hneronere mnoro eµpn, 7-15
cm n µnamer¡p, pasnonoxenn noeµnnnuno na n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro, cnernouepnenn, no-pxµxo
posonn. uamenncruerara 5, cnoôoµnn, neeµnaxnn. Benuenncruerara nañ-uecro 8-12, oôparno
xñnennµnn, nxxon na n¡pxa cn nas¡ôenn, µ¡nrn 6-10 cm. Tnunnxnre mnoro, c uepnenn µp¡xxn.
Hnoµnnnnre 2-3 na ôpoñ, nnaxnecrn, µ¡nrn 2-4 cm, c ropen xñunnx. Hnoµ¡r côopen, c¡cranen
or 2-3 nnaxnecrn mexynxn (raôno 67, ]nr. 4).
Hs xpacranann n peµxn mnpoxonncrnn ropn nourn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn
npes mañ n ronn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar xopen¡r (µpora Radix Paeoniae), xoñro ce nsxonana
pano nanponer, xoraro ce pasnnnar nncrara, nscymennre nenuenncruera (µpora Flores Paeoniae)
n cemenara (µpora Semen Paeoniae). Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
(164)
CEM. MAKOBH PAPAJERACEAE
1. Hneronere npannnnn....... Honcxn max Papaver rhoeas L.
1*. Hneronere nenpannnnn...........................2
2. Mnororoµnmno pacrenne c rpyµxa. uamxara nnncna. Benuero c mnopa ............. Kyxa
nncnunna Corvdalis cava (L.) Schw. et Korte
2*.Eµnoroµnmno pacrenne c r¡nxn xopenuera, ôes rpyµxa. uamxara c
µna xp¡ra nncruera. Benuero c ropôecr nspacr¡x.................
.................. Heueôen poconac Fumaria officinalis L,
Honcxn uax, xaµsnxa Papaver rhoeas L.
Eµnoroµnmno, mnoro pxµxo µnyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c ôxn mneuen cox. Cr¡ônoro
nsnpaneno, npocro nnn pasxnoneno, oônxnoneno c pasnepenn nnacnnxn. Hpnocnonnnre nncra
na µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 3-15 cm, nepecro pasceuenn; µxnonere mnpoxn, xñnennµnn, eµpo nas¡ôenn,
np¡xnnxr no-eµ¡p; resn nncra no-pxµxo ca µnoñno nepecrn c nannernn, nas¡ôenn µenuera.
Cr¡ônennre nncra npnceµnann, yµ¡nxeno xñnennµno-nannernn, rpnµennn nnn nepecro
naceuenn, nas¡ôenn nnn nannnenn, ncnuxn nnaxnecrn. Hneronere eµnnnunn no n¡pxonere na
cr¡ônoro n xnonxnre na µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 10-20 cm. uamenncruerara µne, xonro onaµar cneµ
pasrnapxnero na nnera. Benuenncrue-rara 4, nourn xp¡rnn, µ¡nrn 3,5-5 cm, xpxouepnenn, no-
pxµxo ôenn, posonn nnn nnoneronn, nonxxora n ocnonara cn c uepno nerno. Tnunnxnre
mnoroôpoñnn, c uepnn nnn uepnenn nnmxonnµnn µp¡xxn n cnnxann npamnnnn. ×ñunnx¡r
ropen, mnorornesµen, c mnpoxo npnceµnano n¡uncro ônnsanne, c 8-20 paµnannn n¡ua. Hnoµ¡r
oôparno onanna nnn nourn x¡nôecra mnorocemenna rona xyrnñxa (raôno 67, ]nr. 5).
Ho rpenncrn mecra n ns nocennre xaro nnenen n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn
anpnn-anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar neneunnre nncra (µpora Flores Rhoeados). Hpnnara
ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac ce cpemar ome nxxonxo nnµa max, xonro nmar uepnenn nnerone, no nnoµnnre nm
xyrnñxn ca nnnnnµpnuno ôyrnnxonnµnn, uecro noxpnrn c uernnxn.
Kyxa nncnunna Corvdalis cava (L.) Schw. et Korte
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c noµsemna x¡nôecra xyxa rpyµxa. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno,
nncoxo 10-45 cm, rono, nepasxnoneno nnn cnaôo pasxnoneno. Hncrara µna, nocneµonarennn, c
µp¡xxa, µna µo rpn n¡rn nepecro rpoñnn, c nnneñno-nannernn nnn ennnrnunn µo oôparno
xñnennµnn µxnone, µ¡nrn 0,5-5 cm, mnpoxn 0,2-2 mm, nenoxpañnn nnn na n¡pxa cn eµpo
nas¡ôenn, xpañnnxr µxn c µp¡xxa. Hneronere 10-20, pasnonoxenn n pxµxo rposµo-nnµno
c¡nnerne na n¡pxa na npocroro, µ¡nro 2-8 cm, nepasxnoneno cr¡ôno, c nenn onannn
npnnncrnnnn. Hnernnre µp¡xxn µ¡nrn 5-9 mm. Hneronere posonn, no-pxµxo ôenn, µ¡nrn 22-30
mm, c µne pano onaµamn uamenncruera. Benuenncruerara 4, n µna xp¡ra µnere n¡rpemnn
ennnrnunn, eµnaxnn, cpacnann n ocnonara cn, or n¡nmnnre µne µonnoro n ocnonara cn uecro e
mexypecro noµyro nnn c x¡ca mnopa, a ropnoro na n¡pxa pasmnpeno, nnocxo nnn nµn¡ônaro.
Tnunnxnre 3, na n¡pxa cn 3-µennn c 6 npamnnxa. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r pasnyxnama ce na
µne xyrnñxa (raôno 69, ]nr. 1).
Hs ropn n xpacranann n nxnara crpana nourn µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn.
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B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Corydalis cavae) n
rpyµxnre (µpora Tubera Corydalis cavae). Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Aeueõen poconac Fumaria officinalis L.
Eµnoroµnmno nexno rpenncro pacrenne, nncoxo 10-40 cm, pasxnoneno, npnnonµnramo ce nnn
nsnpaneno. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, na µp¡xxa, n oômoro cn ouepranne mnpoxo ennnrnunn, c
rxcno nnneñnn, nnneñno-nannernn nnn ennnrnunn xpañnn µenuera, mnpoxn 1-4 mm, ronn,
nas¡ôenn. Hneronere npnceµnann n nasnnre na nañ-ropnnre nncra, c¡ôpann n rposµo-nnµnn
c¡nnernx, µ¡nrn 2-6 cm, c nnneñno-xnnnonnµno saocrpenn npnnner-nnnn, no-x¡cn or nnernnre
µp¡xxn. Hneronere npannnnn, posono-uepnenn µo nypnypnonnoneronn, µ¡nrn 6-9 mm.
uamenncruerara µ¡nrn 1,5-3,5 mm, nas¡ôenn, no-recnn n 2-3 n¡rn no-x¡cn or
nenuenncruerara. Benuero c 4 nncruera, ropnoro n¡nmno c ropôecr nspacr¡x. Tnunnxnre 2, c
rpnµennn npamnnnn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r cnnecxano x¡nôecro opexue, na n¡pxa - manxo
nµn¡ônaro, mnpoxo 2,5-3,0 mm, c nsnpanena µp¡xxa. O1ponno!(raôno 68, ]nr. 3).
Hs rpenncrn mecra, nnnaµn, nacnma n µp. n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn
mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsonsyna naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Fumariae), xoxro ce
c¡ônpa no npeme na n¡]rexa. Hsnonsyna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Fnnxara ne rpxôna µa ce cmecna c ocranannre nnµone or rosn poµ. uamenncruerara na µpyrnre
nnµone nnn ca no-x¡cn or 1 mm, nnn Hnoµnnre µp¡xxn ca nsnnrn naµony, nnn ca pasnepenn.
Opexuerara nm ne ca nµn¡ônarn na n¡pxa cn.
CEM. KPTCTOHBETHH - BRASSICACEAE (CRUCIFERAE)
Beuepnnx Hesperis matronalis L.
¡nyroµnmno nnn mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, npocro nnn pasxnoneno
cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 1,2 m, noxpnro nsoônnno c npocrn nnn pasxnonenn xnesncrn nnacnnxn.
Hncrara npocrn, onannn µo onanno nannernn, nas¡ôenn nnn nenn, ronn nnn nnaxnecrn,
ropnnre npnceµnann, nonyoô-xnamamn cr¡ônoro. Hneronere npannnnn, c¡ôpann n
mnoronnernn rposµo-nnµnn c¡nnernx. Hnernnre µp¡xxn µ¡nrn 10-20 mm. uamenncruerara n
nenuenncruerara no 4. uamenncruerara µ¡nrn 5-10 mm, npoµ¡nronarn, c recen ôxn nnnecr p¡ô
no xpax, ronn nnn nnaxnecrn. Benuenncruerara µ¡nrn 14-25 mm, posonn, nnoneronn, apomarnn,
npoµ¡nronaro ennnrnunn, x¡m ocnonara crecnenn n nox¡r. Tnunnxnre 6, or xonro 2 no-x¡cn.
×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r mymynxa, µ¡nra 6-10 mm, c µp¡xxa, nnaxnecr, nnnnnµpnuen µo
cnaôo cnnecxan, ron (raôno 68, ]nr. 4).
Ho xamennnnn n rpenncrn mecra n ns xpacranann n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn
mañ mnn.
Ho-pano ce e ynorpeôxnan n o]nnnannara meµnnnna, a cera camo n napoµnara.
3aoe.erra. Hueaoua eopea Cardaminepralensis L. (er. npu ou.ru c oe.u µeemoee).
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CEM. PO3OHBETHH - ROSACEAE
Oõnxnonena mnnxa Rosa ainina L.
Cnnno ôoµnnn xpacr, nncox µo 2-3 m, c µ¡roµnnno nsnnrn xnonn, ncnuxn cnaôµenn c
mnoroôpoñnn rn¡pµn, c¡pnonnµno nsnnrn mnnone. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, µ¡nrn 7-9 cm,
neun]ronepecrn, c 5-7 ennnrnunn nncruera, µ¡nrn 1,5-3 cm, mnpoxn 1-1,5 cm, ocrpo nas¡ôenn,
ronn. Hncrara c x¡ca µp¡xxa, c npnpacnann x¡m nex recnn, xnesncro pecnnuecrn
npnnncrnnnn. Hneronere µnynononn, 4-6 cm n µnamer¡p, eµnnnunn nnn no nxxonxo no
n¡pxonere na xnonxnre, posonn, no-pxµxo ôenn. Hnernoro nerno nµn¡ônaro, c ]opma na
µennnuxa, na ropnnx xpañ na xoxro ca npnxpenenn 5-re nepecro nspxsann uamenncruera, 5-re
eµpn necpacnann nenuenncruera n mnoroôpoñnnre rnunnxn. B¡rpe n µennnuxara, mexµy
xonpnneno n¡cxann nnacnnxn ce namnpar mnoroôpoñnnre nnoµnnuera, unnro crtnôuera ce
noµanar nan¡n or ornopa na µennnuxara. Cneµ onnoxµanero re ce npenp¡mar n rn¡pµn
nnoµuera, opexuera, a µennnuxara napacrna n cneµ yspxnanero ce npenp¡ma n uepnena mececra
n¡cxana ,manxa" (raôno 69, ]nr. 2).
Hs xpacranann n ropn, xpañ nnnn n na µpyrn mecra n nxnara crpana nourn µo 2000 m n. n.
H¡]rn mañ mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar yspennre r¡mnouepnenn nscymenn mnnxn µpora
Fructus Rosae (Fructus Cynosbati). Hma mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
V nac ce cpemar ronxm ôpoñ nnµone mnnxn. Hnoµonere na nxxon, ônnsxn µo oônxnonenara
mnnxa nnµone c¡mo ce c¡ônpar, nanpnmep R. gallica L., R. pendulina L., R. tomentosa Srn., R.
caesia Sm, Pasnnuananero na orµennnre nnµone mnnxn e mnoro rpyµno sa necnennanncra n
nopaµn rona nnoµonere ce c¡ônpar npaxrnuecxn or nourn ncnuxn nnµone.
Aeueõno µnnue Sanguisorba officinalis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µeôeno xopennme n c eµnnnunn, n ropnara cn uacr cnaôo
pasxnonenn peôpncrn cr¡ôna, nncoxn µo 1 m. Hncrara neun]ronepecrn, npnocnonnnre µ¡nrn
µo 30 cm, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, oônxnoneno c¡c 7-25 nncruera, npnceµnann, c npoµ¡nronaro
ennnrnuna nnn xñnennµna ]opma, npn ocnonara c¡pnennµnn, na n¡pxa saxp¡rnenn, µ¡nrn 1,5-6
cm, mnpoxn 1-2,5 cm, nannneno nas¡ôenn, nan¡nno ronn xaro cr¡ônoro. Cr¡ônennre nncra
npnceµnann. Hneronere µnynononn, c¡ôpann n onannn nnn x¡co nnnnnµpnunn rnannuxn, µ¡nrn
15-30 mm, r¡mnouepnenn µo nourn uepnn. Benuero nnncna. uamxara nenuennµna, c 4 nncruera.
Tnunnxnre 4 nnn noneue. Hnoµonere sarnopenn n¡n nrn¡pµxnama ce 4-crenna uameuna
rp¡ônna (raôno 69, ]nr. 3). Cpema ce nancxx¡µe no nnaxnn npeµnnannncxn n nnannncxn
nnnaµn mexµy 800 n 2200 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nsnaµennre npes ecenra xopenn n xopennma (µpora
Radix et Rhizoma Sanguisorbae). Hsnonsyna ce mnpoxo n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. BOBOBH - FABACEAE (PAPILIONACEAE)
1. Hncrara c eµna µnoñxa nncruera, xaro nncrnara µp¡xxa san¡pmna c
pasxnoneno mycraue. Mexµyn¡snnxra na cr¡ônara xpnnarn...........
.................... Iopcxo cexnpue Lathyrus syhestrisL.
(167)
1*. B¡px¡r na oômara nncrna µp¡xxa, n¡pxy xoxro ca pasnonoxenn orµennnre nncruera (3 na
ôpoñ), nnnarn san¡pmna c nncrue, a ne c ocnnue nnn mycraue ........................................ 2
2. Foµnnn nonyxpacr. Hneronere eµnnnunn nnn c¡ôpann no nxxonxo n nasnnre na nncrara.......
Foµnnn rp¡morp¡n Ononis spinosa L.
2*. Heôoµnnno rpenncro pacrenne. Hneronere c¡ôpann n rnannuxn no n¡pxonere na
pasxnonennxra . . uepnena µerennna TrifoliumpratenseL.
Iopcxo cexnpue Lathvrus svlvestris L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nxxonxo nonernann nnn npnnonµnramn ce, ronn
uernpnp¡ôecrn xpnnarn cr¡ôna, µ¡nrn µo 2-3 m. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, c xpnnara µp¡xxa, c
eµna µnoñxa nncruera n c µ¡nro pasxnoneno mycraue na n¡pxa. Hpnnncrnnnnre µ¡nrn 1 -3 cm,
mnpoxn 2-5 mm, crpe-nonnµnn, nnneñno-mnnonnµnn.Hncruerara nnneñno-nannernn, µ¡nrn 5-
15 cm, mnpoxn 0,5-2 cm. Hneronere nenpannnnn, c¡ôpann no 3-12 n rposµonnµnn c¡nnernx
n¡pxy oôma µ¡nra µp¡xxa, nsnnsama or nasnnre na nncrara, panna no µ¡nxnna na nasnennx
nncr nnn no-µ¡nra or nero. uamxara sn¡nuennµna, rona, c 5 neeµnaxnn s¡ôena, no-x¡cn or
rp¡ônnara ñ. Benuero µ¡nro 13-20 mm, posono, c xapaxrepnoro sa ôoôonnre pacrennx
ycrpoñcrno c naµnñxa, xpnnna n ]narue. Tnunnxnre 10, or xonro 9 cpacnann n rp¡ônna, a
µecerara cnoôoµna. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r ôoô, µ¡n¡r 4-7 cm, mnpox 5-15 mm, cnnecxan,
pasnyxnnn (raôno 69, ]nr. 4).
Cpema ce ns xpacranann npeµnmno xpañ pexn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 800 m n. n. H¡]rn or mnn
µo anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Boµnnn rpsuo1psn Ononis spinosa L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne nnn nonyxpacr c npocrn nnn pasxnonenn cr¡ôna, crenemn
ce no semxra, n¡sxoµxmn nnn nsnpanenn, nncoxn 10-80 cm, c x¡cn rn¡pµn ôoµnn, xnesncro
nnaxnecrn. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, µonnnre n cpeµnnre rpoñnn c ennnrnunn nnn xñnennµnn
nas¡ôenn nncruera, a ropnnre npocrn. Hncruerara µ¡nrn 8-15 mm, mnpoxn 3-10 mm, xnesncro
nnaxnecrn. Hpnnncrnnnnre µ¡nrn 3-6 mm, nncronnµnn, nas¡ôenn, cpacnann c nncrnara
µp¡xxa, xnesncro nnaxnecrn. Hneronere nenpannnnn, n nasnnre na nncrara, oôpasynar pexano
rposµonnµno c¡nnerne. Hnernnre µp¡xxn µ¡nrn 2-3 mm, r¡croxnesncro nnaxnecrn, ôes
npnnnernnnn. Hneronere c xapaxrepnoro sa ôoôonnre pacrennx ycrpoñcrno. uamxara
sn¡nuennµna, 5-nncrna, noxpnra c npocrn n xnesncrn nnacnnxn. Benuero posono, µ¡nro 6-20
mm, c naµnñxa, saocrpena xaro uonxa, n µocra ronxmo ]narue. Tnunnxnre 10, cpacnann. Hnoµ¡r
ôoô, µ¡n¡r 6-10 mm, mnpox 3-4 mm, xñnennµno-pomônuen, r¡croxnesncro nnaxnecr (raôno 69,
]nr. 5).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn mecra, ôperone na pexn n µp. n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1500 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn
mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna xopen¡r (µpora Radix Ononidis), xoñro ce nsxonana
npes ecenra cneµ yspxnanero na nnoµonere. Hsnonsyna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hepnena µe1ennna Trifolium pratense L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c no nxxonxo nsnpanenn, n¡sxoµxmn nnn nonernann,
pasxnonenn cr¡ôna, nncoxn 20-100 cm, ronn nnn camo n rop-
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nara cn uacr pecnnuecrn. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, rpoñnn, µonnnre na µ¡nra µp¡xxa (15-20
cm), nañ-ropnnre nourn npnceµnann; orµennnre nncruera ennnrnunn µo oôparno xñnennµnn,
µ¡nrn 1-3 cm, mnpoxn 0,5-1,5 cm, nenoxpañnn nnn nnnrxo nas¡ôenn. Hpnnncrnnnnre
rpn¡r¡nno nannernn, saocrpenn, nenoxpañnn, n no-ronxmara cn uacr cpacnann c nncrnara
µp¡xxa. Hneronere µnynononn, c¡ôpann n x¡nôecrn nnn xñnennµnn rnannuxn, eµnnnunn nnn
no µne, oônxnoneno oônnrn or nañ-ropnnre nncra, 2-3 cm n µnamer¡p. uamxara rp¡ôecra, c 10
xnnxn n 5 s¡ôena, nnaxnecra, µ¡nra 7-10 mm. Benuero µ¡nro 12-15 mm, r¡mnouepneno µo
cnernouepneno, or 5 neeµnaxnn nncruera (µnere µonnn cpacnann n naµnñxa, µnere crpannunn
oôpasynar xpnnna, a ropnoro no-eµpo ]narue). Tnunnxnre 10, or xonro 9 cpacnann c
µp¡xxnre cn, a µecerara cnoôoµna. Hnoµ¡r eµnocemenen nnnecr ôoô, oôxnanar or uamxara
(raôno 70, ]nr. 1).
Hs nnaxnn nnnaµn, nacnma, rpenncrn mecra n nxnara crpana nourn µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ
mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nscymennre nnerone (µpora Flores TriIolii pratensae)
n nxnara naµsemna n¡]rxma uacr (Herba TriIolii pratensae). Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
CEM. 3±PABEHOBH - GERANIACEAE
1. Hncrara nepecrn. Camo 5 rnunnxn ca cnaôµenn c npamnnnn, a ocranannre 5 npeµcrannxnar
npocrn nnmxn........................
.................... uaconnnue Erodium cicutarium L´Her.
1*. Hncrara µnanennµno napxsann. H 10-re rnunnxn cnaôµenn c npamnnnn
............................................2
2. Hneronere eµnnnunn, pasnonoxenn n¡pxy µ¡nra c¡unenena µp¡xxa . . ...........
K¡pnanouepnen sµpanen GeraniumsanguineumL.
