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P. 1

Mathematical Olympiads 19951996 Olympiad Around TheWorld3.5

|Views: 1,757|Likes: 27Published by Rahul Gupta

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/18136042/Mathematical-Olympiads-19951996-Olympiad-Around-TheWorld

10/30/2012

text

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1. Let

1996

n=1

1 +nx3n

= 1 +a1xk1

+a2xk2

+...+amxkm

,

where a1,a2,...,am are nonzero and k1 < k2 < ... < km. Find

a1996.

Solution: Note that ki is the number obtained by writing i in

base 2 and reading the result as a number in base 3, and ai is the

sum of the exponents of the powers of 3 used. In particular, 1996 =

210

+ 29

+ 28

+ 27

+ 26

+ 23

+ 22

, so

a1996 = 10 + 9 + 8 + 7 + 6 + 3 + 2 = 45.

2. In a parallelogram ABCD with ∠A < 90◦, the circle with diameter

AC meets the lines CB and CD again at E and F, respectively, and

the tangent to this circle at A meets BD at P. Show that P,F,E

are collinear.

Solution: Without loss of generality, suppose B,D,P occur in

that order along BD. Let G and H be the second intersections of

AD and AB with the circle. By Menelaos’s theorem, it suﬃces to

show that

CE* ·*BP* ·*DF

EB*·*PD*·*FC = 1.

First note that

BP

AB

AD

DP = sin∠BAP

sin∠APB

sin∠APD

sin∠DAP = sin∠BAP

sin∠DAP .

Since AP is tangent to the circle, ∠BAP =∠HAP = π*−*∠HCA =

π*−*∠FAC; similarly, ∠DAP =∠GCA =∠EAC. We conclude

BP

AB

AD

DP = sin∠FAC

sin∠EAC = FC

EC.

Finally we note that DF/BE = DA/AB because the right triangles

AFD and AEB have the same angles at B and D and are thus

similar. This proves the claim.

81

3. Given real numbers 0 = x1 < x2 < ... < x2n < x2n+1 = 1 with

xi+1*−*xi* ≤* h for 1* ≤* i* ≤* 2n, show that

1*−*h

2 <

n

i=1

x2i(x2i+1*−*x2i−1) < 1 +h

2 .

Solution: The diﬀerence between the middle quantity and 1/2 is

the diﬀerence between the sum of the areas of the rectangles bounded

by the lines x = x2i−1, x = x2i+1, y = 0, y = x2i and the triangle

bounded by the lines y = 0,x = 1,x = y. The area contained in the

rectangles but not the triangle is a union of triangles of total base

less than 1 and height at most h, as is the area contained in the

triangle but not the rectangles. Hence the sum diﬀers from 1/2 by

at most h/2, as desired.

4. In a convex quadrilateral ABCD, triangles ABC and ADC have

the same area. Let E be the the intersection of AC and BD,

and let the parallels through E to the lines AD,DC,CB,BA meet

AB,BC,CD,DA at K,L,M,N, respectively. Compute the ratio of

the areas of the quadrilaterals KLMN and ABCD.

Solution: The triangles EKL and DAC are homothetic, so the

ratio of their areas equals (EK/AD)(EL/CD) = (BE/BD)2

= 1/4,

since B and D are equidistant from the line AC. Similarly the ratio

of the areas of EMN and BCA is 1/4, so the union of the triangles

EKL and EMN has area 1/4 that of ABCD.

As for triangle EKN, its base KN is parallel to BD and half as

long, so its area is one-fourth that of ABD. Similarly EML has

area one-fourth that of BCD, and so the union of the two triangles

EKN and EML has area one-fourth that of ABCD, and so the

quadrilateral KLMN has area one-half that of ABCD.

5. Find the maximum number of pairwise disjoint sets of the form

Sa,b =* {*n2

+an+b : n* ∈Z}* with a,b* ∈Z*.

Solution: Only two such sets are possible, for example, with

(a,b) = (0,0) and (0,2) (since 2 is not a diﬀerence of squares). There

is no loss of generality in assuming a* ∈ {*0,1*}* by a suitable shift of

82

n, and the sets generated by (0,a) and (1,b) have the common value

(a*−*b)2

+ a = (a*−*b)2

+ (a*−*b) + b. Thus we have a = 0 or a = 1

universally.

First suppose a = 0. If b*−*c* ≡* 2(mod 4), then (0,b) and (0,c) give

a common value because b*−*c is a diﬀerence of squares; clearly this

precludes having three disjoint sets. Now suppose a = 1. If b*−*c is

even, we can ﬁnd x,y such that b*−*c = (x + y + 1)(x*−*y), and so

x2

+ x + b = y2

+ y + c; again, this precludes having three disjoint

sets.

6. For which ordered pairs of positive real numbers (a,b) is the limit of

every sequence* {*xn*}* satisfying the condition

lim

n→∞

(axn+1*−*bxn) = 0

zero?

Solution: This holds if and only if b < a. If b > a, the sequence

xn = (b/a)n

satisﬁes the condition but does not go to zero; if b = a,

the sequence xn = 1 + 1/2 +*···*+ 1/n does likewise. Now suppose

b < a. If L and M are the limit inferior and limit superior of the

given sequence, the condition implies M* ≤* (b/a)L; since L* ≤* M,

we have M* ≤* (b/a)M, and so L,M* ≥* 0. Similarly, the condition

implies L* ≥* (b/a)M, and since M* ≥* L, we have L* ≥* (b/a)L, so

L,M* ≤* 0; therefore L = M = 0 and the sequence converges to 0.

83

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