2*. Hneronere c nec¡unenena µp¡xxa, pasnonoxenn no µna (pxµxo no rpn) n¡pxy oôma
µp¡xxa..............................3
3. Eµnoroµnmno pacrenne c r¡nxn, necno nsnaxµamn ce or nounara xopenuera. Hncrara n
oômoro cn ouepranne 5-¡r¡nnn, µ¡nôoxo 3-5-µennn; np¡xnnxr µxn no-eµ¡p, c µoôpe pasnnra
µp¡xunna, a crpannunnre c x¡ca µp¡xunna, nourn npnceµnann, ncnuxn µ¡nôoxo nepecro
napxsann. Tnunnxnre cxpnrn n nnera.....................................
............... Poôepron sµpanen Geranium robertianum L.
3*. Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µeôeno xopennme, noxpnro c nmcnn. Hncrara,
ocoôeno µonnnre cr¡ônenn, n oômoro cn ouepranne saxp¡rnenn, µnanennµno napxsann na 5-9
ocrpo nas¡ôenn µxna, xonro n ocnonara cn ce c¡eµnnxnar nomexµy cn. Tnunnxnre cr¡puar
nsn¡n nnera...........
............. Oônxnonen sµpanen Geranium macrorrhi:um L.
Oõnxnonen sµpanen Geranium macrorrhi:um L.
Pacrenne c npann cr¡ôna, nncoxn 20-70 cm, noxpnrn c xnesncrn nnacnn-xn. Hpnocnonnnre
nncra mnpoxn 4-10 cm, µ¡nrn 2-7 cm, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra µo 30 cm; cr¡ônennre cpemynonoxnn, na
x¡ca µp¡xxa (µo 5 cm), a nañ-ropnnre npnceµnann; ncnuxn noxpnrn c npocrn n xnesncrn
nnacnnxn. Hneronere c¡ôpann n¡n np¡xnn mnoronnernn c¡nnernx, oôpasynann or no nxxonxo
ocn c no 2 nnxra, xaro ncxxa oc e µ¡nra µo 5 cm, a nnernara µp¡xxa µ¡nra µo 2 cm. Hneronere
npannnnn, c uamxa n nenue or no 5 cnoôoµnn nncruera. Benuenncruerara posono- uepnenn µo
nnonerono-uepnenn, oôparno xñnennµnn, x¡m ocno-
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nara crecnenn n pecnnuecrn, µ¡nrn 15-20 mm, nourn 2 n¡rn no-µ¡nrn or uamxara. Tnunnxnre
10. Hnoµ¡r cyxa rona xyrnñxa, pasnaµama ce na 5 µxna (raôno 70, ]nr. 2).
Hs nnaxnn, cenuecrn xamennnnn n cxannn mecra n nnannncxnre pañonn mexµy 300 n 2500 m n.
n. H¡]rn anpnn anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna nxnara naµsemna uacr (µpora Herba Geranii
macrorrhizi), xoxro ce c¡ônpa no npeme na n¡]rexa. Hma ronxmo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
Kspnanouepnen sµpanen Geranium sanguineum L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c xopnsonranno xopennme. Cr¡ônara npnnonµnramn ce
nnn nsnpanenn, nncoxn 15-60 cm, pasxnonenn, n ocnonara cn oônxnoneno nouepnxnamn,
noxpnrn c µ¡nrn pasnepenn nnacnnxn. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, n oômoro cn ouepranne
saxp¡rnenn, 2-4 cm n µnamer¡p, nourn µo ocnonara cn pasµenenn na 5-7 µxna; µxnonere
µnanennµno pasµenenn na 3-5 nnneñnn, nourn nenoxpañnn µenuera, nnaxnecrn, orµony c µ¡nrn
ôenn nnacnnxn. Hpnocnonnnre nncra pano nsc¡xnamn, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 2-8 cm, a cr¡ônennre c
µp¡xxa µo 5 cm, nnaxnecra. Hneronere eµnnnunn, µo 3 cm n µnamer¡p, na µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 5-20
cm. uamxara n nenuero c no 5 nncruera. Benuenncruerara x¡pnanouepnenn, µ¡nrn 15-20 mm, na
n¡pxa npxsann, 2 n¡rn no-µ¡nrn or uamxara. Tnunnxnre 10. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c¡cranen or 5
µxna, ncexn or xonro san¡pmna c µ¡nro nocue. Hnoµ¡r cyxa xyrnñxa, pasnyxnama ce na 5 µxna
(raôno 70, ]nr. 3)..
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra, ns xpacranann n ropcxn nonxnn n nxnara crpana nourn
µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna xopennmero (Rhizoma Geranii sanguinei). Vnorpeôxna
ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Poõep1on sµpanen Geranium robertianum L.
Eµnoroµnmno, no-pxµxo µnyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nenpnxrna mnpnsma, c nsnpaneno
nnn npnnoµnnramo ce, uecro cnnno pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 15-50 cm, uepneno, c pasnepenn
xnesncrn nnacnnxn. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, mnpoxn 3-8 cm, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa (µo 20 cm),
nnaxnecrn. Hneronere no µna, 6-9 mm n µnamer¡p. uamenncruerara 5, µ¡nrn 7-9 mm, c ocnnue
na n¡pxa cn, nnaxnecrn. Benuenncruerara µ¡nrn 913 mm, na n¡pxa saxp¡rnenn, posono-
uepnenn µo nnoneronn, 2 n¡rn no-µ¡nrn or uamenncruerara, c 3 no-cnernn nnnnn. Tnunnxnre
10. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r cyxa xyrnñxa, pasnyxnama ce na 5 µxna (raôno 70, ]nr. 4).
Hs nnaxnn cenuecrn mecra, ropn n xpacranann n nxnara crpana nourn µo 2000 m n. n.-H¡]rn
mañ-oxromnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar crp¡xonere (µpora Herba Geranii robertiani).ˆ
Hamnpa npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Haconnnue Erodium cicutarium L´Her.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nonernano, npnnonµnramo ce nnn nsnpaneno cr¡ôno,
nncoxo ¡o 60-80 cm, oxocmeno, nonxxora n c xnesncrn nnacnnxn. Hpnocnonnnre nncra
c¡ôpann n poserxa, µ¡nrn µo 10 cm, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra µo 7 cm, cr¡ônennre cpemynonoxnn, n
oômoro cn ouepranne npoµ¡nro-
(170)
narn, nepecrn c nepecro pasµenenn µxnone, nnaxnecrn. Hneronere npannnnn, c¡ôpann no
nxxonxo (µo 12) n¡pxy µ¡nrn µo 14 cm nnaxnecrn µp¡xxn. uamenncruerara 5, nnaxnecrn, x¡co
saocrpenn, µ¡nrn 4-7 mm. Benuenncruerara 5, posono-uepnenn, µ¡nrn 2-7 mm, nepannn
nomexµy cn, oôparno xñnennµnn. Camo 5 rnunnxn c npamnnnn. ×ñunnx¡r c¡cranen or 5 µxna,
ncexn or xonro nma na n¡pxa cn no eµnn µ¡n¡r ocnn, xoñro cneµ yspxnanero na nnoµa (cyxa
pasnyxnnna xyrnñxa) ce sannna crpannuno (raôno 70, ]nr. 5).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn, nec¡xnnnn n xamennnnn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn
mañ noemnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Erodii cicutari).
Hsnonsyna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. CE±EmHEBH RUTACEAE
Pocen Dictamnus albus L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µeôen nµ¡pnenxn xopen n nsnpaneno, n µonnara cn uacr
nµ¡pnenxno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 40-90 cm, c mnpnsma, noµoôna na xanena, nsn¡unana or r¡mnn
xnesncrn nnacnnxn, pasnonoxenn n ropnara my uacr, ocoôeno n oônacrra na c¡nnernero.
Hncrara neun]ronepecrn, nocneµonarennn, npnceµnann, c 7-13 nourn xoxecrn, eµpn nannernn
nnn xñnennµnn, no p¡ôa cnrno nas¡ôenn nncruera, µ¡nrn 1,5-5 cm, mnpoxn 0,5-2,5 cm, c r¡mnn
npnceµnann rouxonnµnn xnesnuxn no non¡pxnocrra, camo np¡xnoro uecro c µp¡xxa.
Hneronere cnaôo nenpannnnn, c¡ôpann n¡n np¡xno rposµonnµno c¡nnerne, xnesncro
oxocmeno. Hpnnnernnnnre nnneñno-nannernn, nnaxnecrn; nnernnre µp¡xxn xnesncro
nnaxnecrn. uamenncruerara 5, nannernn, r¡nn nnn saocrpenn, µ¡nrn 5-6 mm, uecro
nenuennµno oôarpenn, ronn nnn nnaxnecrn. Benuenncruerara 5, neeµnaxnn, µ¡nrn 2-2,5 cm,
ôxno-posonn, c uepnenn xnnxn n uepnn rouxonnµnn xnesn; uernpnre nenuenncruera
nsnpanenn narope, a neroro nsnnro naµony. Tnunnxnre 10, µ¡ronnµno nsnnrn naµony, µ¡nrn 3-
3,5 cm. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, 5-rnesµen. Hnoµ¡r pasnyxnnna 5-rnesµna xyrnñxa (raôno 71, ]nr. 1).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn, xamennnnn n xpacranaunn mecra npeµnmno n¡pxy naponnr repen, n ro
rnanno, n no-ronnnre uacrn na crpanara µox¡m 1200 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna xopen¡r (µpora Radix Dictamni), xoñro ce nsnaxµa
x¡m xpax na nxroro nnn n nauanoro na ecenra. Hma mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
Pacrennero rpxôna µa ce c¡ônpa mnoro nnnmarenno, samoro namnpamnre ce no nero xnesncrn
nnacnnxn morar µa npeµnsnnxar cepnosnn n¡snanennx no xoxara n pann.
CEM. TEAHAPKOBH POLYGALACEAE
Ionnua 1enuapxa Polvgala mafor Jacq.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c xopennme n c nsnpanenn npocrn, cnaôo oxocmenn, r¡cro
oônncrenn cr¡ôna, nncoxn 20-50 cm, n ocnonara cn ôes nncrnn poserxn. Hncrara
nocneµonarennn, µ¡nrn 1-3 cm, mnpoxn 1,5-3 mm; µonnnre oôparno xñnennµnn, r¡nn, ropnnre
nannernn µo nnneñnn, ncnuxn
(171)
nenoxpañnn n ronn. Hneronere nenpannnnn, posono-uepnenn, pxµxo nnoneronn nnn ôenn,
c¡ôpann n¡n np¡xnn rposµonnµnn c¡nnernx, c (10) 30-60 nnxra. uamxara 5-nncrna, c 2 no-
eµpn, nenuennµno oôarpenn nncruera (xpnnna), µ¡nrn 10-12 mm, xonro ca c 1€4 no-x¡cn or
rp¡ôonnµnara uacr na nenuero. Benuenncruerara 3, cpacnann nomexµy cn µonnoro
nsxpnneno (naµnñxa). Tnunnxnre 8, cpacnann n ocnonara cn n eµno, a no-narope n µne cnonuera
or no 4 rnunnxn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, c eµno cr¡nôue n na n¡pxa c 2 ônnsanna. Hnoµ¡r
µnyrnesµna cnnecxana xyrnñxa (raôno 71, ]nr. 2).
Hs nnnaµn, rpenncrn mecra n xpacranann npeµnmno n npeµnnannncxnx n nnannncxnx noxc
nourn µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ anrycr.
B meµnnnnara ce ynorpeôxnar xopennmero c xopennre (µpora Radix et Rhizoma Polygalae
majoris) n nxnara naµsemna uacr (µpora Herba Polygalae).
CEM. CAE3OBH MALJACEAE
1. B¡nmnara uamxa c¡cranena or 3 µo ocnonara cn cnoôoµnn nncruera . . .............................
Cnes Malva svlvestris L.
1*. B¡nmnara uamxa c¡cranena or 3-9 cpacnann nomexµy cn nncruera . 2
2. B¡nmnara uamxa c¡cranena or 3 cpacnann nncruera...........
....................... Hanarepa Lavatera thuringiaca L.
2*. B¡nmnara uamxa c¡cranena or 6-9 cpacnann nncruera..........
.................................. Pyxa Althaea L.
Cnes Malva svlvestris L.
¡nyroµnmno, no-pxµxo eµnoroµnmno nnn mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c npnnonµnramn
ce nnn nsnpanenn pasxnonenn cr¡ôna, nncoxn 30-120 cm, r¡cro noxpnrn c pasnepenn uernnxn,
pxµxo ronn. Hncrara nocneµo narennn, µ¡nrn 2-8 cm, mnpoxn 2,5-10 cm, saxp¡rneno
ô¡ôpexonnµnn, nas¡ôenn, µonnnre cnaôo napxsann, ropnnre no-µ¡nôoxo 3-7-µennn, nourn
npnceµnann, orrope pascexno nnaxnecrn µo ronn, orµony ôenonnaxnecrn µo n¡s-ronn; nncrnara
µp¡xxa oxocmena, µ¡nra µo 20 cm. Hneronere no nxxonxo n nasnnre na nncrara, n nasnenn n
np¡xnn rposµonnµnn c¡nnernx. Hneronere eµpn, 3-4 cm n µnamer¡p, na µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 1-4 cm.
uamxara µnoñna c¡mnncxa (n¡rpemnara) c 5 nncruera, µ¡nrn 5-6 mm, cpacnann naµ cpeµara,
n¡nmnara no-x¡ca, c 3 cnoôoµnn nncruera. Benuenncruerara 5, cnoôoµnn, na n¡pxa µ¡nôoxo
npxsann, µ¡nrn 12-30 mm, posono-uepnenn, c no-r¡mnn naµn¡xnn xnnxn. Tnunnxnre
mnoroôpoñnn, cpacnann n rp¡ônna. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r µncxonnµen, 5-10 mm n µnamer¡p,
pasnaµam ce na 10-12 crpannuno cnnecxann ô¡ôpexonnµnn nnoµuera (raôno 71, ]nr. 3).
Ho rpenncrn mecra, n nsxonn, xpañ n¡rnma, orpaµn n µp. xaro ôypen µox¡m 1400 m n. n. H¡]rn
mañ cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nncrara (µpora Folia Malvae), n nneronere (µpora
Flores Malvae). Hamnpa mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Aana1epa Lavatera thuringiaca L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne, nxnoro ôenesnnxano or nann¡crenn-re snesµonnµnn
nnacnnxn. Cr¡ônara nsnpanenn, nncoxn µo 2 m, oônxnoneno pasxnonenn. Hncrara µ¡nrn µo 9
cm,mnpoxn 3-10 cm, saxp¡rnenn, nas¡ôenn,
(172)
npnocnonnnre c µp¡xxa, no-µ¡nra or nerypara; cr¡ônennre nocneµonarennn, c µp¡xxa no-x¡ca
or nerypara, µonnnre nnnrxo 5-µennn, ropnnre 3-µennn, nnnrxo nas¡ôenn, c no-ronxm cpeµen
µxn; npnnncrnnnnre saocrpenn, µ¡nrn 4-7 mm. C¡nnernero np¡xen cnnno yµ¡nxen rposµ.
Hneronere npannnnn, eµnnnunn n nasnnre na nncrara, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa (1,5-5 cm). Hncruerara
na n¡nmnara uamxa saxp¡rnenn, x¡co saocrpenn, µ¡nrn 6-10 mm; n¡rpemnara uamxa c 5
nncruera, µ¡nrn 10-15 mm, c 5 s¡ôena na n¡pxa cn. Hncruerara n na µnere oônnnxn cpacnann
nourn µo ocnonara cn, nnaxnecrn. Benuero eµpo, 2,0-5,5 cm n µnamer¡p, posono, c 5 npxsann na
n¡pxa cn nncruera, 3-4 n¡rn no-µ¡nrn or uamxara. Hnoµ¡r c 20-25 µxna, ronn, napeµenn n xp¡r
(raôno 71, ]nr. 4).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn mecra, xpacranann, xpañ n¡rnma n na µpyrn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m
1700 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn oxromnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Pyaa Althaea L.
1. B¡nmnara uamxa c¡cranena or 6, pxµxo 7 µxna. Tp¡ônara crpana na nnoµuerara c µ¡nôox
xneô (yneñ). Benuenncruerara no-µ¡nrn or 2 cm .... 2
1*. B¡nmnara uamxa c¡cranena or 8-9 µxna. Tp¡ônara crpana na nnoµuerara ôes xneô.
Benuenncruerara no-x¡cn or 2 cm .................
........................ Heueôna pyxa A. officinalis L.
2. Cr¡ônara ronn nnn c peµxn nnacnnxn (nann¡crenn camo no nañ-mnaµnre xnonxn).
Hepn]epnnre uacrn na crpannunnre crenn na nnoµuerara nnaxnecrn................. Posona pyxa
A. rosea (L.) Cav.
2*. Cr¡ônara r¡cro nnaxnecrn, nann¡crenn. Crpannunnre crenn na nnoµnnre µxnone ronn
............... Fneµa pyxa A. pallida Willd.
Aeueõna pyaa Althaea officinalis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co µeôeno xopennme n µ¡n¡r µo 50 cm ôenesnnxan
xopen, nxnoro mexo n¡nnecro or nann¡crenn snesµonnµnn nnacnnxn. Cr¡ônoro npano,
pasxnoneno, nncoxo µo 2 m. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 5-15 cm, mnpoxn 3-12
cm; µonnnre cnaôo 3-µennn; ropnnre xcno 3-µennn, nas¡ôenn. ¡p¡xxara nm µ¡nra 2-6 cm, no-
x¡ca or nerypara, nañ-ropnnre nncra npnceµnann. Hneronere ôneµoposonn µo nourn ôenn, no
2-3 n nasnnre na nncrara n¡n np¡xnnre uacrn na cr¡ônoro n pasxnonennxra my, xaro oôpasynar
rposµonnµnn nnn mernnuecrn c¡nnernx. B¡nmnara uamxa c 8-12 nnneñnn nncruera, µ¡nrn 5-
10 mm, a n¡rpemnara c 5 rpn¡r¡nnn ocrpn µxna. Benuenncruerara 5, µnoñno no-µ¡nrn or
uamxara. Tnunnxnre mnoro, cpacnann n rp¡ônna, c xpxouepnenn npamnnnn. Hnoµ¡r nnoc¡x,
µncxonnµen, npn yspxnanero ce pasnaµa na 15-25 cyxn nnoµuera (raôno 71, ]nr. 5).
Ho nnaxnn xpañpeunn n mouypnnnn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn
cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar xopen¡r (µpora Radix Althae-ae), nsxonan npes
ecenra, nncrara (µpora Folia Althaeae) n nneronere (µpora Flores Althaeae). Vnorpeôxna ce n n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
Posona pyaa Althaea rosea (L.) Cav.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno npocro nnn pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 3 m,
rono nnn c peµxn nnacnnxn. Hncrara na µ¡nrn µp¡xxn
(173)
(0,5-14 cm), saxp¡rnenn nnn xñnennµno c¡pnennµnn, µ¡nrn 2-10 cm, mnpoxn 212 cm, 6-7-
µennn; ropnnre 3-µennn, nas¡ôenn, r¡cro xocmarn. Hneronere eµpn, eµnnnunn nnn no 2-3 n
nasnnre na nncrara, c¡ôpann n nourn xnaconnµnn c¡nnernx, c x¡ca µp¡xxa. B¡nmnara uamxa
cpacnana µo 1€3 or µ¡nxnnara cn, no-x¡ca or n¡rpemnara, µ¡nra 13-15 mm, c 6-7 mnpoxo
rpn¡r¡nnn saocrpenn cnoôoµnn µxna, nnaxnecrn; n¡rpemnnre µ¡nrn 18-22 mm, c¡mo cpacnann
µo 1€3, c 5 cnoôoµnn µxna. Benuenncruerara posonn nnn ôenn, nnoneronn µo uepno-uepnenn,
µ¡nrn 2,5-5 cm, npnnoxpnnamn ce c xpanmara cn, mnpoxo oôparno xñnennµnn, na n¡pxa
npxsann, x¡m ocnonara crecnenn. Tnunnxonara rp¡ônna µ¡nra 10-15 mm, rona. Hnoµ¡r 18-25
mm n µnamer¡p, pasnaµam ce na 20-40 xa]xnn nnoµnn µxna, xaro rp¡ônara nm crpana e c
µ¡nôoxa rxcna ôpasµa.
Ho cyxn rpenncrn mecra n xpacranann xaro ôypen. Orrnexµa ce n xaro µexoparnnno pacrenne.
H¡]rn anpnn cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Bneµa pyaa Althaea pallida Willd.
¡nyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpanenn npocrn nnn paµsxnonenn cr¡ôna, nncoxn µo 1,5
m. Hncrara c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 0,5-15 cm, saxp¡rneno c¡pnennµnn, µ¡nrn 2-9 cm, mnpoxn 2-10 cm,
µonnnre nnnrxo, ropnnre no-µ¡nôoxo nspxsann na 3-5 µxna, nas¡ôenn, r¡cro xocmarn.
Hneronere 6-10 n µnamer¡p, no eµnn nnn no µna n nasnnre na nncrara, na µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 3-10
mm, npn nnoµa yµ¡nxena n nsnpanena. B¡nmnnre uamenncruera µ¡nrn 10-18 mm, cpacnann n
µonnara cn uacr, n¡rpemnnre µ¡nrn 12-20 mm, c¡mo cpacnann n ocnonara cn. Benuenncruerara
posonn nnn posono-uepnenn, n ocnonara x¡nrennxann, µ¡nrn 30-45 mm, mnpoxo oôparno
xñnennµnn, na n¡pxa µ¡nôoxo npxsann, nenoxpn-namn ce c xpanmara cn. Tnunnxonara rp¡ônna
µ¡nra 6-9 mm, rona. Hnoµ¡r 10-20 mm n µnamer¡p, pasnaµam ce na 32-45 nnoµnn µxna.
Ho cyxn rpenncrn mecra n xpacranann n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn
anrycr.
Vnorpeôxnar ce c¡mnre pacrnrennn uacrn xaro na neueônara pyxa.
CEM. BRCHO±PTBHEBH THYMELAEACEAE
Bncno µpsnue Daphne me:ereum L.
Hncronaµno xpacrue, nncoxo µo 2 m, c nsnpanenn nnn n¡sxoµxmn, cnaôo pasxnonenn xnonxn c
x¡nrennxanocnna xopa, n ropnara cn uacr npnnernano nnaxnecrn. Hncrara npocrn,
nocneµonarennn, c¡ôpann no n¡pxonere na xnonxnre, µ¡nrn 3-10 cm, mnpoxn 1,5-2,5 cm,
nenoxpañnn, npoµ¡nronaro oôparno xñnennµnn, saocrpenn, nocrenenno crecnenn n x¡ca
µp¡xxa, cnaôo pecnnuecrn. Hneronere ce noxnxnar pano nanponer npeµn pasnncrnanero,
cnnpanno n¡pxy crapnre xnonxn, npnceµnann, pasnonoxenn no 2-5 n nasnnre na
mnnanoroµnmnnre nncra, oôpasynamn pexann xnaconnµnn c¡nnernx; nneronere ca npannnnn
nnn cnaôo nenpannnnn, c¡c cnnen apomar n ca ôes npnnncrnnnn. Oxononnernnx¡r npocr,
nenuennµen, 4-µenen, c npnnernano pecnnuecra rp¡ônna, µ¡nra 6-8 mm, n c r¡nn, xñnennµnn
pasnepenn µenuera. Tnunnxnre 8. ×ñunnx¡r ropen, eµnornesµen, c x¡co cr¡nôue n ronxmo
x¡nôecro ônnsanne. Hnoµ¡r xocrnnxon, x¡nôonnµen µo xñnennµen, ron, c xpxouepnena mececra
oônnnxa. O1ponno! (raôno 72, ]nr. 1).
(174)
Cpema ce ns cenuecrn n xamennnnn mecra n¡n ncnuxn nnannncxn oônacrn na F¡nrapnx mexµy
600 n 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn npes mapr n anpnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna xopara my (Cortex Mezerei) Vnorpeôxna ce n n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. BAATHEBH LYIHRACEAE
Oõnxnonena õna1nn Lvthrum salicaria h.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, nourn 4-p¡ôecro cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 2 m,
npocro nnn pasxnoneno n ropnara cn uacr, x¡connaxnecro, pxµxo nourn rono. Hncrara
npnceµnann, n ocnonara cn c¡pnennµnn, µonnnre cpemynonoxnn nnn n npemnenn no 3-4,
nannernn µo yµ¡nxeno ennnrnunn, µ¡nrn 3-12 cm, mnpoxn 1-2 cm, nnaxnecrn, cpeµnnre
cpemynonoxnn, ropnnre uecro nocneµonarennn, x¡m n¡pxa oônxnoneno saocrpenn,
nenoxpañnn. Hneronere c x¡ca µp¡xxa (1-2 mm), c µna manxn onaµnnnn npnnnernnxa, c¡ôpann
no 2-4 n nasnnre na nañ-ropnnre nncra n oôpasynamn xnaconnµno nnn rposµonnµno c¡nnerne.
uamxara 6-nncrna, cpacnana n rp¡ônna, µ¡nra 4-8 mm, na n¡pxa cn c 6 s¡ôena, mexµy xonro ca
pasnonoxenn 6 µocra eµpn npnµartunn s¡ôuera, µ¡nrn 2-3 mm. Benuenncruerara 6, posono-
nnoneronn µo ôenn, npoµ¡nronaro oôparno xñnennµnn, na n¡pxa oônxnoneno saxp¡rnenn,
µ¡nrn 8-12 mm. Tnunnxnre 12. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r rona xyrnñxa, pasnyxnama ce
naµn¡xno na µne (raôno 71, ]nr. 6).
Ho nnaxnn mecra, xpañ pexn n ônara n nxnara crpana nourn µo 2000 m n.
n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar np¡xnnre cr¡ônenn uacrn c nneronere (µpora Herba
Salicariae). Hpnnara ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CPACAOBEHEHHH PACTEHHR
1. Hapasnrnn pacrennx ôes senenn nncra..................2
1*. Pacrennx c¡c senenn nncra........................3
2. Pacrennx c µeôeno nsnpaneno mececro cr¡ôno ..............
................... Iopcxa mañxa Lathraea squamaria L.
2*. Pacrennx c r¡nxo, nnmxonnµno cr¡ôno, ynnnamo ce no µpyrn pacrennx, no xonro
napasnrnpa...............................
................. Cem. Kyxynnuonpexµonn Cuscutaceae
3. Hneronere c¡ôpann n xomnnuxa n oônnrn c oôma oônnnxa or nañ-rop-nnrenncra...............
Cem,. Cnoxnonnernn Asteraceae
3*. Hneronere pasnonoxenn no µpyr naunn, pxµxo oôpasynar rnannuxn, no rorana ca ôes oôma
oônnnxa nnn nncrara ca c¡ôpann no 4 nnn noneue n npemnenn.......................................4
4. ×ñunnx¡r µonen................................
................. Heueôna µnnxnxa Jaleriana officinalis L.
4*. ×ñunnx¡r ropen ..............................5
5. ×ñunnx¡r n¡nmno pasµenen na 2 nnn 4 uacrn, mexµy xonro nsnnsa
cr¡nôuero.......................................6
5*. ×ñunnx¡r nxn................................7
6. Hncrara nocneµonarennn. Tnunnxnre 5. Hneronere npannnnn.....
.................... Cem.Ipananonncrnn Boraginaceae
(175)
6*. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn. Tnunnxnre 4. Hneronere nenpannnnn, µnyycrnn...................
Cem.Vcrnonnernn Lamiaceae
7. Hncxn xpacrn nnn µpeônn, n¡nsxmn no semxra xpacruera........
.......................... Cem.Hnpenonn Ericaceae
7*. Tpenncrn pacrennx.............................8
8. Hneronere nenpannnnn............................
................ Kyuemxo xnnennue Scrophularia canina L.
8*. Hneronere npannnnn............................9
9. Tnunnxnre pasnonoxenn mexµy neneunnre µxnone............
......................... Cem.Hrnnxonn Primulaceae
9*. Tnunnxnre pasnonoxenn cpemy mexµnnnre na neneunnre µxnone . .
.............................................10
10. Fnarno pacrenne c nncra na µ¡nra µp¡xxa, nsnnsama nanpano or xopennmero ...............
Iopunnue Menvanthes trifoliata L.
10*. Cyxosemnn pacrennx c pasnnro cr¡ôno n nncra c µpyra ]opma ....
.............................................11
11. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn. Hneronere nnnnnµpnunn c pasnepena xoponxa, c¡ôpann n
mernnuecrn c¡nnernx.......................
.............. uepnen xanrapnon Centaurium ervthraea Raf.
11*. Hncrara nocneµonarennn. Hneronere eµnnnunn, c ]ynnennµno nenue...Oônxnonena
nonernna Convolvulus arvensis L.
CEM. HHPEHOBH ERICACEAE
1. Hncrara nrnonnµnn ..............................
....................... Kanyna Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull.
1*. Hncrara nnocxn...............................2
2. Manxn nnannncxn xpacruera c onaµnnnn nncra.............3
2*. Xpacruera n xpacrn c neunosenenn nncra................4
3. Hncrara nan¡nno nenoxpañnn........................
................. Cnnx ôoponnnxa Jaccinium uliginosum L.
3*. Hncrara no xpax nas¡ôenn..........................
................. uepna ôoponnnxa Jaccinium mvrtillus L.
4. Hneronere no-µ¡nrn or 1 cm c µ¡nôoxo 5-µenno nenue. Hnoµ¡r pasnyx-
nnna xyrnñxa......................................
.......... Crpanµxancxa senennxa Rhododendron ponticum L.
4*. Hneronere no-x¡cn or 1 cm, na n¡pxa cn c 5 s¡ôena. Hnoµ¡r xoxnuxa nnn
couen........................................5
5. Hnoµ¡r couen. Hncrara no p¡ôa cn ronn..................
............. . . uepnena ôoponnnxa Jaccinium vitis-idaea L.
5*. Hnoµ¡r xoxnuxa. Hncrara no p¡ôa cn c r¡crn n x¡µpann nnacnnxn (nyna…) ........... Meuo
rposµe Arctostaphvlos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.
Kanyna Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull.
Beunosenen xpacr c nsnpanenn xnonn, or nourn ronn µo r¡cro nnaxnecrn, nncox 70-80 cm,
pxµxo µo 1,5 m.Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, µpeônn, nnneñnn, µ¡nrn 2,5-3,5 mm, xepemnµooôpasno
npnnoxpnnamn ce, rpnp¡ôecrn, c nsn¡xnana ropna n nµn¡ônara µonna crpana, c¡c crpenonnµna
ocnona, no p¡ôa rpanann or ronemnx ôpoñ x¡cn uernnxn. Hneronere µpeônn, posonn, c¡ôpann
n¡n np¡xnn mnoronnernn rposµonnµnn c¡nnernx. uamxara 4-µenna, c µ¡nrn 3,0-3,5 mm, posono
oôarpenn nenuennµnn nncruera, noµ xonro ce namnpar 4
(176)
xñnennµnn npnnnernn nncruera, oôpasynamn nropa, n¡xnnna uamxa. Benuero c¡mo c 4
nncruera, µ¡nôoxo 4-µenno, xamôanonnµno, no-x¡co or uamxara, ôneµoposono. Tnunnxnre 8.
×ñunnx¡r ropen, c¡c cr¡nôue, manxo no-µ¡nro or uamxara. Hnoµ¡r 4-rnesµna x¡co nnaxnecra
xyrnñxa (raôno 72, ]nr. 2).
Ho cyxn xamennnnn n oôesnecenn repenn n xpañ µ¡ôonn ropn n Crpanµxa nnannna µo 500 m n.
n. H¡]rn mnn oxromnpn.
B meµnnnnara ce nsnonsynar n¡]rxmnre xnonxn (µpora Herba Callunae).
C1panµaancxa senennxa Rhododendronponticum L.
Hsnpanen, cnnno pasxnonen neunosenen xpacr nnn nncxo µp¡nue, nncoxo µo 8 m. Hncrara
nocneµonarennn, µ¡nrn 6-25 cm, mnpoxn 2-5 cm, yµ¡nxeno ennnrnunn, cnaôo saocrpenn,
crecnenn x¡m ocnonara n npemnnanamn n µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 1-2,5 cm, ronn, nenoxpañnn, xoxecrn.
Hneronere eµpn, 4-6 cm n µnamer¡p, eµnnnunn nnn no nxxonxo c¡ôpann n¡n np¡xnn uaµ¡pecrn
ctnnernx; nnernnre µp¡xxn µ¡nrn .1-3,5 cm, ronn. uamxara n nenuero 5-µennn. uamxara
µncxonnµna, rona c 5 rpn¡r¡nnn s¡ôuera n ropnnx cn xpañ, µ¡nrn 1-2 mm. Benuero µ¡nro 3,5-6
cm, 4-6 cm n µnamer¡p, ]ynnennµno, nnonerono-posono µo ôneµoposono, c¡c saxp¡rnenn
neneunn µxnone, nnnrxo npxsann na n¡pxa; rp¡ônnara µ¡nra 1,5-2 cm. Tnunnxnre 10.
×ñunnx¡r ropen, c¡c cr¡nôue, µ¡nro 4,5-7 cm, naµnnmanamo neneunnre µxnone. Hnoµ¡r cyxa
nnnnnµpnuna 5-rnesna xyrnñxa, µ¡nra 17-28 mm. O1ponno!(raôno 72, ]nr. 3).
Hs cenuecrn ropncrn mecra, rnanno xaro noµnec n ôyxonn ropn n Crpanµxa nnannna. H¡]rn
npes mañ n mnn.
B meµnnnnara ce ynorpeôxnar nncrara, xnonnre n nneronere.
Meuo rposµe Arctostaphvlos uva-ursi (X.J Spreng.)
Beunoseneno nonernano nnn npnnonµnramo ce, r¡cro oônncreno xpacr -ue, nncoxo µo 1 m.
Hncrara nocneµonarennn, µ¡nrn 12-30 mm, mnpoxn 4-12 mm, npoµ¡nronaro oôparno xñnennµnn
µo nonaronnµnn, nenoxpañnn, nocrenenno npemnnanamn n x¡ca µp¡xxa (µo 3 mm), orµony c
xcno nsn¡xnana mpexa or xnnxn, ronn, camo no p¡ôa cn c r¡crn, x¡µpann nnacnnxn, orrope no-
r¡mno, orµony no-cnerno senenn. Hneronere µpeônn, µ¡nrn 5-6 mm, x¡nôecrn, posonn µo ôenn,
c¡ôpann n¡n np¡xnn ynncnann rposµonnµnn c¡nnernx; nnernnre µp¡xxn µ¡nrn 1,5-2,5 mm, c
xnnnonnµen npnnnernnx npn ocnonara nm. uamxara n nenuero sn¡nuennµnn, c no 5 s¡ôena na
n¡pxa, xaro nenuero e nourn 2 n¡rn no-µ¡nro or uamxara. Tnunnxnre 10. ×ñunnx¡r ropen.
Hnoµ¡r uepnen, c]epnuen, oxono 10 mm n µnamer¡p (raôno 73, ]nr. 1).
Ho cyxn xamennnnn n cxannn nonxnn n ns nrnonncrnnre ropn na 3anaµna n Cpeµna Crapa
nnannna, Bnroma, Pnna, 3anaµnn n Cpeµnn Poµonn, Hnpnn, Cnanxnxa, Fenacnna n
Ocoroncxara nnannna mexµy 1000 n 2500 m n. n. H¡]rn npes ronn n mnn.
Henno neôeuno pacrenne, unnro nncra, c¡ôpann no npeme na n¡]rexa, npeµcrannxnar µporara
Folia uvae-ursi. Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hepnena õoponnnxa, xoxos Jaccinium vitis-idaea L.
¡peôno neunoseneno xpacrue c nonernann nnn npnnonµnramn ce xnonxn, nncoxn µo 30 cm,
nnaxnecrn. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, ennnrnunn nnn oôpar-
(177)
no onannn, µ¡nrn 5-30 mm, mnpoxn 3-12 mm, nourn nenoxpañnn, na n¡pxa saxp¡rnenn nnn
cnaôo npxsann, orµony c¡c cnernoxa]xnn npnceµnann xnesn; nncrnnre µp¡xxn µ¡nrn 1-3 mm,
nnaxnecrn. Hneronere c¡ôpann no 3-10 n¡n np¡xnn rposµonnµnn c¡nnernx c r¡cro xnesncrn
pecnnuecrn nnernn µp¡xxn. uamxara c 4-5 s¡ôena, xnesncro pecnnuecra. Benuero x¡nôecro,
ôneµoposono, µ¡nro 5-8 mm, 4-5-µenno. Tnunnxnre 8, no-pxµxo 10. ×ñunnx¡r µonen. Hnoµ¡r
c]epnuna, 5-10 mm n µnamer¡p, couna uepnennxana xroµa, (raôno 73, ]nr. 2).
Ho xamennnnn n cxannn nonxnn n nrnonncrnn ropn n Cpeµna n 3anaµna Crapa nnannna,
Bnroma, Pnna, 3anaµnn n Cpeµnn Poµonn, Hnpnn, Fenacnna, Cpeµna ropa. Hnana, Hosencxa
nnannna n Cenremnpnñcxn pnµ (Hxrnmancxo). H¡]rn mañ anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nncrara (µpora Folia Vitis idaeae), xonro ce c¡ônpar
npeµn n¡]rexa. Vnorpeôxnar ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Cnnn õoponnnxa Jaccinium uliginomm L.
Hncxo xpacrue, nncoxo µo 50 cm, c nsnpanenn xnonxn. Hncrara ennnrnunn nnn oôparno
xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 5-30 mm, mnpoxn 4-15 mm, na x¡ca µp¡xunna (1-1,5 mm). Hneronere no 1-3 n
rpynn, pasnonoxenn no n¡pxonere na crapnre xnonxn, ôneµoposonn. Hnernnre µp¡xxn µ¡nrn
2-4 mm, ronn. uamxara nourn µo ocnonara cn 4-5-µenna. Benuero µ¡nro 4-5 mm, nsµyro, c 4-5
s¡ôena na n¡pxa. Tnunnxnre 8-9. ×ñunnx¡r µonen. Hnoµ¡r nourn c]epnuen, 7-10 mm n
µnamer¡p, cnnxan c¡c senennxana mececra uacr (raôno 73, ]nr. 3).
Ho xamennnnn n cxannn repenn npeµnmno n¡n nncoxonnannncxnx noxc na Cpeµna n 3anaµna
Crapa nnannna, Cpeµna ropa, Bnroma, Pnna, Hnpnn, 3anaµnn n Cpeµnn Poµonn, Ocorono n
K¡pnann xam¡x (Tp¡ncxo). H¡]rn mañ anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hepna õoponnnxa, õpycnnxa Jaccinium mvrtillus L.
Manxo nncronaµno xpacrue, nncoxo 15-50 cm, c p¡ôecrn, rxcno xpnnarn xnonxn. Hncrara
nocneµonarennn, µ¡nrn 1-3 cm, mnpoxn 6-15 mm, xñnennµnn nnn npoµ¡nronaro xñnennµnn,
cnrno nas¡ôenn, crecnenn x¡m n¡pxa cn, ronn, c x¡ca µp¡xunna (1-1,5 mm). Hneronere
eµnnnunn, n nasnnre na nncrara, c µp¡xunna, µ¡nra 2,5-4,0 mm. uamxara nannuxonnµna, nourn
nxna. Benuero 4-5-µenno, posono-seneno, sn¡nuennµno, µ¡nro 4-6 mm. Tnunnxnre 8-10.
×ñunnx¡r µonen. Hnoµ¡r c]epnuna cnnxanouepna xroµa, 6-10 mm n µnamer¡p (raôno 73, ]nr.
4).
Ho xamennnnn, cxannn nonxnn, nncoxonnannncxn nacnma, rop]nma n nrnonncrnn ropn.
Cpema ce xaro oônxnoneno pacrenne n¡n ncnuxn no-nncoxn nnannnn n F¡nrapnx mexµy 1000 n
2500 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar nncrara (µpora Folia Myrtilli), xonro ce c¡ônpar
npes mnn n anrycr, .n nnoµonere (µpora Fructus Myrtilli). Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara
meµnnnna.
CEM. HIAHKOBH PRIMULACEAE
1. Benuenncruerara cnernoposonn, oô¡pnarn nasaµ. Hncrara nan¡crpe-
nn. Pacrenne c rpyµxa.................................
................ Ecenno ôyrypue CvclamenhederifoliumAit.
(178)
1*. Benuenncruerara uepnenn nnn cnnn, nsnpanenn. Pacrenne c r¡nxo, nsnpaneno oônncreno
cr¡ôno n ôes rpyµxa .. Ornnnue Anagalis arvensis L.
Ecenno õy1ypue Cvclamen hederifolium Ait. (C. neapolitanum Ten.)
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c noµsemna cnnecxana rpyµxa, 3-15 cm n µnamer¡p. Hncrara
nsnnsar nanpano or rpyµxara, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa (10-20 cm), n oômoro cn ouepranne ca
saxp¡rnenn, µ¡nrn 3-14 cm, mnpoxn 2-10 cm, c 5-7 nnnrxo nas¡ôenn µxna, n ocnonara cn
c¡pnennµnn, ronn, npesn-mynamn. Hneronere eµnnnunn, eµpn, na µp¡xxa, µ¡nra µo 20 cm,
nsnnsama or rpyµxara, no-µ¡nra or nncrara. uamxara 5-µenna, µ¡nra 2,5-3,5 mm, c xñnennµnn
nnn rpn¡r¡nnn saocrpenn µenuera. Benuero 15-25 mm n µnamer¡p, c¡craneno or 5 µocra µ¡nrn,
cpacnann n ocnonara cn n oô¡pnarn nasaµ cnerno-posonn nncruera. Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r
ropen. Hnoµ¡r x¡nôecra xyrnñxa, µ¡nra 6-10 mm; nnoµnnre µp¡xxn ce sannnar cnnpanno n
sapanxr nnoµa n nounara, x¡µero yspxna. O1ponno!(raôno 72, ]nr. 4).
Ho xamennnnn mecra n xpacranann n cenepnnre npeµnnannncxn cxnonone na Crapa nnannna
(T¡pnoncxo n µp.), Hsrounn n Cpeµnn Poµonn, Cpeµna ropa, Hosencxa nnannna, Crpymcxara
µonnna, Konxncxa nnannna, Cnanxnxa, µonnnara na p. Mecra n na µpyrn mecra µox¡m 600 m n.
n. H¡]rn anrycr oxromnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar rpyµxnre (µpora Tubera Cyclaminis). Vnorpeôxna ce
n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Ornnnue Anagalis arvensis L.
Eµnoroµnmno nnn µnyroµnmno rono rpenncro pacrenne c npnnonµnramo ce nnn nsnpaneno
cr¡ôno, nncoxo 10-30 cm, uernpnp¡ôecro, pasxnoneno or ocnonara cn. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn,
npnceµnann, xñnennµnn nnn npoµ¡nronaro xñnennµnn, orµony c uepnn rounnn, µ¡nrn µo 1,5
cm, mnpoxn µo 1 cm, nenoxpañnn. Hneronere no eµnn n nasnnre na nncrara, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa
(µo 3,5 cm), snaunrenno yµ¡nxanama ce cneµ npen¡]rxnanero. uamxara µ¡nra 4-5 mm, nourn
µo ocnonara cn 5-µenna, c¡c cnrno nas¡ôenn ronn xnnnonnµnn µxnone. Benuero opanxeno-
uepneno nnn cnnto, µncxonnµno, mnpoxo 6-7 mm, nourn µo ocnonara cn 5-µenno, c oôparno
xñnennµnn, cnaôo nspxsann µenuera, mnpoxn 8-13 mm, no r¡pôa cn cnrno pecnnuecrn.
Tnunnxnre 5, cpacnann n ocnonara cn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r x¡nôecra pasnyxnama ce
xyrnñxa, µ¡nra 1-1,5 mm, rona (raôno 74, ]nr. 1).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn mecra, opnnnn, xpañ n¡rnma n µp. n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1200 m n. n.
H¡]rn mañ cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna nxnara naµsemna uacr (µpora Herba Anagalis), xoxro
ce c¡ônpa npes mnn n anrycr. Hsnonsyna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
3aoe.erra. Br. u npu ou.ru cìc cuuu u cuuio-euo.emoeu µeemoee.
CEM. THHTRBOBH OENTIANACEAE
Hepnen xan1apnon Centaurium ervthraeaRaf. (Ervthraeacentaurium Pers.f)
Eµnoroµnmno nnn µnyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 30-40 cm, rono,
uernpnp¡ôecro, pasxnoneno n ropnara cn uacr. Hpnoc-
(179)
nonnnre nncra c¡ôpann n poserxa, npoµ¡nronaro oôparno xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 0,5-2 cm, r¡nn;
cr¡ônennre cpemynonoxnn, npoµ¡nronaro nannernn nnn nnneñno-nannernn, µ¡nrn 3-4 cm,
saocrpenn, ncnuxn nenoxpañnn. Hneronere c¡ôpann na n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro n pasxnonennxra my
n mnoronnernn mnronnµnn mernnnn. uamxara n¡n nnµ na rp¡ônna, na ropnnx cn xpañ 5-µenna.
Benuero oônxnoneno posono-uepneno, cpacnano n rxcna rp¡ônna, na n¡pxa c 5-µenna xoponxa.
Tnunnxnre 5, npnxpenenn c µp¡xxnre cn x¡m rp¡ônnara na nenuero. ×ñunnx¡r c r¡nxo
cr¡nôue n µnypasµenno ônnsanne. Hnoµ¡r xyrnñxa, µ¡nra oxono 10 mm. Honxxora nncrara,
uamxara n npnnnernnnnre ca cnrno xnesncrn (raôno 74, ]nr. 2).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra, ns nnnaµn, xpacranann n µp. n nxnara crpana µox¡m
1500 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar n¡]rxmnre crp¡xone (µpora Herba Centaurii),
orpxsann na 15-20 cm noµ n¡pxa. Hma mnoro ronxma ynorpeôa n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. IOPHHBHEBH MENYANTHACEAE
Iopunnue Menvanthes trifoliata L.
Mnororoµnmno ônarno rpenncro pacrenne c n¡nsxmo xopennme. Hncrara npnxpenenn nanpano
x¡m xopennmero na µ¡nrn ronn µp¡xxn (10-20 cm), pasmnpenn n ocnonara cn n nnnecro
nnarannme, c 3-µenna nerypa, c nenoxpañnn ennnrnunn µxnone, µ¡nrn 3-12 cm, mnpoxn 1,5-5
cm. Hneronocnnxr crp¡x ôesnncren, nncox 15-40 cm, a c¡nnernero np¡xno, rposµonnµno, µ¡nro
2-7 cm n ce yµ¡nxana cneµ npen¡]rxnanero. uamxara 5-nncrna, cpacnana µo cpeµara, µ¡nra 2-3
mm. Benuero posono, ]ynnennµno, 10-14 mm n µnamer¡p, c µ¡nra rp¡ônna, c µ¡nôoxo
pasµenena xoponxa, µxnonere na xoxro ca noxpnrn orn¡rpe c r¡crn nnacnnxn. Tnunnxnre 5.
×ñunnx¡r ropen, c nnmxonnµno cr¡nôue n µnyµenno ônnsanne. Hnoµ¡r nourn ronuecra
xyrnñxa, 7-8 mm n µnamer¡p, pasnyxnama ce no µna mena (raôno 74, ]nr. 3).
Hs saônarenn mecra n rop]nma rnanno n nnannnnre. Cpema ce pxµxo n 3anaµna Crapa nnannna
(Herpoxan), 3anaµnn n Cpeµnn Poµonn, Pnna, Hnpnn (Hononn nnnaµn), Bnroma, n
Camoxoncxo n Cranxeµnmnrponcxo none. H¡]rn mnn anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar nncrara (µpora Herba TriIolii Iibrini), xonro ce
c¡ônpar n xpax na n¡]rexa. Vnorpeôxna ce mnpoxo n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
3aoe.erra. Ce+. Kvrveu:onperooeu Cuscutaceae. Eeponeùcra rvrveu:a nperoa
Cuscuta europaea L Ce+. Hoeemuµoeu Convolvulucaeae. Oouruoeeua no-eemuµa
Convolvulus arvensis L. (er. npu ou.ru c oe.u µeemoee)
CEM. IPAHABOAHCTHH BORAGINACEAE
1. Ornop¡r na neneunara rp¡ônna nourn sarnopen c 5 nspacr¡xa.....
................. Heueôna naymxa Cvnoglossum officinale I..
1*. Ornop¡r na neneunara rp¡ônna ne e sarnopen c nspacr¡nn......2
2. uamxara pasceuena nañ-mnoro µo cpeµara.................
............... Heueôna meµynnna Pulmonaria officinalis L.
2*. uamxara pasceuena nourn µo ocnonara...................
. . . Bnonerono nrnue npoco Lithospermumpurpureo-coeruleum L.
(180)
Bnone1ono n1nue npoco Lithospermum purpureo-coeruleum L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c 2-3 cr¡ôna, ornauano nsnpanenn, nncoxn 50-60 cm, no-
x¡cno nonernann, noxpnrn c pasnepenn uernnxn, c¡c crepnnnn nsµ¡nxn, xonro ce nxopenxnar n
xpanmara cn. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, na µnara xpax saocrpenn, µ¡nrn 3-8 cm, mnpoxn 0,7-1,5
cm, mexn, c npn-nernann uernnxn, nenoxpañnn, ôes saôenexnmn crpannunn xnnxn. Hneronere
c x¡ca µp¡xxa, npannnnn, c¡ôpann n¡n np¡xnn oônncrenn cnnpannn c¡nnernx. uamxara 5-
µenna, pasceuena nourn µo ocnonara, µ¡nra 6-8,5 mm, c¡c saocrpenn nnneñnn µenuera. Benuero
]ynnennµno, µ¡nro 14-19 mm, ornauano uepneno, no-x¡cno cnnto, nourn 2 n¡rn no-µ¡nro or
uamxara; neneunara rp¡-ônna orn¡rpe c 5 naµn¡xnn peµa or nnacnnxn. Tnunnxnre 5.
×ñunnx¡r ropen, 4-µenen. Hnoµ¡r ce pasnaµa na 4 opexuera, µ¡nrn 3,5-5 mm, saxp¡rnenn
(raôno 75, ]nr. 1).
Hs xpacranann n ropn nourn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1400 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Aeueõna ueµynnna Pulmonaria officinalis L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c npano cr¡ôno, nncoxo 15-40 cm, noxpnro c pasnepenn
uernnxn n x¡cn xnesncrn nnacnnxn. Hpnocnonnnre nncra (xonro ce noxnxnar cneµ
npen¡]rxnanero) c µ¡nrn µp¡xxn (µo 15 cm), c¡c c¡pnennµno-xñnennµnn nenoxpañnn nerypn,
saocrpenn, µ¡nrn µo 15 cm, mnpoxn µo 10 cm, rpanano uernnecro nnaxnecrn c xapaxrepnn
ôenesnnxann nerna. Cr¡ônennre nncra nocneµonarennn, nourn 2 n¡rn no-manxn (4-6 cm µ¡nrn
n 1-2 cm mnpoxn), µonnnre c µp¡xxa, ropnnre npnceµnann. Hneronere c x¡ca µp¡xxa,
ynncnann, pasnonoxenn na n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro, ornauano uepnenn, no-x¡cno r¡mnonnoneronn.
uamxara nnnrxo 5-µenna, no npeme na n¡]rexa 6-8 mm, a npn nnoµonere µ¡nra 9-12 mm.
Benuero ]ynnennµno, na n¡pxa cn 5-µenno, µ¡nro 13-18 mm, c 5 cnonuera nnacnnxn npn
ornopa na rp¡ônna-ra. Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Opexerara xp¡rno onannn, µ¡nrn 3,5-4
mm, rnaµxn, n¡cxann (raôno 75, ]nr.2).
Hs xpacranann n ropn npeµnmno n npeµnnannncxnx n nnannncxnx noxc µox¡m 1600 m n. n.
H¡]rn mapr mnn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxna naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Pulmonariae), xoxro ce
c¡ônpa no npeme na n¡]rexa. Hamnpa mnpoxo npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
3aoe.erra. Br. u npu ou.ru cìc cuuu u cuuioeuo.emoeu µeemoee.
Aeueõna nayuxa Cvnoglosmm officinale L.
¡nyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, r¡cro mexo oxocmeno cr¡ôno, nncoxo 40-80 cm.
Hncrara npoµ¡nronaro ennnrnunn nnn nannernn; µonnnre c¡ôpann n poserxa, na µp¡xxa,
µ¡nra 10-20 cm; cr¡ônennre npnceµnann, nocneµonarennn, nonyoôxnamamn cr¡ônoro, µ¡nrn 5-
15 cm, mnpoxn 0,7-3 cm, nnaxnecrn. C¡nnernero pasmnpena nnpamnµanna mernnna c man¡x
ôpoñ nnerone. Hnernnre µp¡xxn oxocmenn, µ¡ronnµno nsnnrn naµony. uamxara 5-µenna, c¡c
s¡ônn, µ¡nrn oxono .4 mm. Benuero ]ynnennµno, 7-10 mm n µnamer¡p, c 5 nmcnnuxn npn
ornopa my, xpxouepneno nnn cnernouepneno. Tnunnxnre 5. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Opexuerara
cnnecxann, µ¡nrn 5-8 mm, c xyxecrn mnnuera (raôno 75, ]nr. 3).
(181)
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n pyµepannsnpann mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn
mnn.
Ho-pano ce e ynorpeôxnana n meµnnnnara xaro µpora Herba Cynoglossi. Cera ce nsnonsyna
camo n napoµnara meµnnnna
CEM. YCTHOHBETHH - LAMIACEAE (LABIATAE)
1. Iopnara ycrna nnncna, µonnara 5-µenna .................
............................. Ho歓nue TeucriumL.
1*. Benuero xcno µnyycrno..........................2
2. Tnunnxnre 2........ Mycxarna xaxyna Salvia sclarea L.
2*. Tnunnxnre 4.................................3
3. Hncrara µ¡nôoxo µnanennµno pasceuenn n cnaôµenn c µ¡nra µp¡xxa . ....................
¡xnoncxa ycra Leonuruscardiaca L.
3*. Hncrara c µpyra ]opma..........................4
4. uamxara mnpoxo sn¡nuennµna, µ¡nra 1,5-2 cm, mnpoxa 1 cm. Hneronere eµpn, µ¡nrn 2,5-4
cm...............................
..................... Komyrnna Melittis melissophvllum L.
4*. uamxara nnnnnµpnuna, mnoro no-x¡ca n rxcna. Hneronere no-µpeônn
............................................5
5. uamxara xcno µnyycrna. ¡onnara ycrna c 2, ropnara c 3 s¡ôena ... 6 5*. uamxara ne e
µnyycrna..........................7
6. Bcnuxnre nncra nenn, nenoxpañnn, µpeônn. Tnunnxnre oônxnoneno cr¡puar orcrpann na
ropnara ycrna........ Mamepxa Thvmus L.
6*. Hncrara oônxnoneno nas¡ôenn nnn nspxsann. Tnunnxnre cxpnrn noµ ropnara ycrna.............
uepnonp¡x Clinopodium vulgare L.
7. B ocnonara na µonnara ycrna n¡pxy ropnara n non¡pxnocr ce namnpar µna cnnno nsn¡xnann
xonnunn nspacr¡xa...................
................. Hernncra ôyµapnna GaleopsistetrahitL.
7*. ¡onnara ycrna ôes noµoônn nspacr¡nn.................8
8. Hpnnnernnnnre ennnrnuno xñnennµnn, noxpnnamn ce xepemnµooô-pasno, x¡m xpax na
n¡]rexa oôpasynar xnacuera, c¡ôpann n mernnna. Tnunnxonnre µp¡xxn (n ropnara cn uacr)
pasnepenn ncrpann..............
........................... Pnran Origanum vulgareL.
8*. Hpnnnernnnnre c µpyra ]opma. Tnunnxnre ne ca pasnepenn.....9
9. Hncrara nenoxpañnn.............................
................ Hnannncxa uyôpnna Saturefa montana L.
9*. Hncrara nas¡ôenn............................10
10. uamxara c 10 µ¡nôoxn naµn¡xnn ôpasµn. Hneronere c¡ôpann n rpynn, cnaôµenn c oôma
µp¡xxa.............................
............................. Kanena Balloia nigra L.
10*. uamxara ôes µ¡nôoxn naµn¡xnn ôpasµn. Hneronere ne ca c¡ôpann n rpyna c oôma µp¡xxa
................ Pannnncr Stachvs L.
Hoµsõnue TeucriumL.
1. Hncrara c x¡ca µp¡xxa. Hneronere no 2-6 n nasnnre na nncrara, xaro npemnennre ca
cônnxenn n ce oôpasyna np¡xno rposµonnµno c¡nnerne .... ................. Oônxnoneno noµ¡ônue
T. chamaedrvs L.
1*. Hncrara npnceµnann. Hneronere no 2-6 n nasnnre na nncrara, no nnernnre npemnenn ca
pasµaneuenn n ne ce oôpasyna np¡xno c¡nnerne .... ...................... Hyxono noµ¡ônue
T.scordiumL.
(182)
Ayxono noµsõnue Teuciium scordium L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsµ¡nxn, mnpnmemn na nyx. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno,
oxocmeno, uernpnp¡ôecro, nncoxo 10-40 cm. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, npoµ¡nronaro
xñnennµnn nnn npoµ¡nronarn, µ¡nrn 1,5-3 cm, mnpoxn 4-12 mm, eµpo nas¡ôenn. Hneronere
nenpannnnn, µ¡nrn 8-10 mm, c x¡ca µp¡xxa. uamxara µ¡nra 3-5 mm, rp¡ôecro-sn¡nuennµna, c 5
saocrpenn s¡ôena, n¡nnecra. Benuero uepneno, pxµxo ôxno c uepnenn rouxn, µ¡nro 6-10 mm, 2
n¡rn no-µ¡nro or uamxara, µnyycrno, no ropnara ycrna npnnnµno nnncna, r¡ñ xaro e
pasnenena na µne, xaro µnere ñ nononnnxn ce nsmecrnar x¡m µonnara ycrna, nopaµn xoero rx
nsrnexµa 5-µenna. Tnunnxnre 4 n cr¡puar nsn¡n nenuero, xaro crpannunnre µne ca no-µ¡nrn
or cpeµnnre. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Opexuerara µ¡nrn oxono 1 mm, xa]xnn (raôno 75, ]nr. 4).
Ho nnaxnn nec¡xnnnn mecra, nnnaµn, xpañ pexn, n nsxonn npeµnmno n no-ronnnre uacrn na
crpanara µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Oõnxnoneno noµsõnue Teuciium chamaedrvs L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nonernann nnn nsnpanenn uernpn-p¡ôecrn cr¡ôna,
nncoxn µo 50 cm, n ocnonara cn cnaôo nµ¡pnenenn, pasxnonenn, noxpnrn, xaxro n nncrara, c
µ¡nrn pasnepenn nnacnnxn. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, c x¡ca µp¡xxa, x¡m ocnonara
xnnnonnµnn, µ¡nrn 1-4,5 cm, mnpoxn 0,5-2 cm, or ncxxa crpana c no 4-8 nourn r¡nn s¡ôena.
Hnernnre npemnenn ca n ropnara uacr na cr¡ônoro n oôpasynar rposµonnµno c¡nnerne.
uamxara rp¡ôecra, c 5 s¡ôena. Benuero nenpannnno, µnyycrno, npnnnµno eµnoycrno, µ¡nro
10-16 mm, nourn 2 n¡rn no-µ¡nro or uamxara, posono-uepneno, pxµxo ôxno. Tnunnxnre 4.
×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r cyx, pasnaµam ce na 4 opexuera (raôno 76, ]nr. 1).
Ho rpenncrn mecra n xpacranann n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1400 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Teucrii chamaedrys nnn
Herba Chamaedrys), xoxro ce c¡ônpa no npeme na n¡]rexa, ôes npnocnonnnre nµ¡pnenenn
uacrn na cr¡ônara. Hsnonsyna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Komy1nna Melittis melissophvllum L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno uernpnp¡ôecro nepas-xnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo
20-70 cm, n¡nnecro oxocmeno.
Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, eµpn, µ¡nrn 2-15 cm, mnpoxn 2-8 cm, npoµ¡nronarn µo onannn,
nas¡ôenn, c peµxn nnacnnxn n c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra µo 3 cm. Hneronere nenpannnnn, no 1-3 n
nasnnre na ropnnre nncra, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 4-10 mm. uamxara mnpoxo sn¡nuennµna, c 10
xnnxn, µ¡nra 1,5-2,5 cm, mnpoxa 1 cm, cnaôo µnyycrna, c µ¡nrn pasnepenn nnacnnxn. Benuero
µ¡nro 25-40 mm, µnyycrno, posono, ôxno nnn xpxouepneno, nourn rono; ropnara my ycrna
nµn¡ônara, µonnara 3-µenna, cpeµnnxr µxn na xoxro e nourn 2 n¡rn no-µ¡n¡r or crpannunnre,
na n¡pxa pasmnpen n no p¡ôa nas¡ôen. Tnunnxnre 4, pasnonoxenn ycnopeµno noµ ropnara
ycrna. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Opexuerara xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 4-5 mm, ronn, cnnecxann (raôno 75, ]nr.
5).
Cpema ce µocra uecro ns xpacranann n ropn nourn µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ anrycr.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
(183)
He1nnc1a õyµapnna Galeopsis tetrahit L.
Eµnoroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno uernpnp¡ôecro cr¡ôno, nncoxo 15-50 cm, cnnno
oxocmeno, pasxnoneno, noµ n¡snnre uecro saµeôeneno. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, µonnnre
xñnennµnn, no-narope xñnennµno-nannernn nnn nannernn, saocrpenn, nas¡ôenn, oxocmenn,
µ¡nrn 3-8 cm, mnpoxn 1,5-5 cm, c µp¡xxn, µ¡nrn µo 4 cm. Hneronere nenpannnnn, c¡ôpann no
2-7 n r¡crn npemnenn no n¡pxonere na pasxnonennxra, c nannernn, saocrpenn npnnnernnnn.
uamxara rp¡ôecro-sn¡nuennµna, µ¡nra 12-14 mm, c 5 ôoµnnnn, saocrpenn s¡ôena. Benuero
posono nnn nypnypno, µnyycrno, c uepnonnoneronn nerna or n¡rpemnara crpana, ocoôeno no
µonnara ycrna, µ¡nro 15-30 mm, c rp¡ônna, manxo no-µ¡nra or uamxara, n ropnara cn uacr
pasmnpena. Iopnara neneuna ycrna nµn¡ônara n¡n nnµ na mnem n nas¡ôena; µonnara rpnµenna
c oôparno c¡pnennµen cpeµen µxn, npn ocnonara cn cnaôµen c µna xyxn nspacr¡xa xaro
poruera. Tnunnxnre 4, cxpnrn noµ ropnara ycrna, µnere no-x¡cn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r
cyx, pasnaµam ce na 4 cnnecxann opexuera n µ¡noro na uamxara (raôno 76, ]nr. 2).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra n ns nocennre n nxna F¡nrapnx µox¡m 1500 m n. n.
H¡]rn mnn anrycr.
B meµnnnnara ce nsnonsyna n¡]rxmara naµsemna uacr (µpora Herba Galeopsidis).
±nnoncxa yc1a Leonurus cardiaca L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nµ¡pnenxno x¡co xopennme. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno,
uernpnp¡ôecro, xyxo, nncoxo µo 2 m, cnnno pasxnoneno, uecro uepnenonnonerono n noxpnro c
nnacnnxn. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, c mexn nnacnnxn nnn nourn ronn, µonnnre saxp¡rnenn nnn
xñnennµnn, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa (µo 4 cm), nourn µo cpeµara cn µnanennµno.3-7-µennn, µ¡nrn 7-12
cm; ropnnre npoµ¡nronaro ennnrnunn nnn nannernn, n ocnonara cn xnnnonnµnn, nnnrxo 3-
µennn, c nannernn, pxµxo ocrpo nas¡ôenn µxnone. Hneronere nenpannnnn, npnceµnann,
pasnonoxenn no 10-20 n npemnenn n nasnnre na ropnnre nncra n oôpasynar µ¡nro µo 30 cm
xnaconnµno c¡nnerne c pasµaneuenn npemnenn, c nnneñnn npnnnernnnn, µ¡nrn µo 3 mm.
uamxara rp¡ôecro-sn¡nuennµna, µ¡nra 3-8 mm, nourn rona, c 5 rn¡pµn, saxpnnenn nan¡n
s¡ôena. Benuero cnernouepneno, rp¡ôecro, n ocnonara cn orn¡rpe c np¡cren or nnacnnxn,
µnyycrno ropnara ycrna µn¡rnecra, nµn¡ônara; µonnara 3-µenna, c r¡nn µxnone. Tnunnxnre
4, cr¡puamn nsn¡n neneunara rp¡ônna, µnere no-x¡cn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r cyx, pasnaµam
ce na 4 rpncrennn opexuera (raôno 76, ]nr. 3).
Ho rpenncrn n ôypenxcann mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1200 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn
cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna n¡]rxmara naµsemna uacr saeµno c nncrara (µpora
Herba Leonuri). Vnorpeôxna ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Kanena Ballota nigra L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, cnnno pasxnoneno n oxocmeno cr¡ôno, nncoxo
µo 130 cm, uernpnp¡ôecro, no-x¡cno uepnennxano nnn cnntonnonerono. Hncrara
cpemynonoxnn, xñnennµnn, µonnnre saxp¡rnenn, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra µo 5 cm; ropnnre saocrpenn,
nas¡ôenn, µ¡nrn 3-10 cm, mnpoxn 2-6 cm, nourn npnceµnann. Hneronere nenpannnnn, na
µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 1-1,5 cm, c¡ôpann no 4-10 n nasnnre na ropnnre nncra na rpynn n¡pxy oô-
(184)
ma nnerna µp¡xxa n nonycennnnn, c x¡cn saocrpenn npnnnernnnn. uamxara rp¡ôecro-
sn¡nuennµna, µ¡nra 9-13 mm, c 5 eµnaxnn mnnonnµnn s¡ôena, npannnna, oxocmena. Benuero
posononnonerono, pxµxo ôxno, oxocmeno, orn¡rpe c np¡cren or nnacnnxn, µnyycrno ropnara
ycrna yµ¡nxena, cnaôo nµn¡ônara, µonnara 3-µenna, c no-eµ¡p oôparno c¡pnennµen µxn.
Tnunnxnre 4, cxpnrn noµ ropnara ycrna, µnere no-x¡cn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Opexuerara
xñnennµnn, rnaµxn (raôno 78, ]nr. 1).
Ho ôypenxcann mecra, xpañ croôopnre n µp. n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1200 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn
cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Pannnnc1 Stachvs L.
1. Beneunara rp¡ônna orn¡rpe ôes np¡cren or nnacnnxn. Hneronocnnxr crp¡x ôesnncren nnn
camo c 2-3 un]ra nncra. uamxara c 5 xnnxn ...... .................. Heueôen pannnncr Stachvs
officinalis L.
1*. Beneunara rp¡ônna orn¡rpe x¡m ropnnx cn xpañ c np¡cren or nnacnnxn. Hneronocnoro
cr¡ôno pannomepno oônncreno or no-ronxm ôpoñ nncra.
uamxara c 10 xnnxn..................................
. . . . .......... Iepmancxn pannnncr Stachvs germanica L.
Iepuancxn pannnnc1 Stachvs germanica L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, npocro nnn cnaôo pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo
µo 120 cm, r¡cro pasnepeno, oxocmeno. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, ôenon¡nnecrn, nas¡ôenn;
µonnnre xñnennµnn nnn npoµ¡nronaro xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn µo 12 cm, n mnpoxn µo 6 cm, c¡c
c¡pnennµna ocnona, c µ¡nra µp¡xxa; ropnnre npoµ¡nronarn, npnceµnann. Hneronere nourn
npnceµnann n nasnnre na ropnnre nncra npemnennre cônrn, c¡cranenn or ronxm ôpoñ
nnerone (10-50), r¡cro noxpnrn c µ¡nrn ôenn nnacnnxn n oôpasynamn npnnnµno xnaconnµno
c¡nnerne. uamxara rp¡ôecra, µ¡nra 6-12 mm, 5-µenna, c neeµnaxnn s¡ônn. Benuero
cnernoposono, µnyycrno, c oxocmena ropna ycrna, µ¡nro 15-25 mm. Tnunnxnre 4,cxpnrn noµ
ropnara ycrna. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r pasnyxnnn na 4 opexuera (raôno 77, ]nr. 2).
Ho rpenncrnre n ôypennnnn mecra n ns xpacranannre ns nxna F¡nrapnx µox¡m 1200 m n. n.
H¡]rn mnn anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Aeueõen pannnnc1 Stachvs officinalis (L.J Trev.)
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co xopennme n nsnpaneno uern-pnp¡ôecro cr¡ôno,
nncoxo µo 1 m, nepasxnoneno, noxpnro c oô¡pnarn naµony rn¡pµn nnacnnxn, c 2-3 µnoñxn
pasµaneuenn cr¡ônenn nncra. Ocranannre nncra pasnonoxenn n poserxa npn ocnonara na
cr¡ônoro; re ca npoµ¡nronaro xñnennµnn, n ocnonara c¡pnennµnn, r¡nn, eµpo nas¡ôenn, µ¡nrn
3-12 cm, mnpoxn 2-5 cm, oxocmenn nnn ronn, c µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 4-12 cm, cr¡ônennre
cpemynonoxnn, c x¡ca µp¡xxa. Hneronere nenpannnnn, r¡mnouepnenn nnn posonn, c¡ôpann n
nasnnre na ropnnre nncra n no n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro n r¡crn xnaconnµnn c¡nnernx; npnnnernnre
nncruera noµoônn na cr¡ônennre, no no-µpeônn, µ¡nrn µo 2 cm. uamxara rp¡ôecro-
sn¡nuennµna, 5-µenna, n µonnara cn uacr rona, µ¡nra 10-15 mm, no s¡ônnre c nnacnnxn.
Benuero µnyycrno, 5-nncrno, ropnara ycrna nµn¡ônara, µonnara 3-µenna, c no-mnpox cpeµen
(185)
µxn, µ¡n¡r 15-17 mm, oxocmeno. Tnunnxnre 4, cxpnrn noµ ropnara ycrna, µne no-x¡cn.
×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r ce pasnaµa na 4 cyxn opexuera (raôno 77, ]nr.1).
Ho rpenncrn mecra n xpacranann n nxnara crpana nourn µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn
cenremnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna naµsemnara uacr (µpora Herba Betonicae), xoxro ce
c¡ônpa no npeme na n¡]rexa, a raxa c¡mo n xopennmero (µpora Rhizoma Betonicae).
Vnorpeôxna ce uecro n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hnannncxa uyõpnna Saturefa montana L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne nnn nonyxpacrue c nµ¡pnenxno n ocnonara cn cr¡ôno,
nncoxo µo 50 cm, c nsnpanenn nneronocnn xnonxn, ronn nnn nyxecrn. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn,
oôparno nannernn nnn rxcno nannernn, mnpoxn 2-6 mm, µ¡nrn µo 3 cm, nenoxpañnn,
saocrpenn, ronn nnn no p¡ôa cn pecnnuecrn, c noµoônn na rouxn xnesn. Hneronere no 3-5 na
oôma µp¡xxa n nasnnre na nncrara, oôpasynamn oômo xnaconnµno c¡nnerne. uamxara rp¡-
ôecra, c 10 xnnxn, x¡connaxnecra, npannnna, c npnceµnann xnesn n 5 mnnonnµnn s¡ôena,
pannn na rp¡ônnara. Benuero nenpannnno, µnyycrno, poso-nouepneno µo posono-nnonerono,
µ¡nro µo 12 mm; ropnara ycrna nxna, µonnara 3-µenna, c uepnenn nerna. Tnunnxnre 4, cxpnrn
noµ ropnara ycrna, µne no-µ¡nrn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r pasnyxnnn na 4 cyxn opexuera (77,
]nr. 3)
Ho cyxn xamennnnn mecra nourn nsxnmunrenno n¡pxy naponnx n mxnnre uacrn na crpanara
µox¡m 1300 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Hepnonpsx Clinopodium vulgare L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c npnnonµnramo ce nnn nsnpaneno uernpnp¡ôecro cr¡ôno,
nncoxo 30-80 cm, oônxnoneno nepasxnoneno, m¡xnaro. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, c µp¡xxa,
µ¡nra oxono 1 cm, onanno nannernn nnn onannn, µ¡nrn 2-6,5 cm, mnpoxn 1-3 cm, saxp¡rnenn na
n¡pxa n x¡m ocnonara, nas¡ôenn, cnaôo oxocmenn. Hneronere xpxouepnenn, npnceµnann,
c¡ôpann or 1-4 n nn¡rnn mnoronnernn npemnenn n nasnnre na ropnnre nncra, oôxp¡xenn c
oônnnxa Or mnoroôpoñnn, no-µ¡nrn or uamxara nnmxonnµnn npnnnernnnn, noxpnrn c µ¡nrn
pasnepenn nnacnnxn. Hnernnre µp¡xxn µ¡nrn 2-3 mm. uamxara rp¡ôecra, µ¡nra 8-10 mm, c 13
xnnxn, µnyycrna. Benuero µnyycrno, µ¡nro 12-22 mm, µna n¡rn no-µ¡nro or uamxara, ropnara
ycrna nnocxa, npxsana, µonnara rpnµenna. Tnunnxnre 4, cxpnrn noµ ropnara ycrna, µne no-
x¡cn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r ce pasnaµa na 4 cyxn rnaµxn opexuera (raôno 76, ]nr. 4).
Cpema ce ns xpacranann n ropn n nxnara crpana nourn µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn npes mnn n mnn.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Pnran Origanum vulgare L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c x¡co n¡nsxmo xopennme n nsnpaneno uernpnp¡ôecro
cr¡ôno, uecro or ocnonara pasxnoneno, nncoxo µo 90 cm, noxpnro c pasnepenn nnacnnxn.
Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, na x¡ca µp¡xxa (3-10 mm), npoµ¡nronaro xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 2-4 cm,
mnpoxn 0,8-2,5 cm, nenoxpañnn nnn cnaôo, nexcno nas¡ôenn, na n¡pxa saocrpenn, c nnacnnxn
n
(186)
npnceµnann xnesn. Hneronere pasnonoxenn n nasnnre na eµpn, xepemnµooô-pasno
npnnoxpnnamn ce senenn nnn uepnennxann npnnnernnnn, c¡ôpann n npoµ¡nronarn xnacuera,
pasnonoxenn xaro mernnna. uamxara sn¡nuennµna, c 5 eµnaxnn s¡ôena, c np¡cren or nnacnnxn
npn ornopa, c 13 xnnxn. Benuero nexcno µnyycrno, cnernouepneno nnn nnoneronoposono, c
npxsana ropna ycrna, oôpasynana or cpacrnanero na µne nenuenncruera, µonnara 3-µenna. Tn-
unnxnre 4, cxpnrn noµ ropnara ycrna, µne no-x¡cn. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r cyx, pasnaµam ce
na 4 opexuera (raôno 77, ]nr. 4).
Hs xpacranann n xamennnnn mecra n nxnara crpana, nourn µo ropnara rpannna na ropara.
H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn. B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nneronocnnre np¡xnn
uacrn (µpora Herba Origani), xonro ce c¡ônpar no npeme na n¡]rexa. Vnorpeôxna ce mnpoxo n
n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Mamepxa Thvmus sp. Diversae
Poµ¡r Thvmus e nonnmop]en n e npeµcranen y nac c peµnna nnµone, rpyµno pasnnunmn µopn n
or ôorannnnre, nopaµn xoero ryx ce µana oôma xapaxrepncrnxa na poµa. Bcnuxn nnµone
c¡µ¡pxar erepnunn macna n ce nsnonsynar eµnaxno n o]nnnannara n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Mnororoµnmnn rpenncrn pacrennx c n¡nsxmn nnn nonernann, cnnno pasxnonenn, nexo
nµ¡pnenenn n ocnonara cn uernpnp¡ôecrn cr¡ôna, c npnnonµnramn ce nneronocnn cr¡ôna,
nncoxn 20-40 cm. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, nenoxpañnn, npnceµnann nnn c x¡ca µp¡xxa,
nnneñno-nannernn, xñnennµnn nnn ennnrnunn c noµoônn na rouxn xnesn n xnesncrn
nnacnnxn, ronn nnn pecnnuecrn. Hneronere posonn n uepnenn µo ôenn, pasnonoxenn n nasnnre
na nañ-ropnnre nncra, xaro oôpasynar cônrn nnn npex¡cnarn x¡nôecrn, xnaco-nnµnn nnn
mernnuecrn c¡nnernx. uamxara nnnnnµpnuna nnn sn¡nuennµna, µnyycrna, c mnpoxa 3-µenna
ropna n 2-µenna µonna ycrna. Benuero nexcno µnyycrno c npxsana ropna n 3-µenna µonna
ycrna. Tnunnxnre 4, cr¡puamn orcrpann na ropnara ycrna. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r ce
pasnaµa na 4 xñnennµnn opexuera (raôno 78, ]nr. 2).
Bnpoxo pasnpocrpanenn ca no cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra or nnsnnnre nourn µo
nncoxonnannncxnx noxc. H¡]rxr npes nxroro.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar n¡]rxmnre naµsemnn uacrn (µpora Thymus Serpilli).
Hmar ronxma ynorpeôa n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Mycxa1na xaxyna Salvia sclarea L.
¡nyroµnmno, no-pxµxo mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno, uernpnp¡ôecro
cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 1,20 m, na n¡pxa pasxnoneno, r¡cro noxpnro c xnesncrn nnacnnxn. Hncrara
cpemynonoxnn, eµpn, µ¡nrn µo 30 cm, mnpoxn 20 cm, senenn, c xnesncrn nnacnnxn,
npoµ¡nronaro c¡pnennµnn, nenpannnno nas¡ôenn, c¡c c¡pnennµna ocnona, µonnnre c µ¡nra
µp¡xxa (µo 7 mm), ropnnre npnceµnann. Hneronere no 2-6 n nasnnre na nañ-ropnnre nncra,
xaro oôpasynar µ¡nro µo 40 cm m‰rnnuecro pasxnoneno c¡nnerne. Hpnnnernnnnre npnceµnann,
xñnennµno-c¡pnennµnn, c ocnonara cn uacrnuno oôxnamamn cr¡ônoro, eµpn, noxpnnamn
nennx npemnen, nnnecrn, oônxnoneno posono oôarpenn. Hneronere na µp¡xxa, µ¡nra 2-4 mm.
uamxara rp¡ôecra, µnyycrna, c mnnonnµno saocrpenn s¡ônn, noxpnra c xnesncrn nnacnnxn.
Benuero posono nnn nnonerono, µ¡nro 2-3 cm, cnaôo µnyycrno, c nxna, mnemonnµna,
crpannuno cnnecxana ropna ycrna n 3-µenna µonna. Tnunnxnre 2. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµnnre
opexuera µ¡nrn oxono 2 mm (raôno 78, ]nr. 3).
(187)
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n xamennnnn, npeµnmno naponnrn repenn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n.
n. H¡]rn mnn anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. ÆHBEHHHEBH SCROPHULARIACEAE
Kyuemxo annennue Scrophularia canina L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne nnn nonyxpacrue c ronn nnn noxpnrn c ôpamnen nanen
mnoroôpoñnn cr¡ôna , nncoxn 30-60 cm. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, npoµ¡nronarn, µ¡nrn µo 8
cm, ronn, µonnnre µnoñno nepecro na-µenenn, c nannernn nnn nnneñnn, nenoxpañnn nnn
nas¡ôenn µenuera, µ¡nrn 1,5-3 cm, mnpoxn 2-5 mm, ropnnre nocrenenno cranar npocro nepecro
naceuenn. Hneronere npnceµnann nnn c xnesncra µp¡xxa, c¡ôpann no 3-9 n c¡nne-rnx,
nsnnsamn or nasnnre na ropnnre nncra n oôpasynamn na n¡pxa na cr¡ônoro yµ¡nxena
mernnna. uamxara rona, na n¡pxa cn 5-µenna. Benuero rp¡ôecro, µnyycrno, r¡mnouepneno,
pxµxo ôxno, µ¡nro 4-5 mm. Tnunnxnre 4. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r pasnyxnama ce xyrnñxa
(raôno 76, ]nr. 5).
Ho cyxn npnneunn n xamennnnn mecra n nxna F¡nrapnx µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ
anrycr. Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Iopcxa uanxa Lathraea squamaria L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro napasnrno pacrenne c µeôeno, mececro, pasxnoneno xopennme, r¡cro
noxpnro c¡c cpemynonoxnn ôenn mececrn nmcnn. Hneronocnoro cr¡ôno nncoxo µo 30 cm,
mececro, rono, c¡c cpemynonoxno pasnonoxenn nmcnn, na n¡pxa c r¡cro rposµonnµno
c¡nnerne, oô¡pnaro na eµna crpana, xnesncro m¡xnaro. uamxara sn¡nuennµna, c 4-5 s¡ôena.
Benuero µnyycrno, µ¡nro 15-17 mm, nourn 2 n¡rn no-µ¡nro or uamxara. Tnunnxnre 4,
npnxpenenn sa rp¡ônnara na nenuero. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Hnoµ¡r xyrnñxa, µ¡nra oxono 10
mm.O1ponno!(raôno 78, ]nr.5).
Hs ropnre, xaro napasnrnpa n¡pxy pasnnunn mnpoxonncrnn µ¡pnera n xpacrn, rnanno necxa n
ôyx. Cpema ce n nxna F¡nrapnx µox¡m 1300 m n. n. H¡]rn npes mapr n anpnn. Vnorpeôxna ce n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
3aoe.erra. Ce+. µu.»uroeu Jalerianaceae. He:eoua ou.»ura Jaleriana officinalis L. (er.
npu ou.ru c oe.u µeemoee),
CEM. CAOÆHOHBETHH - ASTERACEAE (COMPOSITAE)
1. Hncrara ôoµnnnn................:..............2
1*. Hncrara ne ca ôoµnnnn...........................5
2. Pacrenne ôes naµsemno cr¡ôno xomnnuxara eµnnnuna, mnoro eµpa,
nn¡rno npnnennana x¡m semxra...........................
.............. Fescr¡ônena pemerxa CarlinaacanthifoliaL.
2*. Pacrennx c µoôpe pasnnro cr¡ôno n no-ronxm ôpoñ xomnnuxn .... 3
3. Oônnnnnre nncra san¡pmnar c µ¡nrn, xyxecro nsnnrn na n¡pxa cn mnnone. Hncrara mnoro
eµpn, c¡pnennµnn .. Ionxm peneñ Arctium lappa L.
3*. Oônnnnnre nncruera ôes mnnone nnn axo san¡pmnar c mnnone, re ne ca xyxecro
nsnnrn..................................4
(188)
4. Hnernoro nerno mececro, noxpnro c eµpn xmnuxn, nas¡ôenn no p¡ôa cn ...............
Oônxnonen rnnrep Onopordon acanthium L.
4*. Hnernoro nerno mececro, rnaµxo, ôes xmnuxn, noxpnro c uernnxn . . . ..................
Fxn rp¡n Svlibium marianum (L.) Gaertn.
5. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn. Komnnuxnre c¡ôpann n r¡cro mnronnµno
c¡nnerne...............¡¡ôponnnx Eupalorium cannabinum L.
5*. Hncrara nocneµonarennn. Komnnuxnre c¡ôpann n cnaôo naneµenn mernnuecrn c¡nnernx
.......... ¡nnnennn Artemisia vulgaris L.
±sõponnnx Eupatorium cannabinum L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne, nxnoro oxocmeno, c nsnpaneno npocro nnn pasxnoneno
crtôno, nncoxo µo 1,5 m. Hncrara cpemynonoxnn, c x¡ca µp¡xxa, µnanennµno pasµenenn na 3-
5 nannernn nas¡ôenn nncruera. Hnernnre xomnnuxn µpeônn, 2-5 mm n µnamer¡p, c¡ôpann n¡n
np¡xnn mnronnµnn mernnnn. Oônnnnnre nncruera µn¡rnecrn, xepemnµooôpasno napeµenn,
r¡nn. Hnernoro nerno rono. Bcnuxn nnerone posonn µo nnoneronn, rp¡ôecrn, µnynononn, c
rp¡ôecro crecneno x¡m ocnonara cn nenue. Hnoµonere µ¡nrn oxono 3 mm, c xn¡punnxa or eµna
peµnna uernnxn (raôno 78, ]nr.ô).
Ho nnaxnn mecra n xpañ noronn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n.-n. H¡]rn mnn oxromnpn.
B meµnnnnara ce nsnonsyna nxnoro pacrenne c xopena (µpora Herba Eu-patorii)
±nn nennn Artemisia vulgaris L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 1,5 m, n ropnara
cn uacr ôenon¡nnecro, uepnennxano µo r¡mnouepneno. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, µ¡nrn 5-10
cm, nepecro pasµenenn, c nannernn, µ¡nôoxo n pasµaneueno nas¡ôenn µxnone, mnpoxn 2-8 mm,
ropnnre npnceµnann, nnneñno-nannernn, orrope ronn, orµony r¡cro ôenon¡nnecrn, 3-5-µennn
nnn nenn. Komnnuxnre xñnennµnn nnn npoµ¡nronarn, µ¡nrn 3-4 mm, mnpoxn 2-3 mm, c x¡ca
µp¡xunna, nsnpanenn nnn cnaôo naneµenn, c¡ôpann n r¡crn mernnuecrn c¡nnernx. Oônnnnnre
nncruera ôenon¡nnecrn, n¡nmnnre saocrpenn, n¡rpemnnre r¡nn. Hnernoro nerno rono.
Hneronere rp¡ôecrn, n ocnonara cn ôenesnnxann, narope uepneno-xa]xnn. Hnoµonere
nnnnnµpnunn, ôes xn¡punnxa (raôno 79, ]nr. 1).
Hs xpacranann, cmernma, xpañ crpaµn n na µpyrn mecra n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1000 m n. n.
H¡]rn mnn oxromnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxnar np¡xnara cr¡ônena uacr (µpora Herba Artemisiae) n
xopen¡r (µpora Radix Artemisiae). Hma npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Oõnxnonen rnnrep, uarapemxn õoµnn Onopordon acanthium L.
¡nyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 3 m, n ropnara uacr
pasxnoneno, nourn µo n¡pxa c 2-3 mnpoxn naµn¡xnn xpnna, c ôoµnn, µ¡nrn µo 5 mm,
cnnonnaxnecro. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, npnceµnann, nooµ¡nronarn, µ¡nrn µo 35 cm, mnpoxn
µo 20 cm, saocrpenn, x¡m ocnonara cn crecnenn, nepecro nspxsann na mnpoxo rpn¡r¡nnn
nas¡ôenn µxnone, no xpax c ôoµnn, µ¡nrn 5-6 mm, ropnnre npnceµnann. Komnnuxnre eµpn, 5-6
cm n µnamer¡p, eµnnnunn nnn no nxxonxo no n¡pxonere na xnonxnre.
(189)
Oônnnnnre nncruera na xomnnuxnre npn n¡pxa cn mnnonnµno crecnenn n san¡pmnar c ocrpn
x¡nrennxann ôoµnn. Bcnuxn nnerone rp¡ôecrn, µ¡nrn 14-25 mm, µnynononn, c µ¡nôoxo 5-
µenno xpxouepneno µo posono nenue. Hnernoro nerno mececro, noxpnro c nµn¡ônarnnn,
nas¡ôenn no xpanmara cn. Hnoµonere oôparno xñnennµnn, µ¡nrn 4-5 mm, ronn, na n¡pxa c
xn¡punnxa, µ¡nra 7-9 mm, c mnoroôpoñnn nnacnnxn, cpacnann n ocnonara cn n np¡cren,
orµenxm ce or nnoµa (raôno 80, ]nr. 1).
Ho cyxn rpenncrn n ôypenxcann mecra, xpañ n¡rnma n crpaµn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1400 m n.
n. H¡]rn mnn cenremnpn.
B meµnnnnara ce nsnonsynar nnernnre xomnnuxn (µpora Flores Onopordi), nncrara (µpora
Folia Onopordi) n np¡xnnre cr¡ônenn uacrn (µpora Her‡a Onopordoms Acanthi).
Bnn 1psn Silvbium marianum (L.) Gaertn.
Eµnoroµnmno nnn µnyroµnmno eµpo rpenncro pacrenne c nsnpaneno npocro nnn cnaôo
pasxnoneno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 1,5 m, naôpasµeno, nourn rono. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, ronn,
c ôxno mpexonnµno xnnxynane, c eµpn, nspxsann rpn¡r¡nnn µxnone, san¡pmnamn c
x¡nrennxanoôenn ôoµnn, µ¡nrn µo 8 mm; ropnnre npnceµnann n oôxnamar cr¡ônoro;
npnocnonnnre mnoro eµpn, µ¡nrn 25-50 cm, mnpoxn 12-25 cm, na µ¡nra µp¡xxa. Hnernnre
xomnnuxn eµpn, 2,5-4 cm n µnamer¡p, pasnonoxenn noeµnnnuno no n¡pxonere na
pasxnonennxra. Oônnnnnre nncruera pasnonoxenn n nxxonxo peµa, c ôoµnn no p¡ôa cn n c
eµnn no-eµ¡p ôoµnn na n¡pxa, µ¡n¡r 2-5 cm. Bcnuxn nnerone rp¡ôecrn, xpxouepnenn.
Hnoµonere oôparno onannn, cnnecxann n ôes peôpa, ¡¡nrn 6-8 mm, na n¡pxa cn c xn¡punnxa
(raôno 79, ]nr. 2).
Cpema ce ns nycreemn mecra, xpañ n¡rnma n crpaµn, npeµnmno n mxnnre uacrn na crpanara.
H¡]rn mañ anrycr.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar nnoµonere (µpora Semen Silybi, Fructus Cardii
Marianae). Hamnpa npnnoxenne n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Besc1sõnena peme1xa Carlina acanthifolia All.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c nnnnnµpnuen neprnxanen xopen, no ôes cr¡ôno. Hncrara
µ¡nrn 10-30 cm, mnpoxn 6-15 cm, n poserxa, npoµ¡nronarn µo onannn, c µp¡xxa, nepecro
nspxsann, c nourn rpn¡r¡nnn ôoµnnnn µxnone, or µonnara crpana ôenon¡nnecrn. Komnnuxara
eµnnnuna, ronxma (3-12 cm n µnamer¡p), nn¡rno npnnernana x¡m semxra, n cpeµara na nncrnara
poserxa. B¡nmnnre oônnnnn nncruera nannernn, c x¡c ôoµnn, (25-30 mm), cpeµnnre µ¡nrn 35-
55 mm, x¡nrennxann, nnneñnn, rpeôenecro ôoµnnnn, a n¡rpemnnre pasnepenn,
nnmonenox¡nrn. Bcnuxn nnerone rp¡ôecrn, ornauano ôneµox¡nrn, no-x¡cno uepnennxann.
Hnoµonere µn¡rnecrn, nnaxnecrn, c xn¡punnxa or nepecrn nnacnnxn (raôno 79, ]nr. 3).
Ho rpenncrn n xamennnnn mecra, no-uecro n nnannnnre mexµy 800 n 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn mnn
oxromnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce ynorpeôxna xopen¡r (µpora Radix Cattinae). Hsnonsyna ce n n
napoµnara meµnnnna.
Ionnu penen Arctium lappa L.
¡nyroµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c µeôen nperenonnµen mececr xopen. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno,
naôpasµeno, nncoxo µo 1,5 m, pasxnoneno, n¡nnecro
(190)
oxocmeno. Hncrara nocneµonarennn, c¡pnennµno-xñnennµnn, c µp¡xxa, nourn nenoxpañnn,
orµony nnaxnecrn, npnocnonnnre mnoro eµpn, mnpoxn µo 50 cm, µ¡nrn µo 30 cm. Komnnuxnre
eµpn, 3-4 cm n µnamer¡p, c¡ôpann n eµpo c¡nnerne, oônnnnnre nncruera senenn, mnnonnµnn,
na n¡pxa xyxecro nsnnrn. Hneronere uepnenn, rp¡ôecrn. Hnoµonere r¡mnoxa]xnn, nexo
cnnecnarn, µ¡nrn 6-7 mm (raôno 79, ]nr. 4).
Ho ôypenxcann, sanycrenn n neoôpaôorenn mecra, µnopone n µp. n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1500 m
n. n. H¡]rn mnn oxromnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsyna xopen¡r (µpora Radix Bardanae), xoñro ce nsnaxµa
npes ecenra na n¡pnara roµnna nnn npes nponerra na nropara.
E±HOCEME±EAHH PACTEHHR
1. ×ñunnx¡r ropen. Pacrenne ôes naµsemno cr¡ôno nneronere nsnnsar or rpyµxara.........
Ecenen mnnsyxap Colchicum autumnale L.
1*. ×ñunnx¡r µonen, r.e. oxononnernnre nncruera ca npnxpenenn noµ nero. Pacrennx c µoôpe
pasnnro cr¡ôno.......................2
2. Hneronere n c¡nnerne n oô¡pnarn na eµna crpana. Tnunnxnre 3 .... ................... Herntono
nepo GladiolusimbricatusL.
2*. Hneronere oô¡pnarn na ncnuxn crpann. Camo eµna rnunnxa......
............................ Canen Orchissp. Diversae
CEM. KPEMOBH LILIACEAE
Mpasonen, ecenen unnsyxap Colchicum autumnale L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c rpyµxa, noµoôna na nyxonnna, µ¡nra 2-6 cm, noxpnra c
r¡mnoxa]xna nnn xecrenxna n¡cxana oônnnxa, ôes naµsemno cr¡ôno. Hncrara 3-6, mnpoxo
nannernn, c µ¡ronnµno xnnxynane, µ¡nrn µo 30 cm, nenoxpañnn, ronn, nnocxn nnn naµnnnenn
no µ¡nxnnara cn, oônnrn npn ocnonara cn c nnarannme n nsnnsar nanpano or rpyµxara.
Hneronere 1-3, ôneµoposonn, n µonnara cn uacr rp¡ôecrn, narope 6-µennn, xaro oxononnernnre
nncruera n cnoôoµnara cn uacr ca mnpoxo ennnrnunn µo nnneñno-ennnrnunn, µ¡nrn 4-7 cm,
mnpoxn 0,5-2 cm, n¡nmnnre no-µ¡nrn or n¡rpemnnre. Tnunnxnre 6. ×ñunnx¡r ropen,
rpnrnesµen, c 3 nnmxonnµnn cr¡n-ôuera. Hnoµ¡r rpnrnesµna xyrnñxa. Hncrara ce pasnnnar
nanponer, a nneronere naecen. O1ponno! (raôno 80, ]nr. 2).
Ho rpenncrn mecra, nnnaµn n nacnma n nxnara crpana nourn µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn npes
cenremnpn n oxromnpn.
B c¡npemennara meµnnnna ce nsnonsynar cemenara (µpora Semen Colchici) n rpyµxnre (µpora
Bulbus Colchici). Hpnnara ce n n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. HEPYHHKOBH IRIDACEAE
He1ntono nepo Gladiolus imbricatus L.
Mnororoµnmno rpenncro pacrenne c rpyµxonyxonnna, oônnra or r¡nxn, cônrn ycnopeµnn
nnaxna. Cr¡ônoro nsnpaneno, nncoxo 30-80 cm, c 2-3 na
(191)
ôpoñ meuonnµnn, napeµenn n µna peµa nncra, mnpoxn 15-20 mm, x¡m n¡pxa saocrpenn.
C¡nnernero np¡xno, n¡n nnµ na xnac, nañ-uecro oô¡pnaro na eµna crpana, c 3-12 nnxra,
npnceµnann n nasnnre na nannernn, saocrpenn npnnnernnnn, no-x¡cn or nneronere.
Oxononnernnx¡r nenuennµen, nenpannnen, c x¡ca rp¡ônna, xpxouepnen nnn uepneno-nnoneron,
µ¡n¡r 3-4 cm; oxononnernnre nncruera nourn eµnaxnn nomexµy cn, oôparno xñnennµnn,
crecnenn x¡m ocnonara cn n nox¡r. Tnunnxnre 3, npnxpenenn n¡pxy ycrnero na neneunara
rp¡ônna; npamnnnnre nnneñnn, npnxpenenn x¡m rnunnxonnre µp¡xxn c eµnnnx pn xpañ.
×ñunnx¡r µonen, rpnrnesµen, c µ¡nro cr¡nôue. Hnoµ¡r pasnyxnnna xyrnñxa. Cemenara
xpnnarn (raôno 80, ]nr. 3).
Hs nnnaµn n xpacranann n nxna F¡nrapnx nourn µo 1400 m n. n. H¡]rn mañ mnn.
Vnorpeôxna ce n napoµnara meµnnnna.
CEM. CAAEHOBH ORCHIDACEAE
Canen Orchis sp. Diversae
Mnororoµnmnn rpenncrn pacrennx c µne noµsemnn rpyµxn (crapa n mnaµa) n nsnpaneno
nepasxnoneno oônncreno cr¡ôno, nncoxo µo 40 cm n san¡pmnamo c xnaconnµno c¡nnerne.
Hncrara ennnconnµno npoµ¡nronarn, nenoxpañnn, c ycnopeµno xnnxynane, saocrpenn, a n
ocnonara cn crecnxnamn ce n¡n nnarannme. Hneronere nenpannnnn, c npocr nenuennµen
oxononnernnx, c¡cranen or 6 neeµnaxnn nncruera; µonnoro nncrue ce napnua ycrna, oô¡pnaro
e naµony n e cnaôµeno c no-x¡ca nnn no-µ¡nra mnopa; ocranannre 5 nncruera ca c¡ôpann n¡n
nnµ na mnem nnn 2 or rxx ca pasnepenn. Tnunnxa eµna. Hnoµnnx¡r c µonen, cnnpanno ycyxan
xñunnx. Hnoµ¡r pasnyxnnna xyrnñxa c mnoro µpeônn cemena(raôno 80, ]nr. 4).
V nac ce cpemar oxono 20 nnµa canen, no meµnnnncxo snauenne nmar cneµnnre 4 nnµa c
uepnenn nnerone, xonro ca pasnpocrpanenn nourn ns nxnara crpana.
1. Oxononnernnre nncruera (ocnen ycrnara) c¡ôpann n¡n nnµ na mnem . . .....................
Oônxnonen canen Orchis mono L.
1*. ¡nere n¡nmnn oxononnernn nncruera pasnepenn n nsnnrn nasaµ. Tpnre n¡rpemnn c¡ôpann
saeµno............................2
2. Hpnnnernnnnre µpeônn, 3-8 n¡rn no-x¡cn or xñunnxa, uecro nmcno-
nnµnn ...........................................
..................... Bnemonnµen canen O. militarisL.
2*. Hpnnnernnnnre ne noneue or 2 n¡rn no-x¡cn or xñunnxa nnn ne no-x¡cn or
nero......................................3
3. Bnopara xopnsonranna nnn µ¡ronnµno nsnnra narope .........
.......................... M¡xxn canen O. masculaL.
3*. Bnopara nacouena naµony, µeôeno nnnnnµpnuna nnn xonnuna .... ........................ Hernncr
canen O.maculataL.
Or rpyµxnre na resn nnµone, nsxonann no npeme na n¡]rexa nnn cneµ npen¡]rxnanero, ce
nonyuana µporara Tubera Salep. H uernpnre nnµa ce ynorpeôxnar n napoµnara meµnnnna.
Oônxnonennxr canen ce ornnuana n no rona, ue ycrnara my e 3-µenna, a mnopara xopnsonranna
nnn nacouena narope, nnnnnµpnuna nnn cnaôo ôyxanxonnµna. Hs nnnaµn n rpenncrn mecra
nourn n nxnara crpana µox¡m 1300 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn.
Bnemonnµnnxr canen ocnen no manxnre cn npnnnernnnn n pasnepenn nncruera na nnera ce
ornnuana n no rona, ue cpeµnnxr µxn na µonnara
(192)
ycrna e pasµenen na µne uacrn, xonro ca pasnepenn nourn noµ npan ¡r¡n. Cpema ce
cpannnrenno no-pxµxo ns ropn n xpacranann µox¡m 1000 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn.
C¡ônpanero my e saôpaneno…
M¡xxnxr canen ce ornnuana or ocranannre nnµone ocnen no nocouennre n raônnnara ôenesn n
no rona, ue mnopara my e nnnnnµpnuna, no-x¡ca or xñunnxa n npnônnsnrenno ronxona µ¡nra,
xonxoro oxononnernnxa. Cpeµnnxr µxn na ycrnara e nexcno µnyµenen. Hs nnnaµn n xpacranann
nourn µo 2000 m n. n. H¡]rn anpnn mnn.
Hernncrnxr canen ce pasnnuana or µpyrnre nnµone ocnen no nocouennre ôenesn n no rona, ue
rpyµxnre my ca cnnecxann, µ¡nôoxo 3-5-µennn. Cr¡ônoro e nn¡rno, c 5-9 nncra. Hs
nnannncxnre ropn n xpacranann. H¡]rn mañ anrycr.
(193)
A3BYHEH YKA3ATEA HA BTAIAPCKHTE HMEHA HA BHAKHTE
A Fxcnoµp¡nuenn 174
Asmanyx man¡x 142 B
Añnaxnna 105
Axopyc 131 Bennxµenue 112
Anr¡nue 48 xnacncro 113
Acnypr n¡nnecr 86 neueôno 112
norouno 113
B Berporon noncxn 142
Beuepnnx 166
Faônnn s¡ôn 54 Bnnue neueôno 106
Feµpennna xamenonomxona 143 Bnromxn eµennañc 156
Fnaryn 120 Boñnnunna 41
Fnarnenn 175 Boncxn esnx 27
Fnarnx oônxnonena 175 Bpaôuonn upenna 133
Fnarnxx 36 Bparnra 83
Fnxn 70 B¡nua xô¡nxa 35
Fn¡mnnna oônxnonena 81 B¡pôa 34
Foôonn 51, 97, 140, 167 ôxna 34
Foxyponn 164 xpexxa 34
Foxyp recnonncren 164 B¡pônnxa neueôna 107
yxpacen 164 B¡pônnxonn 107
Fop ôxn 29 B¡pôonn 34, 91, 117
Foponn 29 B¡pôonxonn 59
Foponnnxa cnnx 178
uepnena 177 I
uepna 178
Foxnxa n¡nnncronas¡ôena 42 Innrep oônxnonen 189
pasxnonena 42 Inyxapue 88
pasnepena 42 Ionocemennn pacrennx 29
Fpesa 118 Iopna nnnaµna 135, 166
Fpesonn 91, 118 Ioponner 37
Fpeñ 129 Iopcxa mañxa 188
Fpeñonn 129 Iopyn 119
Fpom 75 Iopyxa 43
Fpomonn 74, 153 Iopunnue 147, 180
Fpycnnxa 178 Iopunnuenn 147, 180
Fp¡mnxn 127 Iopunna capenrcxa 44
Fp¡mnxnonn 127 Ipananonncrnn 67, 105, 149
Fpxcr noncxn 120 Ip¡morp¡n ôoµnnn 168
Fpxcronn 120 I¡n¡ôonn ounuxn 99
Fyµapnna nernncra 183
Fyxonn 118 ±
Fyrpax rpnµenen 82
Fyrypue ecenno 179 ¡nycemeµennn pacrennx 31,32,91,97,116, 132,
Fyunnnm 144 161
F¡sonn 154 ¡eôenen ôenonneren 46
F¡s rpenncr 154 ¡eôenenonn 46, 136
uepnen 75 ¡enncnn npemnenecr 145
uepen 154 cnônpcxn 63
Fxn cmnn oônxnonen 79 ¡erennna opnnuna 140
Fxn rp¡n 190 uepnena 168
Fxcno µp¡nue 174 ¡nn cn¡nuorneµ c¡pnenncren 84
(194)
¡nnxnxa neueôna 155, 185 3¡pnacrenonn 126
¡nnxnxonn 155, 188 3¡pnnxa cnaônrenna 127
¡nnue neueôno 167
¡paxa 126 H
¡pxn 60
¡pxnonn 60 Hrnnxa 64
¡¡ô 120 ôescr¡ônena 65
ôxn 120 nncoxa 65
snmen 119 neueôna 65
xocmar 120 Hrnnxonn 64, 178
neren 120 Hscnnnnnue 124
¡¡ôponnnx 189 nnaxnecro 124
¡xnoncxa ycra 184 rono 124
Hsrpannnue oônxnoneno 26
E cenepno 27
Hsrpannnuenn 26
Eµnocemeµennn pacrennx 31, 88, 95, 128, 158, Hmen ôxn 35
191 Hmenonn 35
Enma uepna 91 Hcon 108, 110
Entonue 153
mnpnsnnno 153 K
c¡mnncxo 75
Enuen 78 Kaµtnxa 165
Ecenen mnnsyxap 191 Kaxyna 110
E]eµpa 30 ropcxa 111
E]eµponn 30 nnnaµna 110
mycxarna 187
Æ npemnenecra 111
Kannna uepnena 155
Xaônex 99, Kanyna 176
Xencxa nanpar 28 Kamenonomxa xp¡rnonncrna 137
Xencxonanparonn 28 Kamenonomxonn 48,137
Xnnennue n¡snecro 93 Kammnx 48
xpnnaro 94 Kanrapnon x¡nr 58
xyuemxo 188 Kanena 184
Xnnennuenn 71, 93, 112, 153, 188 Kapron 155
Xnnonnex ronxm 95 Kapam]nnonn 35, 124 133 163
nanneronncren 95 Kapro]onn 70, 111, 152
Xnnonnexonn 94 Kepnns 144
Xnrnn 130 Kecren 119
X¡nryra ôoxµxnñcxa 51 Knmnon 144
X¡nrypue 38 Knnapnconn 30
Kncenen 122
3 Kncenr p¡nonn 39
Kncen rp¡n 39
3añua cxnxa 89 Knonauxa manxa 74
3anncr ôoµnnn 129 Kosx ôpaµa 87
3apacnnue oônxnoneno 106 Koxnue 159
3nesµan oônxnonen 54 Koxnuenn 159
3n¡nnxa neueôna 58 Koxos 177
3ntnnxonn 58 Komynnra neueôna 53
3µpanen x¡pnanouepnen 170 Konononn 120
oônxnonen 169 Konnrnnx93
poôepron 170 Konnrnnxonn 35, 93
3µpanenonn 169 Konpnna oônxnonena 121
(195)
3enennxa crpanµxancxa 177 Konpnnonn 121
3nmsenen man¡x 104 Kon¡p 61
rpenncr 104 Koua ônnxa oônxnonena 151
3narncra nanpar 27 Komyrnna 183
3naronp¡x 47 Kpemonn 89, 96, 129, 158, 191
3nnna oônxnonena 43 Kp¡cren oônxnonen 75
3mnñcxo mnxxo 40 Kp¡cronnernn 40, 134, 166
3mnxpnnx nsrouen 131 Kyxynnua npexµa enponeñcxa 148
nrannancxn 131 Kyxynnuonpexµonn 148
nernncr 131 Kyxypxx 125
3mnxpnnxonn 131 Kyuemxo rposµe 152
3tpnacren 127 K¡xnnna 163
M
K¡nnnn 139 M¡prna xonpnna ôxna 151
x¡pnanouepnena 139
K¡pnannue 162 H
A Hanannue 28
Hanp¡crnnx 73
Hanarepa 172 n¡nnecr 74
Hañxa 157 eµponneren 73
Hañxyuxa 157 p¡xµnn 94
Hanaµ annnñcxn 122 Haymxa neueôna 181
Hanaµonn 121, 162 Hennµnmxa 136
Henypµa 158 Hesaôpanxa noncxa 107
Hen cnaônrenen 141 Hecpacnoneneunn pacrennx 32, 37, 91, 97
116, 132, 161
Henonn 141
Henxa 154
Hecxa oônxnonena 92 O
Hecxonn 92
Hnna 56 Oônunnue µpeôno 38
ôxna 57 oônxnoneno 99
µpeônonncrna 57 Onuapxa 157
eµponncrna 57 Onuapcxa ropônuxa 135
Hnnonn 56 Ornnnue 102, 179
Hncnunna xyxa 165 Ornnue 123
Hoôoµonn 123 Omañnnue rpaµcxo 49
Honen 71 nnannncxo 49
r¡cronneren 72 Oman 80
neueôen 71 ôxn 80
Hom nxr¡p 73 ôpnrancxn 91
Hyrauxonn 76, 113 repmancxn 78
Hyµa xpacrannna 58 uepen 106
Hyµo ônne 111 Opexue 138
Hynnuxa oônxnonena 72 ôpxcronncrno 138
H¡xnunna 134 nnnaµno 138
H¡cxanue 143 Opnona nanpar 26
Hmnxx 103 Opnononanparonn 26
Hmrnxonn 37, 97, 125, 130 Ounôonen 50
Hmrnue oônxnoneno 38 ropcxn 50
n¡nsxmo 38 r¡mn 50
M n¡nsxm 50 M
Marapemxn ôoµnn 189
Max noncxn 165 Hanparonnµnn pacrennx 24
Maxonn 39, 165 Hanyp recnonncren 95
(196)
Mannna 139 Hanyponn 95
Macnnnonn 66, 103, 128, 147 Hapnuxa 156
Marounna 151 Haua rpena 162
Mamepxa 187 Ham¡pnax 63
Maxc¡nue 69 Hennn µnn 189
Meµennx 67 oônxnonen 83
Meµynnna neueôna 106, 181 Hepynnxa ônarna 89
Mernnunna cnnx 115 Hepynnxonn 89, 191
Meuo rposµe 177 Herntono nepo 191
Mnpnsnnnue oônxnoneno 109 Hnnepnue noµno 122
Mneuxa oônxnonena 55 Hnpeñ 130
Mneuxonn 55, 126 Hnpenonn 176
Momnna c¡nsa 159 Hnpnncxn uañ 69
Momxona c¡nsa 159 Hnmxnxa nanunuena 145
Mopau noµen 143 Hnayn ôyxanuecr 25
Mopxon µnn 145 nrnonncren 25
Mpasonen 191 Hnaynonn 25
Mypanenn 147 Hnmcxannue ymno 35
Mypana xp¡rnonncrna 147 Hnmcxau 52
M¡µpnna neueôna 41 Honer oônxnonen 133
M¡xµpxn 147 Honernna oônxnonena 149
M¡xxa nanpar 28 Honernnonn 148
M¡xxonanparonn 28
H C
Hoµôen 84
Hoµpymue ôarpnnno 82 Canenonn 192
Ho歓nue 182 Camaxnrxa cnnx 98
ˆˆ ôxno 150 Camoôañxa ôp¡mnxnonncrna 109
ˆˆ nyxono 183 Camorpnsxa x¡nrennxana 76
oônxnoneno 183 Camoµnncxa rpena nxc¡una 62
Hoxpnrocemennn pacrennx 31 Canynue neueôno 133, 163
Honaµnñxa 70 Capxo]aenn 102
Honona n¡xnuxa 136 Capxo]añ 102
Hopeu nnpeneñcxn 43 Cnemnna 78
Horouapxa 135 oônxnonena 78
Hpanroc 61 noncxa 79
Hpenapa oônxnonena 108 Cnnpuonnna 154
Hpeceuxa 86 Crpaônue cnaµxonncrno 52
Hpemnn 52 Ceµe]ue 55, 171
Hpnmnnna oônxnonena 109 Ceµe]uenn 55, 171
Hpoônrnnue nernncro 87 Cexnpue ropcxo 168
Hpones oônxnonen 126 nnnaµno 53
Hrnue npoco 149 Cennnxonnernn 60, 141
nnonerono 105, 181 Cnnan ôxn 45
Hynanxa 59 noncxn 45
Huennnox oônxnonen 150 uepen 44
Cnntornanue 113
Cnnx xn¡uxa 115
Cnaµxa rpena 123
P
Pannen ôxn 157 Cnes 172
x¡nr 83 Cnesonn 172
Pasnoµnnx 112 Cnpornna 153
Paxnra 91 Cnoxnonnernn 76, 114, 156, 188
Pannna oônxnonena 98 Cmnn 79
Pamenxa neneôna 54 Cmnn 64, 66
(197)
Pannnncr 69, 185 Cmnnµyx cnn 100
ôneµox¡nr 70 Cmpaµnnxa 56
repmancxn 185 Cmpaµnnxonn 56
eµnoroµnmen 70 Cnopex 84
nsnpanen 70 ropcxn 85
neueôen 185 oônxnonen 85
Peseµa 45 xxoôon 85
x¡nra 46 Cpacnoneneunn pacrennx 31, 64, 93, 101, 128,
x¡nrennxana 45 175
Peseµonn 45 Cpemnnue n¡pôonncrno 68
Pesene 61 naxcmanono 68
Peneñ ronxm 190 oônxnoneno 68
Pemerxa ôescr¡ônena 190 n¡nsxmo 108
Pnran 186 C¡c¡nxa x¡nra 37
Poraren x¡nr 39
Poµnnna rpena 136 T
Posonnernn 48, 125, 138, 166
Pocen 171 Taryn 152
Pocenonn 55, 171 Tenuapxa ronxma 100, 171
Pocnna 137 oônxnonena 160
Pocnnonn 137 Tenuapxonn 100, 171
Poconac neueôen 166 Temenyra 100
Pyxa 173 mnpnsnnna 101
ôneµa 174 rpnnnerna 58, 101
rpaµnncxa 141 Temenyronn 58, 100
neueôna 145, 173 Tnxna µnna 59
posona 173 Tnxnonn 58
Pynxnxa oônxnonena 88 Tnnrxna 66, 103
ropcxa 104
C x¡nra 66
mouypna 103
Canara xomnacna 87 nernncra 67
Canen 192 cnnx 104
m¡xxn 192 Tnnrxnonn 103, 179
oônxnonen 192 Tn¡crnra ôxna 136
nernncr 192 ronxma 47
mnemonnµen 192 nmrnna 47
Toñnonn 104
H
Tonona
Hennna 144
-ôxna 117
-uepna 117
Tpaôysan 54
H¡pxano 58 Tpaôysanonn 54,
Tpenernnxa 117
H Tpecxanue 73
uaµ¡pue oônxnoneno 148 Tpocxor 130
uaconnnue 170
ueneônrxa µamacxa 97 Y
uenxµnnx oônxnonen 114 Vpoxa xp¡rnonncrna 62
uemepnxa ôxna 89 Vcoñnnue oônxnoneno 106
-uepna Vcrnonnernn 68, 107, 150, 182
uepnen xanrapnon 179 Vcrpen oônxnonen 148
uepnonp¡x 186 Vcrpenonn 148
(198)
X
uepnornanue noncxo 114 Xnom ônaren 21
uepnoxoc 82 noncxn 25
uynen 123 Xnoñna oônxnonena
-cnônpcxa 30
-uepnena 30
uecnona rpena 134 Xnomonn 25
uyôpnna nnannncxa 186 Xmen 120
Xpnmen 66
m R
Bannue 125 ×roµa 140
Bnnxn 140,167 ×cen nnannncxn 128
(198)
A3BYHEH YKA3ATEA HA AATHHCKHTE HMEHA HA BHAKHTE
A Asarum europaeum L. 93
Asclepiadaceae 148
Achillea clypeolata S. S. 83 Asparagus oIIicinalis L. 89
milleIolium L. 157 Asperula odorata L. 153 Acinos arvensis (Lam.)
Dandy 109 Aspidiaceae 28
Aconitum variegatum L. 98 Aspidium Iilix-mas (L.) Schott. 28
Acorus calamus L. 111 Aspleniaceae 26
Adonis vernalis L. 36, 37 Asplenium septentrionale (L.) HoIIm, 27
Aethusa cynapium L. 143 trichomanes L. 26
Agrimonia cupatoria L. 48 Asteraceae 76, 114, 156, 188
odorata L. 49 Astragalus glycyphyllos L. 52 Agropyrum
repens (L.) P. B. 133 Athyriaceae 28
Agrostemma githago L. 163 Athyrium Iilix-Iemina (L.) Roth. 28
Ajuga chamaepitys (L.) Schreb. 68 Atropa bella-donna L. 111
saliciIolia Schreb. 68
laxmanii (L.) Benth. 68 n
reptans L. 108
Alchemilla vulgaris L. 125 Ballota nigra L. 184
Alkanna tinctoria (L.) Tausch. 105 Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. 43
Alliaria oIIicinalis (MB.) Cav. et Grande 134 stricta Andrz. 43
Allium ursinum L. 158 Bellis perennis L. 156
Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. 91 Berberidaceae 39
Althaea L. 173 Berberis vulgaris L. 39
oIIicinalis L. 141, 173 Betula pendula Roth. 91, 118
pallida Šilld. 174 Betulaceae 118
rosea (L.) Cav. 141, 173 Bidens tripartita L, 82 Amaryllidaceae 159
Boraginaceae 40, 67, 149, 180 Anacardiaceae 56 Brassica junoea
Czern. 44 Anagalis arvensis L. 102, 179 nigra (L.) Koch 44 Anchusa
oIIicinalis L. 106 Brassicaceae 134, 166 Anemone ranunculoides L. 37
Bryonia alba L. 59 Anethum graveolens L. 61 dioica Jacq. 59
Angelica panIii‹i Vandas 145 Bupleurum rotundiIolium L. 62
Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaerth. 156
Anthemis tinctoria L. 82 q
Anthriscus cereIolium (L.) HoIIm. 142
Anthyllis vulneraria L. 54 Calamintha acinos Clairv. 109
Apiaceae 60, 141 Calluna vulgaris Mil…. 176
Apium graveolens L. 144 Caltha palustris L. 36
Apocynaceae 104 Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. 148
Araceae 131 Cannabaceae 120
Araliaceac 127 Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Med. 135
Archichlamydeae 31 CapriIoliaceae 75, 154
Arctium lappa L. 190 Cardamine pratensis L. 135
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng 177 Cardaria draba (L.) Desv. 136
Aristolochiaceae 35 Carlina acanthiIolia Alt. 190
Aristolochia clematitis L. 35 Carthamus lanatus L. 86
Artemisia absinthium L. 83 Carum carvi L. 144
vulgaris L. 189 Caryophyllaceae 35, 124, 133, 163 Aram 131
Castanea sativa Lam. 119
italicum Mill. 131 Centaurea cyanus L. 115
maculatum L. 131 Centaurium erythraea RaI. 179
orientale Mill. 131 Cerinthe minor L. 67
(199)
Ceterach oIIicinarum DC. 27 Equisetaceae 25
Chelidonium majus L. 40 Equisetum arvense L. 25
Chenopodiaceae 123 palustre L. 25
Chenopodium L. 123 telmateja Ehrh. 25
- bonnus-henrkus L. 123 Ericaceae 176
- botrys L. 123 Erodium cicutarium L‚Her. 170
Chrysosplenium alterniIolium L. 48 Eryngium campestre L. 142
Cichorium intybus L. 115 Erysimum crepidiIolium Rchb. 42 Clematis
vitalba L. 133 diIIusum Ehrh. 42
Clinopodium vulgare L. 156 repandum L. 42
Cnicus benedictus L. 86 Erythrea centaurium Pers.179
Colchicum autumnale L. 191 Eupatorium cannabinum L. 189
Colutea arborescens L. 52 Euphorbia cyparissias L. 55
Compositae 114, 156, 188 Euphorbiaceae 55, 126
Conium maculatum L. 144
Consolida regalis S. F. Gray 98 p
Convallaria majalis L. 159
Convolvulaceae 148, 180 Fabaceae 51, 99, 140, 167
Convolvulus arvensis L. 149, 180 Fagaceae 118
CornaceaeôO Filaginella uliginosa (L.) Opiz 79
Coraus mas L. 60 Filago L. 78
Coronopus procumbens Gillb. 136 ˆ arvensjs l 79
Corydalis cava SchŒeig. et KSrte 165 ˆ germanica L 78
Corylaceae 92 ˆ vulgaris l 78
Corylus avellana L 92 Filipendula Mill. 138
Cotinus coggygna Scop. 56 ˆ Jexapetala Guib. 138
Crassulaceae 46, 136 - ulmaria (L.) Maxim. 138
Crociata laeyipes Opiz. 75 ˆ vul aris • A ,38
CrucIerac 40, 134, 166 - Foenksulum ra1 mm 61
Cucurbitaceae 58 Fragaria vesca L. 140
Cuprcssaceae 30 Frangula alnus Mill. 127
Cuscuta europaea L. 148, 180 Fraxinus 128
Cuscutaceae 148, 180 - Sior L 128
Cyclamen hederiIolium Ait. 179 ˆ ŽŽ†• t•,
- neapolitanum Pen. 179 Fumaria oIIicinalis L. 166 Cynanchum
vincetoxicum Pers. 148
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. 130
Cynoglossum oIIlcinale L. 181 G
n Galanthus nivalis L. 159
" Galega oIIicinalis L. 99
Daphne mezereum L. 174 Galeopsis tetrahit L.183
Dictamnus albus L. 171 GenTsSTaritoHs L 52
nioitalk T 71 uenisia sagiiaiis l, ‘
Digitalis L. 73 ˆ tj ri L 5’
Dioscoreaceae 129 Gentmnaceae 66, 103, 179 t•; 7, ...
Geraniaceae 169 DoPron•mcolumneTen.84 Geranium macrorrhizum L. 169 -
onen.a.eHoIIm.84
Geum montanum L. 49
E urbanum L, 49
Gladiolus imbricatus L. 191
Ecbaliura elaterium (L.) Rich. 58 Glaucium Ilavum L. 39
Echinops riuo L. 114 Glechoma hederacea L. 109
Echium vulgare L. 106 Gnaphalium uliginosum L. 79
Ephedra distachya L. 30 Gramineae 130
Ephcdraceae 30 Gratiola oIIicinalis L. 1“3
(200)
H Lythraceae 175
Lythrum salicaria L. 175 Hedera helix L. 127
Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench 79 j•
Helleborus odorus Š. K. 125
Hepatica nobilis Mill. 99 Magnoliophyta 31
Heracleum sibiricum 63 Malva sylvestris L. 172
- verticilatum Pant. 45, 63 Malvaceae 141, 172 Hemiaria L. 124
Marnibium vulgare L. 150
- glabra L. 124 Matricaria chamomilla L. 157
- hirsuta L. 124 Melilotus oIIicinalis (L.) Pall. 53
Hesperis matronalis L. 166 Melissa oIIicinalis L. 151
Hieracium pilosella L. 88 Melittis melissophyllum L. 183 Humulus
lupulus L. 120 Menyanthaceae 147, 180
Hyoscyamus niger L. 70 Menyanthes triIoliata L. 147, 180
Hypericaceae 58 Mercurialis perennis L. 126 Hypericum
perIoratum L. 58 Metachlamydeae 31
Hypochaeris maculata L. 87 Monocotyledonae 31
Hypolepidiaceae 26 Myosotis arvensis (L.) Hill. 107
Hysaopus oIIicinalis L. 110
N
Nasturtium oIIicinalis (L.) Desv. 135
Inula 80 Nepeta cataria L. 151
- britannica L. 81 Nigella damascene L. 98
- germamca L. 80
- helenium L. 80 n Indaceae 89, 191
Iris pseudacoras L. 89 Oenanthe aquatica,(L.) Poir. 143
Oenothera biennis (L.) Scop. 59
J Oenotheraceae 59
Oleaceae 66, 103, 128, 147
Jasmmum Iruttcans L. 66 Onagraceae 59
Juniperus communis L. 30 Onagra biennis (L.) Scop. 59
- oxycedrus L. 30 Ononis spinosa (L.) 168
- sibirica Burgs. 30 Onopordon acanthium L. 189
Orchis sp. diversae 192
K maculata 192
mascula L. 192 Kickxia spuria (L.) Dum. 73 ˆ mIIitaris L. 192
morio L. 192
L Origanum vulgare L. 186
Labiatae68, 107, 150, 182 ,
Lactuca serriola L. 87
Lamiaceae 68, 107, 150, 182 Paeonia L 164
Lamium album L. 151 ˆ peregrina L. 164
Lathraea squamaria L. 188 ˆ tenuiIolia L. 164
Lathyrus pratensis L. 53 Paeoniaceae 164
- sylvestris L. 168 Palirus aculeatus Lam. 126
Lavatera thunngiaca L. 172 ˆ spina-christi Mill. 126
Leonurus cardiaca L. 184 Papaver rhoeas L. 165
Lepidium 136 Papaveraceae 39, 165
- draba L. 136 Papilionaceae 51, 140, 167
- perIohatum L. 43 Parnassiaceae 137
L„iaceae 89, 96, 129, 158, 191
Parnasia palustris L. 137 Linaceae 141 Pastinaca sativa L. 63
Linana vulgaris Mill. 72 Petasites hybridus (L.) Gaertn., Meyer et Schreb.
Linum catharticum L. 141 157
Lithospermum arvense L. 149 Peucedanum arenarium Š.K. 62
(201)
- purpureo-coeruleum L. 181 Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) NeŒ. 27 LogIia
arvensis (L.) J. Holub 79 Pimpinella saxiIraga L. 143 Lorai„haceae 35
Pinaceae 29
Lotus comiculatus L. 54 Pinophyta 29
Lycopodiaceae 25 pjnus syivestris L. 29
Lycopodium clavatum.L. 25 Plantaginaceae 94
- selago L. 25 Plantago L. 94
lanceolala L. 95 Rhus cotinus L. 56
major L 95 Rorippa pyrenaica (L.) Rchb. 43 Plumbaginaceae
102 R†sa 140, 166
Plumbago europaea L. 102 - camna L. 140, 166
Poaceae 130 caesia Sm. 167
Polygala major Jacq. 171 - galHca L. 167
Polygalaceae 171 - pandulina L. 167
Polygonaceae 121, 162 - tomentosa Sm. 167
Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce 159 Rosaceae 48, 138, 166
oIIicinalis All. 159 Rubia tinctonim L. 75 Polygonum L. 162
Rubiaceae 74, 153
aviculare L. 162 Rubus ldaeus L. 139
bistorta 162 sanguineus L. 140
hydropiper L. 122 - sp. diversae 139 Polyslichum lonchitis (L.)
Roth. 28 Rumex acelosa L. 121 Populus L. 117
alpinus L. 122
alba L. 117 Ruscus aculeatus L. 129
nigra L. 117 Rutaceae 55, 17’
tremula L. 117 Ruta graveolens L. 55 Potentilla anserina L. 50
erecta (L.) Rauschel 50 s
reptans L. 50
Prangos Icmlacea (L.) Lindl. 61 Salicaceae 34, 91,117
Primula L. 64 Salix 34
acaulis Jacq. 65 alba L. 34
elatior (L.) Hill. 65 - Iragilis L. 34
oIIicinalis Hill. 65 purpurea L. 91
veris L. 65 Salvia L. 110
vulgaris Huds. 65 nemorosa L. 111 Primulaceae 64, 178
pratensis L. 110 Prunella vulgaris L. 109 sclarea L. 187 Pteridium
aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. 26 verticillata L. Ill Pteridophyta 24
Sambucus ebulus L. 154 Pulicaria dysentherica (L.) Bernh. 81 nigra L. 154
vulgaris Gaertn. 81 racemosa L. 75 Pulmonaria oIIicinalis L.
106, 181 Sanguisorba oIIicinalis L. 167 Pyrola rotundiIolia L. 147
Saponaria oIIicinalis L. 163 Pyrolaceae 147 Satureja acinos
Scheele 109
montana L. 186
O SaxiIraga rotundiIolia L. 137
SaxiIragaceae 48, 137
Quercus 120 Scabiosa ochroleuca L. 76
-- cerrisL. .120 Scrophularia alata Gibb. 94
conIerta 120 canina L. 188
Irainetto Ten. 120 nodosa L. 93
pedunculata ”hrh. 120 umbrosa Dum. 94
petraea (Matuschka) Liebl. 119 Scrophulariaceae 71, 93, 112, H3
pubescens Šiild. 120 Scutellaria galericulata L. 108
robur L. 120 Sedum acre L. 47 sessilis Ehrh.119
album L. 136
maximum (L.) Suter 47 R roseum (L.) Scop. 47
Ranunsulaceae 36, 97, 125, 133 Senecio L. 84
(202)
Iicaria L. 3S nemorensis L. 85
repens L. 37 vulgaris L. 85 Reseda L. 45
Siderites L. 69
ƒ lutea L. 46 montana L. 69
luteola L. 45 scardica Grsb. 69 Resedaceae 45
Siiene otites (L.) Šibel 35 Rhamnaceae 126 Silybium marianum
(L.) Gaertn. 190 Rhamus catharticus L. 127 Sinapis alba L. 45
Irangula L. 127 - arvensis L. 45 Rhinanthus minor L. 74
nigra L. 44 Rhodiola rosea L. 47 Sisymbrium oIIicinale L. 41
Rhododendron ponticum L. 177 poiyceratium L. 41
strictissimum L. 41 Typha angustiIolia L, 95
Solanaceae 70, 111, 152 Typhaceae 95 Solanum dulcamara L. 112
nigrum L. 152 „ Solidago virgaurea L. 78
Stachys L. 69, 185 „lmaceae 120
annua L. 70 „lmus campestris L. 120
germanica L. 185 minor Milt. 120
obliqua Š.K. 70 „mbelliIerae 60, 141
oIIicinalis (L.) Trev. 185 „rtica dioica L. 121
recta L, 70 „rticaceae 121
Steilaria media (L.) Vill. 133
Succisa pratensis L. 113 V
Symphytum oIIicinale L. 106
Syringa vulgaris L. 103 Vaccinium myrtillus L. 178
uliginosum L. 178
T vitis-idaea L. 177
Valeriana oIIicinalis L. 155
Tamus communis L. 129 Vaierianaceae 155, 188
Tanacetum vulgare L. 83 Veratrum album L. 8V
Taraxacum oIIicinale L. 88 nigrum L, 96
Telekia spectosa (Schreb.) Baumg 82 Verbascum L. 71
Thalictrum aquilegiIolium L. 99 densiIlorum Bertol. 72
minus L. 38 phlomoides L. 71 Teucrium 182
thapsiIorme L. 72
chamaedrys L. 183 Verbena oIIicinalis L. 107
scordium I-. 183 Verbenaceae 107
polium L. 150 Veronica L. 112
Thlaspi arvence L. 136 beccabunga L. 113 Thymeleaceae 174
oIIicinalis L. 112
Thymus sp. diversae 187 spicata L. 113
Tilia L. 56 Viburnum opulus L. 155
argentea DesI. 57 Vinca herbacea Š.K, 104
cordata L. 57 minor L. 104
grandiIolia Ehrh. 57 Viola L. 100
parviIolia Ehrh. 57 odorata L. 101
platyphytos Scop. 57 tricolor L. 38, 101
tomentosa Moench 57 Violaceae 58, 100
Tiliaceae 56 Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Med. 148
Tragopogon pratensis L. 87 Viscum album L. 35
Tribulus terrestris L. 54
TriIolium arvense L. 140 ”
pratense L. 168
Trigonelia coerulea (L.) Ser. 100 •ygophyllaceae 54
Tussilago IarIara L. 84
(203)
CT±TPÆAHHE
Vnoµ................................................................................................ 5
Pannonanno c¡ônpane n onasnane na ônnxnre............................. 7
3aôpanenn sa c¡ônpane pacrennx................................................. 8
Mop]onornx na pacrennxra.......................................................... 10
Hnxr.............................................................. .................................. 10
Hnoµ................................................................................................ 14
Hncr................................................................................................ 15
Cr¡ôno............................................................................................ 20
Kopen............................................................................................. 20
Bropnunn oôpasynannx n pacrennxra........................................... 21
Paôora c raônnnnre npn onpeµenxne na ônnxnre......................... 22
Taônnnn sa onpeµenxne na orµennre nncmn pacrennx............... 23
ônnxn ôes nnerone( Hanparonnµnn n Ionocemennn pacrennx)... 24
Taônnna sa onpeµenxne na ônnxnre or orµen Hanparonnµnn pacrennx
Pteridophyta ............................................................................ 24
Cem. Hnaynonn Lycopodiaceae................................................ 25
Cem. Xnomonn Equisetaceae.................................................... 25
Cem. Opnononanparonn Hypolepidiaceae................................ 26
Cem. Hsrpannnuenn Aspleniaceae ......................................... 26
Cem. Xencxonanparonn Athyriaceae....................................... 28
Cem. M¡xxonanparonn Aspidiaceae........................................ 28
Taônnna sa onpeµenxne na ônnxnre or orµen
Ionocemennn pacrennx Pinophyta.......................................... 29
Cem. Foponn Pinaceae.............................................................. 29
Cem. Knnapnconn Cupressaceae............................................... 30
Cem. E]eµponn Ephedraceae.................................................... 30
Taônnna sa onpeµenxne na ronemnre µxnone na orµen Hoxpnrocemennn (Hnernn)
pacrennx MagnoHophyta ....................................................... 31
Fnnxn c x¡nrn nnerone................................................................. 32
¡nycemeµennn pacrennx............................................................... 32
Hecpacnoneneunn pacrennx ...................................................... 32
Cem. B¡pôonn Salicaceae........................................................ 34
Cem. Hmenonn Loranthaceae.................................................... 35
Cem. Konnrnnxonn Aristolochiaceae....................................... 35
Cen. Kapam]nnonn Caryophyllaceae .................................... 35
Cem. Hmrnxonn Ranunculaceae ........................................... 36
Cem. Kncenrp¡nonn Berberidaceae......................................... 39
Cem. Maxonn Papaveraceae...................................................... 39
Cem. Kp¡cronnernn Brassicaceae (CruciIerae)........................ 40
Cem. Peseµonn Resedaceae ................................................... 45
Cem. ¡eôenenonn Crassulaceae............................................... 46
Cem. Kamenonomxonn SaxiIragaceae....................................... 48
Cem. Posonnernn Rosaceae...................................................... 48
Cem. Foôonn Fabaceae (Papilionaceae) ................................ 51
Cem. Tpaôysanonn •ygophyllaceae.......................................... 54
Cem. Mneuxonn Euphorbiaceae................................................ 55
Cem. Ceµe]uenn Rutaceae........................................................ 55
Cem. Cmpaµnnxonn Anacardiaceae........................................... 56
Cem. Hnnonn Tiliaceae.............................................................. 56
Cem. 3n¡nnxonn Hypencaceae ............................................... 58
Cem. Tnxnonn Cucurtntaceae..................................................... 58
(204)
Cem. B¡pôonxonn Onagraceae (Oenotheraceae)..................... 59
Cem. ¡pxnonn Cornaceae......................................................... 60
Cem. Cennnxonnernn Apiaceae („mbelliIerae)....................... 60
Cpacnoneneunn pacrennx............................................................. 64
Cem. Hrnnxonn Priraulaceae.................................................... 64
Cem. Macnnnonn Oleaceae...................................................... 66
Cem. Tnnrxnonn Gentianaceae................................................ 66
Cem. Ipananonncrnn Boraginaceae ..................................... 67
Cem. Vcrnonnernn Lamiaceae (Labiatae).............................. 68
Cem. Kapro]onn Solanaceae................................................... 70
Cem. Xnnennuenn Scrophulariaceae....................................... 71
Cem. Fpomonn Rubiaceae......................................................... 74
Cem. F¡sonn CapriIoliaceae...................................................... 75
Cem, Hyrauxonn Dipsaceae..................................................... 76
Cem. Cnoxnonnernn Asteraceae (Compositae)..................... 76
Eµnocemeµennn pacrennx............................................................ 88
Cem. Kpemonn Liliaceae.......................................................... 89
Cem. Hepynnxonn Iridaceae..................................................... 89
Fnnxn c xa]xnn nnerone n ctnnernx........................................... 91
¡nycemeµennn pacrennx............................................................. 91
Hecpacnoneneunn pacrennx ..................................................... 91
Cem. B¡pôonn Salicaceae................................... .................... 91
Cem. Fpesonn Betulaceae........................................................ 91
Cem. Hecxonn Corylaceae........................................................ 92
Cpacnoneneunn pacrennx............................................................ 92
Cem. Konnrnnxonn Aristolochiaceae........................................ 93
Cem. Xnnennuenn Scrophulariaceae........................................ 93
Cem. Xnnonnexonn Plantaginaceae......................................... 94
Eµnocemeµennn pacrennx............................................................. 95
Cem. Hanyponn Typhaceae .................................................... 95
Cem. Kpemonn Liliaceae........................................................... 96
Fnnxn c¡c cnnn n cnnto-nnoneronn nnerone.............................. 97
¡nycemeµennn pacrennx................................................................ 97
Hecpacnoneneunn pacrennx........................................................... 97
Cem. Hmrnxonn Ranunculaceae ............................................. 97
Cem. Foôonn Fabaceae............................................................... 99
Cem. Tenuapxonn Polygalaceae..................................................100
Cem. Temenyronn Violaceae...................................................... 100
Cpacnoneneunn pacrennx............................................................... 101
Cem. Capxo]aenn Plumbaginaceae............................................ 102
Cem. Macnnnonn Oleaceae ..................................................... 103
Cem. Tnnrxnonn Gentianaceae.................................................. 103
Cem. Toñnonn Apocynaceae...................................................... 104
Cem. Ipananonncrnn Boraginaceae ........................................ 105
Cem. B¡pônnxonn Verbenaceae................................................ 106
Cem. Vcrnonnernn Lamiaceae (Labiatae)................................. 106
Cem. Kapro]onn Solanaceae..................................................... 111
Cem.Xnnennuenn Scrophulariaceae.......................................... 112
Cem. Hyrauxonn Dipsaceae........................................................ 113
Cem. Cnoxnonnernn Asteraceae (Compositae)........................ 114
Fnnxn c¡c senenn nnerone n ctnnernx ....................................... 116
¡nycemeµennn pacrennx................................................................. 116
Hecpacnoneneunn pacrennx .........................................................116
Cem. B¡pôonn Salicaceae ........................................................ 117
(205)
Cem. Fpesonn Betulaceae ........................................................ 118
Cem. Fyxonn Fagaceae............................................................... 118
Cem. Fpxcronn „lmaceae........................................................... 120
Cem. Konononn Cannabaceae.................................................... 120
Cem. Konpnnonn „rticaceae...................................................... 121
Cem. Hanaµonn Polygonaceae................................................... 121
Cem. Hoôoµonn Chenopodiaceae.............................................. 123
Cem. Kapam]nnonn Caryophyllaceae ..................................... 124
Cem. Hmrnxonn Ranunculaceae................................................ 125
Cem. Posonnernn Rosaceae....................................................... 125
Cem. Mneuxonn Euphorbiaceae . ...............................................126
Cem. 3¡pnacrenonn Rhamnaceae...............................................126
Cem. Fp¡mnxnonn Araliaceae.................................................... 127
Cpacnoneneunn pacrennx.............................................................. 128
Cem. Macnnnonn Oleaceae ..................................................... 128
Eµnocemeµennn pacrennx.............................................................. 128
Cem. Kpemonn Liliaceae............................................................. 129
Cem. Fpeñonn Dioscoreaceae..................................................... 129
Cem. Xnrnn Poaceae (Gramineae)............................................ 130
Cem. 3mnxpnnxonn Araceae...................................................... 131
Fnnxn c ôenn nnerone..................................................................... 132
¡nycemeµennn pacrennx................................................................ 132
Hecpacnoneneunn pacrennx ........................................................ 132
Cem. Kapam]nnonn Caryophyllaceae........................................ 133
Cem. Hmrnxonn Ranunculaceae................................................. 133
Cem. Kp¡cronnernn Brassicaceae (CruciIerae)......................... 134
Cem. ¡eôenenonn Crassulaceae................................................. 136
Cem. Kamenonomxonn SaxiIragaceae......................................... 137
Cem. Pocnnonn ƒ Paraassiaceae...................................................... 137
Cem. Posonnernn Rosaceae........................................................ 138
Cem. Foôonn Fabaceae (Papilionaceae)..................................... 140
Cem. Henonn Linaceae............................................................... 141
Cem. Cnesonn Malvaceae........................................................... 141
Cem. Cennnxonnernn Apiaceae („mbelliIerae)..................... ... 141
Cpacnoneneunn pacrennx.............................................................. 146
Cem. Mypanenn Pyrolaceae....................................................... 147
Cem. Macnnnonn Oleaceae........................................................ 147
Cem. Vcrpenonn Asclepiadaceae............................................... 148
Cem. Kyxynnuonpexµonn Cuscutaceae..................................... 148
Cem. Honernnonn Convolvulaceae............................................ 148
Cem. Ipananonncrnn Boraginaceae ........................................ 149
Cem. Vcrnonnernn Lamiaceae (Labiatae)................................. 150
Cem. Kapro]onn Solanaceae..................................................... 152
Cem. Xnnennuenn Scrophulariaceae......................................... 153
Cem. Fpomonn Rubiaceae.......................................................... 153
Cem. F¡sonn CapriIoliaceae...................................................... 154
Cem. ¡nnxnxonn Valerianaceae................................................ 155
Cem. Cnoxnonnernn Asteraceae (Compositae).................... ..... 156
Eµnocemeµennn pacrennx.............................................................. 158
Cem. Kpemonn Liliaceae............................................................. 158
Cem. Koxnuenn Amaryllidaceae ................................................ 159
Fnnxn c uepnenn n posonn nnerone............................................... 161
¡nycemeµennn pacrennx .............................................................. 161
Hecpacnoneneunn pacrennx ........................................................ 161
(206)
Cem. Hanaµonn Polygonaceae ................................................... 162
Cem. Kapam]nnonn Caryophyllaceae ..................................... 163
Cem. Foxyponn Paeoniaceae .................................................. 164
Cem. Maxonn Papaveraceae....................................................... 165
Cem. Kp¡cronnernn Brassicaceae (CruciIerae) ... .................. 166
Cem. Posonnernn Rosaceae........................................................ 167
Cem. Foôonn Fabaceae (Papilionaceae)..................................... 167
Cem. 3µpanenonn Geraniaceae ................................................ 169
Cem. Ceµe]uenn Rutaceae......................................................... 171
Cem. Tenuapxonn Polygalaceae................................................. 171
Cem. Cnesonn Malvaceae ........................................................ 172
Cem. Fxcnoµp¡nuenn Thymelaeaceae........................................ 174
Cem. Fnarnenn Lythraceae..........................................................175
Cpacnoneneunn pacrennx............................................................... 175
Cem. Hnpenonn Ericaceae.......................................................... 176
Cem. Hrnnxonn Primulaceae...................................................... 178
Cem. Tnnrxnonn Gentianaceae................................................... 179
Cem. Iopunnuenn Menyanthaceae ...........................................180
Cem. Ipananonncrnn Boraginaceae ........................................ 180
Cem. Vcronnernn Lamiaceae (Labiaiae)....................................182
Cem. Xnnennuenn Scrophulariaceae..........................................188
Cem. Cnoxnonnernn Asteraceae (Compositae)......................... 188
Eµnocemeµennn pacrennx.............................................................. 191
Cem. Kpemonn Liliaceae............................................................. 191
Cem. Hepynnxonn Iridaceae....................................................... 191
Cem. Canenonn Orchidaceae...................................................... 192
Asôyuen yxasaren na ô¡nrapcxnre nmena..................................... 194
Asôyuen yxasaren na narnncxnre nmena....................................... 199
(207)
npo]. FOPHC HABHOB KHTAHOB
PA3HO3HABAHE H C–FHPAHE HA FHHKH
Penensenr npo]. HBAH HHKOHOB HEHEB
3anexµam peµaxnnx BHHHAHA CEMEP¡XHEBA
Peµaxrop BHXPA PVCKOBA
Xyµoxnnx na xopnnara MHXAHH MAKAPHEB
Xyµoxnnx na nnmcrpannnre n o]opmnenne MHXAHH MAKAPHEB
Xyµoxnnx-peµaxrop HET–P KP–CTEB
Texnnuecxn peµaxrop KAT× BOKOBA
Kopexrop BHOHETA HEHOBA
9532726431
Koµ05 2530-8-87
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Heuar ¡H ..Ieoprn ¡nmnrpon" Co]nx

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